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Apayao (Ilocano: Probinsya ti Apayao, Filipino: Lalawigan ng Apayao) is a landlocked province

in the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital town is Kabugao.

The province borders Cagayan to the north and east, Abra and Ilocos Norte to the west, and
Kalinga to the south. Prior to 1995, Kalinga and Apayao comprised a single province named
Kalinga-Apayao, which was partitioned to better service the needs of individual ethnic groups.

With a population of 119,184 (as of the 2015 census)[2] covering an area of 4,413.35 square
kilometres (1,704.00 sq mi),[1] Apayao is the least densely-populated province in the Philippines.

Spanish period
Although Apayao, which was then part of Cagayan,[3] was among the earliest areas
penetrated by the Spaniards in the Cordilleras, the region, inhabited by the Isneg
tribe, remained largely outside Spanish control until late in the 19th century. As
early as 1610, the Dominican friars established a mission in what is now the town of
Pudtol. In 1684, the friars again made attempts to convert the people and
established a church in what is now Kabugao.

The Spanish authorities were then able to establish in Cagayan the comandancias of Apayao and
Cabugaoan in 1891,[3][4][5] which covered the western and eastern portions of what is now
Apayao. The comandancias, however, failed to bring total control and the Spanish government
only maintained a loose hold over the area.

American period
The Americans established the Mountain Province on August 13, 1908, with the enactment of
Act No. 1876. Apayao, along with Amburayan, Benguet, Bontoc, Ifugao, Kalinga, and Lepanto,
became sub-provinces of this new province.[4][5][6]

World War II
In 1942, Japanese Imperial forces entered Apayao, starting a three-year occupation of the
province during the Second World War.[further explanation needed] Local Filipino troops of the 1st, 2nd,
12th, 15th and 16th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the military
forces of the USAFIP-NL 11th and 66th Infantry Regiment, supported by the Cordilleran
guerrillas, drove out the Japanese in 1945.[further explanation needed]

Kalinga-Apayao creation and splitting

Main article: Kalinga-Apayao
On June 18, 1966, the huge Mountain Province was split into four provinces with the enactment
of Republic Act No. 4695. The four provinces were Benguet, Bontoc (renamed "Mountain
Province"), Kalinga-Apayao and Ifugao.[5][7] Kalinga-Apayao, along with Ifugao, became one of
the provinces of the Cagayan Valley region in 1972.[7]

On July 15, 1987, the Cordillera Administrative Region was established and Kalinga-Apayao
was made one of its provinces.[5][7][8][9]

Finally, on February 14, 1995, Kalinga-Apayao was split into two independent provinces with
the passage of Republic Act No. 7878.[5][7][10]