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EXPERIMENTAL AND INVESTIGATION OF BUMPER

MATERIAL BY USING AL-SI WITH NICKEL ALLOY


COMPOSITE MATERIAL
ABSTRACT

In this work, an effort has been designed to raise the reliability of engine
fuel efficiency using Al-Si composites with other alternatively materials
for the Bumper guides. Aluminium matrix composites have found the
most suitable inside automotive, aerospace and aircraft industries and
contain the greatest promise for future years growth.

This paper analysis the valve mechanical properties of the Al-Si


composite with Nickel alloy material by using composite model plate and
evaluate the mechanical properties.

In this paper the existing steel bumper is replaced with composite


bumper.
Chapter-1

INTRODUCTION
Chapter-1

INTRODUCTION

A composite material can be defined as a combination of two or more materials


that results in better properties than those of the individual components used
alone. In contrast to metallic alloys, each material retains its separate chemical,
physical, and mechanical properties. The two constituents are reinforcement and
a matrix. The main advantages of composite materials are their high strength
and stiffness, combined with low density, when compared with bulk materials,
allowing for a weight reduction in the finished part.

A bumper is a shield made of steel, aluminum, rubber, or plastic that is


mounted on the front and rear of a passenger car. When a low speed collision
occurs, the bumper system absorbs the shock to prevent or reduce damage to the
car. In existing bumper the weight is more. In the present trends the weight
reduction has been the main focus of automobile manufacturers. Less fuel
consumption, less weight, effective utilization of natural resources is main focus
of automobile manufacturers in the present scenario.

The above can be achieved by introducing better design concept, better


material and effective manufacturing process. Steel bumper have many
advantages such as good load carrying capacity. In spite of its advantages, it
stays back in low strength to weight ratio. It is reported that weight reduction
with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composites as a
viable replacement material for conventional steel. In the present work, the steel
bumper used in passenger vehicles is replaced with a composite bumper made
of glass/epoxy composites. The thickness of the composite bumper is calculated
by bending moment equation and other dimensions for both steel and composite
bumper is considered to be the same. The objective was to compare the stress,
weight, and cost savings.

II. Bumper

The bumper is a safety system is used to observe the low speed collision. It is
placed in car body. The car bumper is designed to prevent or reduce physical
damage to the front and rear ends of passenger motor vehicles in low-speed
collisions.
Automobile bumpers are not typically designed to be structural components that
would significantly contribute to vehicle crashworthiness or occupant protection
during front or rear collisions. It is not a safety feature intended to prevent or
mitigate injury severity to occupants in the passenger cars. Bumpers are
designed to protect the hood, trunk, grille, fuel, exhaust and cooling system as
well as safety related equipment such as parking lights, headlamps and taillights
in low speed collisions. The national highway traffic safety administration
(NHTSA) produces some bumper standard to the light passenger vehicle. The
bumper standard, prescribes performance requirements for passenger cars in
low-speed front and rear collisions. It applies to front and rear bumpers on
passenger cars to prevent the damage to the car body and safety related
equipment. The bumper standards are,

The front and rear bumpers on passenger cars should prevent the damage
to the car body.
Bumper should withstand at a speed of 2 mph across the full width and 1
mph on the corners.
Bumper should also withstand 5 mph crash into a parked vehicle.
Placement of the bumper is 16 to 20 inches above the road surface. So all
bumpers should satisfy the above standards.

III. Composite Bumper

In recent days, various materials like composites are experimented in almost all
parts of the automobiles and it has also ventured into bumper. Due to reduction
in weight, composite materials are preferred over conventional steel bumper.
Composite bumper absorbs more collusion energy than steel bumper.
Chapter-2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Chapter-2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Al-Si-Ni alloys are being increasingly used in automotive and aerospace


industries for critical structure applications because of their excellent castability
and corrosion resistance and, in particular, good mechanical properties in the
heat treated condition. These are known as 4xxx series of wrought alloys and
3xx.0 and 4xx.0 series of casting alloys.

Today's plastic auto bumpers and fascia systems are aesthetically


pleasing, while offering advantages to both designers and drivers. The majority
of modern plastic car bumper system fascias are made of thermoplastic olefins
(TPOs), polycarbonates, polyesters, polypropylene, polyurethanes, polyamides,
or blends of these with, for instance, glass fibers, for strength and structural
rigidity. Hosseinzadeh RM and et.al.

In their paper says that bumper beams are one of the main structures of
passenger cars that protect them from front and rear collisions. In this paper, a
commercial front bumper beam made of glass mat thermoplastic (GMT) is
studied and characterized by impact modeling using according to the E.C.E.
UNITED NATIONS AGREEMENT [UNITED NATIONS AGREEMENT,
Uniform Provisions concerning the Approval of Vehicles with regards to their
Front and Rear Protective Devices (Bumpers, etc.), E.C.E., 1994]. Three main
design factors for this structure: shape, material and impact condition are
studied and the results are compared with conventional metals like steel and
aluminum. Finally the aforementioned factors are characterized by proposing a
high strength SMC bumper instead of the current GMT. In this paper,
Marzbanrad JM et.al

Discussed the most important parameters including material ,thickness,


shape and impact condition are studied for design and analysis of an automotive
front bumper beam to improve the crashworthiness design in low-velocity
impact. The simulation of original bumper under condition impact is according
to the low-speed standard of automotives stated in E.C.E. United Nations
Agreement Regulationno.42,1994. In this research, a front bumper beam made
of three materials: aluminum, glass mat thermoplastic (GMT) and high-strength
sheet molding compound(SMC) is studied by impact modeling to determine the
deflection, impact force, stress distribution and energy-absorption behavior.

The mentioned characteristics are compared to each other to find best


choice of material, shape and thickness .The results show that a modified SMC
bumper beam can minimize the bumper beam deflection, impact force and
stress distribution and also maximize the elastic strain energy. In addition, the
effect of passengers in the impact behavior is examined. Different countries
have different performance standards for bumpers. Under the International
safety regulations originally developed as European standards and now adopted
by most countries outside North America, a cars. America (FMSS: Federal
Motor Vehicle Safety Researchers are trying to improve many of existing
designs using novel approaches. Many times there is conflicting performance
and cost requirements, this puts additional challenge with R&D units to come
up with a number of alternative design solutions in less time. Some of the
modern CAD and FEM tools are capable of effecting quick changes in the
design within virtual environment.
Chapter-3

COMPOSITE MATERIAL
Chapter-3

COMPOSITE MATERIAL

Introduction of composites

Composite is a combination of two or more chemically distinct and


insoluble phases.
Constituent materials or phases must have significantly different
properties for it to combine them: thus metals and plastics are not
considered as composites although they have a lot of fillers and
impurities
The properties and performance of composites are far superior to those of
the constituents
Composites consist of one or more discontinuous phases (reinforcement)
embedded in a continuous phase (matrix)

Examples:

Cemented carbides (WC with Co binder)


Rubber mixed with carbon black
Wood (a natural composite as distinguished from a synthesized
composite)
Some examples of composite materials:

ply wood is a laminar composite of layers of wood veneer,


Fiber glass is a fiber-reinforced composite containing stiff, strong glass
fibers in a softer polymer matrix and concrete is a particulate composite
containing coarse sand or gravel in a cement matrix (reduced 50%).

CLASSIFICATION

BASED ON THE TYPE OF MATRIX MATERIAL

Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs)


Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs)
Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs)
Carbon/Carbon Composites (C/Cs)

BASED ON THE GEOMETRY OF REINFORCEMENT

Particulate reinforced Composites


Whisker/Flakes reinforced composites
Fiber reinforced composites

HYBRID:

A composite laminate comprising of laminae of two or more composite material


systems or a combination of two or more different fibers such as C and glass or
C and aramid into a structure

I) POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES


(PMCs) Are prominent class of composites compared to other composite
materials in commercial applications

Fiber Materials: Boron, Graphite, Carbon

Most of the PMCs use either carbon-graphite or aramid fibers, which are the
main commercial fibers

Matrix Materials:

Thermoplastic, Epoxy and Thermo-set materials.

Thermoplastics offer the advantages of good mechanical and tribological


properties.
Epoxy resin remains the most important matrix polymer.

2. METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES (MMCS)

MMCs are advanced class of structural materials consisting of non


metallic reinforcements incorporated into the metallic matrix.
MMCs are widely used in engineering applications where the operating
temperature lies in between 250 C to 750 C.

Matrix materials:

Aluminium, Titanium, Copper, Magnesium and Super alloys.

Reinforcement materials:
Silicon carbide, Boron, Molybdenum and Alumina

3. CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES (CMCS)

CMCs are advanced class of structural materials consisting of metallic/non-


metallic reinforcements incorporated into the ceramic matrix CMCs are widely
used in engineering applications where the operating temperature lies in
between 800C to 1650C

4. CARBON/CARBON COMPOSITES (C/CS)

C/Cs are developed specifically for parts that must operate in extreme
temperature ranges. Composed of a carbon matrix reinforced with carbon yarn
fabric, 3-D woven fabric, 3-D braiding, etc.

Applications:

C/C composites meet applications ranging from rockets to aerospace because of


their ability to maintain and even increase their structural properties at extreme
temperatures.

Advantages:

Extremely high temperature resistance (1930C 2760C).


Strength actually increases at higher temperatures (up to 1930C).
High strength and stiffness.
Good resistance to thermal shock.

Uses of composites

The biggest advantage of modern composite materials is that they are light as
well as strong. By choosing an appropriate combination of matrix and
reinforcement material, a new material can be made that exactly meets the
requirements of a particular application. Composites also provide design
flexibility because many of them can be moulded into complex shapes. The
downside is often the cost. Although the resulting product is more efficient, the
raw materials are often expensive.

Merits of composite materials composites

Can be very strong and stiff, yet very light in weight, so ratios of strength-to-
weight and stiffness-to-weight are several times greater than steel or aluminium

High specific strength and


High specific stiffness Long fatigue life
High creep resistance Low coefficient of thermal expansion
Low density
Low thermal conductivity
Better wear resistance Improved corrosion resistance
Better temperature dependent behavior

Advantages of Composite Materials

Increase in yield strength and tensile strength at room temperature and


above, while maintaining the minimum ductility or rather toughness

Low thermal expansion coefficient

Increase in creep resistance at higher temperatures compared to that of


conventional alloys Increase in friction resistance Increase in fatigue
strength, especially at higher temperatures,

Improvement of thermal shock resistance

Improvement of corrosion resistance

Increase in Youngs modulus


Reduction of thermal elongation.

APPLICATIONS

Space craft: Antenna structures, solar reflectors, Satellite structures, Radar,


Rocket engines, etc.

Aircraft: Jet engines, Turbine blades, Turbine shafts, Compressor blades,


Airfoil surfaces, Wing box structures, Fan blades, Flywheels, Engine bay
doors, Rotor shafts in helicopters, Helicopter transmission structures, etc.

Miscellaneous: Bearing materials, Pressure vessels, Abrasive materials,


Electrical machinery, Truss members, Cutting tools, Electrical brushes, etc.

Automobile: Engines, bodies, Piston, cylinder, connecting rod, crankshafts,


bearing materials, etc.
Chapter-4

MATERIALS AND

METHODS
Chapter-4

MATERIALS AND METHODS

TYPES OF CAR BUMPERS

4.1 Plastic Bumper

Most modern cars use a reinforced thermoplastic bumper, as they are cheap to
manufacture, easy to fit and absorb more energy during a crash. A majority of
car bumpers are custom made for a specific model, so if you are looking to
replace a cracked bumper with a similar one, you would have to buy from a
specialist dealer. However, many companies now offer alternative designs in
thermoplastic, with a range of fittings designed for different models.

4.2 Boby Kit Bumper

Modified cars often now have a full body kit rather than just a front and rear
bumper. These kits act as a skirt around the entire body of the car and improve
performance by reducing the amount of air flowing underneath the car and so
reducing drag. Due to each car's specifications, these have to be specially
purchased and can be made from thermoplastic, like a standard bumper, or even
out of carbon fiber.
4.3 Carbon Fiber Bumper

Carbon fiber body work is normally the thing of super-cars, but many car
companies, and specialist modifiers, are starting to use it for replacement body
part on everyday cars. This is because it is very light and is safe during a crash.
It is, however, a lot more expensive than normal thermoplastic.

4.4 Steel Bumper

Originally plated steel was used for the entire body of a car, including the
bumper. This material worked well, as it was very strong in a crash, but it was
very heavy and dented performance. As car engine design has improved, steel
bumpers have pretty much disappeared for anything except classic cars.
Replacing one involves a lot of searching for scrap cars or having one specially
made. Improving passenger car damageability and repairability has been an
important RCAR topic since the Council was established in 1972.

In order to prevent unnecessary damage to the structure of passenger cars


in low speed crashes, a 15 km/h, 40 % overlap test was implemented in the
1980s and revised again in 2006 (the impact angle was changed from 0 to 10
and the rear impact moving barrier weight was increased from 1000 to 1400kg).
This test is referred to as the RCAR Structural Test.
Car manufacturers design their vehicles to perform well in this RCAR
structural test but some have fitted vehicles with countermeasures that do not
exhibit good crash behavior in real world crashes. In some cases, manufacturers
have eliminated the bumper beam and replaced them with localized
countermeasures, such as crush cans, to manage the test.

Such sub-optimised designs are in most cases not robust and often lead to
expensive damage in car-to-car crashes. Insurance claims data indicate that rear
bumpers are often under-ridden by a striking vehicle due to bumper system
instability or vertical dive of vehicles during braking. In these cases it is
desirable to have bumper systems that have sufficient vertical overlap to
maintain engagement. To this end, bumpers should ideally be mounted at
slightly different heights front and rear but have sufficient height to maintain
engagement over a wide range of circumstances. However, insurance data also
show that rear bumpers are overridden when struck by high ride-height vehicles
(SUVs, pickup trucks). Vehicle damageability would be improved in both these
situations with taller front and rear bumper beams.

Real world claims data also show a significant number or crashes in


which damage is limited to the vehicle corners. Vehicle bumpers should prevent
or limit much of the damage sustained in these minor crashes. However, many
vehicles do not have bumper reinforcement beams that extend laterally much
beyond the frame rails, leaving expensive vehicle components such as
headlamps and fenders (wings) unprotected.
An international RCAR working group has developed test procedures to
assess how well a vehicles bumper system protects the vehicle from damage in
low speed impacts. Damage in these tests closely replicates the damage patterns
observed in real world low speed crashes and addresses three components of
bumper performance: 1. Geometry vehicle bumpers need to be positioned at
common heights from the ground and extend laterally to the corners in order to
properly engage other vehicles in low speed crashes. 2. Stability vehicle
bumpers need to be tall and wide enough to remain engaged with the bumpers
of other vehicles despite vehicle motion due to loading, braking, etc

The above can be achieved by introducing better design concept, better material
and effective manufacturing process. Steel bumper have many advantages such
as good load carrying capacity. In spite of its advantages, it stays back in low
strength to weight ratio. It is reported that weight reduction with adequate
improvement of mechanical properties has made composites as a viable
replacement material for Al-Ni-Si. In the present work, the steel bumper used in
passenger vehicles is replaced with a composite bumper made of composites.
The thickness of the composite bumper is calculated by bending moment
equation and other dimensions for both steel and composite bumper is
considered to be the same. The objective was to compare the stress, weight, and
cost savings.

SELECTION OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

This chapter describes the details of processing of the composites and the
experimental procedures followed for their mechanical characterization. The
materials used in this work are

1. Aluminium alloy(6063)
2. Silicon carbide

3. Nickel alloy

ALUMINIUM

Aluminium is a light metal ( = 2.7 g/cc); is easily machinable has wide variety
of surface finishes; good electrical and thermal conductivities; highly reflective
to heat and light.

Versatile metal - can be cast, rolled, stamped, drawn, spun, roll-formed,


hammered, extruded and forged into many shapes. Aluminium can be
riveted, welded, brazed, or resin bonded.
Corrosion resistant - no protective coating needed, however it is often
anodized to improve surface finish, appearance.
Al and its alloys - high strength-to-weight ratio (high specific strength)
owing to low density.
Such materials are widely used in aerospace and automotive applications
where weight savings are needed for better fuel efficiency and
performance.
Al-Li alloys are lightest among all Al alloys and find wide applications in
the aerospace industry.

History, properties and alloys

The history of the light metal industry, as that of many other industries in this
century, is one of notable and ever accelerating expansion and development.
There are few people today who are not familiar with at least some modern
application of aluminium and its alloys.
The part it plays in our everyday life is such that it is difficult to realise
that a century ago the metal was still a comparative. The excellent corrosion
resistance of pure aluminium is largely due to its affinity for oxygen; this results
in the production of a very thin but tenacious oxide film which covers the
surface as soon as a freshly cut piece of the metal is exposed to the atmosphere.
This oxide coating is of great significance in the production of practically every
type of surface finish for the metal. It is, of course, the basis of what is probably
the most corrosion-resistant finish of all, namely, that group of finishes which
involves the technique of anodic oxidation in its varied forms.

Development of aluminium alloys

The chief alloying constituents added to aluminium are copper, magnesium,


silicon, manganese, nickel and zinc. All of these are used to increase the
strength of pure aluminium. Two classes of alloys may be considered. The first
are the 'cast alloys' which are cast directly into their desired forms by one of
three methods (i.e., sand-casting, gravity die casting or pressure die casting),
while the second class, the 'wrought alloys', are cast in ingots or billets and hot
and cold worked mechanically into extrusions, forgings, sheet, foil, tube and
wire. The main classes of alloys are the 2000 series (Al-Cu alloys), which are
high-strength materials used mainly in the aircraft industry, the 3000 series (Al-
Mn alloys) used mainly in the canning industry, the 5000 series (Al-Mg alloys)
which are used unprotected for structural and architectural applications, the
6000 series (Al-Mg-Si alloys) which are the most common extrusion alloys and
are used particularly in the building industry, and the 7000 series (Al-Zn-Mg
alloys) which are again high strength alloys for aircraft and military vehicle
applications. The alloy used in any particular application will depend on factors
such as the mechanical and physical properties required, the material cost and
the service environment involved.

If a finishing treatment is to be applied, then the suitability of the alloy


for producing the particular finish desired will be an additional factor to be
taken into account. The great benefit of aluminium is that such a wide variety of
alloys with differing mechanical and protection properties is available, and
these, together with the exceptional rang e of finishes which can be used, make
aluminium a very versatile material

Aluminium alloy selection and applications

This monograph contains an outstanding introductory description of the


properties of wrought and cast aluminium alloys and the enormous variety of
their applications. From transportation and packing to construction,
infrastructure and aerospace, the versatility of aluminium as a practical material
is amply documented. The text is richly illustrated with numerous applications
which demonstrate the enormous flexibility and the wide range of applications
for aluminium alloys. This publication will be invaluable to engineers, designers
and students unfamiliar with the variety of aluminium alloys and to those faced
with an alloy selection decision. It outlines many of the issues to consider in
selecting an alloy for a specific application and environment. Starting with a
description of the aluminium alloy designation system, the text describes the
major alloy series, outlines their primary chemical constituents, mechanical
properties and major characteristics, and provides numerous examples of
specific alloys in use. In summary, this monograph provides a lot of clarity to
the process of selecting alloys for various applications.

Effect of aluminium

Aluminium and aluminium alloy are gaining huge industrial significance


because of their outstanding combination of mechanical, physical and
tribological properties over the base alloys. These properties include high
specific strength. High wear and seizure resistance, high stiffness, Better high
temperature strength, controlled thermal expansion coefficient and improved
damping capacity.

Corrosion of aluminium

Whilst aluminium and its alloys generally have good corrosion resistance,
localised forms of corrosion can occur, and it is important to understand the
factors contributing to these of corrosion. Corrosion may be defined as the
reaction between a metal and its immediate environment, which can be natural
or chemical in origin. The most recognisable form of corrosion is, perhaps, the
rusting of iron. All metals react with natural environments but the extent to
which this happens can vary; for noble metals like gold the amount is
insignificant whereas for iron it is considerable. Aluminium is no exception but,
fortunately, it has the propensity of self passivation and for many applications
corrosion is not a problem.

PROPERTIES OF AL-ALLOY
(i) Heat treatable and age hardenable.

(ii) High strength efficiency due to high strength to weight ratio

(iii) Good weldability

(iv) Good corrosion resistance

(v) Good thermal conductivity

APPLICATIONS OF AL- ALLOY

Alloy 6063 is perhaps the most widely used because of its extrudability, it is not
only the first choice for many architectural and structural members, but it has
been the choice for the Audi automotive space frame members. A good example
of its structural use was the aluminum bridge. (Gilbert Kaufman, 2000). The
alloy has versatile application as given below

Pressure vessels

Pipelines

Cryogenic tanks

Door beams, seat tracks, racks, rails

Electrical cable towers


Petroleum and Chemical Industry Components (The excellent
combination of high strength combined with superior corrosion resistance
plus weldability makes a number of aluminum alloys ideal for chemical
industry applications, even some involving very corrosive fluids)

MATERIAL PROPERITIES OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY

Properties value
Elastic Modulus 69000 N/mm2
Poisson's Ratio 0.33
Thermal Expansions Co-efficient 2.4x10-5 /K
Thermal Conductivity 170 w/mk
Specific Heat 1300 J/kg k
2. SILICON CARBIDE

Silicon carbide is formed in two ways, reaction bonding and sintering. Each
forming method greatly affects the end microstructure. Reaction bonded SiC is
made by infiltrating compacts made of mixtures of SiC and carbon with liquid
silicon. The silicon reacts with the carbon forming more SiC which bonds the
initial SiC particles. Sintered SiC is produced from pure SiC powder with non
oxide sintering aids.

Conventional ceramic forming processes are used and the material is


sintered in an inert atmosphere at temperatures up to 2000C or higher. Both
forms of silicon carbide (SiC) are highly wear resistant with good mechanical
properties, including high temperature strength and thermal shock resistance.
Our engineers are always available to best advise you on the strengths and
weaknesses of each ceramic for your particular needs.

General silicon carbide information

Silicon carbide is composed of tetrahedral of carbon and silicon atoms with


strong bonds in the crystal lattice. This produces a very hard and strong
material. Silicon carbide is not attacked by any acids or alkalis or molten salts
up to 800C. In air, SiC forms a protective silicon oxide coating at 1200C and
is able to be used up to 1600C.

The high thermal conductivity coupled with low thermal expansion and
high strength give this material exceptional thermal shock resistant qualities.
Silicon carbide ceramics with little or no grain boundary impurities maintain
their strength to very high temperatures, approaching 1600C with no strength
loss. Chemical purity, resistance to chemical attack at temperature, and strength
retention at high temperatures has made this material very popular as wafer tray
supports and paddles in semiconductor furnaces.

The electrical conduction of the material has lead to its use in resistance
heating elements for electric furnaces, and as a key component in thermostats
(temperature variable resistors) and in varistors (voltage variable resistors).

Typical silicon carbide characteristics include:

Low density
High strength
Good high temperature strength (Reaction bonded)
Oxidation resistance (Reaction bonded)
Excellent thermal shock resistance
High hardness and wear resistance
Excellent chemical resistance
Low thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity
Typical silicon carbide applications include:
Fixed and moving turbine components
Seals, bearings, pump vanes
Ball valve parts
Wear plates
Kiln furniture
Heat exchangers
Semiconductor wafer processing equipment

Silicon Carbide is the only chemical compound of carbon and silicon. It was
originally produced by a high temperature electro-chemical reaction of sand and
carbon. Silicon carbide is an excellent abrasive and has been produced and
made into grinding wheels and other abrasive products for over one hundred
years. Today the material has been developed into a high quality technical grade
ceramic with very good mechanical properties. It is used in abrasives,
refractories, ceramics, and numerous high-performance applications. The
material can also be made an electrical conductor and has applications in
resistance heating, flame igniters and electronic components. Structural and
wear applications are constantly developing.

SILICON CARBIDE PROPERTIES

Properties value

Poissons Ratio 0.14

Coefficient of Thermal 4.0


Expansion
Thermal Conductivity 120 W/mK

Specific Heat 750 J/KgK


3. NICKEL

Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a


silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the
transition metals and is hard and ductile. Pure nickel shows a significant
chemical activity that can be observed when nickel is powdered to maximize the
exposed surface area on which reactions can occur, but larger pieces of the
metal are slow to react with air at ambient conditions due to the formation of a
protective oxide surface. Even then, nickel is reactive enough
with oxygen that native nickel is rarely found on Earth's surface, being mostly
confined to the interiors of larger nickel iron meteorites that were protected
from oxidation during their time in space.

On Earth, such native nickel is found in combination with iron, a


reflection of those elements' origin as major end products of supernova nucleo
synthesis. An ironnickel mixture is thought to compose Earthsinner core Pure
native nickel is found in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks. The use of
nickel (as a natural meteoric nickeliron alloy) has been traced as far back as
3500 BCE. Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in
PROPERTIES VALUE
Thermal conductivity 93.9 W/(mK)
Young's modulus 279 GPa
Bulk modulus 160 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.21
1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who initially mistook its ore for
a copper mineral. The element's name comes from a mischievous sprite of
German miner mythology, Nickel (similar to Old Nick), that personified the fact
that copper-nickel ores resisted refinement into copper.
ADVANTAGE OF NICKEL ALLOY

High strength maraging steels


Ductile and wear-resistant cast irons
Corrosion resistant, high nickel alloys
Super alloys for gas turbines
nickel alloys for marine applications
Magnetic and controlled expansion alloys
Shape memory alloys
Nickel metal hydrides for hydrogen storage

METHODS

STIR CASTING PROCESS STUDIES

Fabrication techniques affect the microstructure, the distribution of the


reinforcing materials and interfacial bond condition between reinforcing phase
and matrix. These techniques has to ensure uniform distribution of the
reinforcing material in the matrix and formation of good bond between matrix
and reinforcing material, to obtain MMCs with optimum properties. There are
several fabrication techniques available to manufacture different MMC.
Depending on the choice of matrix and reinforcement material, the fabrication
techniques can vary considerably. According to fabrication methods can be
divided into three types. These are solid phase process, liquid phase process and
semi solid fabrication process.
Among the variety of manufacturing processes available for
discontinuous metal matrix composite, stir casting is generally accepted as a
particularly promising route, because of low cost. Lie in its simplicity,
flexibility and applicability to the large quantity production. This semi solid
metallurgy technique is the most economical of all available routes for MMC
Production. It allows very large sized components to be fabricated, and is able
to sustain high productivity rates. Has shown that the cost of preparing
composite materials using a casting method is about one third to one half that of
competing methods

METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

Composite material is a material composed of two or more distinct phases


(matrix phase and reinforcing phase) and having bulk properties significantly
different from those of any of the constituents. The reinforcements can be in the
form of continuous fibers, discontinuous fibers, particulates or whiskers.
Continuous ceramic fibers and single-crystal ceramic whiskers are the
reinforcements which provide the largest increases in strength and stiffness.
Particulate-reinforced Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite is driven by the
combination of improved mechanical and physical properties imparted by the
reinforcement of the metal matrix while still maintaining the favorable metal
working characteristics and predominantly metal-like behavior.

Production and processing of metal matrix composites


Metal matrix composite materials are produced by many different techniques.
The selection of suitable process engineering depends upon the distribution of
the reinforcement (particles/ Materials) and the cost effectiveness. Some of the
production methods discussed by Karl Ulrich Kainer (2006) and Froyen et al
(1994) has been discussed the different production methods of composites.
Some different production methods of composites were given below

1. Melting metallurgical processes

infiltration of short fiber-, particle- or hybrid preforms by squeeze


casting, vacuum infiltration or pressure infiltration

reaction infiltration of fiber- or particle preforms

processing of precursor material by stirring the particles in metallic melts,


followed by sand casting, permanent mold casting or high pressure die
casting

2. Powder metallurgical processes

pressing and sintering and/or forging of powder mixtures and composite


powders

extrusion or forging of metal-powder particle mixtures

extrusion or forging of spraying compatible precursor materials


3. Hot isotactic pressing of powder mixtures

Melting metallurgy for the production of Metal Matrix Composites is at present


of greater technical importance than powder metallurgy. It is more economical
and has the advantage of being able to use well proven casting processes for the
production of Metal Matrix Composites. There are three melting metallurgical
processes for composite materials. They are

compo-casting or melt stirring

gas pressure infiltration

Squeeze casting or pressure casting.

Melt stirring is used to stir the reinforcement particles into an alloy melt. The
particles often tend to form agglomerates, which can only be dissolved by
intense stirring. Atmospheric gas access into the melt is avoided as it leads to
unwanted porosities or reactions. To avoid dissolution of the reinforcement
components attention must be paid to the dispersion of the reinforcement
components, temperature of the melt and the duration of stirring, as it could lead
to dissolution of the reinforcement component. Because of the lower surface to
volume ratio of spherical particles, reactivity is usually less critical with stirred
particle reinforcement than with fibers. The melt can be cast directly or
processed with alternative procedures such as squeeze casting.

STIR CASTING
The composites were prepared by stir casting process. Shows schematic
diagram the original setup of the stir casting process. Resistance furnace with a
temperature range of 3000 C was used to melt the matrix material. The furnace
has a temperature controller with k type thermocouple to control and measure
the temperature. An electric motor is fixed at the top of the furnace to provide
stirring motion to the stirrer. The speed of the stirrer can be varied as the setup
has a speed controller attached to it.

Figure Schematic Diagram of Stir Casting

Melting of Aluminium Alloy

In stir casting process the following procedure was adopted for the preparation
of composites. Explains the stir casting process in detail. Aluminium alloy 6063
is cut and weighed to obtain the correct weight as per the stoichio metric
calculations. The metals are then taken in to a crucible along with the coverall.
The furnace is heated to a temperature of 800 C and is constantly maintained at
that temperature throughout the process.

Preheating of Silicon Carbide Particles and Ni

Heat treatment of the particles before dispersion into the melt aids their transfer
by causing desorption of adsorbed gases from the particle surface. Heating
silicon carbide particles to 1000 C. Preheating of SiC particles removing surface

Impurities and in the desorption of gases, and alters the surface composition by

forming an oxide layer on the surface. The addition of pre-heated SiC particles
in Al and Ni melt has been found to improve the wettability property. A clean
surface of SiC provides a better opportunity for melt particles interaction, and
thus, enhances wetting.

Addition of Coverall Powder

The flux used is Coverall. It is the composition of Potassium chloride (KCl) +


Nitric acid (HNO3), its function is to avoid oxidation. Coverall powder is added
twice during the casting process. Initially, when the ingots are placed in the
crucible, later while stirring of preheated SiC particles. The recommended
amount that is to be added is 250gm for a melt of 50kg.
Addition of Degasser Powder

Degasser powder is added to the molten metal when it reaches a temperature of


800 C. The recommended amount to be added is 250gm for a melt of 50Kg.
Degasser powder reduces blow holes formed during the casting process. The
reasons for adding degasser powder are as below

When magnesium is in the molten state, it tries to absorb hydrogen from


the atmosphere.

When the absorbed hydrogen is unable to escape from the molten metal,
it results in the formation of blow holes.

When coverall 65 is added, it forms a thin film over the molten metal and
prevents contact of molten metal with the atmosphere.

When degasser tablets is added to molten metal, the chlorine present in


these tablets react with hydrogen in the molten metal and form
hydrochloric acid which dissolves in the molten metal, thereby reducing
blow holes.

Pouring of Molten Metal

The material is stirred with 300 rpm for thirty minutes. The stirred metal is then
slowly poured into the die which is preheated to a temperature of 973 C. The die
is allowed to cool in air for two hours and then the specimen is removed.
Solution Treatment

During casting low cooling rate of the alloy allows for the strengthening of
aluminium phase to precipitate out of solution and grow into large incoherent
phases within the matrix. In the as cast structure, the large, incoherent nature of
the aluminium phase does little to increase the strength of the alloy. To obtain
finely dispersed AL-Ni-Si, a solution heat treatment should be conducted on the
alloy.

Advantages of Composite Bumper

One of the most advantageous reasons for considering their use over steel
is their reduced weight.
Absorb more collision energy.
Excellent corrosion resistance.
High impact strength
It should have good rust resistance.
It should have high strength.
Light in weight.
Easy to manufacture in large quantity.
Low cost.
Chapter-5

MECHANICAL PROPERTY TEST


Chapter-5

MECHANICAL PROPERTY TEST

SELECTION OF TEST

Tensile tests are performed for several reasons. The results of tensile tests are
used in selecting materials for engineering applications. Tensile properties
frequently are included in material specifications to ensure quality. Tensile
properties often are measured during development of new materials and
processes, so that different materials and processes can be compared. Finally,
tensile properties often are used to predict the behavior of a material under
forms of loading other than uniaxial tension.

The strength of a material often is the primary concern. The strength of


interest may be measured in terms of either the stress necessary to cause
appreciable plastic deformation or the maximum stress that the material can
withstand. These measures of strength are used, with appropriate caution (in the
form of safety factors), in engineering design. Also of interest is the materials
ductility, which is a measure of how much it can be deformed before it
fractures. Rarely is ductility incorporated directly in design rather, it is included
in material specifications to ensure quality and toughness.

Low ductility in a tensile test often is accompanied by low resistance to


fracture under other forms of loading. Elastic properties also may be of interest,
but special techniques must be used to measure these properties during tensile
testing, and more accurate measurements can be made by ultrasonic techniques.
Thischapterprovidesabriefoverviewofsomeofthemoreimportanttopics
associatedwithtensiletesting.Theseinclude
Tensilespecimensandtestmachines

Stressstraincurves,includingdiscussionsofelasticversusplastic
deformation,yieldpoints,andductility

Truestressandstrain

Testmethodologyanddataanalysis

Itshouldbenotedthatsubsequentchapterscontainmoredetailedinformationon
thesetopics.

Tensile Specimens and Testing Machines

Consider the typical tensile specimen. It has enlarged ends or shoulders for
gripping. The important part of the specimen is the gage section. The cross-
sectional area of the gage section is reduced relative to that of the remainder of
the specimen so that deformation and failure will be localizedinthisregion.

The gage length is the region over which measurements are made and is
centeredwithinthereducedsection.Thedistancesbetweentheendsofthegage
sectionandtheshouldersshouldbegreatenoughsothatthelargerendsdonot
constraindeformationwithinthegagesection,andthegagelengthshouldbe
greatrelativetoitsdiameter.Otherwise,thestressstatewillbemorecomplex
than simple tension. Detailed descriptions of standard specimen shapes are
giveninChapter3andinsubsequentchaptersontensiletestingofspecific
materials.

Tensile Strength

The tensile test of the composites was performed as per the ASTM D3039
standards. The test was done using a universal testing machine (Tinius Olsen
H10KS).The specimen of required dimension was cut from the composite cast.
The test was conducted at a constant strain rate of 2 mm/min. The tensile test
arrangement is shown in figure
Tensile test is used to determine the tensile strength of the specimen, %
elongation of length and % reduction of area. Tensile test is usually carried out
in universal testing machine.

A universal testing machine is used to test tensile strength of materials. It is


named after the fact that it can perform many standard tensile and compression
tests on materials, components, and structures. The specimen is placed in the
machine between the grips and an extensometer if required can automatically
record the change in gauge length during the test. If an extensometer is not
fitted, the machine itself can record the displacement between its cross heads on
which the specimen is held. However, this method not only records the change
in length of the specimen but also all other extending / elastic components of the
testing machine and its drive systems including any slipping of the specimen in
the grips. Once the machine is started it begins to apply an increasing load on
specimen. Throughout the tests the control system and its associated software
record the load and extension or compression of the specimen. Tensile test is
used to find out

Tensile strength

Yield strength

% Elongation

% Reduction

HARDNESS TEST

This gives the metals ability to show resistance to indentation which show its
resistance to wear and abrasion. Hardness testing of welds and their Heat
Affected Zones (HAZs) usually requires testing on a microscopic scale using a
diamond indenter. The Vickers Hardness test is the predominant test method
with Knoop testing being applied to HAZ testing in some instances. Hardness
values referred to in this document will be reported in terms of Vickers Number,
HV.
TOUGHNESS TEST
The principal measurement from the impact test is the energy absorbed in
fracturing the specimen. Energy expended during fracture is sometimes known
as notch toughness. The energy expended will be high for complete ductile
fracture, while it is less for brittle fracture. However, it is important to note that
measurement of energy expended is only a relative energy, and cannot be used
directly as design consideration. Another common result from the Charpy test is
by examining the fracture surface. It is useful in determining whether the
fracture is fibrous (shear fracture), granular (cleavage fracture), or a mixture of
both.
Fracture toughness test

The fracture toughness of the composite specimens was measured using


Fracture Tester (MTS 810 material test system). The specimens were cut
according to dimensions as specified by the ASTM E1820; this test method is
for the opening mode (Mode I) of loading. The objective of this test method is
to load a fatigue pre cracked test specimen as shown in Figure 8 to induce either
or both of the following responses:

Unstable crack extension, including significant pop-in, referred to as


fracture instability in this test method;

Stable crack extension, referred to as stable tearing in this test method.

Toughness determined at the point of instability. Stable tearing results in


continuous fracture toughness versus crack extension relationship (R-curve)
from which significant point-values may be determined. Stable tearing
interrupted by fracture instability results in an R-curve up to the point of
instability. This investigation split into two major computation scopes to
estimate the fracture toughness and energy release rate: it include the
experiment data for fiber reinforcement epoxy composites specimens.
Meanwhile, the compact tension (CT) specimen was instructed according to the
ASTM E 1820 standard for the fracture toughness measurement. The thickness
was 10mm for all the specimens, while the initial notch length to specimen was
between 10mm and the notch tip was sharpened with a razor blade to simulate a
sharp crack.
APPLICATION
Chapter-6

APPLICATIONS
Automobile components

corrosion resistance areas


CONCLUSION

Chapter-7
CONCLUSION

Investigation and testing of steel and composite bumper (using Al-Si-Ni


material) are completed and also composite bumper is investigated and
compared with steel bumper. The composite bumper weighs about lesser than
steel bumper. It is proved that fuel economy of the vehicle is improved as the
composite bumper weighs less when compared with steel bumper. From the
study, it is concluded that Al-Si-Ni reinforced composite material is a suitable
material for manufacturing the bumper.
REFERENCE
Chapter-8

REFERENCE

Hosseinzadeh RM, Shokrieh M, and Lessard LB, Parametric study od


automotive composite bumper beams subjected to low-velocity impacts,
J. CompositeStuct., 68 (2005):419-427.
Marzbanrad JM, Alijanpour M, and Kiasat MS, Design and analysis of
automotive bumper beam in low spee frontal crashesh, Thin Walled
Struct., 47 (2009): 902- 911.

http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/testing/procedures/TP- 581-01.pdf.

Mohapatra S, Rapid Design Solutions for Automotive Bumper Energy


Absorbers using Morphing Technique, Altair CAE users Conference
2005, Bangalore, India.

http://www.google.com/patents/about/6817638_Bumper_system.html?
idc1gQAAAAEBAJ

Andersson R, Schedin E, Magnusson C,Ocklund J, The Applicability of


Stainless Steel for Crash Absorbing Components, SAE Technical Paper,
2002.

Butler M, Wycech J, Parfitt J, and Tan E, Using Terocore Brand


Structural Foam to Improve Bumper Beam Design, SAE Technical
Paper, 2002,

Carley ME, Sharma AK, Mallela V, Advancements in expanded


polypropylene foam energy management for bumper systems, SAE
Technical Paper, 2004.

Evans D and Morgan T, Engineering Thermoplastic Energy for

Bumpers, SAE Paper, 1999.