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2/11/2017 ShellForcesStressesForm

ShellForces/StressesForm
ImportantNote:Theinternalshellelementforcesareforcesperunitlengthactingalongthemidsurfaceoftheshell
element(areaobject).Theinternalshellelementstressesarestressesactingontheedges(notpositive3axisfaceand
negative3axisface)oftheshellelement(areaobject).

Note:ClicktheApplybuttontoupdatetheactivewindowusingtheparametersspecifiedontheform.WhentheApply
buttonisused,theShellForces/StressesformwillremainopenuntiltheClosebuttonisclicked.Thisallowsanother
selectiontobemadeontheformtoreviewmultipledisplayswithoutusingthecommandtorecalltheform.TheOKbutton
canbeusedtobothupdatetheactivewindowandclosetheformifonlyoneviewisneeded.

TheShellForces/Stressesformhasthefollowingoptions:

LoadCase,LoadCombination,ModalCaseoptions.Choosetheloadcasetobedisplayed.Notethatshell
elementforcesorstressescanbeplottedforanystaticloadcase,responsespectrumcase,timehistorycase,
staticnonlinearcase,orloadcombination.Fortimehistorycases,alsospecifyatimefordisplayoftheforcesor
stresses.Forstaticnonlinearcases,alsospecifyastepfordisplayoftheforcesorstresses.

ComponentTypeoptions.Choosetodisplayshellelementinternalforcesorinternalstresses.Whenstressesare
selected,alsoselectthefaceoftheshellobjectvisible,top,orbottomforwhichstressesaretobedisplayed,or
choosethatthemaximum,minimumorabsolutemaximumstressvaluesaretobedisplayed.

Componentoptions.Specifythecomponentofforceorstresstobedisplayed.

Forshellelementinternalforces,thepossiblecomponentsareasfollows:

F11:Directforceperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelementonthepositiveandnegative1faces
inthe1axisdirection.

F22:Directforceperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelementonthepositiveandnegative2faces
inthe2axisdirection.

F12:Shearingforceperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelementonthepositiveandnegative1
facesinthe2axisdirection,andactingonthepositiveandnegative2facesinthe1axisdirection.

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FMax:Maximumprincipalforceperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelement.Notethatby
definitionprincipalforcesareorientedsuchthattheassociatedshearingforceperunitlengthiszero.

FMin:Minimumprincipalforceperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelement.Notethatbydefinition
principalforcesareorientedsuchthattheassociatedshearingforceperunitlengthiszero.

FVM:VonMisesprincipalforceperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelement.

V13:Outofplaneshearperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelementonthepositiveandnegative
1facesinthe3axisdirection.

V23:Outofplaneshearperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelementonthepositiveandnegative
2facesinthe3axisdirection.

VMax:Maximumprincipalshearperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelement.Notethatby
definitionprincipalshearsareorientedonfacesoftheelementsuchthattheassociatedshearsperunit
lengthonperpendicularfacesarezero.

M11:Directmomentperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelementonthepositiveandnegative1
facesaboutthe2axis.

M22:Directmomentperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelementonthepositiveandnegative2
facesaboutthe1axis.

M12:Twistingmomentperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelementonthepositiveandnegative1
facesaboutthe1axis,andactingonthepositiveandnegative2facesaboutthe2axis.

MMax:Maximumprincipalmomentperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelement.Notethatby
definitionprincipalmomentsareorientedsuchthattheassociatedtwistingmomentperunitlengthiszero.

MMin:Minimumprincipalmomentperunitlengthactingatthemidsurfaceoftheelement.Notethatby
definitionprincipalmomentsareorientedsuchthattheassociatedtwistingmomentperunitlengthiszero.

Forshellelementinternalstresses,thepossiblecomponentsareasfollows:

S11:Directstress(forceperunitarea)actingonthepositiveandnegative1facesinthe1axisdirection.

S22:Directstress(forceperunitarea)actingonthepositiveandnegative2facesinthe2axisdirection.

S12:Shearingstress(forceperunitarea)actingonthepositiveandnegative1facesinthe2axisdirection
andactingonthepositiveandnegative2facesinthe1axisdirection.

SMax:Maximumprincipalstress(forceperunitarea).Notethatbydefinitionprincipalstressesareoriented
suchthattheassociatedshearingstressiszero.

SMin:Minimumprincipalstress(forceperunitarea).Notethatbydefinitionprincipalstressesareoriented
suchthattheassociatedshearingstressiszero.

SVM:VonMisesprincipalstress(forceperunitarea).

S13:Outofplaneshearingstress(forceperunitarea)actingonthepositiveandnegative1facesinthe3
axisdirection.

S23:Outofplaneshearingstress(forceperunitarea)actingonthepositiveandnegative2facesinthe3
axisdirection.

SMaxV:Maximumprincipalshearingstress(forceperunitarea).Notethatbydefinitionprincipalshearing
stressesareorientedonfacesoftheelementsuchthattheassociatedshearsperunitlengthon

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perpendicularfacesarezero.

ContourAppearanceoptions.Usetheseoptionstochooseiftheforcesandstresseswilldisplayonan
UndeformedShape,aDeformedShape,oradisplayofanExtrudedContourbyselectinganoptionfromthe
dropdownlist.AlsousetheShowLines,ShowFill,ShowValues,andShowArrowscheckboxestospecify
howtheforcesandstresseswillbeillustrated.Theoptionsareassumedtobeselfexplanatory.

ContourValuesTheshellelementinternalforcesandstressesaredisplayedonscreenascoloredcontours.
Specifyminimumandmaximumvalues:

Mineditbox:Anyelementwithaforceorstresslessthanthevaluespecifiedinthiseditboxisdisplayedin
thecolorassociatedwithMinintheContoursareaoftheAssignDisplayColorsform.Notethatthecolor
associatedwithMinisthetopcolorintheform.

Maxeditbox:Anyelementwithaforceorstressgreaterthanorequaltothevaluespecifiedinthiseditbox
isdisplayedinthecolorassociatedwithMaxintheContoursareaoftheAssignDisplayColorsform.
NotethatthecolorassociatedwithMaxisthebottomcolorintheform.

WiththeMinandtheMaxvaluesspecified,ETABSspacestheintermediaterangevaluesequallybetween
thespecifiedMinandMaxvalues.IftheMinandtheMaxvaluesarebothsettozero,ETABScreatesits
ownrange.Inthatcase,ETABScreatesastressrangewithrounded(even)valuesthattheactual
maximumandminimumstressesfitwithin.NotethatsettingMinandMaxtozeroisthedefault.

ContourAveragingatNodes.Specifyifstressaveragingistobeusedwhendisplayingtheshellelement
forcesorstresses.ETABSoffersthefollowingoptions:

Nonenostressaveraging

ByObjectsstressaveragingatallobjects

BySelectedGroupsstressaveragingatspecificpointsselectedjustbeforeplottingtheshellforces
orstressesclicktheGroupsbuttontoaccesstheSelectGroupsformandselectobjectsbyGroup
names.

ExplanationofContourAveraging.ConsiderthefourshellelementslabeledA,B,CandDshowninthe
sketchbelow.Thesefourshellelementsallhaveacommonpoint,labeled1,inthesketch.

Eachoftheshellelementshasanassociatedinternalforceorstressatjoint1.Typicallytheforcesor
stressesatcommonpointsinthevariousshellelementsaredifferent.Thefinerthemesh,thecloserthe
valuesbecome.

Iftheforceorstresscontoursareplottedwithnostressaveragingatthecommonpoints,typicallythe
changesinforceorstressfromelementtoelementwillbeabrupt.Stressaveragingtendstoeliminatethe
abruptchangesintheplotandsmoothsthecontours.

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ETABSaveragesthestressesatapointbyaveragingthestressesfromallshellelementsthatboth
connecttothepointandarevisibleintheactivewindow.ThenwhenETABSplotsthestressfora
particularshellelement,itplotsthataveragestressatthepointconsideredinsteadoftheactualstress
calculatedforthatshellelementatthepoint.

Donotoverlooktheimplicationsoftheunderlinedportionofthepreviousparagraph.Forexample,assume
theactivewindowisdisplayingstressesinalocationwhereawallintersectsafloor.Furtherassumethat
thedisplayshowsaveragedstressesinthefloor.Iftheaveragedstressesintheflooraredisplayedina2D
planviewofthefloor,onlytheshellelementsthatareinthefloor,andthusvisibleinthewindow,are
includedinthestressaveraging.

Ifthesameaveragedstressesaredisplayedina3Dview,whereboththewallandthefloorarevisible,the
shellelementsfromboththefloorandthewallareincludedinthestressaveraging.Thustheaveraged
stressesinthefloorattheintersectionofthefloorandthewallwillappeardifferentlyina2Dplanview
versusa3Dview.

Scalingoptions.ThescalingoptionswillbeavailableonlyifDisplayonDeformedShapeorDisplayExtruded
ContourshasbeenselectedfortheContourOption.Whenavailable,thescalefactorcanbeusedtoexaggerate
thedisplacements/extrusionsrelativetothegeometryofthestructure.ChooseAutomaticscalingorspecifyaUser
ScaleFactortoscalethedeformedshapeortheextrudedresults.

MiscellaneousNotesaboutShellElementForcesandStressesNotethatshellelementstresses(notforces)actually
havedifferentvaluesatthetopandbottomoftheshellelements(areaobjects).Thus,dependingonwhichsideofthe
objectisdisplayed,differentstressesmaybeshown.Twodimensionalviewsalwaysdisplayareaobjectsfromthesame
side.Todisplaystressesontheothersideoftheareaobject,viewthemina3Dview.

Finally,whenshellelementforcesandstressesareplottedformultivaluedloadcombinations,ETABSdisplaysthe
maximumorminimumvaluethathasthelargestabsolutevalue.

AccesstheShellForces/Stressesformasfollows:

1.Runananalysis.

2.ClicktheDisplaymenu>Force/StressDiagrams>ShellStresses/Forcescommand.

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