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THEORY OF THE

FOUR POINT DYNAMIC


BENDING TEST

PART IV:
PURE BENDING & SHEAR
DEFORMATION
IMPORTANT NOTICE March 8 & 9 ; 2007

In the original report the coefficient in the formula for the effective cross
area (denoted by: { B , H } , for the shear force), is taken equal to 2/3. Just
before the 1st European 4PB workshop on March 8 & 9; 2007 it was
concluded, based on ABACUS FEM calculations, that a value of 0,85 was
more appropriated and leads to: { B , H } = 0,85.B.H
THEORY OF THE
FOUR POINT DYNAMIC
BENDING TEST

PART IV: PURE BENDING & SHEAR DEFORMATION

AUTHOR: A.C. PRONK


DATE: 1ST CONCEPT SEPTEMBER 2002 FINISHED MAY 2007
Abstract

This report deals with the commonly neglected influences of shear forces on the
measured deflections in the dynamic four point bending test. The report forms the
fourth part in the series of reports on the Theory of the Four Point Dynamic Bending
Test. It is world wide adopted that for a bending test in which the ratio of the
(effective) length or span of the beam and the height of the beam is above a factor 8
the deflection due to shear forces can be neglected. This judgement is based on a
comparison between the differential equations for pseudo-static bending tests. In this
report the complete analytical solutions are derived for cyclic bending test conditions.
It is shown that the deflection part due to shear forces is around 5% of the total
deflection. For a good understanding of the theory it is advised to use Part I and II of
the series on the Theory of the Four Point Bending Test next to this report.
Contents

1. GENERAL BENDING THEORY OF A RECTANGULAR BEAM


2. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
3. DEVELOPMENT OF Q{x,t} IN SERIES OF SINES (orthogonal functions)
4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE OTHER MASS FORCES IN SERIES
5. FUNCTION FORMULATION FOR Vb and Vs
6. THEORETICAL SOLUTION WHEN NO EXTRA MASSES ARE PRESENT
7. SOLUTION FOR THE PSEUDO-STATIC CASE
8. HOW TO INCORPERATE EXTRA MOVING MASSES.
ANNEX I Development in Sine or Cosine Series
ANNEX II The series development for the deflection due to shear

DISCLAIMER
This working paper is issued to give those interested an opportunity to acquaint themselves with progress in this particular
field of research. It must be stressed that the opinions expressed in this working paper do not necessarily reflect the official
point of view or the policy of the director-general of the Rijkswaterstaat. The information given in this working paper should
therefore be treated with caution in case the conclusions are revised in the course of further research or in some other way.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands takes no responsibility for any losses incurred as a result of using the information contained
in this working paper.
Pure Bending & Shear Deformation

1. GENERAL BENDING THEORY OF A RECTANGULAR BEAM

The bending theory for a rectangular beam is given by two differential equations:
2
.B .H . Vb x , t Vs x , t D Q x , t
t 2
x
[1a,b]
3

.I . 2 Vb x , t MD0
t x x

In which: Vb = Deflection due to pure bending


Vs = Deflection due to shear forces
B = Width of beam
H = Height of beam
Ltot = Total length of beam
L = Effective length = distance between the two outer supports
A = Distance between outer and inner supports
= Distance from x=0 to first outer support (=(Lt-L)/2)
Fo = Applied force at the two inner supports (clamps)
I = Moment of the beam (B.H3/12)
D = Shear force
M = Bending moment
Q = Force distribution along the beam
E = Stiffness modulus of beam
G = Shear modulus (E/(2(1+)))
= Density
= Poisson ratio

The moment M is related to the deflection Vb by:


2
M E .I . Vb x , t [2]
x 2
And the shear force D is related to the shear deflection Vs by:

D G . B , H . Vs x , t with B, H Effective Cross Area [3]
x
Integration of equation [1b] over x leads to a relationship between the shear deflection Vs
and the bending deflection Vb:

I 2 2
Vs x , t . . 2 Vb x , t E . 2 Vb x , t t [4]
G . B , H t x

in which t is a yet unknown function in the time t only.


Differentiation of equation [1b] and adding to equation [1a] leads to a relationship between
the total deflection Vt and the bending deflection Vb :

2 2 2 4
.B .H . Vt x , t .I . Vb x , t E .I . Vb x , t Q x , t [5]
t 2 t 2 x 2 x 4

Using equation [4] in equation [5] leads to the desired relationship between the bending
deflection Vb and the force distribution Q:

2 2 2 4
.B .H . Vb x , t .I Vb x , t E .I . Vb x , t
t 2 t 2 x 2 x 4
[6]
.B .H .I 4
2 2
d 2
. . 4 Vb x , t E . 2 Vb x , t 2 t Q x , t
G . B , H t t x 2
dt

Elimination of Vb by substituting equation 1a into equation 1b after two derivations with


respect to the time t leads to:

E .I d2 2 2 4
. Q x , t .B .H . Vs x , t G . B , H . Vs x , t
.B .H dx
2
t x
2 2
x 4

.I d2 4 2 2
Q x , t .B .H . Vs x , t G . B , H Vs x , t [7]
.B .H dt
2
t 4
t x
2 2

2 d2
G B , H . Vs x , t t
t 2 dt 2

From equations [6] and [7] it is clear that both Vb and Vs contain a function which only
depends on the time: Vb+f{t} and Vs+g{t}.
Rearrangement of the two basic differential equations leads to:
4 2 4
E .I . Vb{ x , t } .B .H . 2 Vb{ x , t } .I . 2 2 Vb{ x , t }
x 4
t x t
[8]
.B .H 4 4
. .I . 4 Vb{ x , t } E .I . 2 2 Vb{ x , t } Q { x , t }
G .{ B , H } t x t

2 G .{ B , H } 2 2 2
I . . 2 . 2 E . 2 .Vs{ x , t }
t
2
.B .H x t x
[9]
2
I 2
2
G .{ B , H }. Vs{ x , t } . . 2 E . 2 .Q { x , t }
t 2
.B .H t x

After estimations for the several coefficients the following two (approximated) differential
equations for the pure bending deflection Vb and the shear deflection Vs can be established
(see reference 1):
4 2
E .I . Vb{ x , t } .B .H . 2 Vb{ x , t } Q { x , t }
x 4
t
2
G .{ B , H }. 2 Vs{ x , t } Q { x , t }
[10a,b]
x

Equations 10a and 10b are used for the forward calculation of the deflection Vtot = Vb+Vs if
the other parameters like E, B, H, G, and Q{x,t} are given. Notice that Q{x,t} has the
dimension N/m; in equation 10 it is a force per length. The deviation made by the ignoring
the other terms in equations 8 and 9 is negligible. Mark that if extra moving masses are
present, the two differential equations are coupled by an extra term (common force) in
2
Q{ xmass , t } Fmass { xmass , t }. { xmass } M . Vt { xmass , t }. { xmass }
t 2
both equations: [10c]
2
M . 2 Vb { xmass , t } Vs { xmass , t } . { xmass }
t
This expression has the dimension N/m and acts only at x = xmass and Ltot xmass and
at x = and Ltot . See also equation [12] and [13].
Equations 10a and 10b will be solved (the steady state) for a sinusoidal load signal of the
form: eit.

2. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

In case of a four point bending test (4PB) the following boundary conditions are valid for
equal sinusoidal point loads at the two inner clamps and only regarding the steady state
condition:
2
At x 0 and Ltot : M{x,t} E.I. 2 Vb{ x , t } 0 &
x

D{x,t} G.{B,H}. Vs{ x , t } 0 [I]
x

At x and Ltot - : Vt{x,t} = Vb{x,t} + Vs{x,t} 0 [II]


At x Ltot /2 : Vb{ x , t } 0 & Vs{ x , t } 0 [III]
x x
[11a,b,c]
3. DEVELOPMENT OF Q{x,t} IN SERIES OF SINES (orthogonal functions)

For the solution of the differential equations it is necessarily1 to develop the discrete
position functions for the point loads into series of orthogonal functions. Given the simple
character of the equation a common sinus or cosines series is already sufficient.

The discrete position function for the load distribution Q{x,t} is given by:
F0
Q{ x , t } . x x A Ltot A Ltot .e i .0 .t [12]
2
a

in which {x=a} represents the delta function: x a . f x .dx f a


a
[13]
In case of only pure bending a series of orthogonal sine functions would be sufficient. At
x=0 and x=Ltot the moment M (:: 2/ x2) has to be zero, which in case of a sine function is

x
automatically fulfilled: Q{ x , t } F x .e i t
n 1,3,5,.
Fn . Sin n. . .e 0
Ltot
i t
[14]

Because of symmetry only odd numbers for n are allowed.


If instead of bending only shear deformation occurs, a development in cosine functions is
more appropriate because now the shear force D (:: / x) has to vanish at x=0 and x=Ltot.

x
Q{ x , t } G x
n 2,4,6,.. Ltot
i t
Gn .Cos n. . .e 0 . [15]

In view of the symmetry now only the even numbers for n are allowed. Determination of the
coefficients Fn and Gn is based on the orthogonal property of the sinusoidal functions on the
interval from 0 to Ltot , which is represented by the following equations:

Ltot
x x
Sin m . .
Ltot
.Sin n . .
Ltot
.dx

0
0 for n m
L tot for n m
[16]
Ltot
x x 2
Cos m . . .Cos n . . .dx
0 Ltot Ltot

It should be noted that because of symmetry only odd n numbers are allowed in case of the
development in sine functions and only even n numbers in case of the development in cosine
functions. A combined form (e.g. a Fourier series) is not possible because the orthogonal
property (a constant value) of the series doesnt hold for the product of a sine function and a
cosine function. Instead of a constant value (equation 16) the integration depends on n and
m:

1
When no extra moving masses are present the solution of the differential equation 10b which describes the
deflection Vs due to shear can be obtained directly as the product of the time function and the solution for
the (pseudo) static case. This last solution can be easily found by integration over the several intervals. This
is due to the fact that without a coupling by extra moving masses the phase lag in the deflection Vs has to be
equal to the (opposite) phase lag of the complex stiffness modulus Smix of the beam.See also Annex I & II.
Ltot
x x 0 for n m even

0
Sin m . .
Ltot
.Cos n . .
Ltot
.dx tot

L
.
2m
m 2 n 2
for n m odd [17]

The discrete point load functions can now be transformed in either a series of sine functions
(pure bending) or in a series of cosine functions (shear deformation):

x

L
2
F x Fn . Sin n. . Fn . F . Sin n. . .d
n 1 Ltot
i0t Ltot 0 Ltot
Q{ x , t } .e with [18]


x 2
L

G x Gn .Cos n. .
Ltot G n
Ltot 0
. G . Cos n . .
L tot
.d
n 2

Furthermore it should be marked that the value n=0 is not possible for the development in
cosine functions (see the equation for the shear deformation; dividing by n2).
Replacing F{ } and G{ } in equation [18] by the expression for Q{ , t} with the delta
function { }leads to equations [19] and [20] for the coefficients Fn and Gn. The equation
for the coefficient Fn is also given in part II of this series (using the symbol An).

A
Sin n. . Sin n. .
F0 Ltot Ltot
Fn .
Ltot
Sin n. . Ltot A Sin

n. .
Ltot


Ltot Ltot
[19]
A
Cos n. . Cos n. .
F Ltot Ltot
Gn 0 .
Ltot
Ltot A Ltot
Cos n. . Cos n. .
Ltot Ltot

F0 A
Fn 2. . Sin n. . Sin n. . for n 1,3,5,7 etc.
Ltot
Ltot L tot
[20]
F A
Gn 2. 0 . Cos n. . Cos n. . for n 2, 4, 6 etc
Ltot Ltot L tot

In accordance with the formulations used in Part II of this series the following abbreviations
are introduced:

x A
Tn { x } Sin n . Sin n Sin n [21]
Ltot Ltot Ltot
x A
U n { x } Cos n . Cos n Cos n [22]
Ltot Ltot Ltot
If Ltot = Leff (=0) than in accordance with earlier notations in part I of these series the
following functions will notations will be used: Tn{x} Pn{x} and Un{x} Rn{x}.
Mark that for =0 the coefficient Gn and the function Un{x} are given by (n=2,4,6,..):

.
x A
F A ; U n { x } Rn { x } Cos n . Cos n 1 [23]
Gn 2. 0 . Cos n. . 1 Ltot L tot
Ltot Ltot

In this way the point loads at the inner and outer supports can be taken into account by
transforming those four point loads in a force distribution Q{x,t} along the beam. The force
distribution Q{x,t} can be either represented as

F F
Q{x,t}= 2 L . Tn { x } .e ( n odd ) or as Q{x,t}= 2 L . U n { x } .e ( n even )
0 i t 0 i t
0 0
[24]
tot n 1 tot n 2
4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE (OTHER) MASS FORCES IN SERIES

First of all it should be mentioned that the placing of a single extra mass at an arbitrarily
chosen location (except x=Ltot/2) will not be dealt with. Only symmetrically placed masses
will be taken into account. Normally these extra masses are located at the inner clamps
(mass of the plunger etc.). These extra forces will like the external driven force raise
reaction forces at the outer clamps. If the mass forces are denoted by Fmass/2 at xmass and
Fmass/2 at Ltot - xmass , the force distribution Qmass{xmas,,t} will be given by:

2 L
x
Qmass { xmass , t } . F . Sin n. . .d . Sin n. . .e i t
n 1,3 Ltot 0 Ltot L tot
[25]
2 Fmass x x
Ltot
Sin n. .
Ltot
. Sin n. . mass Sin n. .
Ltot
.e i t

n 1,3 Ltot

for implementation in the pure bending equation (10a) and for the shear equation(10b) by:

2 L
x
Qmass { xmass , t } . F .Cos n. . .d .Cos n. . .e i t
n 2,4 Ltot 0 Ltot L tot
[26]
2 Fmass x
xmass
Ltot
Cos n. . . Cos n. .
Ltot Ltot
Cos n. . .e i t

n 2,4 Ltot

Notice the difference with the expression for the (driven) force distribution Q{x,t}, if xmass is
not equal to the location of the inner clamp: A+. To get in line with the expression for this
force distribution Q{x,t} the following coefficients are introduced:

xmass
Sin n Sin n
Ltot L tot
Tn* { xmass }
A

Sin n Sin n
Ltot L tot

2F x x
Qmass { xmass , t } mass Sin n. . . Sin n. . mass Sin n. .
Ltot n1,3 Ltot Ltot
Ltot

2F
mass Tn* { xmass }.Tn { x }
Ltot n1,3
[27a,b]

xmass
Cos n Cos n
Ltot L tot
U n* { xmass }
A

Cos n Cos n
Ltot L tot

2F x x
Qmass { xmass , t } mass Cos n. . . Cos n. . mass Cos n. .
Ltot n 2,4 Ltot Ltot L tot

2F
mass U n* { xmass }.U n { x }
Ltot n 2,4
Expression for the forces due to moving masses at the inner clamps

2 i0t iclamp i t i .
Qclamp { x , t } M clamp .Vt { x A}. e M clampVt { x A}. 02 .e 0 clamp
t 2

2
. T { x }
Ltot n1 n [28]
i0 t i .clamp
M clampVt { x A}. 02 .e . or
2
. U { x }
Ltot n 2 n
If xmass equals A+ than of course Tn*{xmass} = Un*{xmass} = 1.

Expression for the force due to a moving mass at the centre

2 i0t icenter
Qcenter { x , t } M center .Vt { x xcenter }. e M centerVt { x xcenter }. 02 .e i0t i .center
t 2
2
. Tn* { xcenter }.Tn { x }
Ltot n1 [29]
M centerVt { x xcenter }. 02 .e i0t i .center . or
2
. U * { x }.U n { x }
Ltot n 2 n center
5. FUNCTION FORMULATION FOR Vb and Vs

When extra moving masses are included the original differential equations 10a,b have to be
rewritten as:

4 2
E .I . Vb { x , t } . B . H . Vb{ x , t } Q{ x , t } Qmass { x , t }
x 4 t 2
[30a,b]
2
G .{ B , H }. 2 Vs{ x , t } Q{ x , t } Qmass { x , t }
x

The load distributions along the beam are given by:

F0 F0
Q{x,t}= 2 . Tn { x } .e i0 t ( n odd ) or as Q{x,t}= 2 . U n { x } .e i0 t ( n even ) [31]
Ltot n 1 Ltot n 2


2 Fmass 2 Fmass
Qmass { xmass , t }
Ltot

n 1,3
Tn* { xmass }.Tn { x } or as Qmass { xmass , t } L U
n 2,4
*
n { xmass }.U n { x } [32]
tot

The parameter Fmass is given by:

d2 d2
Fmass M mass Vt { x , t } M Vb{ xmass , t } Vs{ xmass , t } M mass 02 Vt { xmass , t } [33]
d t2
mass mass
d t2

All forces are written in the form of sine or cosine series using Tn{x} or Un{x}. Therefore it is
logical to assume the following expressions for Vb and Vs:

A e


Vb{ x , t } Va { x } Vc{ x } Vd { x } .e i0 t n
i*n
.Tn { x } Vc{ x } Vd { x } .e i0 t [32]
n 1

H


Vs{ x , t } Vg{ x } H 0 .e i0 t
*

n e in .U n { x } H 0 .e i0 t [33]
n 1

The function Va{x} satisfies the complete differential equation including the forces induced
by extra moving masses.

The functions Vc{x} and Vd{x} are solutions of the homogenous differential equations
without the external force and induced forces. They are needed to satisfy the boundary
requirements at the outer supports as will be shown later on.

The function Vg{x} plays the same role as Va{x} in the differential equation for the shear
deformation.

The constant H0 ( being a constant because at x = 0 the shear force must be zero) is
comparable in function to Vc{x} and Vd{x} and is also needed because at the outer clamp
the total deflection Vt{,t}=Vb{,t}+ Vs{,t} has to vanish.

The deflection Vb{,t} equals zero because Va{} + Vc{} + Vd{} = 0.


The functions Vc{x} and Vd{x} are coupled to each other because they have to meet
(together) the requirement for the bending moment of Vb{x} at x=0 and x=L.

Also Vs{,t} has to be zero, which is accomplished by Vg{} + H0 = 0.

Remember that Vb{,t} = Vb{Ltot - ,t} and Vs{,t} = Vs{Ltot - ,t}.

6. THEORETICAL SOLUTION WHEN NO EXTRA MASSES ARE PRESENT

In this case the two differential equations are not coupled by an extra moving mass at an
arbitrarily location. For a viscous-elastic material the equations can be written as:

4 2 2F
Smix e i I
x 4
Vb{ x , t } B H
t 2
Vb{ x , t } Q{ x , t } 0
Ltot
T
n 1
2 n 1 { x } .e i t

Smix 2
2 F0
[34]
2(1 )
e i B H
x 2
Vs{ x , t } Q{ x , t }
Ltot
U
n 1
2n { x } .e i t ; Note : is taken Real
i t i t
Vb{ x , t } Vb{ x }.e ; Vs{ x , t } Vs{ x }.e

Bending Deflection Vb

The solution for Vb is now represented by (.B.H.Ltot = Mbeam):



Vb{ x } Va{ x } Vc{ x } Vd { x } Va ,2n 1 { x } Vc{ x } Vd { x }
n1
[35]
A2 n 1 e i 2 n1 T2 n 1 { x } Vc{ x } Vd { x }
*

n1

* 2F0
With A2 n 1 e i 2 n1
2n 1
4
i 4
S mix e I. M beam 2
L3tot
The similarity with a mass-spring system is already obvious. Later on the expressions will be
given which are used in the Excel program. For the complete solution the function Vc{x}
and Vd{x} are needed when the total length of the beam is bigger than the distance between
the two outer clamps:


L i
Vc{ x } C 2 n1 Cos 0 x tot e 4 [36]
n 1 2

The function Vc{x} satisfies the homogenous differential equation (without the force
distribution Q{x}). Because the differential equation is of the order 4, the complementary
function Vc{ix} is also a solution (i4=+1).


L i
L i

M beam 2
Vd { x } D2 n1 Cos i . 0 x tot e 4 D2 n 1 Cosh 0 x tot e 4
; with 0 4 [37]
n1 2 n 1 2 Smix Ltot I
Finally the following requirements have to be fulfilled:

2
Requirements : Va{ }+Vc{ }+Vd{ } = 0 and Va{ x } Vc{ x } Vd { x } | x 0 0 [38]
x2

The second requirement leads to the following relationship between C2n-1 and D2n-1:

Ltot 0
Cos
2
2 .C
Va{ x }| x 0 0 D2 n1 2 n 1 0 C 2 n 1 [39]
x2
tot 0
L
Cosh
2

Invoking in the first requirement leads to:

* L L
A2 n 1 .e i 2 n1 T2 n1 { } C 2 n1 Cos 0 tot D2 n1 Cosh 0 tot 0
2 2
[40]
* L L
or A2 n1 .e i 2 n1 T2 n1 {} C 2 n 1 Cos 0 tot 0 Cosh 0 tot 0
2 2
Shear Deflection Vs

Important: As mentioned before, due to the lack of extra moving masses the solution can be
obtained as the product of the time function eit and the static solution. The last one can be
established by a simple (double) integration of the differential equation in which the point
loads are represented as the product of the load and a Dirac function (x). However, when a
coupling exists between the two differential equations this solution procedure will fail. In
that case a development in sines or cosines has to be used as done in this chapter. See also
Annex I and II.

Given the fact that the first derivate has to be zero at x = 0 and at x = Ltot the deflection Vs is
chosen as 2:

Vs{ x } Vg ,2 n { x } H 2 n e i 2 n U 2 n { x } H 0
n 1 n 1

2 F0 2(1 ) L2tot
H 2 n e i 2 n . . ; Notice that 2 n [41]
Ltot S mix e i B H (2 n)2 2


Requirement Vs{ } = 0 H 0 H 2 n e i 2 n U 2 n {}
n 1

2
In this case the load distribution is developed into a cosine series. Therefore the requirement that the shear
force at x=0 must be zero is automatically fulfilled. By adding a constant the requirement that the deflection
has to be zero for x= can be met.
It is also possible to obtain an alternative solution expression for Vs3:

x L
Alternative : Vs{ x } Vg*,2 n 1 { x } H 2*n1 e i 2 n1 T2 n 1 { x } H 0* H 1*
*
; 0 x tot
n 1 n 1
Ltot 2

i 2* n1 2 F0 2(1 ) L2tot
H *
2 n 1 e . . ; Notice that 2 n1
Ltot S mix e i B H (2n 1)2 2

H 1*

H 0* H 2*n1 e i 2 n1 T2 n1 { } 0
*
Vg*,2 n1 { x } 0 ; H 1*
x n 1 Ltot Ltot
| x 0 n 1 [42]


2F0 2(1 ) L2tot (2n 1)
H 1* H 1,2
*
n 1 H 1,2 n 1 Ltot .
*
. i
. . T2 n1 { / 2}
n 1 Ltot S mix e B H (2n 1) 2 2
Ltot


2 F0 2(1 ) L2tot
H H
* *
0,2 n 1 H *
0,2 n 1 . i
. . T2 n1 { } T2n 1 {0}
2
Ltot S mix e B H (2n 1)
0 2
n 1

The alternative solution is expressed in the odd T2n-1{x} series used in the solution for pure
bending and could be from this point an attractive alternative. However, this solution
require much more terms compared to the basic solution using the even U2n{x} series4.

Figure 1 The development of the Shear Deflection using a Cosine (Un) and a Sine (Tn) series

3
When the load distribution is developed into a sine series, two solutions for the homogenous differential
equation are needed in order to fulfil both the requirements at x=0 and x=. Furthermore the derivate of
Tn{x} at x=0 equals {2n./L}.Tn{/2}
4
If = 0 the T2n-1 series alone do not satisfy the requirement for the shear force at x = 0. The T2n-1 series
will lead after derivation to a series of 1/(2n-1) terms. In order to satisfy the boundary restriction a solution
of the homogenous differential equation has to be added: - x/(2n-1). This solution will eliminate the shear
force after the derivation of the terms x/(2n-1) at x = 0. However, the series 1/(2n-1) converges badly.
It is also possible to express Vs in Vb using equation 1a or equation 4. However equation 4
contains an unknown function in t and equation 1a is in fact similar to equation 10b because
the first term in equation 1a can be neglected compared to the second term. Therefore in the
Excel program only the final solution for Vt is obtained by developing Vs in cosine series.

Total Length Ltot equals the Effective Length Leff ( =0)

In that case the basic series development Tn and Un are defined by the symbol Pn and Rn:

If Ltot = Leff ( =0) than:


x
A
T2 n1 { x } P2 n1 { x } Sin 2n 1 .Sin 2n 1 ; P2 n 1 {0} 0
Leff L eff

x
A A
U 2 n { x } R2 n { x } Cos 2n . Cos 2n 1 ; R2 n {0} Cos 2n 1
Leff L eff L
eff [43]

Vb{ x } Va ,2 n 1 { x } A2 n 1 e i 2 n1 P2 n 1 { x } ; Vc{ x } Vd { x } 0
*

n1 n 1



A
Vs{ x } Vg ,2 n { x } H 2 n e i 2 n R2 n { x } H 0 H 0 H 2 n e i 2 n Cos 2n
* *
; 1
n 1
Leff
n1 n1

7. SOLUTION FOR THE PSEUDO-STATIC CASE

In the pseudo-static case the inertia forces do not play a role. Therefore the ratio of Vs and
Vb can easily be determined from equation [4] by omitting the time dependent terms.
d2
I E . 2 Vb x
Vs x dx In which E is the Stiffness of the beam [44]
G . B , H

Ltot
For (A ) x the bending deflection Vb is :
2
F0 ( Ltot 2 )3 A x x
2
A
2

Vb = . . 3 3
12 E I Ltot 2 Ltot 2 Ltot 2 Ltot 2 [45]
d2
I E . 2 Vb x F A 3 L 2 2 4 A2
dx F A (1 ) L 0
tot

Vs 0 ; Vb tot
G . B , H E . B , H 2 12 E B H 3

Ltot
Vs
Ltot F0 . A 2 4 1 .H 2
Vs{( A ) x } 5
[46]
2 2.G{ B , H } L
Vb tot
2

. 3 Ltot 2 4 A
2 2

L
Vs 2
5 2 54 . 1 . H
In ASTM standards A=L/3; Using = 2/3 the ratio will be: L
23 L
Vb
2
For x A the bending deflection Vb is :

( x )
2 2
F0 ( Ltot 2 )3 A A x [47]
Vb = . . 3 3
12 E I Ltot 2 Ltot 2 Ltot 2 Ltot 2
d2
I E . 2 Vb x F (1 )
Vs{ x A } dx 0 .( x )
G . B , H E BH
[48]
For 0 x the bending deflection Vb is :
F0 ( Ltot 2 A) A x Vs{0 x } 0 [49]
Vb =
4E I

In many textbooks and papers the value for is taken equal to 2/3. However, based on 1D,
2D and 3D finite element calculations with ABAQUS it was found that a value of 0,85 was
more appropriate. Thats to say the answers from 3D (and 1D) calculations are comparable
to the analytical solutions if a value of 0,85 was used. As expected the ratio depends on 3
parameters: Poisson ratio, the ratio H/L and the ratio A/L.

The value is obtained by comparing FEM calculations for the 1D case (bar elements) and
for the 2D case. In the 1D case it is possible to vary the stiffness modulus E and the shear
modulus G independently. In this way the deflections due to pure bending and shear can be
determined separately (by choosing an infinite value for G). Assuming that the 2D case
(and 3D case) will give correct answers the ratio Vs{Ltot/2}/Vb{Ltot/2} is determined. For
H/Ltot ratio of 25/450; 50/450 and 100/450 an value of 0,85 was established.

8. HOW TO INCORPERATE EXTRA MOVING MASSES.

The extra inertia forces are present in both differential equations:

i 4 2 2
Smix e I Vb{ x , t } B H 2 Vb{ x , t } M mass 2 Vt { xmass , t } Q{ x , t }
x4 t t
Smix 2 2 [50a,b]
e BH
i
Vs{ x , t } M mass 2 Vt { xmass , t } Q{ x , t }
2(1 ) x2 t
Vb{ x , t } Vb{ x }.e i t ; Vs{ x , t } Vs{ x }.e i t ; Vt { x , t } Vb{ x , t } Vs{ x , t }

In this report a correct solution procedure will be followed in contrast with a procedure
outlined in Part II Overhanging Beam Ends and Extra Moving Masses of these series. In
Part II the deflection due to shear was ignored and Vt{xmass,t} was taken equal to Vb{xmass,t}.
By multiple iteration (calculating Vb{xmass,t} and Vb{x,t} the ultimate deflection values were
established. This procedure was and is attractive because for the back calculation procedure
the extra moving masses could be incorporate in an easy way.

However, if the deflection due to shear is not ignored a different forward calculation has to
be performed. First of all the equations 50a,b are rewritten as:
i 4 2 2
Smix e I Vb{ x , t } B H 2 Vb{ x , t } Q{ x , t } M mass 2 Vt { x mass , t }. { x mass }
x4 t t
[51a,b]
Smix 2 2
e i B H Vs{ x , t } Q{ x , t } M Vt { xmass , t }. { xmass }
2(1 ) x2 mass
t2

In this way the forces due to an extra moving mass at a prescribed location are included in
the external (driven) force. In fact the same type of formulas as presented in chapter 6 can
be used if the force F is replaced by: F F M mass 02 Vt{ xmass } according to equations [31]
to [33]. Because the influences of extra masses are for normal conditions small, a simple
iteration procedure can be performed:

1. The first step is the calculation of the bending and shear deflections at the desired
location x and the location(s) xmass where the extra moving masses are using the
equations for the system without extra moving masses.

2. Than the total deflection at xmass is calculated: Vt{ xmass} = Vb{ xmass } + Vs{ xmass }

3. The second step is the calculation of the deflections with extra moving masses in
which for the deflection Vt{ xmass } at the right hand side of equations [51a,b] the value
of the former step is taken.

4. Step 3 is repeated until the estimate value for Vt{ xmass } of the former step doesnt
differ from the new estimated value for Vt{ xmass }

5. In the Excel program the iterations are not performed using e.g. Visual Basic.
Therefore the number of iterations is limited to nine steps which are in normally
situations enough.
ANNEX I Development in Sine or Cosine Series

In chapter 5 the load function Q was developed into infinite a series of sine or cosine
functions. With respect to the boundary conditions, the sine function series was adopted for
the deflection due to pure bending and the cosine function series was adopted for the
deflection due to shear. In this annex we will try the opposite.
Pure Bending
When a cosine function series is used the boundary condition for the second derivation is
not met. Therefore even in the case of no overhanging beam ends the solutions Vc{x} and
Vd{x} have to be added

2
2
Ae

x 2
Vb{ x , t }
x 2
* in*
n .U n { x } Vc{ x } Vd { x } .e i0 t 0 I-1
x0 n 2,4,6,.. x0

The other condition is that at the outer clamp the deflection should be zero.

A


Vb{ , t } Va{ } Vc{ } Vd {} .e i0t *
2n
i2*n
e .U 2 n { } Vc{ } Vd { } .e i0t 0 I-2
n 1

Therefore we have two equations, which make it possible to calculate the coefficients Cn and
Dn of the deflections functions Vc{x} and Vd{x}.

Pure Shear
In case of the deflection due to shear it is also possible to solve the problem using sine
functions. However, the only acceptable solution of the homogenous differential equation for
the whole interval (0 x Ltot) is a single constant H0 times the time function. This is not
enough to satisfy both conditions: no shear at x=0 and no deflection at x=. However, an
acceptable solution will be possible if the interval 0 x Ltot is divided into 2 separate
intervals: 0 x Ltot /2 and Ltot /2 x Ltot. In the first interval we have the extra
solution H1.x + H0 and in the second interval the solution - H1.x + H0 + H1. Ltot.

x A
Tn { x } Sin 2m 1 . Sin 2m 1 Sin 2m 1
Ltot Ltot Ltot
2m 1 x A I-3
Tn { x } Cos 2m 1 . Sin 2m 1 Sin 2m 1
x x0
Ltot Ltot Ltot Ltot
L x 0
x tot L
2 x tot
2

2m 1 A
At x 0 : Tn { x } . Sin 2m 1 Sin 2m 1
x x 0 Ltot Ltot L tot
I-4
2m 1 A
At x Ltot : Tn { x } . Sin 2m 1 Sin 2m 1
x x Ltot Ltot Ltot L tot
m 2m 1 A
. Sin 2m 1 Sin 2m 1
m 1 Ltot Ltot L tot
m
A
. Sin 2m 1 . Sin 2m 1
Ltot Ltot
Sin 2m 1 I-5
m 1 Ltot
m
A

. Ltot Sin 2m 1 . Sin 2 m 1 Sin 2 m 1
m 1 Ltot Ltot Ltot

At x = Ltot /2 the deflection is continuous but the first derivate changes from sign.

ANNEX II The series development for the deflection due to shear

INTRODUCTION

In the Handbook of Mathematical Functions (M. Abramowitz & I.A. Segun; Dover
publications, Inc., New York) an overview is given of summable series consisting of either
sines or cosines.

Cos( n )

n 1 n e Ln 2 Sin
2
for 0 2


Cos( n ) 2
2

n 1
n 2

6

2

4
for 0 2 II-1

Cos( n ) 4 2 2 3 4

n 1
n4

90

12

12

48
for 0 2

Sin( n ) 1

n 1
n
2
for 0 2

Sin( n ) 2 2 3

n 1
n3

6

4

12
for 0 2 II-2

Sin( n ) 4 2 3 4 5

n 1
n4

90

36

48

240
for 0 2


Sin( n )

t
The series
e
Ln 2 Sin dt {Clausens Integral} will converge for
n 1 n 2 0 2

0 but is not summable like the sine and cosine series given above. The Clausens
integral can only be expressed in another series representation:


Sin( n ) 1 n 1 2 n 1

n 1
2
n e Ln
n 1 2 n !
B2n
2n (2n 1)
for 0
2
6
II-3

6
The coefficient B2n is not given in the Handbook of Mathematical Functions but can (probably) found in

Sin( n )
Tabulations of the function ( )
n 1
n 2
by A. Ashour and A. Sabri (Math. Tables Aids Comp.,

1956)
This does not explain the large difference in the convergence of the two solutions (sine or
cosine series) for the deflection due to shear. The series expansion for the deflections due to
shear and pure bending consist out of a product of two sines or two cosines. Such a product
can be reduced to a summation of subtraction of two cosine terms:

Cos( ) Cos( ) Cos( ) Cos( )


Sin( ). Sin ) & Cos( ).Cos( ) II-4
2 2

The obtained cosine expansions can be summed up due to the term n2 in the denominator of
the cosine terms (eq. II-1). In the next paragraph it will be shown that both series
expansions (sine & cosine) will lead to the same answer. Notice that the same conclusion
yields for the deflection due to pure bending in which the denominator of the terms contains
a term n4 (eq. II-1). Further it is noticed the series expansion for the strain due to pure
bending (2nd derivation of the deflection Vb with respect to x) is build up out of cosines terms
divided by n2 (like the expansion for the shear deflection) and therefore converge fast. This is
in contrast with the (bending) strain derived in the same way for the shear deflection. The
expansion leads in that procedure to a summation of cosine terms without a denominator
which depends on n.

Shear Deflection and Shear Strain using the Cosine and Sine series expansion

Deflection

If no extra moving masses are involved the deflection due to shear can be easily obtained
from equation [44 ]for the static case which leads for the interval A+ < x < Ltot/2 to:

F0 ( Ltot 2 )3 A x x
2
A
2

Vb{x} = . . 3 3
12 E I Ltot 2 Ltot 2 Ltot 2 Ltot 2
d2 II-5
I E . 2 Vb x F0 A 3 Ltot 2 4 A2
2

dx F0 A (1 ) Ltot
Vs{ x } ; Vb
G . B , H E . B , H 2 12 E B H 3

This means that the shear deflection Vs has a constant value on this interval which also
ought to be the summation of the expansion in cosines or sines terms. A proof will be given
for the expansion in cosines terms while this expansion converge the best.

Shear Strain

In case of the deflection due to pure bending the related bending (horizontal) strain is
derived from a 2nd derivation of the deflection with respect to the distance X. In fact this 2nd
derivation will give the moment M (see Part I of these series). In the static case the
deflection polynomial between X = A + and X = Ltot - A - is of the order two
(parabolic). Therefore the (bending) strain in this region will be a constant. The CEN
formulas are based on this relationship by assuming the same parabolic equation for the
amplitude of the deflection in case of a dynamic situation. The mass inertia forces due to the
weight of the beam and other extra (moving) masses will disturb this simple relationship.
Assuming that for single sine or cosine terms in the series expansions for the deflection due
to pure bending the 2nd derivation of the deflection will lead to the correct strain value for
this deflection component, the bending strains are calculated in the Excel program. As
shown by calculations the differences in strain values with the static case are rather small
for low frequencies and low masses for the beam. Except for the case in which the chosen
location is equal or near to the position of the clamps (supports).

As can be obtained from the differential equation for the deflection Vs due to shear, a
(theoretical calculated) 2nd derivation with respect to x will lead to a zero value as expected,
even in the case of dynamic loading (without extra moving masses). A shear force does not
lead to a horizontal strain in the beam but will only deform the cross section of the beam.
This deduction is based on the formulas for the static and dynamic case in which no extra
moving masses are present. When an extra moving mass is present (e.g. the weight of the
plunger) the two principle differential equations are coupled by the mass inertia force at the
point where the mass is connected to the beam (often the two inner clamps or supports) and
the reaction forces at the two outer supports. Due to the extra term the phase lag for the
shear deflection will not have the same (but opposite) value as the phase lag of the complex
stiffness modulus for the beam. The difference is small but exists. Therefore the shear
strain should be calculated from the deflections which are based on an expansion in
sines or cosines terms. However, especially for locations at and near the clamps will lead to
lead to unrealistic strain values. Performing the required 2nd derivation will eliminate the
convergence of the expansion (the factor n2 will vanish in the denominator of the terms).
Only the appearance of an extra moving mass may give some convergence.

Shear Deflection Vs

Omitting the term for the phase lag and the time function, the solution in a series
development is given by equation II-6

2 F0 2(1 ) L2tot
Vs{ x } H 2 n U 2 n { x } U 2 n { } ; H 2n . . II-6
n 1 Ltot S mix B H (2 n)2 2

The series Un is given by equation II-7.

x A
U 2 n { x } Cos 2n . Cos 2n Cos 2n II-7
Ltot Ltot Ltot

Using equation II-4 equation II-7 can be rewritten as equation II-8

x A
U 2 n { x } Cos 2n . Cos 2n Cos 2n
Ltot Ltot Ltot

II-8
x A x A x x
Cos 2n Cos 2n Cos 2n 2n
Cos
Ltot Ltot Ltot Ltot
2
A
U 2 n { } Cos 2n . Cos 2n Cos 2n
Ltot Ltot Ltot

II-9
A A 2 2
Cos 2n Cos 2n 1 Cos 2n
Ltot Ltot Ltot
2

If equals 0 equations II-8 and II-9 can be rewritten as:

x A x A x
Cos 2n Cos 2n 2 Cos 2n
Ltot Ltot Ltot A II-10
U 2n { x} ; U 2 n {0} Cos 2n 1
2 Ltot

Due to the term n2 in the denominator (see eq. II-6) these series can be summed up.
Applying equation II-1 leads for the interval A+ x Ltot/2 finally to the solution as given

Ltot (1 )F0 A
by equation 45: Vs{ A x } II-11
2 Smix B H

As mentioned before using the U2n{x} series will lead to a reasonable fast convergence for
the development of the series. This is due to the fact that the U2n{x} series already satisfy one
boundary restriction of the differential equation (shear force = 0 for x = 0).
Using the T2n-1{x} series is a different story. Specially when 0 the convergence is
gone.

Horizontal Shear Strain Contribution(?)

The title of this paragraph is somehow misleading. As can be seen by the equations for the
shear deflection in chapter 7, the shear force will not contribute to the horizontal strain in
the beam in the case that there are no extra moving masses. But even when extra moving
masses are present, there ought to be no contribution. However, in that case the strain is
calculated by taking the second derivate of the deflection. And hence the convergence of the
series expansion is lost while the term (2n-1)2 in the denominator of the terms is eliminated
by the derivation. Therefore it is better to calculate the strain in another way:

1. Define, in spite of the results of the 2nd derivate of the shear deflection, the
contribution of the shear force to the horizontal strain as zero.

2. Multiply the calculated or measured total deflection according to the following


1
formula: Vb { x } Vt{ x }.
*

Ratio{ x } 1
3. For measuring the total deflection in the centre (Ltot/2) the Ratio is equal to:
Ltot
Ltot Vs{ x } 4 1 .H 2
Ratio{ x } 2 [Pseudo-static case]
2
Vb{ x
Ltot
} . 3 Ltot 4 A
2 2

2
And if the deflection is calculated or measured at the inner clamp by:

Vs{ x A} 4 1 .H 2

Ratio{ x A } [Pseudo-static case]


Vb{ x A} . 3 L2tot 4 A2
4. In this way a good estimate for the deflection due to bending is obtained. By
multiplying this deflection with the following factor a good estimate is found for the
real horizontal strain value.
5.
12 Ltot 2
3
1
R { x}
*
.
A 3 x Ltot 2 3 x 2 A2
HA 3H
{ x} . R* { x }.Vb* { x } .Vb* { x }
4 Ltot 2
3
3 x Ltot 2 3 x A
2 2