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####################################Plumbing:Alley. 3 meters with walk,
not less than 2 meters.Alter or alteration. change use or material.Back
pressure. (drainage) air pressure in drainage pipe greater than atmospheric
pressure.Back flow. (water) flow of water in water system from other sources
other than its water source, also called back siphonage.Back siphonage. for
drainage and water.Back vent pipe. also called individual vents, F C O (floor
clean out) for 1st floor, W C O (wall clean out) for 2nd floor and up, diameter
for individual vents is 2 to 3 inches and drainage line is 4 inches.Ball cock.
faucet opened and closed by a ball floating on the water, also called ball cock
valve.Ball joint. for W C without water storage tank, a cup like shell, ball in
cup-like shell that allow movement.Battery of fixtures. similar adjacent
fixtures, 2 or more is called a battery.Bell or hub. that portion of a pipe
which for a short distance, is sufficiently enlarged to receive the end of
another pipe of the same diameter for the purpose of making a joint.Bending pin.
(or iron) a tool used for straightening or expanding lead pipe.Bibb. known
today as hose bib (H B), part of water line and is a faucet found in service
area and gardens.Key cock. used in hospitals, chemical laboratory, and
laboratories.Compression cock.Self-closing faucet.Bidet. (lavatory always on
the left.), a plumbing fixture use to wash the genitals, also called a sitz bath
(tool bath), types:1. Stall.2. Stand.3. Recessed.Materials for pipes:1. C I S P.
2. Acid resistant C I P.3. Asbestos pipe.4. Bituminous fiber sewer pipes.5.
Vitrified clay pipe.6. Lead pipe.7. Galvanized steel pipe.8. Galvanized wrought
iron pipe.9. Brass pipe. most expensive and most durable (not available
commercially).10. Copper pipe. used in H V A C.11. Plastic or synthetic pipe.
Choice of pipe:1. Quality.2. Cost of installation.a. Labor.b. Material.3.
Resistance to chemical and acid waste.4. Durability.Reason of C I S P for
drainage:1. Easy drainage installation.2. Availability.Closing end of pipes:1.
Cap.2. Plug.Types of flange:1. Drilled.2. Blank.3. Blind.Blank flange. flange
that is not drilled. types:1. Slip flange.2. Screw flange.leaching cesspool.
Blind flange. a flange that closes the end of a pipe. There is no opening for
the passage of water.Blow-off. use in hot water storage tank, controlled
outlet/pipe use to discharge water detritus and steam, one type of releif vent.2
types of hot water tank:1. Range boiler.2. Hot water storage tank.Branch (water
and drainage and storm drain)(horizontal), (water) branch out of the house
service pipe which is the largest pipe, (drainage) connects to house drain to
septic tank, any part of the pipes not the main pipe or stack.Branch interval.
a length of soil or waste stack that branch into the main at storey height, one
branch not less than 8 feet, types:1. soil pipe. use water closet.2. waste.
other waste water.Stack. a vertical pipe (drainage).Riser. a vertical pipe
(water).Branch vent. a vent pipe connecting from a branch of the drainage
system to a vent stack.Building drain. house drain.Building sewer. house
sewer, is that part of plumbing found extending 4 or 5 feet from interface of
foundation wall.Building sub-drain. that portion of a drainage system which
cannot drain by gravity into the building sewer.Bushing. joining the different
size pipes in single run.Caulking. plugging or opening with oakum used in
jointing.Oakum. a hemp fiber melted.Cap. closing a pipe or pipe line.Ferrul.
the clean out.Catch basin. CB, for rain water retention of storm or rain water.
AD-CB. area drain, catch basin.Cesspool. a pit for the reception or detention
of sewage.Effluent. having a solid and liquid separate chamber.Leeching
cesspool. old waste goes down and at side.Valves:Check valves. automatically
closes to prevent backflow or reverse direction or flow of water.Circuit vent.
a group vent extending from in front of the last fixture connection on a
horizontal branch to the vent stack, limited to 3 to 5 fixture per vent.Common
vent. (dual vent or unit vent), serving 2 or more fixtures.Conductor.
(downspout, rainleader, roof leads), a vertical pipe to convey rain water.
Continous vent. is a vertical vent that is a continuation of the drain, to
which the vent connects.Corporation cock. (corporation stop, stop vault), to
stop water to an individual house, connected to metering device and the water
main.Coupling.Court. open unoccupied area.Gooseneck. to prevent high pressure.
Water outlet. any faucet, water closet, etcetera.Cross connection. a physical
connection between 2 system.Dead end. the extended portion of a pipe that is
closed at one end to which no connections are made on the extended portion, thus
permitting the stagnation of water or air therein.Developed length. length
along the center line of a pipe to the fitting.Diameter. types:1. outside
diameter. (brass, copper).2. internal diameter. (iron, etcetera).3. nominal
internal diameter.Double-bend fitting. use commonly in factories, a pipe
fitting shaped like the letter "S".Double offset. 2 offsets in succession in
series in the same time.Flat offset. used in ventillation air stack.Drain. a
sewer on other pipe or conduit used for conveying ground water, surface water,
storm water, waste water, or sewage.FD. floor drain.Fixture drain. the drain
from the trap of a fixture to the junction of the drain with any other drain
pipe, from fixture to main drain or the junction itself.Drainage system. the
drainage pipes of the plumbing system that takes waste water to the sewers. 3
components:1. Drainage.2. Waste.3. Vent.Dry vent. only with air, no waste ever
goes through it, vent stack.Wet vent. stack vent.Ferrule. a metallic sleeve,
calked or otherwise, joined to an opening in a pipe, into which a plug is
screwed that can be removed for the purpose of cleaning or examining the
interior of the pipe, clean out (WCO, FCO), size of cleanout 4 inches.Fixture.
a receptacle attached to a plumbing system. Classification according to use:1.
Soil:a. Water closet.b. Slop sink.c. Urinals.2. Scullery:a. Kitchen sink.b.
Laundry sink.c. Pantry sink. large kitchen sink.3. Bathing:a. Bath tub.b.
Biddet.c. Shower bath. complete assembly.Fixture branch. the supply pipe
between the fixture and the water distributing pipe, all branch connected to
fixture.Fixture unit: 1 person 8 gallon per minute, 1 and one half gallon per
minute.Lavatory. 2 fixtures unit.WC. 6 fixture unit.Flashing. a piece of
sheet metal fitted under another piece of flat metal or wood over which water is
expected to run.Float level. a level at the fixture where water will flow over
the edge of the fixture or rim.Flood level/overflow level. the level in a
fixture at which water begins to overflow the top or rim of the fixture.Floor
area. the area minus the shaft, pipe chase and pipe sleeves, the area included
between the wall exclusive of vent, shaft and sleeve.Flush valve. W. C.,
directly connected with the supply.Flushometer valve. with aid of water tank.
Gate valve. inlet, a valve in which the flow of water is cut off by means of a
circular disk, fitting against machine-smoothed faces, at right angles to the
direction of flow. The disk is raised or lowered by means of a threaded stem
connected to the handle of the valve. the opening in the valve is usually as
large as the full bore of the pipe.Globe valve. a valve in which the flow of
water is cut off by means of a circular disk that fits against the valve seat.
The plane of movement of the disk is parallel to the normal direction of flow of
water, which is turned through a tortuous passage to direct the flow normal to
the face of the disk, can control gas and air.Goose neck. a return bend of
small-sized pipe one end of which is about 1 foot long and the other end is
about 3 inches long. It is commonly used as a faucet for a pantry sink. Also,
the lead connection between a service pipe and a water main.Grade. slope of
pipes, two percent slope or one fourth inch per foot.Ground water. three
sources of water:1. Rainfall. storm water.2. Natural surface. Surface water.3.
Underground water. ground water, portion of the rainfall or percipitation.Group
vent. a branch vent that performs its function for 2 or more traps.Height of
building. vertical distant from grade line to the highest point of the roof of
the building.Horizontal branch. a branch drain extending laterally from a soil
or waste stack, with or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the
discharge from one or more fixture drains and conducts it to the soil or waste
stack or to the building drain.House storm sewer. house catch basin, is the
pipeline from the building to the public storm sewer system.Indirect waste pipe.
a waste pipe that does not connect directly with the building drainage system
but discharge into it through a properly trapped fixture or receptacle, not
connect to waste pipes.Individual vent. back vent pipe.Industrial waste.
liquid waste from industry free of waste, toxic waste.Installation of plumbing.
by master plumber.Interceptor. receptable to intercept and separate grease,
chemicals, and oil, grease trap.Invert. the lowest portion of the inside of any
pipe or conduit that is not vertical.Latrine. WC with continuous water supply,
not a permanent installation.Lavatory. wash basin for washing face and hand.
Length of pipe. the length as measured along.Local vent. crude vent.Loop or
circuit
vent. , a continuation of a horizontal soil or waste pipe beyond the
connection at which liquid waste from a fixture enter the waste or soil pipe,
circuit vent, associated with vent stack.Circuit. stock vent.Main. the main of
any system: main sewer line, main water supply line, main/public storm sewer,
distributing main.Main vent. vent stack.Man hole. access for man to go
through, 3 meters depth minimum.Master plumber. person with knowledge of
plumbing who employs plumbers, for residential.Nipple.Sanitary engineer. for
large establishment.Slope. pitch, grade, mot exceed 2 %.Plan. must be sealed
by a professional sanitary engineer.Plasiomic valve. ball in the water closet.
Plumbing. the art and technique of installing in building pipes and fixtures.
Plumbing fixtures. a receptable attached to a plumbing system other than a trap
in which water or waste may be collected or retained for ultimate discharge into
the plumbing system.Plumbing system. the plumbing system of the building,
institution, factory or industrial establishment from bring and distributing
water to discharging sewer, sewerage system.Plumbing official. hold authority
in water and sewerage and national plumbing code.MWSS. urban.LWVA. rural.LOWA.
local water.DPWH. in charge of the sewers.Potable water. water fit for
drinking, culinary and domestic purposes.Primary branch. is the single sloping
drain from the base of the stack to its junction with the main building drain or
with another branch thereof, same as lateral.Private or private use. for
private use.Private sewer. private owned and not directly controlled by public
authority.Privy. outhouse or structure use to dispose excrement.Privy vault. a
pit beneath a privy in which excrement collects.Public or public use. public is
invited to use these in any institution.Public sewer. common sewer directly
controlled by public authority, main sewer.Releif vent. help provide
circulation of air between drainage and vent systemRepair. repairing or
replacing a small part of the system.Return bend. 180 degrees turn.Revent pipe.
back vent pipe, individual vent.Riser. vertical pipes use only on water.
Reservoir. water cistern.Orifice. to releive pressure from downfeed system.
Roughing in. pipes without the fixtures.Sanitary sewage. (domestic waste)
domestic sewage combination of human excrement and liquid household waste.
Sanitary sewer. for sanitary sewage with or without industrial waste but
without rain water.Seal. vertical distance between the dip and the crown, water
in traps.Indirect momentum siphonage. seal is sucked out.Secondary branch. any
branch in a building drain other than the primary branch.Septic tank.
watertight receptacle which receives the discharge of a plumbing system.Service
pipe. the pipe from the water main or source of water supply to the building
served.Sewage. the liquid waste conducted away from the establishments.Sewer.
a pipe or conduit for carrying sewage and waste liquid.Sewerage/sewerage works.
sewer system of the entire community, including collection, transportation,
pumping, and treatment.Shaft. (chase) a vertical opening through a building for
elevators, etceteras.Siamese connection. a wye connection used on fire lines so
that 2 lines of hose may be connected to a hydrant or to the same nozzle.
Siphonage. vaccum or suction created by the flow of liquid in pipes.Soil pipe.
from water closet, urinals.Soil stack pipe. vertical pipe for fecal matter or
liquid waste.Spigot/faucet. the end of a pipe which fits into a bell.Stack. a
general term used for any vertical line of soil, waste, or vent piping.Stack
vent. for soil and waste stack connected to the highest horizontal drain
connected to the stack.Standpipes. a vertical pipe usually used for the storage
of water, frequently under pressure, types:1. Wet.2. Dry.Storm water. that
portion of the rainfall or other precipitation which runs off over the surface
after a storm.Story. surface of floor to surface of next floor.Subsoil drain.
building sub-drain.Sump. a pit or receptacle at a low point to which the liquid
wastes are drained.Supports. hangers, cradles, straps, etceteras.Surface water.
natural water or water on the surface after a rain.Tapped tee. a cast-iron
bell-end tee with the branch tapped to receive a threaded pipe or fitting. used
only for ventillation.Sanitary tee.Trap. a fitting or device so constructed as
to prevent air, gas and some vermin through a pipe.Union. to move one pipe
only.Unit vent. an arrangement of venting so installed that one vent pipe will
serve 2 traps.Vaccum. an air pressure less than atmospheric. also siphonage.
Vent. a pipe or opening used for ensuring the circulation of the air in a
plumbing system and for reducing the pressure exerted on trap seals.Vent stack.
for ventillation.Vertical pipe. any pipe or fitting installed in a vertical
position.Wet vent. that portion of the vent pipe through which liquid waste
flow.Waste pipe. lavatory, floor drain., a pipe which convey only liquid waste,
free of fecal matter.Yard. is an open, unoccupied space, other than a court.
Planning:1. Location of C O:a. In every change in direction.b. All horizontal
pipes.c. At every 15 feet of pipe.2. Provision of individual ventillation
connected to ypur VSTR.3. Traps:a. House trap.b. Grease trap.c. Seal trap.4.
Soil pipe/waste pipe.5. Offset.Water supply:1. Location of main line.2.
Prohibition use of cross T.3. Provision of air chamber.4. Use of valves.3 types
of water distribution:1. Upfeed system.2. Downfeed system (gravity).3. Zoning
system.Pipe lengths:1. Brass pipe: 20 feet.2. PVC: 10 to 20 feet.3. RSC: 10
to 20 feet.4. G I: 20 feet.5. C I: 5 feet.6. Cement: 1 meter.3 available
private disposal system:1. Cess pool.2. Septic tank or vault.3. Privy.4. Public
sewer line.Public sewer line:1. Trunk line.2. Tributary.Septic tank. decompose
raw sewage in 2 process:1. Sedimentation.2. Anaeboric decomposition.Sludge.
creates bacteria to create anaerobic.Construction and location of septic tank:1.
15 meters away from potable water.2. Must have an inlet and outlet made of
sanitary Y.Minimum water content depth of 1.20 meters for proper reduction of
organic materials, with a total depth of 1.50 meters.Dimension of a septic tank:
0.75 by 1.5 by 1.20 meters.Technical data:1. Minimum width: 0.90.2. Minimum
length: 1.50.3. Minimum depth: 1.20.4. Residential: 0.14 to 0.17 meter cube
per person.5. 12 persons, not more than 2.0 meters cube.6. School, commercial,
industrial: 0.057 meter cube to .086 meter cube per person.Manhole has
intervals of 75 meters to 150 meters, with a diameter of .90 to 1.20 meters.
And is protuded 15 centimeters from surface to overcome water infiltration.Types
of waste:1. Black: feces.2. Grey: soap.3. White: rain water.2 types of
standpipes:1. Dry.2. Wet.Types of vents:1. Wet vent. for water.2. Dry vent.
for air.Types of tanks:1. Suction type tank.2. Pneumatic tank.3. Elevated tank.
4. House tank.P traps:1. Common seal trap: 50 millimeter depth between overflow
and dip, used in lavatories.2. Deep seal trap. 75 to 100 millimeters depth
between overflow and dip, used in sinks.Moldex uses the O-ring.Septic tank.
cannot be outside property line and inside house, position next to last fixture
served, good in laundry area.Aeration process. one method to separate waste
from water in a public filtering system.To prevent leakage from treaded
connection use teflon, for flange type use gusset.A device which introduces air
into an existing stream of water, aerator fitting.A backflow preventor is a
device to prevent backflow into a potable water supply.A plumbing fixture used
especially for washing the middle parts of the body, bidet/prosterior.A blank
flange is a flange that is not drilled.A back vent is a vent connecting one or
more individual vents with a VS or a SV.A drain that convey storm water to a
satisfactory terminal, catch basin.A gate valve or service cock, corporatin
cock.House drain is a system of horizontal piping inside a building that extends
and connects with the house sewer. 2 types:1. Combine drain. (sanitary and
storm). 2. Sanitary drain.Drum trap is a special equipment used on plumbing
fixtures that discharge large volume of water.Self closing faucet, faucets are
used when it is descred that the flow of water is stopped automatically upon
release of the pressure of the hand.The most common form of iron found in spring
and well water is ferrous bicarbonate (a colorless salt).In tall buildings,
sprinklers can be supplied with water from elevated storage tank.Fire
extinguishment is normally accomplished by absorption of heat by carbon monoxide
and reduction of temperature.The fire code of the philippines was created under
the P D 1185.Any act that would remove or neutralize a fire hazard, abatement.It
is not prefferable to use short radius fittings on soil branches for making
changes in direction.A flush valve is a type of plumbing accessories.In sewerage
system pipe should be installed with a grade of 1 4th inch per foot.Water supply
outlets usually installed outside the building, hose bib.The principal use of
hydropneumatic tank is for air under pressure storage.Caulking and threading are
2 different methods of connecting pipes and fittings.A manhole is an access
chamber for underground piping.G I pipes used for water lines are commonly
manufactured in length of 20 feet.Water pressure instrument, pressure gauge.A
plastic pipe for hot and cold water, PVDC pipes.A water pump most commonly used
for elevation of waste, sump pump.Roughing-in
is the installation of all parts of plumbing sustem which can be completed
prior to the installation of fixtures.Small particle of smoke can be detected in
less than a minute.Wet and dry fire water pipes are called standpipe.Siamese is
a wye connection.Integrated network of hydraulic design piping system, sprinkler
system.Responsible of fire code, director general.Sanitary and industrial
plumbing water piping inside building and premises shall conform to the
provisions of national plumbing code.The design, construction, and operation of
deepwells for abstraction of groundwater sources shall be subjected to the
provisions of the water code of the Philippines.The quality of drinking water
from meteoric surfaces and underground sources shall conform to the criteria set
forth by National Standards of Drinking water.Sanitary sewages from buildings
and neutralized or pre-treated industrial waste water shall be discharged
directly to the nearest street sanitary sewer main in accordance with the
criteria set in the code of sanitation and the national pollution control
commission.All pipe materials to be used in buildings shall conform to the
standard specs of the Philippine standard council (PSC).Electrical plans and
specifications below 20 outlets or a capacity of 4 kw up to 600 v shall be
signed and sealed by duly licensed master electrician.U A P is duly accredited
for architects while the following:1. Civil engineers. P I C E (Philippine
institute of civil engineers).2. Mechanical engineers. P S M E (Philippine
society of mechanical engineers).3. Electrical engineers. I I E E (institue of
integrated electrical engineer).4. Master plumbers. NAMPAP.Color coding:1.
Water line. blue.2. Electrical. red, orange, light gray.3. Sanitary. Orange,
brown.All electrical system, equipment and installlation mentioned in the code
shall conform to the provision of the Philippine ekectrical code, as adopted by
the board of electrical engineering persuant to R A 184 otherwise known as the
electrical engineering law.All mechanical systems, equipment and installation
mentioned in this code shall conform to the provisions of the philippine
mechanical engineering code, as adopted by the board of mechanical engineering
pursuant to Commonwealth Act number 294 as amended, otherwise known as the
Mechanical engineering law.Industrial establishment shall be provided with
positive noise abatement devices to tone down the noise level of equipment and
machineries to acceptable limits set down by the department of labor and the
national pollution control commission.In the application form for mechanical,
electrical, and sanitary/plumbing permits, the Professional in charge shall sign
and seal and write in the box the following:1. PRC registration number.2. Full
name in print.3. PTR number.4. Address of P I C (professional in charge).5. PTR
date/place of issue.6. T I N.In applying for electrical wiring permit, the
required are:1. Electrical wiring plan or layout.2. Schedule of loads.3.
Location plan.4. vicinity plan.5. Riser diagram.6. General notes (specs).7.
Legends and symbols.8. Details.5 sets of building plans and specs are given to:
1. Applicant.2. Architect and engineering department.3. Land use and zoning.4.
Land and grade.5. Local fire chief.Aside from the professional, the professional
in charge can sign and seal his/her name in the DPWH forms.2 other signatories
in DPWH application form for certificate of completion (electrical works) aside
from building owner:1. Professional electrical engineer/master plumber.2.
Contractor.2 documents required for certificate of occupancy from building
official:1. Certificate of completion.2. Logbook.PD 1096 prescribes that dry
standpipe is required for every building of 4 or more floors.Dry standpipe shall
have sufficient strength to withstand a water pressure of 20 kilograms per
square centimeter when ready for service.All dry standpipe shall extend from the
ground floor and over the roof and shall be equipped with 63 millimeters outlet
in every floor level with a minimum height from floor line of 1.20 meters.The
minimum size of a fire hose outlet of an interior wet standpipe is 38 millimeter
diameter.The frames on either side of the moving steps of an escalator is called
balustrade.The maximum angle of inclination of an escalator is 30 degrees.A
device designed to stop a descending elevator or counterweight beyond its normal
limit of travel by absorving and dissipating the kinetic energy of the car or
counter weight is called buffer.In high rise apartments or residential
condominiums of more than 5 stories, the minimum number of elevator that shall
be kept on a 24 hour service is one.The minimum clear distance from any part of
a boiler to any wall as per NBC is 1 meter.Smokestacks shall have a minimum rise
above the eaves of any building of 5 meters.The temperature and humidity of the
air for comfortable cooling is to be maintained at 68 to 74 degrees fahrenheit.
HVAC. heating and ventilating air conditioning.Piping under steam division of a
high pressure pipe is white.Fresh water pipe is blue.Fire design ladder should
be fixed position in interval not exeeding 6 meters.Exterior way of exit access
so arrange there is no dead-end arranged in 6 meters.A cable provided with a
metal wrapping is called armored cable.The current in amperes a conductor can
carry continously without exceeding it temperature is called ampacity.A sheet
metal enclosure for conductors, cables and bus bars at switch boards, meter
centers, distribution centers and similar points are called auxiliary gutter.The
latest edition of the Philippine electrical code, part 1 is dated 1973.Ratio of
maximum demand to the total connected to a system is ca;;ed demand factor.The
final decision over any contraversy of the electrical code is vested upon the
board of electrical engineering.Electric motor. transform electric to
mechanical energy.Fuse. an over current protective device w circuit opening
fusible material.Fuse holder. device to support a fusible link and to complete
the contact between fusible link and fuse clips.Guy wire. tension member
usually of galvanized wire.Flashover. a disruptive charge around or over the
surface of a solid or liquid insulator.Ground. place a conducting current to
the earth.Lamp. generic term for artificial source of light.Lighting outlet.
direct connection of a lampholder.Type 2 building under NBC shall be fire
resistive for 1 hour.Cross bar. device half the width of door leaf which opens
the door when subjected to pressure.Condenser. where vaporized refrigerants is
liquified.Minimum clear height of a window type aircon at grounfd floor is 2.13
meters.International access signs have white graphics on blue blackground.NBC
allows circular stairs as exit if minimum width of run is not less than 250
millimeters.Service connection line. connects horizontal main to water service
meter.Fixtures. recieve and discharge water into the drainage system.The
minimum size of trap and branches allowed for bath tub is 2 inches diameter.
Riser. a potable water supply that extend vertically one full storey or more to
convey water to branches and fixtures.In buildings, water supply for fire
fighting must meet:1. Be part of domestic supply of building.2. Be added to
domestic supply of building.3. Not required if fire hydrant is within 100
meters.Fire damper is also called smoke damper which can also be smoke damper
serve as fire damper.Each door in a means of egress shall not be 70 centimeter.
Plumbing code provisions:1. All roof extension of soil and waste stack should
run full size at least 0.30 meters above the roof.2. Other than weather
protection, not less than 2.5 meters above the roof.3. If there are doors,
windows, scuttle, air chafts distance edge to edge is 3 meters.Usual trouble in
pipes is in its fittings.Rendering a pipe waterproof, caulking.Cast iron in
length of 5 feet.Pipe of sanitary drainage, cast iron and PVC.Enlarged part of
pipe to receive another end, hub.Connection of sprinkler to ceiling:1. Distance
between sprinklers, 3 meters.2. Area covered by a sprinkler, 9 square meters.
Electricity:From NBC:Lines must be 10 to 7.5 meters in height from sidewalk.
Poles not less than 5 meters from fire hydrant.Poles not less than 150 meters
from a curb.For building over 15 meters in height there must be 2 to 2.5 meters
open from face of building to pole for ladders.Conductors over 3oo volts shall
not be carried near the ground surface unless guarded or made unaccessible.Lines
must clear from building surface of no less than .075 meters.Lines passing over
roofs and building tops must have clearance of 1 to 3 meters.Service drop
clearance over roof must not be less than 2.5 meters.Service drop must not be
less than 3 meters from ground.There should be 2 services by law.Fees are 5
pesos for permit of pole and installation of pole.Approved. acceptable to the
authority enforcing the code.Electricity. electric phenomena manisfectation.
Atoms:1. Electron. negative.2. Proton. positive.3. Neutron. neutral.2 general
classes:1. Dynamic electricity (electromagnetic). flows through a substance,
over its surface in the form of electric current.2. Static electricity
(static/electrostatic).Accessible. not permanently closed in by the structure
or finish of the building; capable of being removed without disturbing the
building structure or finish. Admitting close approach because not guarded by
locked doors, elevation, or other effective means.Electric current. electric
flow in an electric current (amperage) expressed in amperes.Electric circuit.
electric path composed of a conductor or of several conductors
and conducting electric devices joined together through which an electric
current flows when the path is completed and an EMF is applied.Circuit diagram.
diagram that represent an electric circuit on papers.Chase. a recess built in
wall to receive piping and wiring.Mica. best heat insulators.Electromotive
force (EMT). the force without cause (or tend to cause) the movement of
electricity in a conductor.Electro magnet.Close circuit (complete). connected
to form a continous path from the source of current back to the same point.Open
circuit (broken or incomplete). conducting elements are disconnected as to
prevent the flow of electricity.Post knoll effect electrical thermal.Rheostat.
also considered as a dimmer.Service entrance wire. from attachment service cap
to panel board.Service drop. attached from Meralco up to building service cap.
THW. for outside and inside.PTW. for interior.Watt. ampere times voltage.Air
is a poor conductor of electricity.Short circuit. a condition resulting from
bridging any part of a circuit with a conductor of a very low resistance.
Amperes. basic unit of electric current.Amperage. the flow of electric current
in a circuit, expressed in amperes.Ampacity. the current carrying of a wire or
cable expressed in amperes, (without undue heat).Ammeter. instrument to measure
rate of flow of electricity.2 types of circuits:1. Parallel (multiple). when 2
or more electrical devices are connected so that each one offers a separate path
for the flow of current between 2 points.2. Series (simple SC). all parts of a
circuit are electrically connected end to end.Device. a unit/component of
electrical system which is intended to carry but not consume electrical energy.
example: switch.Lighting circuit is 100 watt maximum.Shunt. when a circuit is
divided into 2 or more branches, each branch transmitting part of the current.
The conductor of each branch taken separately.Connectors use for metal:1.
Bushing.2. Lock nut.3. Coupling.Classification of electrical current:1. Direct
current. flow in only one (or some) direction/flow is said to be from negative
to positive (fixed polarity)(can be steady or may vary).Common source. current
supplied by a battery (storage)/dry cell.a. Continous DC. remains steady or
uniform.b. Pulsating/fluctuating DC. strength varies at different times.2.
Alternating curent. continually reverses its flow, its direction of
flow/current that changes in both strenght and direction in a given time,
alternates 60 times per second, with a frequency of 60 cycles per second (60
hertz).Rectifier. (rotary converter) converts AC to DC, example: transformer.
Types:1. Selenium type.2. Silicon type.3. Copper-oxide type.Phase. the number
of alternating current that goes to your conductor.Relation of EMF current
resistance. ratio between pressure and resistance (opposition).Strength of the
continuous current. ratio between EMF and resistance of the conductors.Ohm's
law (George Simon Ohm):Formula: I = V/R.I. current flow (in amperes).V. EMF
(in volts).R. resistance (friction in ohms).Voltage, electrical pressure,
(volt): V = I R.Current: I = V/R.Resistance: R=V/I.Voltage (volt). unit of
EMF/measure of the pressure or force which keeps electricity in motion.
Voltimeter. device to measure the voltage of the circuit/an instrument for
measuring the voltage drop between any 2 points in an electric circuit, example:
generator/cell/battery.General note: 1 volt is the pressure which causes 1
ampere to flow through a wire with a resistance of 1 ohm.Watt. rate of power
used/represent how much is the equivalent heat volt and amperes produced if
plugged to an appliances, measure the power consumed, potential difference of 1
volt cause a current of 1 ampere to flow.Potential difference. when a source of
electromotive force is applied to a conductor, the conductor is said to have a
difference in potential energy.Wattmeter. instrument that measure the amount of
instantaneous power or power in use at any one time.Watt-hour meter, kilowatt-
hour meter, electricity meter. instrument used to measure the energy consumed
over a period of time, measure and register the active power in an electric
circuit with respect to time.Pole. 2 live wire.2 pole. 2 live wire, 1 ground.
Types of conduits:1. RSC.2. IMC.3. EMT. electrical metallic tubing.4. Flexible
metal conduit.5. Aluminum conduit.6. Non-metallic conduit.7. Exposed metallic
raceways.RSC. Rigid steel conduit.IMC. Metallic conduit.Conduits should be
supported every 3 to 15 feet.Alternator. a generator of AC is produced by the
turning of its rotor, a device for generating an alternating EMF, for high
voltage equipments.Generator. a machine that converts mechanical energy (power)
into electical energy (power).Motor. a machine that converts electrical energy
to mechanical energy.Battery. combination of 2 or more electric cell capable of
storing and supplying direct current by electro-chemical means, 2 distinct
classes:1. Primary battery. deliver electricity as soon as the parts are
assembled or put together provided that it is connected in a circuit.2.
Secondary/storage battery. electricity from some external source (rechargable).
Nickel-cadnium cell. has gained considerable popularity.Electrical system of
building: (main component/system component) 3 categories:1. Wiring. includes
conductors and raceways of all types.Conductors. a wire cable or device
offering low resistance to the flow of electric current or other form of metal
suitable for carrying currents, examples: copper cable.Insulator. a material
that stops transfer of herts/power of the electric current, resists heat.
Raceways. channel designed expressly for holding wires, cables, bustors.2.
Equipments. general term including fittings devices, appliance fixtures,
apparatus used as part of, or in connection with an electrical installation.3.
Appliances. is a utilization equipment, generally other than industrial,
normally built in standardized sizes or types, which is installed or connected
as a unit to perform one or more functions; current consuming equipments. Types:
a. Fixed.b. Portable.c. Stationary.Wires and cables:1. Flexible metal clad cable
(FC). A C flexible armored cable.Metal clad (MC). services, feeders, branch
circuits, circuits, exposed/concealed indoors/outdoors works.Feeders. cables
that goes into a building.2. Non-metallic sheated cable.3. Conductor for general
wiring. most common building wire, copper wire, example: TW wire
(thermoplastic/PVC).4. Special cable type:a. American home run.b. Cable bus.
(busway) large conductors not circular in cross sectionc. Cable bars.Raceways:1.
Floor raceways:a. Underfloor raceways.b. Cellular metal floor raceways.Power
handling equipment:Transformers. a device for changing the voltage of an
alternating current.Outdoor transformers:1. H-frame transformer bank. capacity
as high as 1,000 kilowatts.2. Cluster mounted on a single pole. 225 kilowatts
capacity.3. Pad-mounted. hinged.Indoor transformer:1. Dry type:a. Rated 600
volts or less of any kilowatts rating.b. Rated 112 and a half kilowatts or less
and 601 to 25,000 volts.2. Askarel-insulated.3. Oil-insulated transformer.
Transformer rates:1. Step up transformer.2. Step down transformer.Fuse. can
handle up to 2,000 volts.Circuit breakers. are used when 2,000 volts and up.
Fuse types:1. Cartridge fuse.a. Single.b. Dual.2. Plug fuse.Switch gear. also
called unit sub-station.Types of flourescents:1. Bi-pin 2 flourescents.2. Single
pin flourescents. use for ultraviolet rays.Phenolic base. a insulating
material found at the end of the flourescent at the base of the pins.BX pipes.
flexible metals.Condulets. small conduits.Height of electric meter from ground,
1.5 meters.Height of C O, .20 meter.Distances of C Os, 2 to 2.5 meters.Height of
switch, 1.1, 1.2, 1.5 meters.Distance of switch from door jamb, .20 meters.
Bakelite. made from PVC and porcelain.Master and slave. the electrical switch.
Size of wire and capacity:1. #14 (2.5 millimeter): 15 amperes.2. #12 (3.5
millimeter): 20 amperes.3. #10 (4 millimeter): 30 amperes.4. #8 (6
millimeter): 45 amperes.5. #6 (10 millimeter): 65 amperes.6. #3 (20
millimeter): 100 amperes.7. #2 (25 millimeter): 115 amperes.8. #1 (35
millimeter): 130 amperes.9. #0 (50 millimeter): 150 amperes.Types of
elevators:1. Electric: (parts):a. Car.b. Cables: 1. Guide shoe. 2.
Compensation. 3. Buffer. 4. Secondary sheave. 5. Winding drum machine.
6. Landing zone.c. Counterwieght.d. Contol equipments: 1. Control
panel. 2. Governor. 3. Safety. 4. Tension sheave. 5. Limit
switches. 6. Operating device. 7. Car leveling device.e. Elevator pit.f.
Shaft or hoistway.g. Penthouse or elevator machine room.h. Elevator machine: 1.
Motor generator. 2. Generator field (motor) control. 3. Rheostatic control.i.
Guide rail.2. Hydraulic: (parts):a. Car or cab.b. Control system.c. Elevator
pit.d. Shaft or hoistway.e. Plunger.f. Elevator machine room.g. Guide rail.h.
Guide shoes.i. Spring buffer.j. Floor stop and limit switch.k. Creepage and
leveling cam switch.l. Car gate switch.m. Controller.n. Motor and pump with
tank.Parts of an elevator:1. Electrical, mechanical room.2. Hoistway/shaft.3.
Pit.4. Penthouse.5. Tension sheave.6. Counterweight.7. Travel.8. Oil and spring
buffer.9. Guide rail.10. Car platform.11. Car.12. Cable socket.13. Dovetail
joints.14. Cable.15. Machine beam.16. Elevator machine.17. MG set.Counter
weight. weight of car and 40 % of its weight of car capacity.Freight elevators:
(for hoisting and lowering equipments).1. Dumb waiter. no
passengers, just equipments.2. Plunger elevator. using piston (for heavy
loads).3. Sidewalk elevator. from sidewalk level going down only.4. Freight
elevators. one person plus equipments.System of elevator selection of
operation:1. Push button control. caters those who called first and push first.
2. Collective control. collects all ups and downs.3. Electronic supervisory
collective dispatching and control. use for high rise building with constant
traffic (service specific number and level of floors).Consideration of elevator
selection:1. Types of use or occupancy.2. Floor height/ ceiling height.3. Total
height of building.4. Available speed.5. Car capacity.Speed of elevators: 5
kilometers per hour.Types of escalators:1. Criss-cross.2. Parallel.Parts of an
escalator:1. Balustrade assembly.2. Handrails.3. Truss.4. Endless belt.5.
Sprocket assembly.6. Driving machine.Other parts:7. Tracks.8. Emergency brake.9.
Controller.10. Emergency stop button.12. Key operated switches.Normal width of
escalators: 32 to 48 inches.Air conditioning standards:1. Heating and
humidifying.2. Cooling and dehumidifying.3. Air motion. 15 to 25 feet per
minute, at height of 36 inches above the ground.4. Air supply. 5 to 10 cubic
feet per person.Types of A C:1. ACCU.2. ATC.3. CAC.4. FCU.5. AHU.6. HVAC.7. RAC.
8. PAC.9. TR.Parts of an A C U:1. Cooling towers.2. Air curtain.Aircon load:
(HP, 115 V, 230 V)1/6, 4.4 amperes, 2.2 amperes.1/4, 5.8 amperes, 2.9 amperes.
1/3, 7.2 amperes, 3.6 amperes.1/2, 9.8 amperes, 4.9 amperes.3/4, 13.8 amperes,
6.9peres.1, 16 amperes, 8amperes.1 1/2, 20mperes, 10mperes.2, 24mperes,
12mperes.3, 34mperes, 17mperes.A C system:1. Unitarian:a. Package.b. Cabinet.2.
Centralized. use of cooling tower.5 important components of air conditioning:1.
Cooling unit.2. Compressor.3. Condenser fan.4. Cooler.5. Control/motor.A C
equipments:1. Filter. removes the larger dirt and pollen particles in order to
prevent clogging spaces between the plates. Types:a. Electrostatic filter.b.
Replacable filters.c. Cleanable/renewable filters.d. Roll type, disposable
media.e. Throwaway filters.2. Cooling coil. arranged so that the cooling
consists of bank of tubes. A cold fluid is circulated on the inside of the
tube. When the surface of the cooling coil is at temperature below dew point of
air, it drips to a collecting pan and disposed off those draw connection.3.
Heating Coil. constructed similar to the cooling coil. However fluid
circulated inside has a high temperature.4. Fan. fan pulls the air from intake
through filter of the aircon unit and distributes it to the conditioned space.5.
Humidifier. a device for moistening air to a desired degree.Types of
refrigeration compressors.1. Reciprocating.2. Centrifugal.3. Absorption.4.
Screw.Electric motors. requires starting devices (starter):1. Steam turbine.
type of refrigeration plant which takes up space.2. Well water.3. Cooling
towers.4. Pumps (centrifugal).Types of aircon:1. Unitary type/package type.
depends on refrigerants as their cooling method. Advantages: a. Control is
at hand of the occupant or tenant. b. Cooling towers, chillers, pumps, pipings
are avoided, saving space. Disavantages: a. Noise (creates sound). b.
Room units have shorter life than central plants. Systems: 1/4 to 3
horsepower: a. Unit type. b. Through the wall. c. Window type.2. Package
type A C system: a. Needs from 3 tons to 100 tons (1 ton to 1 horsepower).
Location: where there is running water.3. Centralized air conditioning
system: a. Have a machine/air conditioning room. b. Bigger space to be
airconditioned. 3. Needs a duct wall.3 to 10 changes of air per hour at .45
cubic meter per minute.Most common systems:1. Air to refrigerants to air. room
air is cooled by contact with cool refrigerants and then becomes warm. Warm
refrigerants is then cooled by contact with outside air.2. Air to refrigerant to
water to air. if air-cooled condensers are not available, therefor cooling is
needed. Thus this will take thye water that has removed the heat from hot
refrigerant and give heat to outdoor air.3. Ait to water to refrigerant to
water. complete heat transfer/most economical.System of distribution:1. Air to
air.2. Air to air.3. Chemical/refrigerants:a. Ammonia.b. Freon 11 and 12.System
of airconditioning:1. Cooling by compressive refrigeration.2. Cooling by
absorption.3. Thermoelectric cooling.Thermostat. device which respond to change
of temperature and directly or indirectly controls it.Hydrostat/humidistat. a
device which measures the degree of moisture in air.Relay. electrical device
which protects and controls the thermostat, uses electrical energy to amplify or
convert power of a thermostat.Air lock. a space which is designed to isolate an
air conditioned space from another space which it is connected. A space which
is designed to isolate an air conditioned space from another space to which it
is connected.Air velocity. a quantity which donates the instantaneous time rate
and direction of air motion.Pressure regulator. instrument sensitive to changes
in pressure.Control valve. any valve used to regulate fluid flow.Compressor. a
machine that draws vaporized refrigerants from the evaporator at a low pressure,
compact it, and then discharge it to a condenser.Accumulator. a vessel whose
volume is used to reduce pulsation in a refrigerant circuit.Cooling tower. a
structure on the roof of a building over which water is circulated, so as to
cool it evaporatively by contact of air.Condenser. a heat exchange device in a
refrigeration system; consist of a vessel or arrangement of pipes or tubing in
which refrigerant vapor is liquified by the removal of heat.Evaporator. that
part of a refrigeration system in which refrigerant is vaporized; thereby taking
up external heat and producing cooling.Adiabatic saturation. water to
unsaturated air to increase humidity ratio.Humidity ratio. weight of actual
water vapor over pounds of dry air.Dew point. temperature when water vapor
becomes saturated and turn to water.Dry bulb temperature. temperature of vapor
in fahrenheit thermometer, temperature of a gas or mixture of gases indicated by
an accurate thermometer after correction for radiation.Wet bulb temperature.
the temperature at which liquid or solid water, by evaporation into air, can
bring the air to saturation adiabatically at the same temperature.Enthalphy.
BTU per minute in fluid or gas.Psychrometer. instrument to determine moisture
in air.Relative humidity. saturation of water vapor present in air.Sensible
heat. changing temperature without changing its state.Heating, ventilating, and
air conditioning (HVAC):Heat and temperature:Sensible heat. heat through touch.
Absolute temperature. below freezing point.Pyometer. device for extremely high
temperature.Thermocouple. device for indicating sensible heat through uniting 2
wires.Katathermometer. alcohol thermometer to determine air movement and air
distribution.Heat transmission:Conduction. from body to body when it is in
contact.Convection. by motion of the particle.Radiation. transmitting rays of
heat through air.Reflection and absorption:Highly polish. reflects more absorb
less.Dull surface. absorbs more reflect less.Heat units:US-BTU.Kilogram
calorie. 1,000 grams calories, 3968 BTU.Latent heat:Latent heat of
vaporization. liquid to gas and vice-versa.Latent heat of fusion. liquid to
solid and vice versa.Heat and work:Thermodynamics. heat to work or work to
heat.Mechanical equivalent. 1 BTU to 778 feet-pounds.Machine room. consist of
refrigeration plants that chills water that is circulated to one or handling
units.Vapor lock. the formation of vapor in a pipe carrying liquids which
prevents normal fluid flow due to wrong application of freon gas.Humidifier. a
device used for moistening air to a desired degree.Cold packet. usually refer
to as the drafts in air condition.Flue. it is the byproduct of combustion.
Conductivity. defined as the number of BTUH that flow through one squar foot of
materiaL one inch thick when the temperature drop through the material under
conditions of steady heat flow is one degree Fahrenheit.Enthalpy. the total
heat in the mixture measured above zero degree Fahrenheit, including the latent
heat of water vapor.Plenum. an air conditioning compartment maintained under a
pressure slightly above atmospheric and connected to one or more distribution
duets.Incinerator. a furnace for consuming waste by fire.Pressure regulator.
instrument sensitive to change in pressure.Parts of a package type air cond:1.
Motor out.2. Air filter.3. Grille.4. Evaporator.5. Motor in.6. Compressor.7. Fan
and blower.8. Viscous filter.9. Distribution grille.10 Condenser.Heating,
ventilation, and airconditioning. process of treating air to control its
temperature.Heat transmission:1. Conductor. transfer of heat from a place of
higher temperature to a place of a lower temperature.2. Convection. transfer of
heat by motion of the particle of the heated substance itself.3. Radiation.
process of transmitting rays of heat by passing through air.Common heat
distribution system:1. Burner/boiler. source of heating.Common methods of
distributing heat:1. Forced circulation of warm air.2. Hot water.Latent heat.
heat due to changing state of that substance.Latent heat of evaporation. change
is from liquid to gaseous state.Latent heat of fusion. change is from solid to
the liquid/liquid to the solid state.Acoustics: the science of sound, including
the generation, transmission, and effect of sound waves. 3 elements:1. Sound
source:
desirable and undesirable.2. Path. transmission of sound.3. Receiver.Sound:1.
Objective: flunctuation in pressure, a particle displacement in an elastic
medium like air.2. Subjective: auditory sensation evoked by the physical
fluctuation.Parts of sound:1. Frequency.2. Velocity.3. Wavelength.Frequency.
Pressure fluctuation per second; rate of repetition of a periodic phenomenon
(determines the pitch of a sound); number of displacement or ascillations that a
particle undergoes in one second; unit of frequency: Hertz = cps (cycle per
second); the higher the frequency, the higher the pitch; normal ear responds to
sounds within the audio frequency range of about 20 to 20,000 hertz. Multitudes
of frequency (components):1. Low.2. Medium.3. High.C P S. cycle per second,
frequency per second.Focusing. concave dome sound reflection.Foci. sound foci,
focusing.Wavelength. the distance a sound wave travels during each complete
cycle of vibration; the distance between layers of compression; wavelength =
speed of sound / frequency (f/m).Characteristics of sound:Cycle. full circuit
by the particle.Amplitude. maximum displacement of a particle to either side of
its normal position during vibration.Pure tone. one enrgy, one frequency;
simplest kind of sound because it is composed entirely of a single frequency.
Musical tone. combination of many pure tones.Velocity. sound travels at a
velocity that depends primarily on the elasticity and density of the medium.
Magnitudes of sound:1. Sound power. (w) sound power in watts.2. Sound
intensity. power radiated in a specified direction through unit area normal to
this direction.3. Sound pressure. variation from normal atmosphere pressure.4.
Decibel. unit of sound (in terms of magnitude); a dimensionless unit for
expressing the ratio of 2 numerical values on a logarithmic scale.5. Sabin,
sabine. sound absorption unit as called in honor of a pioneer in architectural
acoustics; unit of sound in the term of reverberation.Flutter. buzzing or
clicking sound; rapid succession of reflected soundwaves resulting from a single
initial sound pulse.Diffusion. ray diagramming; reflected sound from convex
surfaces; Sound level is everywhere the same.Echo. reflected sound; a sound
wave reflected or otherwise returned with sufficient magnitude and delay so as
to be perceived as a sound distinct from the directly transmitted sound.
Reflection. the reflection of sound from a surface.Background noise.Masking
noise (acoustic perfume).Noise. unwanted sound.Decay time. reverberation time.
Reverberation. Prolonged sound; persistaence of sound after the source has
stopped; due to repeated reflections of the sound remaining between the
enclosing surface.Structural noise. structural borne transmission.Air borne
noise. air borne transmission.Absorption. sound energy being absorbed.The best
sound absorber is people.Generation. is the source of sound.Creep. sound
reflected from a curved surface.Focusing. occurs when sound waves are reflected
from concave surfaces and build up.Attenuation factor. used to describe the
room to room noise reduction of a particular construction.Impact transmission.
what happens when a structure is in direct contact with a vibrating source or is
struck by an impulsive force.Materials can be absorptive or reflective.Fire
safety:1. Fire and smoke proof passages.2. Standpipe locations.3. Accessibility
for the disabled.Mechnical equipments:Absorber. device containing for
refrigerant vapor/vapors.Acceleration. the derivative of velocity with time.
Accumulation: Surge drum. a storage chamber for low-side liquid
refrigerant. Surge header. a pressure vessel whose volume is used as a
refrigerant circuit to reduce pulsation.Aeration. exposing a substance, or area
to air circulation.Air-conditioning. the process of treating air so as to
control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness, distribution, to
meet the requirements of the conditioned space.Barometer. instrument used for
measuring atmospheric pressure.Boiler. a closed vessel in which a liquid is
heated or vaporized.Boiling point. the temperature at which the vapor pressure
of a liquid equals the absolute external pressure at the liquid vapor interface.
Calorimeter. device for measuring quality of steam or other vapor.Coil. a
cooling/heating element made of pipe or tubing.Condenser. a vessel or
arrangement of pipe or tubing in which vapor is liquified by removal of heat.
Convection. transfer of heat by movement of fluid.Cold pockets.
draughts/drafts in air condition.Duct. tube or channel through which air is
conveyed or moved.Damper. a device used to vary the volume of air passing
through an air outlet, inlet, or duct.Desicant. any absorbent/absorber, liquid
or solid that will remove water vapor from a material.Engine. device for
transforming fuel or heat energy into mechanical energy.Generator. basic part
of absortion systems; provided with means of heating used to drive refrigerant
out of solution.Filter. a device to remove solid material from a fluid.Heat.
the form of energy that is transformed by virtue of a temperature difference.
Horse power. unit of a power in foot-pound-second system, work done at the rate
of 550 feet pound per second or 33,000 feet pound per minute.Hooper. an
inverted funnel leading into a ventilating flue.Humidity. water vapor within a
given space.Induction. the entrainment of room air by the jet action of a
primary air stream discharging from an air outlet.Appliance. a utilization
equipment, generally industrial, built-in, standard form and size, installed as
a unit to perform one or more function. (such as washing, cooking, mixing,
etceteras).Askarel. a synthetic non-flammable insulating liquid, which when
decomposed by electric arc, evolves only non-flammable gaseous mixture.Branch
circuit. is that portion of a wiring system extending beyond the final
overcurrent device protecting the circuit. Types:1. Appliance. only for
appliances.2. General purpose. for appliances and lights.3. Individual. for
one equipment only.Building. a solitary structure that stands alone from other
structures divided by open space or by fire walls.Circuit breaker. a device to
open and close a circuit by non-automatic means, and to open the circuit
automatically or a predetermined overload of current, without injury to itself
when properly applied to its rating.Concealed. rendered in accessible by the
structure or finish of the building wires in concealed raceways are considered
concealed even though they may become accessible by withdrawing them.Connector,
pressure. (solderless) a pressure wire connector is a device which establishes
the connection between 2 or more conductors or between 1 or more conductors and
a terminal by means of mechanical pressure and without the use of solder.
Continuous load. a load where the maximum current is expected to continue for 3
hours or more.Controller. a device/devices, which serves to govern in a
predetermined manner, the electric power delivered to the apparatus to which it
is connected.Demand factor. is the ratio of the maximum demand of the system,
or part of a system under consideration.Disconnecting means. a device or group
od devices, or other means of which the conductor of a circuit can be
disconnected from their source of supply.Duty, continuous. intermittent duty is
a requirement of service that demands operation for alternate intervals of:1.
Load and no load.2. Load and rest.3. Load, no load, and rest.Exposed. not
concealed, a live part can be inadvertently touched or approached nearer than a
safe distance by a person. It is applied to parts not suitable guarded,
isolated or insulated.Feeder. is the circuit conductors between the service
equipment and the branch circuit overcurrent device.Ground. a conducting
connection, whether intentional or accidental, between and electrical circuit or
equipment and earth, or some conducting body which serves in place of the earth.
Grounded. connected to the earth.Hoistway. any shaftway, hatchway, weel hole,
or other vertical opening or space.Impedence. comprised of resistance and
reactance causes a phase difference between voltage and current.Lighting outlet.
an outlet intended for the direct connection of a lampholder, a lighting
fixture, or a pendant and terminating in a lampholder.Location. 3 types:1.
Damp.2. Dry.3. Wet.Multi-outlet assembly. a type of surface or flush raceway
designed to hold conductors and attachments plug receptacles, assembled in the
field or at the factory.Outlet. a point on the wiring system at which is taken
to supply utilization equipment.Panelboard. a single or group of panels unit
designed for assembly in the form of a single panel.Raceway. any channel for
holding wires, cables, or busboxes. Maybe of metal conduit, rigid, non-
metallic, flexible metallic tubing, cellular concrete/metal flow raceways.
Junction box. source of supply to an appliance lighting, source of power,
etceteras.Receptacle (C O). is a contact device installed at an outlet for the
connection of an attachment to a flexible cord.Receptacle outlet. an outlet
where one or more receptacles are installed.Terms for transformer to water
heater:Service. the conductors and equipment for delivering energy from the
electricity supply system to the wiring system of the premise supplied.Service
cable. is the service conductors made up in the form of a cable.Service
conductors. the supply conductors which extend from the street main, or from
transformers to the service equipment of the premises supplied.Service drop.
the overhead service conductor between the last pole
or other aerial support, to and including the splicer (if any), to the service
entrance conductors at the building/structure.Service entrance conductors. 2
types:1. Overhead system.2. Underground system.Service lateral. the underground
service conductors between the main street.Switchboard. a large single panel,
frame, or assembly of panels, on which are mounted, on the face or back or both,
switches, overcurrent, and other protective devices, buses, and usually
instruments.Thermal cut-out. an overcurrent protective device which contains a
heater element in addition to and affecting a renewable fusible member whichs
opens the circuit. It is not designed to interrupt short circuit currents.
Ampere. unit of current when 6.251 Ao8 electrons pass a given cross section in
one second.Volt. unit of electrical potential.OHM. unit of resistance due to
friction in the conductor for direct current (DC), unit of impedance due to
friction in the conductor for alternating current circuit (A C).Electric
circuit. as a complete conducting current from one source of electricity to and
through some electrical device and back to the source.Direct current (DC). when
flow of electric current takes place at constant time rate.Alternating current
(A C). when the flow of current is periodically varying in time rate and in
direction.Pulsating current (PC or RC). when alternating current is rectified
or change to direct current.Series curcuit. all separate parts of the circuit
carry the same current.Parallel circuit. when more than one branch of a circuit
is connected between the same 2 points.Abbreviations:DS. downspout.FD.
floor drain.CB. catch basin.CISP, DH. cast iron soil pipe, double hub.
CISP, SH. cast iron soil pipe, single hub.Duplex convinient outlet, F M.Duplex
cinvenient outlet, S M.D C O, WP. duplex convenient outlet, weather proof.
VSTR. vent stack through roof.PVC. plasticized polyvinyl chloride.PS. product
safety.GIP. galvanized iron pipe, grade 30 minimum.ASTM. American system
testing material.FM. floor mounted or flush mounted.SM. surface mounted.PVC.
Polyvinyl chloride.CISP. cast iron soil pipe.RMP. registered
master plumber.NAMPAP. CLFS. Chief of the local fire service.CAA. civil
aeronautic administration (height clearance in airports).PPA. Philippine
ports authority.NPCC. National pollution control commission.RSC. Rigid
steel conduit.Ckt. circuit.KVA. Kilovolt per ampere.KWA. Kilowatt
per ampere.PEE. Professional electrical engineer.IIEE. Institute of
intigrated electrical engineer.BTU. British thermal unit.PME. Professional
mechanical engineer.PSME.RHW. Moisture and heat resistant rubber.T.
Thermoplastic.TW. Moisture resistant thermoplastic.THW. Moisture and
heat resistant thermoplastic.THHN. Heat resistant thermoplastic.THWN. Moisture
and heat resistant thermoplastic.XHHN. Moisture and heat resistant cross-
linked thermosetting polythylene.SA. Silicone-asbestos.AVA. Asbestos and
varnish Cambric.Brand names:PVC: Atlanta. Emerald. Moldex. Neltex.
Standard.RSC: Matchusita. Triangle. Korea. Pusan.IMC:
Matchusita. Maruichi. Nippon. Setsuyu.EXT: Maruichi.
Matchusita.Junction box: Sun bright. Timco.Rheostat (beamer): G
E. Ever.Circuit breaker/panels/control: Ever. Fujihiya. Westinghouse.
Wire: Columbia. Phelt dodge. Duraplex.Generator set: G E. Westinghouse.
Asia Brown Boviry.Transformer: Philec. G E. Westinghouse.Lighting
fixture: G E. Philips. National.Switches/C O: National. Veto. Ever.
Rectifier: National panasonic.Elevator: Fuji. Hundai. Otis. Kone. Goldstar.
Westinghouse. Hitachi. Mitsubishi. O & K.Escalator: Otis.
Westinghouse. Goldstar. Hitachi. Mitsubishi.Air Conditioner:
Fedders. Westinghouse. Carrier. Condura. Allen air. National
Panasonic. Daikin. Amona.Water heater: National. Westinghouse.
Sprinkler heads: Globe.Fire alarm: Nohmi Bosai.Galvanized iron: Goodyear.
Super. Apo. Meayer. Little giant.Cast iron: Dong tek. Asa.
Silva.Plumbing fixture: Saniwares. American Standard. Kolher.
Briggs.Plumbing accessories: Gerber. Zuechetti. Great volume.Clean
outs: Metma. Asa. U S.P.Valves and controls: Great volume. Crane.
Kitz. Clayton. Keystone. Toyo.Symbols:Ceiling receptacle:C O wall
outlet:Vertical lines-wall.Horizontal lines-terminal.Ceiling outlet incandescent
lamp:Fan outlet:Flourescent:Suspended lamp:Heavy duty:Pinlight:Eyeball pinlight:
Flood light:Circuit line for lights:Circuit line for C O:Master switch:Range,
ref, freezer, air con, water heater:Washing machine:OKT (2 wire OKT):OKT (3 wire
OKT raceway):Switch: S1.a. S2W. 2 way.b. S3W. 3 way.c. S4W. 4 way.Bell:
General outlets:Outlet:Electrical outlet:Wall clock:Fan outlet:Outlet for vapor
discharge lamp:Exit light outlet:Ceiling fan outlet:Junction box:Pull switch:
Lamp holder:Lamp holder with full switch:Drop-chord equipped.Blanked outlet:
Universal outlet:Incandescent light outlet:Flourescent light outlet:Telephone
outlet:Convenience outlets:Duplex C O:Water proof convenience outlet:Weather
proof C O:Weather proof duplex C O:Switch and duplex outlet:Range outlet:Heavy
duty outlet:Duplex C O split wire:Special purpose:Floor outlet:Radio C O:TV C O:
Floor outlet:Lamp holder with pull switch:Vapor discharge lamp (ceiling):
Flourescent lamp:Outlet with blank cover:Junction box:Special purpose outlet:
Range outlet:Switch outlets:S/S: single pole/togle switch.S1,2: double gang
light switch.S1,2,3: three gang light switch.2SW: two way switch.3SW: three
way switch.SD: automatic door switch.SWD: weather proof switch.Sp: switch and
pilot light.Sf: fused switch.SWf: weather fused switch.SCB: circuit breaker.
SwcB: weather switch.S. Single pole switch.S2. double pole switch.S3. 3 pole
switch.S4. 4 pole switch.SD. Automatic door switch.SE. Electrolier switch.SK.
4. 4 pole switch.SD. Automatic door switch.SE. Electrolier switch.SK. Key
Operated Switch.SP. Switch and Pilot Lamp.SCB. Circuit Breaker.SWCB.
Weatherproof Circuit Breaker.SMC. Momentary Contact Switch.SRC. Remote Control
Switch.SWP. WEatherproof Switch.SF. Fused Switch.SWF. Weatherproof Fused
Switch.Auxilliary systems:Push button:Smoke fire alarm:Buzzer bell:Bell:
Annunciator:Outside telephone:Interconnecting telephone:Telephone switchboard:
Telephone outlet:Bell-ringer transformer:Maid's single plug:Interconnection box:
Battery:Motor:Main connecting switch:Electric door opener:Surge arrester:
Lightning arrester:Ground:Fuse cutout:Push Button:Duzzer:Bell:Annunciator:
Outside Telephone:Interconnecting Telephone:Telephone Switchboard:Bell Ringing
Transformer:Electric Door Opener:Fire Alarm Bell:Fire Alarm Station:City Fire
Alarm Station:Fire Alarm Central Station:Automatic Fire Alarm Device:Watchman's
Station:Watchman's Central Station:Horn:Nurse's Signal Plug:Maid's Signal Plug:
Radio Outlet:Signal Central Station:Interconnection Box:Battery:Auxiliary System
Circuits:Panels, circuit, and miscellaneous:Lighting panel board:Power panel:
Pull box:Controller:Transformer:Weatherproof service entrance:Electric motor:
Circuit homerun:Service entrance:Water pump outlet:Underfloor duct and junction
box:International access symbol for telephone:International access symbol for
elevator:Lightning Panel:Power Panel:Branch Circuit; Concealed in Ceiling or
Wall:Branch Circuit; Concealed in Floor:Branch Circuit; Exposed:Home Run to
Panel Board. Indicate number of Circuits by number of arrows:Feeders:Underfloor
Duct and Junction Box. Triple System:Generator:Motor:Instrument:Power
Transformer:Controller:Isolating Switch:Plumbing:Gate valve (screwed type):Globe
valve (screwed type):Angle globe valve plan and elevation:Float valve:Union
screwed:High pressure steam in heating and ventilating piping:Thermostat:
Refrigerator:Heating and ventilating symbol for condenser water flow:Draw:Switch
with cover:Convenience outlet:G I elbow:G I street elbow:G I union:Cross section
of a check valve:Cross section of a foot valve:Float valve (side view):Angle
valve showing a supply pipe to the water tank of a water closet (cross section):
G I waterplug:G I water pipe cap:Pantry sink goose neck faucet H & C:1/2 inch
diameter by 2 inches G I close nipple:Hose bibb:Siamese connection to a dry
standpipe:Diagram of a fire hose rack to a dry standpipe connection, identify
and label fitting:Typical connection of a 1/2 inch diameter RSC to a metal
utility box, label connectors:1/2 inch diameter P V C elbow (for conduits):
Porcelain split knob with wood screw (x-section):Ceiling light receptacle, S M
(x-section showing electrical wire in mica tube):Ceiling light receptacle, F M
(x-section showing utility box):Duplex convenience outlet, S M:2 gang toggle
switch, F M:Duplex convenience outlet, F M/W P:110 millimeters diameter C I soil
pipe, D H:50 millimeters diameter C I soil pipe, S H:Cross-section of a typical
R C catch basin showing 75 millimeters diameter P V C D S and 110 millimeter
diameter P V C outlets (sewer pipes):Typical sprinkler head of quartzoid bulbs:
110 millimeters diameter 45 degree bend, S P branch:110 millimeter diameter by
110 millimeter diameter branch single wye 45 degree:110 millimeter diameter by
75 millimeter diameter branch single 45 degree (wye reducer):2 inches by 4
inches utility box with 1 and a half diameter K O:Entrance cap, 3w:L B
condulets:Pigtail, electrical socket:3 spool electrical post bracket:Flat head
wood screw:Sheet metal screw:Countersunk rivet:Turnbuckle, stub ends:Profile of
a recessed type swimming pool gutter:Plan of turnstile, rigid
arm type traffic control:Cartidge fuse, knife blade contact:Plug fuse:R S C
locknut and bushing, show how it is used:4 inches by 4 inches octagonal utility
box with 1/2 inch diameter K O:Armored cable, 3w:110 millimeters diameter soil
pipe, S H:110 millimeter diameter 1/4 bend, D H, sanitary pipe fitting:110
millimeter diameter 1/4 inch bend. sanitary pipe fitting:110 millimeter by 90
millimeters double wye; reducer:2 inches by 1 and a half diameter tap tee:1/2
inch diameter G I union patente:3/4 inch diameter by 1/2 inch diameter G I
coupling reducer:110 millimeter diameter clean out, C I S P fitting:50
millimeter diameter u-trap, P V C soil pipe fitting:Sectional diagram of a dry
standpipe with siamese connection at ground floor and with fire hose attachment
in upper floors up to 5th floor:V T R using C I S P as vent pipe, roofing is of
corrugated G I sheet on wood purlins/rafters. show waterproofing:Connection of
service wires to R C column.Connection of hot and cold waterlines:Acoustic
ceiling:Acoustic wall:Carpet connection to floor:Oval sink:Escutheon:20
millimeter diameter female threaded adaptor UPVC water pipe fitting:Carriage
bolt:Lag bolt:Grease trap:H & B connection with rubber ring:Turnbuckle with hook
and eye ends:Oval head wood screw:Oval head stove bolt:Siamese connection,
triple roof manifold:Concealed siamese and wall hydrant (show face only):
Condulet:Catridge fuse ferrule contact:Hair pin cold cathode lamp/tube:
Connection of water line from main to house:Connection from main to water
service meter with saddle clamp:Male threaded adaptor:20 millimeter diameter end
pipe:32 millimeter diameter by 25 millimeter diameter socket reducer:G I nipple
5 inches long:G I coupling:G I tee reducer:1/4 bend elbow D H:Machine bolt:2
inches C W nail:Button head cap screw:Olive knuckle butt hinge:Cabin hook:Septic
vault for 4 br residence for 10 people:Draw a toilet and bathroom with WC,
shower bath, lavatory, and floor drain with plumbing lines in plan and
isometric:Elevator:Escalator:Standard water closet:Gate valve:Globe valve:Single
pole single throw switch:@ pole single throw switch.3 pole and solid neutral
switch (3P & SN):Single pole double throw switch.Single pole double throw with
center off position (in control work called a hand off automatic switch):Use of
2 single pole double throw (3 way) swithc for switching of a lighting circuit
from 2 locations:B.E.:The National Electric code is concerned with safety
electrical installation only and is not intended as design specifications nor an
instruction manual for untrained persons.An ordinary flashlight dry-cell battery
will, if fresh, develop only approximately 3 1/2 to 1.5 volts.The amount of
electrical current in amperes depends on the number of electrons flowing fast a
given point in one second.The constant speed in electricity at which power
flows, is the same as the speed of light, or 186,000 miles per second.It is a
known fact that the greater the current in a wire, the greater the voltage drop
and the greater the power loss in the form of heat.The septic tank is a device
to expedite the decomposition.The material most commonly used for waste, soil,
and vent installation in plumbing system is the black iron.Acid resistance pipe
usually is an alloy of black iron and sulphur.The gases which occurs in public
sewage system is caused by the decomposition of organic material within the
sewer itself.It is not permissible to discharge large volume of storm water into
a septic tank.Flourescent lamps can also operate even if the voltage is
considerably below their rated voltage.Carbon Monoxide. Fire extinguishment.
Guy. Tension wire.Rubber. Insulating material.Damper. Valve for controling
air flow.Silver. Best conductor of electricity.Bidet. Plumbing fixtures.Air
conditioning. Freon gas.Conduit. PVC.Trap. Plumbing device.Decibel. Sound
energy.Parallel. Electrical wiring connection.BX. Armored cable.Grille. Air
conditioning part.Ferrous Bicarbonate. Iron found in water.Algae. Odor in
water.Frank Lloyd Wright. Architect of Imperial hotel, Tokyo.Yamasaki.
Architect of the world trade center.Alvar Aalto. Architect of Baker Dormitory,
Boston.PVDC. Plastic pipe.Hydrostat. contol device sensitive to the degree of
moisture in the air; Control moisture in air.Candle power. unit of
illumination.Vitrified clay pipe. the kind of plumbing pipe generally used for
sewers and drains.Chlorine. a chemical injected to neutralize the objectionable
bacteria as an added procaution against water pollution.Gases formed in the
septic tank are discharged into the atmosphere by means of ventilation.A dry
well is sometimes called seepage pit.Filter trench. best adapted for disposal
and treatment of effluent in clay soil where natural drainage terminal is
available.Trickle. The most efficient system used extensively for secondary
treatment of sewer.Dry well. A hole in the ground curbed with stone or brick
laid in such a manner as to allow raw contaminated sewage to leach into the
soil.Anaerobic bacteria survives only in places that lack oxygen.Cast iron pipe
is manufactured in length of 5 feet.Cast iron pipe is joined by caulking made of
oakum.Static pressure. the pressure exerted by water at rest.Aeration. A
process which consists of spraying water into the atmosphere through jets.Globe
valves. valves that are best suited to main supply lines for which operation is
infrequent.Centrifugal pump. pump most commonly used for the elevation of
wastes in modern building.Number 14. minimum size of conductor allowed for
housing wiring.Caulking. a term for plugging an opening with oakum and lead
that are pounded into place.The quality of light is measured in terms of Lumens.
Vent pipe is a pipe provided to ventilate a house drainage system and to prevent
the trap siphonage from other fixtures to the house drain; is that portion of
the drainage installation designed to maintain atmospheric pressure, and prevent
trap seal loss.Conduit pipe used for electrical installations are commonly
manufactured in length of 10 feet.Siphonage is caused by plus pressure,
responsible for trap seal loss.Soil pipe is that portion of the plumbing system
which receives the discharge of water closets with or without additional drain.
Water closet is a plumbing fixture used to convey organic body waste to the
plumbing system.Atoms are particles made up principally of electrons and
protons.Traps is a device in plumbing system constructed to prevent the passage
of sewer air.Radiant heating is the loss of heat by means of warmed partition
panels or floors in rooms.The flow of current in electrical circuit is impeded
by resistance which is the electrical term for friction.Hydropneumatic tank is
used to store air under pressure and reduce the frequency of starting and
stopping the pumps.Ammeter is a device or instrument by which the electric power
maybe measured.Relay is a device that uses electrical energy to amplify or
control the thermostat.G I pipes are manufactured in the length of 20 feet.Check
valves is a device that prevent backflow of water.Generator. machine that
converts mechanical energy to electrical energy.Creep. reflection of sound from
a curved surface.Freon in air conditioning must be compressed and liquified in
order to absorb heat.Echo. sound waves reflected with such magnitude and delay.
Rotary converter. device used to transform alternating current to direct
current.Continuity of an electrical circuit can conveniently be determined in
the field by means of a bell and battery set.Basement. portion of a hoistway
extending from the threshold level of the lowest landing door to the floor at
the bottom of the hoistway.Counterweight. in a theater stagehouse, a weight
used to balance suspended scenery or the like.Air-motor. air operated device
used to open or close a damper or valve.Wattmeter. device to measure electric
power.Safety switch. protects equipment and appliances in case of current
fluctuation.Volt. electric pressure measurement.Thermostat. device sensitive
to change in temperature.Pressure gauge. water pressure instrument.Mica.
material which can best withstand high electricity.Slate. poorest conductor of
electricity.The flow of electricity is measured in ampere.Surface water produces
insolubility in soaps and incrustation of pipes, while ground water possess
opposite characteristics.Rain water is adapted for washing but not for drinking.
PVC pipes should not be specified for water from a deep well carrying an
appreciable amount of lime.When the downfeed system of water supply is employed
in a multi-story building, flush valve W C and urinals can be installed in all
floors.Advances and modern technics in the manufacture of PVC pipes noe permits
its use for hot and cold water supply systems.One of the causes of failure of
water test in sanitary installations is thye presence of pinholes in the walls
of a cast iron pipes used in the system.Tee fittings should only be used for
vent stacks.Double hub fittings are principally used to reverse the position of
the hub of a cast iron pipe.House drain should have a minimum slope of 20
millimeters for every meter and should be connected to the house sewer of the
same size.Shower bath is a plumbing fixture.4 advantages of concealed wire over
open wire types:4 favoring factors for using fliament over flourescent lamp
lighting:4 disavantages of PVC compared to metallic conduit pipes:4 electrical
equipments that requires independent circuits:The velocity of sound waves
depends on the elasticity and density of
its medium. they travel fast in steel.Common material that has the least
coefficient for sound absorption is metal.In a room with concave walls, the
reflected sound will produce echo.A vital consideration in securing good
acoustics in a room is shape of the room.Automatic sprinkler systems operate
under a control of electrical process.A coil of electric wire is called a
solenoid.Semi-direct lighting units are appropriately used for classrooms.
Indirect lighting units are appropriately used for offices.The density of the
luminous flux on a surface is lumen.The reflection of light is influenced by the
color as well as the smoothness of the surface, pink is the color that reflects
more light.Lumen meter. instrument that indicates light intensity in foot
candles.Clay tiles. roof covering material that allows the least flow of heat
through the roof due to solar radiation.Air conditioning. modern method of
controlling various factors in order to obtain indoor conditions satisfying
human comforts and health.The split type of air conditioning is best suited for
theaters.The sides of A C rectangular ducts should not have a greater ratio of
widths than 4 to 1.Elevators in building are subject to the registration and
inspection by the office of chief of fire department.Escalators are appropriate
for department store type of establishment.Freight elevators are normally
required for airports.For elevators, the balance weight of the car usually
equals the weight of the car plus 40 percent of the car capacity.The landing
zone for an automatic type of elevator car is 200 millimeters above and below a
landing.Cable. Major part of elevator.Rheostat. controls speed of motor.
Safety. codes, ordinances and standards.M G set. part of elevator machines.
Damper. regulates supply of air.Baffles. directs the flow of air.Thermometer.
responds to change of temperature.Filters. electronic or mechanical.Mechanical.
ventilation for toilets.Candle power. Light unit intensity.Lumens. light unit
quantity.Filament lamp. direct lighting.Flourescent lamp. indirect lighting.
Thermostat. determines moisture content of air.Loudness. transmission in
sound.Reverberation. reflection of sound.Absorption. diffusion of sound.
Distortion. resonance in sound.Vibrations. characteristic of sound.In the
installation of a gate valve, either end may be used as inlet.Pipe fitting may
be of different material is the pipe.MWSS requires its commodity users to
install water meters in order to identify illegal users.Other public water
supply, the MWSS is also involved in limited piped sewer collection.Mixing valve
is a supply fitting which maintains water at a desired temperature.T fitting
should never be used with pipes carrying sewage.No vent stack or branch should
have a diameter of less than 1/2 that of the soil or waste stack served.No stack
serving a water closet shaould have less than 100 millimeter diameter.Windows.
most satisfactory air outlet for natural ventilation.Saturation. amount of
water vapor with a given amount of air.In a centralized air-conditioning system,
air that should not be criculated are those coming from kitchen.In hospital air-
conditioning, separate units should be provided for operating room.The direct
expansion system system of air-conditioning is best suited for theaters.A ray of
light is reflected in one definite direction when it strikes a surface lined
with aluminum.In school buildings, the room that requires magnitude of
illumination is the gymnasium.Freedom from variation in degree of illumination
in a room means diffusion.Uniformity of distribution, color, quality and case of
control of light distribution are some points in favor of flourescent lamps.
Special installation requirements for sprinkler system includes sloping water
proof floors with floor drains.Automatic sprinkler systems are installed in
buildings that has low water pressure.Vertical pipes extending from the basement
to the top floor with outlets for attachment of fire hose in every floor is
called stand pipe.Elevators may be classified according to several schemes and
one of them is car capacity.Escalators are best suited and installed mostly in
stores.A major part in any elevator installation is the pit.When the source of
sound in a room has ceased, the effect of the sound will continue, such
lingering sound is called reverberation.In an auditorium, the best sound
absorber are the audience.Time of reverberation is less in a room that is with
convex walls.On striking walls, sound waves are reflected and part of the energy
is converted to heat and is thus absorbed.Knobs and tubes. open wiring
installation.Locknut and bushing. metal conduit installation.Adaptors. PVC
conduit installation.Fuses. renewable or one time.Selonoid. coil of electric
wires.Underground. service entrance.110 to 220 volt. 3 wire service drop.
Electrical code. safety.Tungsten filament. incandescent lamp.Ammeter.
measures high insulation resistance.Volatage regulator. limits surge voltage on
equipments.Intercom. master and slave station.Motor generator. alternator.
Utiltity box. for mounting light switches.Junction box. for mounting light
outlet.Generator. charges storage batteries.Short circuit. cause fire or
dangerous explosion.Insulation. non-conducting material.Clean out. a pipe
fitting for cleaning pipe runs.Flush valves. a flush tank attached to a toilet
bowl.Corporation cock. a vlaved placed near junction with public water main.
Waste pipe. pipe use for carrying waste or storm water.Dry well. same as
cesspool.Faucet. also called bibb or cock.Pressure releif damper. a valve to
discharge excess pressure in excess of a preset limit.Shower head. in a shower
bath, a device through which water is sprayed.Nipple/coupling. a short length
of pipe with threads at each ends.Tapped tee. a bell end tee which has a branch
that is tapped to receive a threaded pipe or fitting.Sump pump. a pumping
device used to lift sewage to a higher elevation.Pipe chase. a continous recess
built into a wall to receive pipes, ducts, etceteras.Soil stack. a vertical
soil pipe carrying the discharge from toilet fixtures.Trap. a device to
maintain a water seal against sewer gases, air and odors.Water hammer. a loud
thumping noise that results from a sudden stoppage of flow.Spigot. the end of a
pipe that fits into a bell.Roughing in. installating the concealed portion of a
plumbing system to the point of connection for the fixtures.Rain leader
conductor. same as downspout.Water meter. a device for measuring water volume.
Check valve. permits passage of water in one direction only.Circuit. a
continouse electrical path.Current. unit of measurements is in amperes.
Resistance. measured in Ohms.Horsepower. equal to 746 watts.Junction box.
location of splices, connections and taps.110 to 220 volt. voltage between
given conductor and any other conductor in the circuit.Service drop. Wire from
Meralco pole to building attachment.Service entrance. wire from entrance cap to
main switch.Air conditioner. required independent circuit.Storage battery.
produces d-c current.Pull box. for pulling of conductors in raceways.Power
factor. A C power (watt) / voltage times amperesLightning rod. protects
building from lightning.Lightning arrester. Protects wiring from lightning.
Voltage drop. the difference in emf between 2 points in an electrical circuit.
Water pipe. where system grounding is connected to.Resistor. controls current
flow in an electrical circuit.Switch. a device to open or close an electrical
circuit.Cut-out box. contains fuses for electrical circuits.A furnished room
has better acoustics than a barren one.Automatic sprinkler system operates under
a control of electrical process.Sound travels faster in air than in steel or
water.Humidity is water vapor within a given space or environment.The ratio of
the weight of a substance to the weight of a reference material is called
specific gravity.Unit air conditioners when installed under windows are
generally satisfactory.Lighting is considered as a supplement to the
architectural design that adds to its decorative aspect.The lumen output and
life of the flourescent lamp is about twice that of a filament lamp.In the
lighting design of dwelling, ceiling outlets can be largely omitted and wall
outlets and baseboard receptacles installed instead.The design of the electrical
and mechanical systems required in a building is part of an architect's
professional service.Double hub. pipes or fittings that are principally used to
reverse the position of the hub of a soil pipe.Vent. provides the air
circulation necessary to the efficient functioning of a plumbing system.Tee
fitting. fittings should never be used with pipes carrying sewage but may be
used with vent pipes.Reducer. are fittings used to connect pipes of different
sizes in the same line.Angle valve. are used to control water supply to water
closet and lavatory fixtures.Copper/brass. tubes that are determined by its
outside diameter measurements.Mixing valve. a water supply fitting which
maintains water at a desired temperature.Master plumber. should sign and seal
plans for plumbing installation for issuance of permit; is a registered with the
PRC is the duly authorized person to undertake the plumbing installation work of
a building project.Teflon tape. a nwe product used to ensure water tightness in
joints of G I pipes.National plumbing code. government rules and regulations
enforced to ensure that plumbing installation conform with the demands of
hygiene and comfort.Bell/hub. the
portion of a pipe which is enlarged to receive the end of another pipe of the
same diameter for the purpose of making a joint.Overhead. system of water
supply is when water to different fixtures branches is supplied by gravity from
an elevated tank.Tap. a connection to a water supply main.Ball cock. a float
valve with spherical float.Couplings. a short internally threaded section of
pipe used to joint 2 pipes.Effluent. a liquid which is discharged as waste
especially the discharge from a septic tank.Static head/pressure head. the
pressure equivalent to that exerted by a column of water of a given height.
Union. a pipe fitting used to cinnect the ends of 2 pipes, neither of which can
be turned.Aerator fitting. a device which introduces air into an exciting
stream of water commonly used for sink faucet.Kilowatt. equivalent to 1.34
horsepower.Water heater. requires a low voltage transformer.Grounding system.
Protects life property from damage.Door bell. a susidiary electric circuit.
Capacitator. charges storage batteries.Conduit. protects electrical wiring.
Cycle. the flow of current fluctuates in positive and negative loops.Direct
current. flows in one direction only.Resistor. controls the flow of current in
electric curcuit.Rheostat controls intensity of current flow.Conductor. offers
low resistance to the flow of electrical current.Electrical resistance.
reciprocal of electrical conductance.Short circuit. high current flow caused by
an abnormal connection in an electrical circuit.Series circuit. power passes
through all the devices connected completing its path to the source of supply.
Relay. stores electric charge.Toggle switch. lever actuated.Circular mil.
used to express cross-sectional area of electrical conductor.Air conditioner.
requires independent brancg circuit.Riser. for distribution of electrical power
to electric panels on the different floors of a building.General lighting in
offices and factories is done almost entirely with flourescent lamps because
they are most economical to operate than incandescent lamps.To prevent damage
resulting from high currents caused by lightning stroke, lightning arresters are
used on structures of buildings.A portable instrument called an illuminometer
indicates directly in foot candles the intensity of light falling upon a
surface.Sound absorption is the process of dissipating sound energy by
converting it to heat.waves travel much faster in air than in steel.In elevator
installation, the counterweight prevents the falling down of the elevator car.
The machine room in elevator intallations may be placed on top of the shaft or
in the basement.A thermostat is an instrument which responds to changes in
temperature and directly or indirectly controls temperature.Air handling units
provide for the treatment of air before it is distributed to an air conditioned
space.Angle valve. water control for lavatory and WC connection.Tee fitting.
should only be used for vent stack.Tapped tee. for jointing threaded pipes.
Invert. lowest point in interior surface of pipe.Service cock. normally
installed before water meter.Copper pipe. determined by its outside diameter.
Coupling. for hot and cold water connection.Storm drain. for conveying
rainwater.Clean out. used for lavatory drain connection.Manhole. for
inspection and cleaning of pipe runs.Sewer. a pipe for carrying liquid waste.
Siphonage. suction caused by liquid flow.Smoke test. to detect leaks in piping
work.Floor drain. appurtenant to a sewer.Trap. a water seal against sewer
gases, air and odor.Vent stack. prevents water seals of traps from being broken
by siphonage.Water table. ground water level.Incrustation. affects the flow of
water in pipes.Ammeter. an instrument for measuring the rate of flow of
electricity usually expressed in amperes.Conductance. a measure of the ability
of a material to conduct electric current.Annunciator. a signalling device
usually electrically operated giving an audible signal and a visual indication
when energized by pressing a button.Rheostat. a device used in an electric
circuit to control the flow of current.Professional electrical engineer. signs
and seal the electrical plans when the electrical works exceeds 5 kilowatts load
as per philippine electrical code.Utility box. a box for mounting air
conditioning outlet.60 hertz. the frequency of the electric power generated in
Metro Manila.Diffuser is a device, object or surface that absorb light or sound
from a source.Dimmer is a device which varies light intensity of a light source.
Accent lighting is directional lighting which emphasizes a particular object or
draw attention to a particular area.Generally, to attain the same level of light
intensities, the semi-indirect lighting unit s requires more wattage than the
indirect lighting system.Cold air can hold more water than hot air.Fire code
says wet stand pipe inside buildings are required for structure 6 or more
stories in height.Interference and reverberation are 2 properties of sound that
are important when considering the construction of an auditorium or music hall.
An auditorium with a capacity audience present has good acoustics; however when
acoustically corrected is practically independent of the audience.The inlet tee
of a septic vault is always higher than the discharge outlet.Stack is a general
term for any veritcal line of soil, waste or vent piping.Unit of resistance is
called Ohms.The density of the luminous flux on a surface is called lumen.The
unit of illumination is called candle power.Cathode is component of flourescent
lamp.Pressure releif valves are safety device for water heater.Air ducts should
have air space between itself and insulator to prevent moisture condensation.
Loudness is a measure of the magnitude of sound.The pitch is a measure of
highness or loudness of sound.Master plumber. should sign and seal plans for
plumbing installations for purpose of searching permit.Relief vents. supplies
fresh air to the stacks and branch and prevents corrosion.Bidet. a low basin
like plumbing fixture on which the user sits and wash posterior parts of the
body.Sitz bath. bath tub in which one bath in a sitting position; used
especially in hospitals.Scum. mass of organic matter which flooats on the
surface of sewage.Slop sink. a deep sink usually set low, especially used by
janitors for emptying parts of the dirty water.Aerator fitting. a device which
introduces air into an existing stream of water.Cap. a fitting for closing the
end of a pipe.Panelboard. for control and protection of branch circuits.
Circular mill. equals an area of .00051 square millimeters.Frequency.
expressed in hertz.Voltage. voltage at supply end less than at load end.Volts.
product of amperes and ohms.Insulators. rubber, porcelain, or glass.Conductors.
copper, aluminum, or silver.Short circuit. heat developed resulting to fire.
Feeder. wire from Meralco pole to building attachment.Friction tape. provides
adequate insulation to splices of conductors.Service entrance. point of
delivery of power from service company.Neutral wire. usually are not to be
fused.Wiring plan. for purchasing materials and installation.Resistors.
controls flow of current in an electric current.Chimes. connects to any power
branch circuit.The visible output of light is measured in foot-candles.Speed of
sound is faster in gas.Unpainted bricks produce better acoustics.Humidity is
water vapor within a given space or environment.The cost of maintenance of split
type aircon is lower than a unit window type.Ball cock. a float vlave with
spherical float.Angle valve. controls the direction of water and controls it.
Zeolite process. eliminates presence of soluble salts of lime and magnesium on
water.G I pipes. lead caulked joints.Pneumatic tank. avoids construction of
tower and longer supply lines.Corporation cock. vlave placed near junction with
public main.Filter. usually not included in plumbing works.Check valve.
automatically closes when reversal of water flow.Outside leaders. pipe used to
carry waste or storm water.Pressure regulator. a valve to discharge excess
water pressure.Grease trap. necessary for residence with septic tank.Globe
valve. the same end must be used as inlet.City engineer. the city
electrivcian's office is under this department of the city of manila.Ammeter.
measures high insulation resistance.2 conductor splice. 2 or more individually
insulated electric conductors having a common outer protective covering of
metal.Close circuit. a continous electrical path.Power. watts / volts times
voltage.Lightning is conceived as an integral parrt of the architectural design,
an element of the structure.A good example of rheostat is a dimmer.Wet stand
pipe is not required in a building with automatic sprinkler system.Electronic
and communication engineer sign and seal for buildings having more than 5
telephones.When 2 elevators serve all or the same portion of a building, they
can be located in 1 hoistway.Incandescent bulb/lamp. a lamp from which light is
emitted when a tungsten filament is heated to incandescence by an electric arc.
Transformer. a device with 2 or more coupled windings, used to convert a supply
of electric power at one voltage to another voltage.Dumbwaiter.a small car to
deliver materials.Every 3 meters of a horizontal pipe shall be anchored.Sources
of water supply:1. Surface water.2. Ground water.3. Atmospheric water.Potable
water. water which is satisfactory for drinking, culinary, and domestic
purposes annd shall meet the accepted standard of purity required by the health
department having authority.Types of sewage:1. Domestic sewage.2. Industrial or
trade sewage.3. Storm water.Types of sewers:1. Sanitary sewer.2. Storm sewer.3.
Combined sewers.Alternating current. is a current that changes both in strength
and direction in a given time.Shunt. The conductor of each branch.Types of
mounted transformer:1. H frame.2. Cluster mounted.3. Pad mounted.Electro magnet.
is essentially a coil of wire in which the magnetic circuit is partly or
entirely completed through a magnetic material such as iron.Guide shoes. are
fastened to car frame and counterweight at top and bottom. They fit guide
rails.Safety. is a device incorporated in the bottom beam of the car frame and
counterweight. Exerts retarding force in case of overspeed by gripping guide
rails.Limit switches. are automatic devices which stop the car within the
overtravel, independently of the operating device.Tension sheave. gives
stability in governor's rope.Landing zone. is 18 inches above or below the
landing.Absorptance. ratio of the flux absorbed by a medium to the incident
flux.Accent lighting. directional lighting to emphasize a particular object or
draw attention to a part of the field of view.Baffle. a single opaque or
translucent element to shiled a source from direct view at certain angles or
absorb unwanted light.Ballast. device used with electric discharge lamp to
obtain the necessary circuit conditions for starting and operating.Brightness.
luminance.Candela. unit of luminous intensity.Candle power. luminous intensity
expressed in candelas.Coefficient of utilization. ratio of the luminous (flux)
from a luminaire received on the work plane to the lumens emitted by the
luminaire's alone.Daylight factor. ratio of the daylight illuminance on a plane
to the exterior illuminance on a horizontal plane from the whole of an
obstructed sky of assumed of known luminance.Diffuse reflection. process by
which the incident flux is redirected over a range of angles.Diffuse lighting.
light that is not predominantly incident from any particular dirction.Diffuse.
device to redirect light or scatter the light from a source primarily by the
process of diffuse transmission.Direct-indirect lighting. variant of general
diffuse lighting in which the luminaires emit little or no light at angles near
the horizontal.Flush mounted or recessed. luminaire mounted above the ceiling
with the opening of the luminaire flush with the surface of the ceiling.
Footcandle. unit of illumination.Gklare. sensation produced by luminance
within the visual field sufficiently greater than the luminance to which the
eeyes are adapted to cause annoyance, discomfort, or loss in visual performance
and visibility.Illuminance. the density of the luminous flux incident on a
surface.Louver shielding angle. angle between the horizontal plane of the
baffles or louver grid and the plane at which the louver conceals all objects
above.Lumen. unit of luminous flux.Luminaire. complete lighting unit
consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute the
light, to position and protect the lamps, and to connect the lamps to the power
supply.Luminance. photometric brightness. the luminous intensity of a surface
in a given direction per unit of projected area of the surface as viewed from
that direction.Luminous flux. the time rate of flow of light.Lux. the metric
unit of luminance, 1 lux is 1 lumen per square meter.Mercury lamps. electric
discharge lamps in which the major portion of the radiation is produced by
excitation of mercury atoms.Rapid start fluorescent lamp. one designed for
operation with a ballast that provides for preheating the electrodes and
initiating the arc without a starting switch or the application of high voltage.
Shielding angle. angle between horizontal line through the light center and the
line of sight at which the bare source first becomes visible.Surface mounted
luminaire. one mounted directly on the ceiling.Suspended (pendant) luminaire.
one hung from a ceiling by supports.3 common type of plastic:1. ABS
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene.2. PE polyethylene.3. PVC and CPVC chlorinated
polyvinyl chloride.Caulking sleeve. a C I fitting used to join galvanized screw
pipe to C I soil pipeWater test. a test to determine whether there are leaks in
a system of pipes.AC. Armor clad.MC. Metal clad.MI. Mineral insulated.NM or
NMC. Non metallic sheathed cable.SNM. Shielded non metallic sheathed cable.SE.
Service entrance.USE. Undergrounf service entrance.UF. underground feeder.TC.
Tray cable.FC. Flat cable.MV. Medium voltage.RH, RHH. heat resistant rubber.
RHW. Moisture-and heat resistant rubber.RUH. Heat resistant latex.RUW.
Moisture resistant latex rubber.T. Thermoplastic.TW. Moisture resistant
thermoplastic.THHN. Heat resistant thermoplastic.THW. Moisture and heat
resistant thermoplastic.XHHW. Moisture and heat resistant cross linked
synthetic polymer.MTW. Moisture, heat and oil resistant thermoplastic.PFA,
PFAH. Perfluoroakoxy.TFE. Extruded polytetrafluroethylene.TA. Thermoplastic
and asbestos.TBS. Thermoplastic and fibrous outer braid.SIS. Synthetic heat
resistant.MI. Mineral insulated (metal sheated).UF. Underground feeder and
branch circuit cable single conductor.USE. Underground service entrance cable
single conductor.SA. Silicone.FEP, FEPB. Flourinated ethylene propylene.FEPW.
Modified flourinated ethylene propylene.Z, ZW. Modified ethylene
tetrafluoroethylene.V. Varnished cambric.AVA, AVL, AVB. Asbestos and varnished
cambric.A, AA, AI, AIA. Asbestos.Color code of pipes:1. Potable water. blue.2.
Electric conduit. orange or light gray.3. Industrial system. Gray.4.
Communication cable. Yellow.5. Sewage system. orange brown.Rigid type:1. PVC.
Polyvinyl chloride.2. CPVC. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride.3. UPVC.
unplasticized polyvinyl chloride.4. PP. Polypropylene.5. ABS. Acrylonitrile
butadiene styrene.6. SR. Stylene rubber plastic.Flexible type:1. PE.
Polyethylene.2. PB. Polybutylene.# FILENAME #Plumbing.doc#
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