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STRUCTURAL LAB REPORT

By

SAMTA S. KUBDE

Roll No:- 13CE65R09

STRUCTURAL LAB REPORT By SAMTA S. KUBDE Roll No:- 13CE65R09 Instructor Dr. Sushanta Chakraborty Structural Lab

Instructor

Dr. Sushanta Chakraborty

Structural Lab -II ( CECECECE 69012690126901269012) report

in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the second Semester Curriculum for the Degree of

MasterMasterMasterMaster inininin TechnologyTechnologyTechnologyTechnology inininin StructuralStructuralStructuralStructural EngineeringEngineeringEngineeringEngineering

Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Kharagpur-721 302, INDIA Year:- 2014

0

CONTENTS

o CONCRETE MIX DESIGN Mix Design for M25 grade of concrete ( As per IS
o
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
Mix
Design for M25 grade of concrete ( As per IS 10262:2009)
Mix
Design for M30 grade of concrete ( As per IS 10262:2009)
o
STRENGTH DETERMINATION TESTS ON CONCRETE-
DIRECT TESTS
Compressive Test
Flexural Strength of Concrete
Stress-Strain behavior of Concrete
o
STRENGTH DETERMINATION TESTS ON CONCRETE-
INDIRECT TESTS
Ultra Sonic Pulse Velocity Method
Rebound Hammer Test
o
DESIGN AND TESTING OF R.C.C T BEAM
o
RECTANGULAR REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM
o
DESIGN AND TESTING OF POST – TENSIONED PRE-
STRESSED BEAM
o
TESTING OF STEEL BEAM
o
DESIGN AND TESTING OF RC COLUMN
o
CORE SAMPLING AND TESTING OF CONCRETE
o
MODAL ANALYSIS OF FRAME USING ROVING HAMMER FFT
ANALYSER AND SHAKE TABLE
Roving Hammer FFT Analyzer
Numerical Model
Shake Table Test
o
REFERENCES

1

1. CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

MIX DESIGN FOR M25 GRADE OF CONCRETE (AS PER IS 10262:2009)

Grade designation = M25 Type of cement = PSC 43 confirming as per IS 8112 Maximum nominal size of aggregate = 20 mm Minimum cement content = 300 kg/m 3 Maximum water – cement ratio = 0.5 Workability (slump) = 50-60 mm Exposure condition = moderate Quality control = Good Maximum cement content = 450 kg/m 3 Zone of sand = II Specific gravity of cement = 3.08 Specific gravity of coarse aggregate = 2.8 Specific gravity of fine aggregate = 2.6 Water absorption of coarse aggregate = 0.8% Water absorption of fine aggregate = 0.5% Amount of air trapped = 2%

28 days cube strength of concrete = 45 MPa

Surface moisture of coarse aggregate = nil

Surface moisture of fine aggregate = nil

TARGET STRENGTH FOR MIX PROPORTIONING :

f’ ck = f ck + s*t

= 25+4*1.65

= 31.6 N/mm 2

SELECTION OF WATER CEMENT RATIO :

28 days cube strength for concrete = 41.7-46.6 N/mm 2 (curve C in fig 2: IS 10262-1982)

Therefore, w/c = 0.45 < 0.5 Hence OK

SELECTION OF WATER CONTENT:

From Table 2, maximum water content =186 liters (for 25 to 50 mm slump range) for 20 mm aggregate

Estimated water content for 50-60 mm slump =186+

=188 liters

CALCULATION OF CEMENT CONTENT:

Water cement ratio= 0.45

Cement content =

= 418 kg/m 3

.

PROPORTION OF VOLUME OF COARSE AGGREGATE AND FINE AGGREGATE CONTENT:

From Table 3,volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20 mm size aggregate and fine aggregate

2

X

X186

(Zone II) for water-cement ratio of 0.50 =0.62 In this case w/c ratio = 0.45 Therefore, as water-cement ratio is lowered by 0.05, the proportion of volume of coarse aggregate is increased by 0.01 (at the rate of -/+ 0.01 for every ± 0.05 change in water-cement ratio)

Therefore, corrected proportion of volume of coarse aggregate = 0.63

So, volume of fine aggregate = 1-0.63 = 0.37

MIX CALCULATIONS:

The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows:

a) Volume of concrete = 1 m 3

b) Volume of cement =

c) Volume of water =

 

X

=

X

.

= 0.136 m 3

X

=

X

= 0.188 m 3

d) Volume of all in aggregate = 1- (0.136+0.188) = 0.676 m 3

e) Mass of coarse aggregate = e x Volume of coarse aggregate x Specific gravity of coarse aggregate x 1000

= 0.676 X 0.63 X 2.8 X 1000

= 1192 kg

f) Mass of fine aggregate = e x Volume of coarse aggregate x Specific gravity of fine aggregate x

1000

 

= 0.676 X 0.37 X 2.6 X 1000

= 650 kg

Corrections:

Increase in fine aggregate content= 1% Corrected mass of fine aggregate = 650*1.01 = 657 kg Therefore , reduction in water content=188-7=181 kg

MIX PROPORTIONS FOR TRIAL :

a) Cement

= 418 kg/m 3

b) Water

= 181 kg/m 3

c) Fine aggregate

= 657 kg

3

d) Coarse aggregate

e) Water-cement ratio

=

= 0.45

1192 kg

MIX DESIGN FOR M30 GRADE OF CONCRETE (AS PER IS 10262:2009)

1. Design stipulations:-

Grade of Concrete

= M30

Maximum Nominal size of aggregate

= 20mm

Type of Cement

= PPC 43 Grade Confirming to IS

8112

Workability

= 50-60 mm Slump

Quality control

= good

Exposure

= moderate

Minimum cement Content

=320 kg/m 3

Maximum Water Cement ratio

=0.45

Method of Concrete placing

=Manual

Degree of Supervision

=Good

Type of Aggregate

=Crushed Angular aggregate

Maximum Cement Content

=450 kg/m 3

2.

Test Data for Materials

Cement used

= 43 Grd

Specific gravity of fine aggregate (Sfa)

=2.6

Surface moisture of course aggregate

= nil

Surface moisture of fine aggregate

= nil

Water absorption of Coarse aggregate

=0.8%

Specific gravity of cement , Sc

=3.08

Specific gravity of course aggregate (Sca)

=2.80

Water absorption of Fine aggregate

=0.5%

3. Target Mean Strength

fct = fck +s*t

4. Water Cement Ratio

28 days cube strength for concrete

=(30+5*1.65) N/mm 2 (Table 1 of IS

10262:2009)

=38.25 N/mm 2

= 41.7-46.6 N/mm2 (Curve c in fig 2 of

IS 10262:1982)

4

w/c

= 0.38 (less than .45 ok)

5. Selection of water and Sand Content

Zone of Sand = II For zone II grade of sand and max size of aggregate = 20 mm Water content in kg (Per m 3 ) of concrete Volume of Coarse aggregate per unit volume to Total aggregate

=0.62 + from Table 3 of IS 10262:2009 for w/c =0.5 % Coarse aggregate to be increased @ 0.01 for every 0.05 change in w/c

= 186 kg/m3

Coarse aggregate as % of total aggregate by absolute volume

Sand as % of total aggregate by absolute volume

Increment in water content Clause 4.2 of IS 10262:2009

6. Determination of Cement Content:

= 0.62 + 0.01*(0.5-0.38)/0.05

= 64.4 %

=(1-0.644) *100

=35.6%

+

=186

(10%/25%)

=188.23 kg/m3

*(3/100)*186

;

W/C

= 0.38

Water

= 188.23 lt. per Kg

Cement

= 188.23/0.38

7. Mix Calculations

Volume of Concrete

Volume of Cement

Volume of Water

= 495.342 Kg/m3

=1 m 3 = Mass of Cement /Sp. gravity of Cement * 1/1000 =495.342/3.08 * 1/1000 =0.161 m 3 = Mass of water /Sp. gravity of water *

1/1000

5

=188.23/1 * 1/1000

 

=0.188 m 3

Volume of All in aggregates

=1-0.161-0.188

=0. 651 m 3

Mass of Coarse Aggregates

=0.644*0.651*2.8*1000

Mass of Fine Aggregates

Corrected Mix Proportion

Corrected for moist fine aggregate

=1174 kg

=0.356*0.651*2.6*1000

=602.50

=1% of weight of fine aggregate

a) Fine Aggregate

=603 *1.01

=609 kg/m 3

b) Coarse Aggregate

=1174 kg/m 3

c) Water Cement ratio

=0.38

d) Water

= 188 - 6

=182 kg/m 3

e) Cement

= 495 kg/m 3

2. STRENGTH DETERMINATION TESTS ON CONCRETE- DIRECT TESTS

COMPRESSION TEST OBJECTIVE

To determine the compressive strength of concrete by conducting direct compression test on

cylindrical and cubical concrete specimens.

Test Result: M25 Concrete

 

Testing after 28 days

 
 

Crushing

Mean

Comp.

 

Crushing

Mean

Comp.

Cube No

Load

Strength

Cylinder

Load

Strength

(ton)

(ton)

(MPa)

(ton)

(ton)

(MPa)

 

1 95

   

1

58

 

32.2

 

2 97

97.7

42.6

   

58

 

3 101

   

6

Test Result: M30 Concrete

 

Testing after 28 days

 
 

Crushing

Mean

Comp.

 

Crushing

Mean

Comp.

Cube No

Load

Strength

Cylinder

Load

Strength

(ton)

(ton)

(MPa)

(ton)

(ton)

(MPa)

1

109

   

1

59.5

   

2

106

106.6

46.48

   

59.5

33.03

3

105

   

OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS:

1. direct compression test results for both the specimens are higher results when compared to the

The

mix

design calculations as per IS Codal provisions.

2. This is due to the fact that only 3 samples cannot measure the strength of the concrete accurately. For

fairly accurate results large number of samples must be used to establish characteristic strength.

3. Target mean strength itself is obtained by the most idealized materials , and quality controls, but those

idealised situations may not be correctly established in the conducted test.

4. Cylinder strength values are found to be closer to the characteristic strength of concrete which might

be due to the inherent size effect in concrete. The zone of confinement is quite uniform throughout

the cubes due to smaller height but there is a cone of confinement at the ends in case of cylinders

leading to localized shear zones rather than distributed shear bands leading ultimate failure.

FLEXURAL TEST ON CONCRETE OBJECTIVE

This test is done to measure the flexural tensile strength of concrete by applying concentrated

forces on 1/3rd and 2/3rd spans.

strength of concrete by applying concentrated forces on 1/3rd and 2/3rd spans. Dimension of Prism-100 x

Dimension of Prism-100 x 100 x 500 mm

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Section Modulus Z = 100*100 2 /6 =1.67 x 10 5 mm 3 Flexural Strength = P*9.81*L/(3*Z)

Test Result: M25 Concrete

Specimen

Total Ultimate Load(2P) Kg

Flexural Tensile Strength N/mm 2

1

1245

5.49

2

1285

5.66

3

1275

5.62

Test Result: M30 Concrete

Specimen

Total Ultimate Load(2P) Kg

Flexural Tensile Strength N/mm 2

1

1345

5.93

2

1550

6.83

3

1430

6.30

OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS

1. The experimental values of Flexural strength is found to be higher than the theoretical values as per the IS codal provisions which are 3.5 N/mm 2 and 3.83 N/mm 2 for M25 and M30 concrete respectively.

2. This may be due to the fact that concrete is a heterogeneous material and also the probability of weaker planes in the flexural zones of the element needs to be considered in the determination of

flexural strength.

SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE OBJECTIVE

This test is done to measure the tensile strength of concrete in an indirect way by applying

compressive force.

THEORY

The Splitting Tensile Strength test has become the most popular test for tensile strength determination. The method is easy to carry out and provides quick results. It is carried out on a standard

8

cylinder, tested on its side in diametric compression, as shown in following figure. If the load is applied along the two symmetric lines joining outer longitudinal surface of cylinder, then an element on the vertical diameter of the cylinder is subjected to a vertical compressive stress of: Vertical compression, σ c Horizontal tension,

=

( ) Where, P is the applied compressive load, L the cylinder length, D the cylinder diameter. It is not practical to apply a true ‘line’ load along the top and bottom of the specimen, partly because the specimen sides are not sufficiently smooth, and partly because this would induce extremely high compressive stresses near the points of load application. Therefore, the load is usually applied through a narrow bearing strip of relatively soft material

through a narrow bearing strip of relatively soft material Observations shows that, Splitting tensile strength is

Observations shows that, Splitting tensile strength is 5 to 12% higher than the direct tensile strength.

Experimental Set-up:

shows that, Splitting tensile strength is 5 to 12% higher than the direct tensile strength. Experimental

9

Test Result:

 

Ultimate Load

 

Split Tensile Strength N/mm 2

Grade of Concrete

Ton

M

25

13.5

2

∗ 13.5 ∗ 10 /( ∗ 300 ∗ 150) = 1.91

M

30

15.5

2

∗ 15.5 ∗ 10 /( ∗ 300 ∗ 150) = 2.19

Crack Pattern:

∗ 10 /( ∗ 300 ∗ 150) = 2.19 Crack Pattern: OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS: 1. The

OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS:

1. The direct tensile strength is about one tenth of the uni-axial compressive strength for normal strength undamaged concrete. For M25 concrete, 28 days compressive strength by testing on 28 days is coming out to be 42.6 N/mm2 for cubes and from the split tensile test, results are 1.91 MPa which is less than (1/10) x42.6= 4.26 MPa. This is a discrepancy.

2. It is observed that the split tensile strength of concrete is always less than the flexural strength, since the resistance to loading is more in flexural strength test due to uniform compressive stress distribution. But in split tensile strength test, apart from negligible zone of confinement , the entire longitudinal section is under near uniform tensile stress.

3. The advantage of the splitting tension test is that specimen is identical to that used for the compression test. Also the test is not significantly influenced by the surface conditions of the specimen, such as moisture or temperature, or by minor irregularities in the testing.

10

4.

The split tensile strength test is not very useful for low-strength materialsl because such specimens suffer considerable deformation during the test, which alters the distribution of stresses.

STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE

OBJECTIVE:

The objective behind performing this test is to find out stress strain relationship of concrete and from there to find out the modulus of elasticity of concrete (both static & dynamic modulus). THEORY:

The stress strain relationship of concrete is not linear. In the design of concrete structures we need to have a good knowledge about the modulus of elasticity of concrete. As Hooke’s law holds well for initial shorter region, we need to have the knowledge of entire curve including the non linear part. Moreover, there is more than one modulus of elasticity that can be defined for concrete. The modulus of elasticity found out from actual behavior is called the static modulus of elasticity. Up to 10%-15% of ultimate strength, the stress strain curve remains linear. The modulus of elasticity found out from the tangent drawn at the origin is called initial tangent modulus. The modulus of elasticity found out from the tangent drawn at any point is called tangent modulus. The modulus of elasticity from joining the origin to a particular point on the stress strain curve gives secant modulus for that point. The chord modulus can be obtained by joining the two points on the curve.

curve gives secant modulus for that point. The chord modulus can be obtained by joining the

11

PROCEDURE:

The cylindrical specimen of 150 mm dia and 300 mm height is taken. Dial gauge at a gauge length of 200mm was fixed. Then the values of axial shortening were taken for different load values from the dial gauge.

Experimental results:

Gauge length = 200 mm.

Least Count = 0.001 mm.

   

M30 Readings

M25 Readings

Stress

Extensometer

 

Extensometer

 

Load (ton)

(M Pa)

Reading for

Strain

Reading for

Strain

M30

M25

0

0

132

0

70

0

5

2.77

133

2.5E-06

80

2.5E-05

10

5.55

137

1.25E-05

165

0.00024

15

8.32

137.5

1.38E-05

220

0.00038

20

11.10

138

0.000015

299

0.00057

25

13.87

138

0.000015

370

0.00075

30

16.65

137

1.25E-05

460

0.00098

35

19.42

137

1.25E-05

485

0.00104

45

24.97

137

1.25E-05

520

0.00113

45

24.97

137

1.25E-05

555

0.00121

50

27.75

140

0.00002

610

0.00135

12

Stress Strain Plot

30 Stress Strain Plot- M25 Cylindrical Specimen 25 20 Stress vs Strain 15 Plot 10
30
Stress Strain Plot- M25 Cylindrical
Specimen
25
20
Stress
vs Strain
15
Plot
10
5
0
Strain
Strain
-0.0002
0
0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008
0.001
0.0012 0.0014 0.0016
Stress
Stress
12 Stress Strain Plot- M30 Cylindrical Specimen 10 8 Stress vs Strain 6 Plot 4
12
Stress Strain Plot- M30 Cylindrical
Specimen
10
8
Stress vs
Strain
6
Plot
4
2
0
Strain
Strain
0
0.0000020.0000040.0000060.0000080.000010.0000120.0000140.000016
Stress
Stress

OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS:

1. Concrete shows nonlinear behaviour in stress strain characteristics.

2. Because of the experimental & instrumental errors & also due to presence of initial micro-cracks,

the initial portion of the curve is highly non-linear .

3. Also erroneous results are observed for initial tangent modulus (initial tangent modulus for M25

grade concrete is higher than as in the case of M30 concrete).

13

3. STRENGTH DETERMINATION TESTS ON CONCRETE- INDIRECT TESTS

NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTS

A. ULTRA SONIC PULSE VELOCITY METHOD

OBJECTIVE

This test gives the qualitative estimation of concrete. Without breaking the

specimen of concrete one can assess the quality of the concrete after casting at hardened stage.

Quality of concrete is assessed comparing with the values given in IS: 13311 (Part 1) - 1992.

PRINCIPLE OF TESTING

An ultrasonic (acoustic) wave is generated by exciting a piezoelectric material

with a high-amplitude, transient electrical pulse from a high-voltage, high-current pulsar. The

short burst of ultrasonic energy from the crystal is transmitted into the concrete and impinges

upon the various interfaces within. The change in acoustic impedance at the various interfaces,

air voids, water-filled voids, reinforcing bars, cracks, de-laminations and other interfaces or

inclusions within the concrete causes a portion of the input energy to reflect (echo) back to the

surface. There the energy is detected by a second piezoelectric element. A larger portion of the

energy continues to travel forward, strike other interfaces and return an amount of energy based

on (1) the area of the reflecting surface, (2) the angle of the reflecting surface, and (3) the

acoustic impedance of the reflecting material. The time for the echo to return is measured with

the accurate time base of an oscilloscope.

The wave velocity depends upon the elastic properties and mass of the medium, and

hence if the mass and velocity of wave propagation are known it is possible to assess the elastic

properties. For an infinite, homogeneous, isotropic elastic medium, the compression wave

velocity is given by:

=

/

where, V=compression wave velocity (km/s)

K= (1 − ) (1 + )(1 − 2 )

Ed=dynamic modulus of elasticity (kN/mm 2 )

14

ρ=density (kg/m 3 ) and v =dynamic Poisson’s ratio.

ρ =density (kg/m 3 ) and v =dynamic Poisson’s ratio. Velocity Criterion of concrete quality grading

Velocity Criterion of concrete quality grading (as per IS: 13311-part I)

Velocity Criterion of concrete quality grading (as per IS: 13311-part I) Ultra Sonic Pulse Velocity Test

Ultra Sonic Pulse Velocity Test Equipment

Velocity Criterion of concrete quality grading (as per IS: 13311-part I) Ultra Sonic Pulse Velocity Test

15

Velocity Criterion of concrete quality grading (as per IS: 13311-part I) Ultra Sonic Pulse Velocity Test

Test Results for M25 grade of Concrete

Cube No

Length of

Time (μs)

Velocity (km/s)

Quality of concrete

specimen (mm)

1

150

34.64

4.330

Good

2

150

34.17

4.390

Good

3

150

35.21

4.260

Good

Test Results for M30 grade of Concrete

Cube No

Length of

Time (μs)

Velocity (km/s)

Quality of concrete

specimen (mm)

1

150

34.09

4.40

Good

2

150

34.01

4.41

Good

3

150

33.26

4.51

Excellent

Test Results for M25 grade slab

Length of

Time

Velocity (km/s)

Mode of

measurement

(μs)

measurement

(m)

1.00

233

4.29

Direct Mode

16

UPV results with compressive loaded M25 grade cube

Length of the cube specimen = 150 mm.

Load

UPV Reading

Velocity (km/s)

Ton

(μs)

0

33.33

4.50

10

33.26

4.51

20

33.19

4.52

30

33.11

4.53

40

32.97

4.55

50

33.11

4.53

60

33.11

4.53

70

33.26

4.51

80

33.41

4.49

90

34.17

4.39

100

36.41

4.12

Load vs UPV Plot

Load vs UPV 4.6 4.55 4.5 4.45 4.4 4.35 4.3 4.25 4.2 4.15 4.1 4.05
Load vs UPV
4.6
4.55
4.5
4.45
4.4
4.35
4.3
4.25
4.2
4.15
4.1
4.05
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Load (ton)
UPV (km/s)

17

OBSERVATION AND COMMENTS:

1.

As concrete is inherently heterogeneous it is essential that path length should be sufficiently long to avoid the effect of heterogeneity of the material .Here the test is conducted on the cube sample which has significantly smaller length which may lead to erroneous results.

2.

The surface should be smooth enough to maintain good contact between specimen and face of

each transducer. The use of coupling medium may also affect the result.

B.

REBOUND HAMMER TEST

OBJECTIVE

Rebound hammer test is done to find out the compressive strength of concrete by using rebound hammer as per IS: 13311 (Part 2) - 1992.

PRINCIPLE OF TESTING

The rebound of an elastic mass depends on the hardness of the surface against which its mass strikes. When the plunger of the rebound hammer is pressed against the surface of the concrete, the spring controlled mass rebounds and the extent of such a rebound depends upon the surface hardness of the concrete. The surface hardness and therefore the rebound is taken to be related to the compressive strength of the concrete. The rebound value is read from a graduated scale and is designated as the rebound number or rebound index. The compressive strength can be read directly from the graph

provided on the body of the hammer.

Rebound Hammer Test Equipments

the graph provided on the body of the hammer . Rebound Hammer Test Equipments Steps followed

Steps followed in Rebound Hammer Test

18

the graph provided on the body of the hammer . Rebound Hammer Test Equipments Steps followed

In this test, a part of the structure is tested by taking cores from that part (cylinders or cubes).We would then determine the rebound numbers for the concrete. Then the concrete strength is determined from direct tests and the results from rebound hammer test and direct tests are compared to calibrate the instrument. Then the investigator would test the different parts of structure with the rebound hammer that needs to be investigated. If the rebound numbers for concrete being investigated are approximately the same or higher than the concrete sample that had met the project specifications, the tested concrete can be determined to be acceptable. If the rebound numbers in the area being tested are lower, then additional investigations would need to be done.

Rebound Hammer Value Vs. Compressive Strength

to be done. Rebound Hammer Value Vs. Compressive Strength Test Results for M30 grade of Concrete

Test Results for M30 grade of Concrete

Rm= mean Rebound Number out of 20 no. of results in this case.

Cube No.

Weight (kg)

Rm

S.D.

Load(ton)

Strength (MPa)

1 8.66

24.80

2.48

109

47.2

2 8.60

21.05

2.68

106

46.22

3 8.72

24.05

3.00

105

45.18

19

Rebound Number vs Compressive Strength

Rebound Number vs Compressive Strength (M30) 47.5 47 46.5 46 45.5 45 20 21 22
Rebound Number vs Compressive
Strength (M30)
47.5
47
46.5
46
45.5
45
20
21
22
23
24
25
Mean Rebound Number
Compressive Strength (MPa)

Test Results for M25 grade of Concrete

Rm= mean Rebound Number out of 20 no. of results in this case.

Cube No.

Weight (kg)

Rm

S.D.

Load(ton)

Strength (MPa)

1 8.72

26.3

2.1

95

40.88

2 8.60

27.4

2.5

97

42.29

3 8.66

27.3

1.5

101

43.74

20

Rebound Number vs Compressive Strength

Rebound Number vs Compressive Strength (M25) 44 43.5 43 42.5 42 41.5 41 40.5 26.2
Rebound Number vs Compressive
Strength (M25)
44
43.5
43
42.5
42
41.5
41
40.5
26.2
26.4
26.6
26.8
27
27.2
27.4
27.6
Mean Rebound Number
Compressive Strength (MPa)

OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS:

1. The Rebound hammer is an easy to use instrument for non-destructive test for obtaining an immediate indication of concrete strength in various parts of a structure. But it can be only used as a rough indication of concrete strength .

2. It is observed that the characteristic strength of the concrete can approximately be known as it is slightly lower than the Rebound Number obtained.

3. The angle of application needs to be taken into account to give the correct reading.

4. As the test greatly depends on the surface condition, type and size of aggregate, it is best used for comparison to identify areas of lower strength concrete which may then be sampled by coring and tested to determine in-situ strength by conventional crushing.

21

4. DESIGN AND TESTING OF R.C.C T BEAM

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the flexural behavior of RCC T-Beam under two point load.

To determine the elastic and plastic moment carrying capacity of T beam. Given data:

Overall depth of beam (D)

=250mm

Depth of flange (Df)

=80 mm,

Web thickness (bw)

=150 mm

Flange width (bf)

=350 mm,

Grade of concrete Loading Arrangements

M25

=350 mm, Grade of concrete Loading Arrangements M25 Design calculations: Effective Span , L_eff = 3.0

Design calculations:

Effective Span , L_eff

=

3.0

m

Width of Web , bw

=

150

Mm

Total Width of Flange, bf

=

350

Mm

Depth of Flange, Df

=

80

Mm

Overall Depth, D

=

250

Mm

Depth of Web , dw

=

170

Mm

Effective Cover

=

25

mm

22

Yield strength of main steel, fy1

=

415

N/mm²

Yield strength of secondary steel, fy2

=

250

N/mm²

Characteristic Strenght of Concrete, fck

=

25

N/mm²

Density of Concrete, Dc

=

24

kN/m

Nominal Diameter of Main Steel bars for Web, Φr

=

12

Mm

Nominal Diameter of Main Steel bars for Flange, Φf

=

6

Mm

Nominal Diameter of Stirrups, Φs

=

6

Mm

Effective Depth, d

=

225

Mm

Steel In Web

Minimum reinforcement on web (Clause 26.5.1.1), Ast_min1

=

70.00

mm²

Provide 3-T-12 at the bottom of Web

Total Area of Steel to be Provided, Ast1

=

339.43

mm²

Let us assume Xu<Df,

0.36 fck bf Xu = 0.87 fy Ast

Depth of N.A, Xu

=

38.90

Mm

Xu < Df , Assumption is right

Limiting Depth of N.A, Xu_max

=

108

Mm

Xu < Xu_lim, Section is Under reinforced

23

Moment of Resistance of Section , Mu = 0.87 fy Ast *(d-0.42 Xu) M.R

=

25.57

kN-m

Dead Load, DL

=

1.28

kN/m

Dead Load Moment at mid span, Md

=

1.44

kN-m

Considering Two Point loading, Moment at mid span M=w*l/3

P- Estimated Point load at l/3 and 2l/3 from the support

P

=

24.13

kN

Design of Shear Reinforcement

Ultimate Shear, Vu = P+ total DL /2

=

26.05

kN

τ_v = Vu/ (bw * d)

=

0.77

N/mm²

% Steel Provided, 100* Ast1 / (bw * d)

=

1.01

%

τ_c, from Table 19 IS 456-2000

=

0.64

N/mm²

τ_v > τ_c

Calculated Transverse reinforcement Spacing in the web sv,

=

620.00

mm

Spacing of Two legged - 6mm Shear reinforcement in Web (Clause 26.5.1.6)

=

150

mm

 

.

Minimum reinforcement on flange (Clause 26.5.2.1), Ast_min2

=

120

mm²/m

Provide 6 T @150mm c/c in Longitudinal direction for flange Reinforcement Detailing of T- beam:

24

BAR BENDING SCHEDULE Sl No Bar dia   Bar Name Spacing No. of Shape Cutting

BAR BENDING SCHEDULE

Sl No

Bar dia

 

Bar Name

Spacing

No.

of

Shape

Cutting

Length

Total

Length

mm

 

Mm

Bars

Mm

M

1

12

 

Longitudinal

-

3

1 12   Longitudinal - 3 3442 10.326

3442

10.326

2

6

 

Transverse

150

23

 

396

9.108

     

Closed

   
      Closed        
   

3

6

Stirrups

150

23

744

17.112

4

6

 

Hanger

-

4

4 6   Hanger - 4 3346 13.384

3346

13.384

Experimental Setup

 

DIAL-GAUGE POSITION FOR BENDING TEST

 
 
   
 

Experimental Results Cube & Cylinder Compression test of concrete

 

Testing after 28 days

 
 

Crushing

Comp.

Mean

 

Crushing

Comp.

Mean

Cube No

Load

Strength

Comp.

 

Cylinder

Load

Strength

Comp.

(T)

(MPa)

Strength

 

(T)

(MPa)

Strength

25

     

(MPa)

     

(MPa)

1

97

42

 

1

37

20.53

 

2

87.5

37.89

41.09

2

51

28.31

26.83

3

100.5

43.38

3

57

31.64

Bending Test results on Beam Experimental Dial Gauge Readings

 
 

Dial Gauge 1

 

Dial Gauge 2

 

Dial Gauge 3

 

Load

Dial

Deflection

Dial

Deflection

Dial

Deflection

Reading

(mm)

Reading

(mm)

Reading

(mm)

0

370

0

188

0

420

0

600

408

0.38

228

0.4

458

0.38

1200

450

0.8

280

0.92

500

0.8

1800

552

1.82

395

2.07

696

2.76

2400

665

2.95

535

3.47

715

2.95

3000

806

4.36

690

5.02

845

4.25

3600

965

5.95

870

6.82

1000

5.8

4200

1100

7.3

1038

8.5

1140

7.2

4800

1260

8.9

1105

9.17

1295

8.75

5400

1424

10.54

1385

11.97

1405

9.85

6000

1568

11.98

1504

13.16

1595

11.75

6600

1990

16.2

1925

17.37

1901

14.81

26

Load Vs Deflection curve at one third point(DF-1)

Load vs Displacement Plot DG-1 7000 6000 Load vs 5000 Displacement Plot 4000 3000 2000
Load vs Displacement Plot
DG-1
7000
6000
Load vs
5000
Displacement
Plot
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
5
10
15
20
Displacement (mm)
Load (kg)

Load Vs Deflection curve at one third point(DF-2)

Load vs Displacement Plot DG-2 7000 6000 Load vs 5000 Displacemen t Plot 4000 3000
Load vs Displacement Plot
DG-2
7000
6000
Load vs
5000
Displacemen
t Plot
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
5
10
15
20
Displacement (mm)
Load (kg)

27

Load Vs Deflection curve at one third point(DF-3)

Load vs Displacement Plot DG-3 7000 6000 Load vs 5000 Displacement Plot 4000 3000 2000
Load vs Displacement Plot
DG-3
7000
6000
Load vs
5000
Displacement
Plot
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
5
10
15
20
Displacement (mm)
Load (kg)

Calculation of Theoretical Deflection:

L=3000mm

E= 22360N/mm2 I= 108310000mm4(Moment of Inertia of the effective section) Deflection at one-third Span:

Deflection @ 1/3 point Load Deflection Load vs Theoretical Deflection (Kg) (mm) At 1/3 Point
Deflection @ 1/3
point
Load
Deflection
Load vs Theoretical Deflection
(Kg)
(mm)
At 1/3 Point
0
0
7000
600
0.5274
6000
Load vs
1200
1.0548
5000
Theoretical
Deflection
1800
1.5822
4000
2400
2.1096
3000
3000
2.637
2000
3600
3.1644
1000
4200
3.6918
0
4800
4.2192
0
2
4
6
8
Theoretical Displacement (mm)
5400
4.7466
Load (kg)

28

6000 5.274 6600 5.8012 Deflection @ Mid Point Load vs Theoretical Deflection Load Deflection At
6000
5.274
6600
5.8012
Deflection
@
Mid Point
Load vs Theoretical Deflection
Load
Deflection
At Mid Point
(Kg)
(mm)
7000
0
0
6000
600
0.606
Load vs
1200
1.212
5000
Theoretical
Deflection
1800
1.818
4000
2400
2.424
3000
3000
3.03
2000
3600
3.636
1000
4200
4.242
4800
4.848
0
0
2
4
6
8
5400
5.454
Theoretical Displacement (mm)
6000
6.06
6600
6.666
Load (kg)
 

Demech Readings

 

Load(kg)

0

600

1200

1800

2400

3000

Position-1

2140

2136

2130

2117.5

2130

2170

Position-2

2140

2135.6

2120

2137.5

2149

2150

Position-3

2150

2157

2155

2120

2195

2197

Position-4

2166

2167.5

2220.5

2154

2185

2215

Load(kg)

3600

4200

4800

5400

6000

6600

Position-1

2121

2113

2112

2120

2117.5

2216

Position-2

2169

2186

2152

2152.5

2178

2222.5

29

Position-3

2170

 

2206

2230

2200

2217.5

2287

Position-4

2242.5

 

2245

2255

2286

 

2273

2617.5

 

Calculated Strain from Demech Gauge Reading

 

Load (kg)

Position-1

Position-2

Position-3

Position-4

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

600

-0.00004

 

-4.4E-05

 

7E-05

 

1.5E-05

1200

-0.0001

 

-0.0002

 

5E-05

 

0.000545

1800

-0.000225

 

-2.5E-05

-0.0003

 

-0.00012

2400

-0.0001

 

9E-05

0.00045

 

0.00019

3000

0.0003

 

1E-04

0.00047

 

0.00049

3600

-0.00019

 

0.00029

0.0002

 

0.000765

4200

-0.00027

 

0.00046

0.00056

 

0.00079

4800

-0.00028

 

0.00012

0.0008

 

0.00089

5400

-0.0002

 

0.000125

0.0005

 

0.0012

6000

-0.000225

 

0.00038

0.000675

 

0.00107

6600

0.00076

 

0.000825

0.00137

 

0.004515

Strain Distribution Along the Depth 0 -0.0005 0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 600 -50 1200 2400
Strain Distribution Along the Depth
0
-0.0005
0
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
600
-50
1200
2400
-100
3600
4200
-150
4800
5400
-200
6000
-250
Strain
Depth

30

OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS:

1. The experimental deflection is found to be significantly varying from theoretical deflection due to heterogeneity of concrete.

2. The load at which the crack is visible is found to be 1800 kg. Thus it can be said that beam behaves elastically upto this loading. The maximum theoretical deflection is found to be less than the experimental deflections. This can be due to the fact that theoretical deflections are calculated considering homogenous section but concrete is heterogeneous.

3. At the beginning, the applied moment is less than the cracking moment hence the entire section contributes in resisting the moment. The tension in steel suddenly increases when the applied moment exceeds the cracking moment and the tensile stress in concrete becomes more than its permissible flexural strength. The stiffness of beam reduces causing faster propagation of crack and collapse of beam. Since the section is under reinforced, there is no catastrophic failure.

4. The upward shift of neutral axis is observed and can be interpreted from the strain variation curve along the depth.

5. It is observed that the cracks initiate in the middle third part of beam which is subjected to flexure stress only. Hence the cracks are vertical and they propagate towards the top of the beam. Beyond this part some cracks are developed due combination of shear and flexure.

6. The compressive strength of concrete is found to be higher than the expected strength. This is because the factor of safety and the confidence level are considered while calculating the strength of concrete. Also the experimental failure load 7000kg is higher than the theoretical failure load 4800kg for the same reason.

31

5. RECTANGULAR REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM

Experimental setup The beam used for the study has an effective length of 3m and a cross section of 150*250 mm 2 . The reinforcing steel in the tension region used is 3-12Φ . The beam is assumed to be singly reinforced and hence the support reinforcement provided for hanging the stirrups will be neglected from the moment of resistance calculations. To ensure that the top reinforcement does not contribute to the moment of resistance they were cut at equal intervals. This however does not ensure that the top reinforcements will not take any load. Hence a small amount of load will be carried by the top reinforcements but for the sake of simplicity it is neglected. Minimum shear reinforcement is provided throughout except near the supports. A two point loading scheme is used. Equal concentrated vertical loads are applied at one-third span from both the supports. This gives rise to a pure flexure state in the middle third region. Figure below shows the experimental setup.

third region. Figure below shows the experimental setup. Experimental Setup In the figure L =3000 mm.

Experimental Setup

In the figure L =3000 mm. The load P is slowly increased to study the appearance of first cracks and the ultimate failure. Figure 2 shows a cross section of the beam.

of first cracks and the ultimate failure. Figure 2 shows a cross section of the beam.

Cross section of the beam

32

The clear cover used in the beam is 25mm.

 

Experimental Results:- For the determination of the compressive strength of the concrete three cubes of length 150mm and three cylinders of 150mm diameter and 300 mm length were tested. The test results are given in Table. For cubes-7 Days Strength

 
       

Mean

     

Mean

 

Crushing

Comp.

Crushing

Comp.

 

Cube No

Load

Strength

Comp.

Strength

Cylinder

 

Load

Strength

 

Comp.

Strength

(T)

(MPa)

 

(T)

(MPa)

 
 

(MPa)

 

(MPa)

1

 

58.5

24.5

   

1

29

16.1

 

2

 

60

26.16

 

25.62

2

27

15.0

16.94

3

 

60.5

26.2

 

3

35.5

19.71

For cubes-28 Days Strength

 

Cube No

Dimension

 

Area

 

Failure

   

Failure

 

Average

 

(mm2)

 

Load(ton)

Stress(N/mm2)

 

Stress(N/mm2)

 

1 151x150x150

22650

   

108

 

46.78

 
 

2 150x152x150

22800

   

102

 

43.89

 

45.19

 

3 150x150x150

22500

   

103

 

44.91

 

For Cylinders

 

Cylinder

Dimension

 

Area

 

Failure

 

Failure

 

Average

No

(mm2)

Load(ton)

 

Stress(N/mm2)

 

Stress(N/mm2)

 

R=150,

       

1

h=300

17671.459

 

56

 

31.09

 

29.70

 

R=150,

       

2

h=300

17671.459

 

49.5

 

27.48

 

33

 
R=150, 3 17671.459 55 30.53 h=300 As expected the average compressive strength of concrete is
R=150,
3
17671.459
55
30.53
h=300
As expected the average compressive strength of concrete is higher for cubes. According to
existing research the value of cylinder should be around 70 % the compressive strength of
compressive cube strength. In this case it is 65.72%. According to IS:456 the characteristic
strength of concrete is defined in terms of compressive cube strength. So the cube compressive
strength is considered as the compressive strength of the concrete. The average compressive
strength of concrete from the 28 day compressive strength is 45 MPa. The grade of steel used in
the beam was Fe415.
DESIGN OF RC RECTANGULAR BEAM- BEAM
Effective Span , L_eff
=
3.0
m
Width , b
=
150
mm
Overall Depth , D
=
250
mm
Effective Cover
=
25
mm
Yield strength of main steel, fy1
=
415
N/m m²
Yield strength of secondary steel, fy2
=
250
N/mm²
Characteristic Strength of Concrete, fck
=
25
N/mm²
Density of Concrete, Dc
=
24
kN/mᶟ
Nominal Diameter of Main Steel bars, Φr
=
10
mm
Number of Bottom reinforcement
=
3
Nominal Diameter of Stirrups, Φs
=
6
mm
C/C Spacing of Stirrups
=
150
mm
Effective Depth, d
=
225
mm
34

Moment of Resistance Calculations

0.36 fck b Xu = 0.87 fy Ast

Depth of N.A, Xu

=

63.04

mm

Limiting Depth of N.A, Xu_max

=

108

mm

Xu < Xu_lim , Section is under reinforced

 

Moment of Resistance of Section , Mu = 0.87 fy Ast *(d-0.42 Xu)

 

M.R

=

16.90

kN-m

Dead Load, DL

=

0.90

kN/m

Dead Load Moment at mid span, Md

=

1.01

kN-m

Considering Two Point loading, Moment at mid span M=w*l/3

 

w- Estimated Point load at l/3 and 2l/3 from the support

 

w

=

15.88

kN

Total Estimated Load that can be applied over the beam

=

31.77

kN

Design of Shear Reinforcement

 

Ultimate Shear, Vu = w+ total DL /2

=

17.23

kN

τ_v = Vu/ (bw * d)

=

0.51

N/mm²

% Steel Provided, 100* Ast1 / (bw * d)

=

0.70

%

τ_c, from Table 19 IS 456-2000

=

0.554

N/mm²

τ_v < τ_c and τ_v > τ_c / 2

35

Minimu Shear Reinforcement is required

Spacing of Two legged - 6mm Shear reinforcement in Web (Clause 26.5.1.6)

=

150

.

Mm

All the above calculations are for un-cracked sections. So it can be expected that the theoretical results will deviate from the experimental results once cracking of the section starts. The ultimate failure load of the beam was found to be 7.6 ton.

Results of the dial gauges:-

 

Dial Gauge 1

Dial Gauge 2

Dial Gauge 3

Load

Dial

Deflection

Dial

Deflection

Dial

Deflection

Reading

(mm)

Reading

(mm)

Reading

(mm)

0

117

0

347

0

190

0

600

158

0.41

390

0.43

230

0.4

1200

226

1.09

470

1.23

292

1.02

1800

329

2.12

600

2.53

380

1.9

2400

512

3.95

888

5.41

550

3.6

3000

792

6.75

980

6.33

725

5.35

3600

834

7.17

1140

7.93

857

6.67

4200

1000

8.83

1320

9.73

1013

8.23

4800

1135

10.18

1470

11.23

1143

9.53

5400

1300

11.83

1640

12.93

1290

11

6000

1517

14

1868

15.21

1582

13.92

6600

1640

15.23

2020

16.73

1613

14.23

7200

1860

17.43

2560

22.13

1915

17.25

36

Theoretical Displacement Calculations

   

Deflection

Load (kg)

Deflection @ 1/3 Point

@ Mid

Point

0

0

0

600

0.073563218

0.0845977

1200

0.147126437

0.1691954

1800

0.220689655

0.2537931

2400

0.294252874

0.33839081

3000

0.367816092

0.42298851

3600

0.44137931

0.50758621

4200

0.514942529

0.59218391

4800

0.588505747

0.67678161

5400

0.662068966

0.76137931

6000

0.735632184

0.84597701

6600

0.809195402

0.93057471

7200

0.882758621

1.01517241

Load vs Displacement Plot 8000 DG-1 7000 DG-1 6000 DG-2 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000
Load vs Displacement Plot
8000
DG-1
7000
DG-1
6000
DG-2
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
Displacement (mm)
Load (kg)

37

Strain Gauges Readings:- Strain gauge orientations:-

 

Strain Gauge 1(Bottom)

Strain Gauge 2 (Center)

Strain Gauge 3 (Top)

Load (kg)

Gauge-1

Strain

Gauge-2

Strain

Gauge-3

Strain

0

16001

0

248

0

607

0

600

15933

-0.000068

244

-0.000004

622

0.000015

1200

15922

-0.000079

243

-0.000005

670

0.000063

1800

15907

-0.000094

242

-0.000006