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EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENT

APPARATUS

EES-HE-LH
Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

NOTE:

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this manual is accurate;
however no labiality is accepted for errors. Should an error be discovered please inform the
company in writing, giving full details. Any experimental results given are for guidance only and
are not guaranteed as exact answers that can be obtained for a given apparatus; due to the
complex variables applicable to most experiments.

EES-HE-LH
Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

Table of Contents
Page

1. INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................... 1

2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................... 2


2.1 Unit Assembly ............................................................................................................ 2
2.2 Experimental Capabilities ........................................................................................... 4
2.3 Technical Specifications ............................................................................................. 4
2.4 Overall Dimensions .................................................................................................... 5
2.5 General Requirements ................................................................................................. 5

3. INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING .............................................................. 6


3.1 Temperature Sensors and Metal Plate......................................................................... 6
3.2 Heat Source ................................................................................................................. 6
3.3 Light Source ................................................................................................................ 6
3.4 Radiometer .................................................................................................................. 6
3.5 Light Meter ................................................................................................................. 6
3.6 Commissioning Procedure .......................................................................................... 7

4. SUMMARY OF THEORY ............................................................................................ 8


4.1 Inverse Square Law for Heat ...................................................................................... 8
4.2 Stefan-Boltzmann Law ............................................................................................... 8
4.3 Kirchhoffs Law .......................................................................................................... 8
4.4 Area factors ................................................................................................................. 9
4.5 Inverse Square Law for Light ..................................................................................... 9
4.6 Lamberts Cosine Law ................................................................................................ 10
4.7 Lamberts Law of Absorption ..................................................................................... 10

5. GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES ................................................................. 11


5.1 General Start-up Procedure ......................................................................................... 11
5.2 General Shutdown Procedure ..................................................................................... 12

6. EXPERIMENTS ............................................................................................................ 13
6.1 Experiment 1; Inverse Square Law for Heat ............................................................... 13
6.2 Experiment 2; Stefan-Boltzmann Law........................................................................ 14
6.3 Experiment 3; Radiation from a source by the View Factor ...................................... 15
6.4 Experiment 4; The Emissivity of Radiating Surface .................................................. 16
6.5 Experiment 5; Emissivity............................................................................................ 17
6.6 Experiment 6; Kirchhoffs Law .................................................................................. 19
6.7 Experiment 7; Area Factors ........................................................................................ 20
6.8 Experiment 8; Inverse Square Law for Light ............................................................. 22
6.9 Experiment 9; Lamberts Cosine Law ........................................................................ 23
6.10 Experiment 10; Lamberts Law of Absorption ......................................................... 25

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

7. EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE .................................................................................. 27


7.1 General ........................................................................................................................ 27
7.2 Heat Source and Black Plate ....................................................................................... 27
7.3 Radiometer .................................................................................................................. 27

8. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS............................................................................................. 27
8.1 Warnings ..................................................................................................................... 27
8.2 Cautions ...................................................................................................................... 27

APPENDIX A Experimental Data Sheets


APPENDIX B Radiometer Calibration
APPENDIX C Typical Experimental Results
APPENDIX D Sample Calculations

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

1 INTRODUCTION:

Thermal radiation is a mode of heat transfer, which differs significantly from the other
two modes, namely conduction and convection. The fact that radiant energy transfer
occurs across a vacuum is often disturbing to students unless the theory relating to
properties of electromagnetic waves has been presented.

The engineer is not directly concerned with the mechanism by which heat transfer occurs,
sound knowledge of the properties and laws relating to the topic are required.

The EES Emissivity Measurement Apparatus consists of a pair of electrically heated


radiant heat and light sources, together with a comprehensive range of targets and
measuring instrumentation.

The unit has been designed to demonstrate the fundamental laws relating to radiation. By
performing a series of simple experiments the student may verify the relevant equation
appreciate the behavior of radiation.

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION:

The unit consists of a horizontal track fitted with interchangeable heat radiation source
end and light source. Either the heat radiation detector or the light meter may be placed
on the horizontal track. In addition, a number of accessories can be fitted for
experimental purposes. These include metal plates, two vertically orientated metal plates
to form an aperture, and a number of light filters. The radiation detectors accessories are
all clamped to stand, which enable them to be positioned at different distances from the
source. Distances are measured with measuring tape.

Temperatures of the three metal plates used in conjunction with the heat radiation source
are displayed on the Heat Transfer Apparatus. Output from heat radiation detector and
light meter are displayed on digital read out.

2.1 Unit Assembly:

8 7 5 3 2 1

9 6 4

10

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

1. Heated Surface 2. Target Plates (Thermocouple facing the Heater)


3. Radiometer 4. Data Logger for radiometer
5. Lux Meter Sensor 6. Lux Meter
7. Aperture plates 8. Light Source
9. Filter Plate 10. Control Box

Filter plate
Light meter

Light
Source

Target Plate
Radiometer
Aperture
Heated
Surface

Figure 1: Unit Assembly & Section View

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

2.2 Experiment Capabilities:

1. Inverse Square Law for Heat - To show that the intensity of radiation on a
surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface
from the radiation source.
2. Stefan-Boltzmann Law - To show that the intensity of radiation varies as the
fourth power of the source temperature.
3. Kirchoffs Law - To determine the validity of Kirchoffs Law which states
that the emissivity of a grey surface is equal to its absorptivity of radiation
received from another surface when in a condition of thermal equilibrium.
4. Area Factors - To demonstrate that the exchange of radiant energy from one
surface to another is dependent upon their interconnecting geometry, i.e. a
function of the amount that each surface can see of the other.
5. Inverse Square Law for Light - To show that the illuminance of a surface is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the
light source.
6. Lambert's Cosine Law - To show that the energy radiated in any direction at
an angle with a surface is equal to the normal radiation multiplied by the
cosine of the angle between the direction of radiation and the normal to the
surface.
7. Lambert's Law of Absorption - To show that light passing through non-
opaque matter is reduced in intensity in proportion to the thickness and
absorptivity of the material.
8. Determining the emissitivity of radiating surface with different finishes
namely polished and gray compared with matt black.
9. Demonstrating on how the emissitivity of radiating surface in close proximity
to each other will affect the surface temperature and the heat exchanged.
10. Demonstrating the exchange of radiant energy from one surface to another is
dependent upon their interconnecting geometry for example, a function of the
amount that each surface can see of the other.

2.3 Technical Specifications:

1. Light Source - Consist of a bulb rated at 100 Watt, to produce a yellow light
without filter and white light using an acrylic filter.
2. Heated Surface - Consist of a heating aluminium plate rated at 216 Watt.
Matt Black Finish.
3. Target Plate - Consist of three types Polished, Grey and Matt Black with
bolt-on temperature sensor.

Note: When assemble the target plates, make sure that the bolt-on thermocouple
is facing the heated surface.

4. Aperture - Consist of two plates with insulation on one side of the surface.
The Insulated surface will be facing the heated surface during the experiment.
5. Plastic Filter - Consist of three types of density known as Clear, Medium and
Dark plate (Optional).
6. Radiometer - Range: 0 2000 W/m2
7. Light Meter - Range: 0 3333 Lux

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

2.4 Overall Dimensions:

Height : 550mm
Width : 320mm
Depth : 1250mm

2.5 General Requirements:

The equipment should be installed on a firm, level work surface.

The location should be remote from heaters or other sources of radiation and
should preferably be a darkened room for light experiments. If a darkened room is
not available, the apparatus should be located in subdued lighting away from
direct sunlight.

Electrical: 240 VAC, Single-phase, 50/60Hz

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

3 INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING:

Ensure that the main switch of the Radiation Heat Transfer Apparatus is switched off.
Place the Radiant Heat Transfer & Exchange unit on a flat surface adjacent to the Heat
Transfer Apparatus. The unit utilised various combination and therefore there is no one
common assembly procedure. However, the following notes relate to the important
details on the various components.

3.1 Temperature Sensors and Metal Plate:

The heater plate comes with an internal thermocouple. Plug in the thermocouple
labelled TH to the socket on the Heat Transfer Apparatus marked TH for the heater
plate temperature measurement. Connect the temperature sensor from the Black
metal plate to miniature socket marked as TB, connect the temperature sensor
from the Grey metal plate to miniature socket marked as TG and connect the
temperature sensor from the Polished metal plate to miniature socket marked as
TP on the Heat Transfer Apparatus.

3.2 Heat Source:

Install the heat source assembly on the holder with screws provided. Connect the
power lead to the output socket of the control panel.

3.3 Light Source:

Install the light source assembly on the bracket with screws provided. Connect
the power lead to the socket of the control panel.

3.4 Radiometer:

The radiometer is fitted with a cranked mounting as shown in the diagram to


ensure that the sensing surface is in the same plane as reference mark when
installed on the track.

3.5 Light Meter:

The light meter is located on a straight mounting on the track so that its sensing
surface is in the same plane as the reference mark on the carriage.

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3.6 Commissioning Procedure:

1. Ensure that the main switches of the Heat Transfer Apparatus is switch off.
2. Then install the radiometer on the horizontal track. The complete installation
is shown in Figure 1.
3. Connect the heater supply cable to the power output socket to the control box.
4. Connect the radiometer cable to the data logger.
5. Connect the thermocouples of the heater assembly (TH) and three target plates
(TB, TG and TP) to the Control box. Then switch on the apparatus.
6. Check the thermocouple reading from the plate should indicate ambient
temperature.
7. Check the radiometer on the data logger indicates zero.
8. Supply power to the heater, TH temperature and the radiometer reading should
increase.
9. As the surface temperature of the heat source increases, observe the readouts
of radiation. The reading should increase.
10. Turn off the power supply to the heaters and allow sufficient time to cold
down the heated plate to below 50C.
11. Install the Lux meter on the horizontal track. The complete installation is
shown in Figure 1.
12. Connect the light source power lead to the output socket to the control box.
13. Check the light meter measurement on the indicator. The measurement should
give zero reading when the unit is placed in dark room.
14. Supply power to the light source.
15. Check the light meter responds to the change in illumination of the light
source.
16. The unit is now ready for testing.

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4 SUMMARY OF THEORY:

4.1 Inverse Square Law for Heat:

The total energy dQ from an element dA can be imagined to flow through a


hemisphere of radius r. A surface element on this hemisphere dA1 lies on a line
making an angle with the normal and the solid angle subtended by dA1 at dA is
d1= dA1/r2.
(NOTE: solid angle which is by definition the intercepted area on a sphere divided
by r2.)
If the rate of flow of energy through dA1 is dQ1 then dQ1= i d1dA where i is
the intensity of radiation in the direction.
i.e. dQ1 1/ r2

4.2 Stefan-Boltzmann Law:

The Stefan-Boltzmann Law states that: qb= (TS 4- Ta 4)

Where:
qb = energy emitted by unit area of a black body surface (Wm-2)

(Note: Energy emitted by surface =3.040 X reading from radiometer R-refer to


Radiometer Data Sheet for explanation)

= Stefan-Boltzmann constant equal to 5.67 x 10-8 (Wm-2 K-4)


TS= Source temperature and surrounding (K)
Ta= Temperature of radiometer and surroundings (K)

4.3 Kirchhoffs Law:

T
E 1
4
1 A1

A2 T 1
A1
T1
E1
1

T
1
4
1 A1

For a grey body having area A1, temperature T1, emissivity E1 and absorptivity
1 surrounded by a black enclosure of area A2 at the same temperature T1, then
for thermal equilibrium the grey body must absorb as much radiation as it emits.
i.e. 1 T24A1 = E1 c T14 A1 from which = E

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4.4 Area Factors:

A2

T2
A1
Q12

T1

The heat transfer rate from one radiating black surface to another is dependent on
the amount that each surface can see of the other surface. In order to solve
radiant heat transfer problems an area factor F is introduced where F is defined by
the fraction of energy emitted per unit time by one surface that is intercepted by
the other surface.

Thus, the time rate of radiant heat transfer (Q12) between two black surfaces of
area A1 and A2 at temperatures T1 and T2 respectively is given by:

Q 12 =A1F12 (T14- T24)

Area factors are found by analysis, numerical approximation and analogy, and
results for common configurations have been published in graphical form.

4.5 Inverse Square Law for Light:

r Er
r
ssagdhig-
hdfhihigf

The luminous flux r from a point light source is considered to spatially radiate
and produce an illuminance, Er on a spherical surface at radius r from the light
source. Since the surface area of the sphere is given by 4r2, the illuminance is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the light
source.

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

4.6 Lamberts Cosine Law:

Lambert's Law of diffuse radiation states that: I = IN Cos

Where:
IN = intensity of radiation in normal direction
I = intensity of radiation in a direction at angle to the normal.

4.7 Lamberts Law of Absorption:

Absorptivity of material ()

Io
I

Light Source

Illuminance (E) X

The luminous intensity (If) after having penetrated the material to a distance (X) is given
by:
If = (Io- IR) e-x

Where:

= absorptivity of the material


X = thickness of material
Io = original luminous intensity
IR = reflected component
If = luminous intensity after traverse.

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5 GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES:

5.1 General Start-up Procedure:

5.1.1 Heat Studies:

1. Ensure that the main switches of the Heat Transfer Apparatus is off.
2. Install the radiometer on the horizontal track. The complete installation
is shown in Figure 1.
3. Connect the heater supply cable to the power output socket of the
control box.
4. Connect the radiometer cable to the data logger.
5. Connect the thermocouples of the heater assembly (TH) and three
target plates (TB, TG and TP) to the control box. Then switch on the
control box.
6. Check the thermocouple reading from the plate should indicate
ambient temperature.
7. Check the radiometer on the panel indicates zero.
8. Supply power to the heater, TH temperature and the radiometer reading
should increase.
9. As the surface temperature of the heat source increases, observe the
readouts of radiation. The reading should increase.
10. The unit is now ready for experiment.

5.1.2 Light Studies:

1. Ensure that the main switches of the Heat Transfer Service Unit is off.
2. Install the Lux meter on the horizontal track. The complete installation
is shown in Figure 1.
3. Connect the light source power lead to the output socket of the control
box.
4. Check the Lux meter measurement on the indicator. The measurement
should give zero reading when the unit is in dark room.
5. Supply the power to the light source.
6. Check the light meter responds to the change in illumination of the
light source.
7. The unit is now ready for experiment.

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5.2 General Shutdown Procedure:

1. Turn off the power supply to either the heat source or the light source.
2. Follow the general shut down procedure for the power supply and the service
unit.
3. Keep all the accessories of the radiant Heat Transfer & Exchange unit at a
proper place.
4. Keep the radiometer in its packing, neither touch the glass of radiometer nor
clean it with simple cloth.
5. If radiometer need cleaning then use the cloth provided with it.

Warning:

DO NOT touch the heater plate while it is hot. Leave the equipment for a sufficient
time to cold down the heater plate after switching off the heater.

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

6 EXPERIMENTS:

6.1 Experiment 1; Inverse Square Law for Heat:

Objective:

To show that the intensity of radiation on a surface is inversely proportional to the


square of the distance of the surface from the radiation source

Procedure:

1. Follow the basic instruction as written in section 5.1.1.


2. Connect one of the thermocouple of the target plates say TP, to the control box
and place the plate on the bench, to record ambient temperature.
3. Position the radiometer on the test track at 800 mm from the heat source.
4. Switch on the power to the heaters using switch on the control box.
5. Monitor TH reading on the control box.
6. When TH value has stabilized or reached to controlled temperature, record TB,
TH, the distance x, and the radiometer reading R.
7. Next, move the radiometer position to 700 mm from the heated surface and
monitor the reading on the display panel. When the value has stabilized,
record TP, TH, the distance x, and the radiometer reading R.
8. Repeat the above procedure by reducing the distance by 100 mm until the
radiometer is 300 mm from the heated surface.

Observations:

Distance, Radiometer
TP (oC) TH (oC)
x(mm) Reading, R(W/m2)
800
700
600
500
400
300

Assignment:

Plot the Log of the radiometer reading R versus Log x graph and calculate the
slope. Compare the result with the theoretical value.

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6.2 Experiment 2; Stefan-Boltzmann Law:

Objective:

To show that the intensity of radiation varies as the fourth power the source
temperature.

Procedure:

1. Follow the basic instruction as written in section 5.1.1.


2. Connect one of the thermocouple of the target plates TP to the Control box and
place the plate on the bench, to record ambient temperature.
3. Position the radiometer on the test track at 800 mm from the heat source.
4. Switch on the power to the heaters using the switch on the control box.
5. Monitor TH reading on control box.
6. When TH value has stabilized or reached to controlled temperature, move the
radiometer to 300 mm from the heated plate. The reading of the radiometer
should start to rise. When the value has stabilized, record TP, TH, the distance
x, and the radiometer reading, R.
7. Next, move the radiometer to 800 mm from the heated plate again.
8. Repeat the above procedure with an increment of temperatures from PID
controller.

Observations:

Temperature, T Distance, Radiometer


TP (oC) TH (oC)
(oC) x(mm) Reading, R(W/m2)
50 300
80 300
110 300
140 300

Assignment:

Calculate the relationship between the Stefan Boltzmann Law and the radiation
received by the radiometer, given as a factor of F.

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6.3 Experiment 3; Radiation from a Source by the View Factor:

Objective:

To show that the intensity of radiation measured by the radiometer is directly


related to the radiation emitted from a source by the view factor between the
radiometer and the source

Procedure:

1. Follow the basic instruction as written in section 5.1.1.


2. Connect one of the thermocouple of the target plates, TP to the apparatus and
place the plate on the bench, to record ambient temperature.
3. Position the radiometer on the test track at 800 mm from the heat source.
4. Switch on the power to the heaters using the switch on the control box.
5. Monitor TH reading on the control box.
6. When TH value has stabilized or reached to controlled temperature, record TP,
TH, the distance x, and the radiometer reading R.
7. Repeat the Above procedure with decrement steps of 100 mm until the
radiometer is 300 mm from the heated surface.

Observations:

Distance, Radiometer
TP (oC) TH (oC)
x(mm) Reading, R(W/m2)
800
700
600
500
400
300

Assignment:

Calculate the radiation incident on the detector qb x Sin2 and compare with the
measured radiation value, R.

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6.4 Experiment 4; The Emissivity of Radiating Surface:

Objective:

To determine the emissivity of radiating surfaces with different finishing, namely


polished, grey and matt black

Procedure:

1. Follow the basic instruction as written in section 5.1.1.


2. Connect the thermocouple of the Black plate, TB to the apparatus and position
the plate at 200 mm from the heated surface. Use thermocouple, TG to
measure the ambient temperature.
3. Position the radiometer on the test track at 800 mm from the heat source.
4. Switch on the power to the heaters using the switch on the control box.
5. Monitor TB and TH readings on control box.
6. When TB and TH have stabilized, position the radiometer at 200 mm from the
target plate, and then record TB, TG, TH, the distance x, and the radiometer
reading R when all measurements have stabilized.
7. Move the radiometer back to 800 mm from the heated plate.
8. Now, connect the thermocouple of the grey plate, TG to the service unit and
position the plate at 200 mm from the heated surface. Use thermocouple, TP to
measure the ambient temperature.
9. Monitor TG and TH readings on control box.
10. When TG and TH have stabilized, position the radiometer at 200 mm from the
target plate, and then record TG, TP, TH, the distance x, and the radiometer
reading R when all measurements have stabilized.
11. Move the radiometer back to 800 mm from the heated plate.
12. Repeat procedure 7 until 9 with polished plate, TP placed on the track and
Black plate, TB to measure the ambient temperature.

Note: Leave the radiometer for a while at 800 mm position after each
experiment so that residual heating will dissipate.

Observations:

Radiometer Radiometer
Sample TB TG TP TH
Reading, R Distance, x
No. (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC)
(W/m2) (mm)
1 - 200
2 - 200
3 - 200

Assignment:

1. Calculate the radiation using Stefan Boltzmann formula and the view factor,
F.
2. Calculate the emissitivity of each plate.

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6.5 Experiment 5; Emissivity:

Objective:

To demonstrate how the emissitivity of radiating surface in close proximity to


each other will affect the surface temperature and heat exchanged

Procedure:

1. Follow the basic instruction as written in section 5.1.1.


2. Install the plate holder and position the holder with index mark 70 mm from
the heated pate.
3. Connect the thermocouple of the black plate (TB), grey plate (TG) and polished
plate (TP) to Heat Transfer Apparatus and place the plates on the bench to
record the ambient temperature.

Note:In order to have consistent readings, the distance between the last plate
and the radiometer is kept at 100 mm. The radiometer has to be moved
depending upon the number of plate used.

4. Switch on the power to the heaters using the switch on the control box.
5. Monitor TH reading on control box.
6. Then, move the radiometer to 300 mm from the heated surface.
7. When the readings have stabilized, record the relevant temperature reading,
TH, the distance x, and the radiometer reading R.
8. Return the radiometer to 800 mm position.
9. Add plates with the following combination:

Test 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 - Black Black Black Black Black Polished Polished Polished
Slot

2 - - Polished Grey - Polished - Grey -


3 - - - - Grey Grey - - Grey

10. Move the radiometer 100 mm from the target plate and record the necessary
reading when stable value achieved.

Slot No.

123
Target Plate

Heated
Surface Radiometer

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Observations:

Test 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 - Black Black Black Black Black Polished Polished Polished


Slot

2 - - Polished Grey - Polished - Grey -

3 - - - - Grey Grey - - Grey


TB

- - - -
Recorded Data

TG

- - - -
TP

- - - -
TH
R
Position

Radio
meter
(mm)

300 250 270 270 290 290 250 270 290

Assignment:

Take all reading and compare the values.

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6.6 Experiment 6; Kirchhoffs Law:

Objective:

To determined validity of Kirchhoffs Law, which states that, the emissivity of a


grey surface is equal to its absorptivity of radiation received from another surface
when in a condition of thermal equilibrium

Procedure:

1. Follow the basic instruction as written in section 5.1.1.


2. Connect thermocouple of the grey plate (TG) to the apparatus and place the
plate on the plate holder 70 mm from the heated surface. Connect
thermocouple of the polished plate (TP) to read ambient temperature.
3. Install the radiometer on the track at 800 mm from the heated surface.
4. Switch on the power to the heaters using the switch on the control box.
5. Monitor TH reading on control box.
6. When TH value has stabilized, move the radiometer to 100 mm from the grey
plate. The reading of the radiometer should start to rise. When the value has
stabilized, record TG, TH, distance x, and R.
7. Now, carefully remove the radiometer from the stand. Point the radiometer to
a wall or the bench where the unit standing and hold the sensing face about 50
to 100 mm from the target. Record the ambient temperature TP, and R.
8. Repeat the above procedure using ice cube or crushed ice.

Note: When the radiometer is returned to the equipment from the cold or warm
location, it will gradually return to room temperature causing readings to drift.
This experiment is only a demonstration. Accurate and steady readings are not
required.

Observations:

Temperature of metal plate: ___ C

Sample Used PLATE WALL ICE


2
Radiometer Reading, R (W/m )
Ambient Temperature, TP (oC)

Assignment:

1. Record ambient temperature and the radiometer measurements accordingly.


2. Compare the Radiometer readings.

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6.7 Experiment 7; Area Factors:

Objective:

To demonstrate that the exchange of radiant energy from one surface to another is
dependent upon their interconnecting geometry, i.e. a function of the amount that
each surface can 'see' of the other

Procedure:

1. Follow the basic instruction as written in section 51.1.


2. Install the aperture holder at 200 mm from the heated surface. Then install the
radiometer on the track at 800 mm from the heated surface.
3. Switch on the power to the heaters using the switch on the control box.
4. Monitor TH reading on control box.
5. When TH value has stabilized, move the radiometer position to 200 mm from
the aperture position. The reading of the radiometer should start to rise. When
the value has stabilized, record TH, aperture width and R.
6. Next, install the aperture plates on the aperture holder and adjust the width to
5 mm. Again, record TH, aperture width and R when the reading has
stabilized.
7. Increase the gap with an increment of 5 mm increment and repeat the above
procedures.

Aperture
SURFACE
HEATED

Variable aparture gap


Plate

Cork

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Observations:

Width (mm) X (mm) R (W/m2)


No aperture
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55

Assignment:

1. Calculate the area factor.


2. Plot Area factor vs. Aperture width (in mm) graph.

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6.8 Experiment 8; Inverse Square Law for Light:

Objective:

To show that the illuminance of a surface is inversely proportional to the square


of the distance of the surface from the light source

Procedure:

1. Follow the basic instruction as written in section 5.1.2.

Note: The lux meter is very sensitive to the sunlight and other artificial light
generated from the surrounding. It is recommended that the experiment is to
be conducted in a dark room.

2. Position the light meter at 200 mm from the light source and switch on the
light source from control box. Make sure that the light source is positioned
with 0 degree orientation.
3. When the reading has stabilized, record the following data:

Distance from the light source: x (mm)


Lux meter reading: L (Lux)

4. Move the light meter 100 mm away from the initial distance and repeat the
observation.
5. Repeat the above procedure until the light meter is at 800 mm from the light
source.

Observations:

Distance X (mm) 200 300 400 500 600 700 800


Lux Meter Reading L (Lux)

Assignment:

Plot Log L vs. Log X graph

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6.9 Experiment 9; Lamberts Cosine Law:

Objective:

To show that the energy radiated in any direction at an angle with a surface is
equal to the normal radiation multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the
direction of radiation and the normal to the surface

Procedure:

1. Follow the basic instruction as written in section 5.1.2.

Note:The lux meter is very sensitive to the sunlight and other artificial light
generated from the surrounding. It is recommended that the experiment is to
be conducted in a dark room.

2. Position the light meter at 200 mm from the light source and switch on the
light source from control box. Make sure that the light source is positioned
with 0 degree orientation.
3. When the reading has stabilized, record the following data:

Angular position of the light source: (Degree)


Lux meter reading: L (Lux)

4. Increase the angle displacement by 10 degree increment clockwise and repeat


the observation until the angle is 90 degree.
5. Repeat the above procedures for anti clockwise displacement.

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

Observations:

Angle Displacement, (Degree) Lux meter reading (L)


-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

Assignment:

1. Calculate the radiation from the source Io Cos .


2. Plot Lux meter reading and calculated radiation vs. angle of rotation on the
same graph and compare.

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

6.10 Experiment 10; Lamberts Law of Absorption:

Objective:

To show that light passing through non-opaque matter is reduced in intensity in


proportion to the thickness and absorptivity of the material

Procedure:

1. Follow the basic instruction as written in section 5.1.2.

Note: The lux meter is very sensitive to the sunlight and other artificial light
generated from the surrounding. It is recommended that the experiment is to
be conducted in a dark room.

3. Position the lux meter at 200 mm from the light source. Make sure that the
light source is positioned with 0 degree orientation.
4. Install the filter plate holder 100 mm from the light source.
5. When the reading has stabilized, record the followings:

Filter Plate Present: No/Yes (Thickness)


Lux meter reading: L (Lux)

6. Place 3 mm medium filter plate onto the plate holder and repeat observation.
7. Repeat above observation with different plate thickness by adding more
medium filter with 3mm thickness to the previous filter.

Note: Add the filter alternately for constant reading as shown below.

First Medium Filter

Added Medium Filter Added Medium Filter

Filter/Aperture Holder Nut to secure Filter

8. Now, replace the filter plate with the clear plate. When the reading has
stabilized, record the followings:
Filter Plate Present: Color
Light meter reading: L (Lux)

9. Repeat the observation with different filter plates.

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

Observations:

(a) Variable Filter Thickness Test

FILTER TYPE 0 3 6 9
Lux Meter Reading (lux)

(b) Variable Optical Density Demonstration

FILTER TYPE No Filter Clear Medium Dark


Lux Meter Reading (lux)

Assignment:

1. Calculate Ln of L from the observation (a) and labeled as Ln If.


2. Plot Ln If vs. thickness of the plate from observation (a) and calculate the
slope.
3. From the slope, calculate the reflected component.
4. With the reflected component obtained from the previous observation,
calculate the absorptivity of the material for observation (b).

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7 EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE:

7.1 General:

The heat source, light source, radiometer, light sensor and metal plates should be
disconnected from Heat Transfer Service Unit when not in use and stored in a safe
place.

7.2 Heat Source and Black Plate:

If the black paint coating came off due to prolonged periods of use, the matt black
finishing can be restored in the following manner.

Hold the plate horizontally and carefully move a lighted candle below the plate
so than even soot is formed on the exposed plate surface.

7.3 Radiometer:

The radiometer is an extremely delicate sensor and on no account should objects


be inserted through the front aperture. Always store the radiometer in a safe place.

8 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:

8.1 Warning:

High voltages exist and are accessible in the control panel. Return the unit to your
supplier for any servicing.

8.2 Cautions:

During operation, the heated plate may be heated up to 300oC and above. Treat
the unit with caution, as there is a severe burn hazard.

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

APPENDIX A
Experimental Data Sheets

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Experiment 1; Inverse Square Law for Heat:

Distance, Radiometer
TP (oC) TH (oC)
x(mm) Reading, R(W/m2)
800
700
600
500
400
300

Experiment 2; Stefan-Boltzmann Law:

Radiometer Corrected
Temp. TP TH Ta Ts
reading, R radiometer qb F
(C) (C) (C) (K) (K)
(W/m2) Reading, Rc
50
80
110
140

Experiment 3; Radiation from a Source by the View Factor:

Distance, Radiometer
TP (oC) TH (oC) qb
x(mm) Reading, R(W/m2)
800
700
600
500
400
300 `

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Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

Experiment 4; The Emissivity of Radiating Surface:

Radiometer Radiometer
Sample TB TG TP TH
Reading, R Distance, x
No. (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC)
(W/m2) (mm)
1 - 200
2 - 200
3 - 200

Ta Ts qb
F
(K) (K) (W/m2)
BLACK
GREY
POLISHED

Experiment 5; Emissivity:

Test 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 - Black Black Black Black Black Polished Polished Polished


Slot

2 - - Polished Grey - Polished - Grey -

3 - - - - Grey Grey - - Grey


TB

- - - -
Recorded Data

TG

- - - -
TP

- - - -
TH
R
Position

Radio
meter
(mm)

300 250 270 270 290 290 250 270 290

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Experiment 6; Kirchhoffs Law:

Sample Used PLATE WALL ICE


2
Radiometer Reading, R (W/m )
Ambient Temperature, TP (oC)

Experiment 7; Area Factors:

Radiometer
Width (mm) F
Reading (W/m2)
No aperture Ro = -
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70

Experiment 8; Inverse Square Law for Light:

Distance X (mm) 200 300 400 500 600 700 800


Light Meter Reading L (Lux)
Log X
Log L

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Experiment 9; Lamberts Cosine Law:

Angle Displacement, (Degree) Lux meter reading (L)


-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

Experiment 10; Lamberts Law of Absorption:

(a) Variable Filter Thickness Test

Medium filter Thickness (mm) If (Lux) Ln If


none 0
1 3
2 6
3 9

(b) Variable Optical Density Demonstration

Thickness
Filter Density If (Lux) Ln If
(mm)
none 0 - -
clear 3
medium 3
dark 3

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APPENDIX B
Radiometer Calibtration

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RADIOMETER CALIBRATION

Distance
T1 T4 Ta Ts
X qb sin2 q *sin2
(C) (C) (K) (K) (Radian)
(mm)
800 28.3 400.3 301.45 673.45 11194.63 0.062419 0.003891 43.559
700 28.2 400.0 301.35 673.15 11174.48 0.071307 0.005076 56.723
600 28.4 400.1 301.55 673.25 11180.16 0.083141 0.006897 77.105
500 28.3 400.0 301.45 673.15 11173.86 0.099669 0.009901 110.632
400 28.4 400.1 301.55 673.25 11180.16 0.124355 0.015385 172.002
300 28.5 400.0 301.65 673.15 11172.62 0.165149 0.027027 301.963

Radiometer
Rc=
reading, R r
R x raverage
(W/m2)
58.4 0.746 41.39503
76.7 0.740 54.36641
105.5 0.731 74.78040
155.5 0.711 110.22135
250.2 0.687 177.34650
473.5 0.638 335.62577
Average 0.708819

Example values are shown above:

Calculated the heat flux radiated from the heated black plate qb from the following equation:
qb = [(Ta)4 (Tb)4]
= 5.67 x 10-8 (673.454 301.454)
= 11194.63 W/m2

50mm

The heated plate of 100 mm diameter and radiometer are arranged as shown above.

Calculated the heat incident qr, on the radiometer at 50 mm distance from the following equation.

EES-HE-LH
Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

50
= tan-1
X
50
= tan-1
800
= 0.0624 radian
And,
qr = qb x Sin2
= 11194.63 x Sin2 (0.0624)
= 43.559 W/m2

This component with the value indicated by the digital display of 43.544 W/m2

Hence, the correction factor C in this example is obtained from the following

43.559
=
58.4
= 0.746
Average Correction Factor C = 0.708819

This correction factor C would be used in all subsequent experiment

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APPENDIX C
Typical Experimental Results

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Experiment 1; Inverse Square Law for Heat:

Distance, Radiometer
Log10 X Log10 R
x(mm) Reading, R(W/m2)
800 58.4 2.903 1.766
700 76.7 2.845 1.885
600 105.5 2.778 2.023
500 155.5 2.699 2.192
400 250.2 2.602 2.398
300 473.5 2.477 2.675

The slope of the line should be -2 assuming perfect results and no external influences on
the test data.

Experiment 2; Stefan-Boltzmann Law:

Radiometer Corrected
Temp. TP TH Ta Ts
reading, R radiometer qb F
(C) (C) (C) (K) (K)
(W/m2) Reading, Rc
400 463.3 328.40 30.7 400.0 303.85 673.15 11158.77 33.98
350 335.7 237.95 30.7 350.0 303.85 623.15 8066.45 33.90
300 235.0 166.57 30.6 300.3 303.75 573.45 5648.81 33.91
250 158.2 112.14 30.5 250.6 303.65 523.75 3784.54 33.75

It may be seen from the test result that the factor F remains essentially constant thereby
demonstrating that the Stefan-Boltzmann relationship applies.
Experiment 3; Radiation from a Source by the View Factor:

Distance, Radiometer TP TH Ta Ts qb x
Rc qb sin2
x(mm) Reading, (oC) (oC) (K) (K) (radian) (sin2)

EES-HE-LH
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R(W/m2)
800 58.4 41.40 28.3 400.3 301.45 673.45 11194.63 0.0624 0.0039 43.56
700 76.7 54.37 28.2 400.0 301.35 673.15 11174.48 0.0713 0.0051 56.72
600 105.5 74.78 28.4 400.1 301.55 673.25 11180.16 0.0831 0.0069 77.10
500 155.5 110.22 28.3 400.0 301.45 673.15 11173.86 0.0997 0.0099 110.63
400 250.2 177.35 28.4 400.1 301.55 673.25 11180.16 0.1244 0.0154 172.00
300 473.5 335.63 28.5 400.0 301.65 673.15 11172.62 0.1651 0.0270 301.96

By comparing the radiometer reading and the calculated radiation incident on the detector
qb x Sin2 , it is observed that the values are similar. Note that small errors in temperature
measurement affect the data to the fourth power, T4.

Experiment 4; The Emissivity of Radiating Surface:

Radiometer Radiometer
Sample TB TG TP TH
Reading, R Rc Distance,
No. (oC) (oC) o
C) (oC)
(W/m2) x (mm)
1 67.3 29.0 - 400.2 61.30 43.45 200
2 - 59.5 29.8 400.3 29.7 21.05 200
3 30.3 - 37.7 400.0 3.5 2.48 200

Ta Ts qb
F
(K) (K) (W/m2)
BLACK 302.15 340.45 289.14 0.1503 1.0000
GREY 302.95 332.65 216.67 0.1761 0.6465
POLISHED 303.45 310.85 48.64 0.1761 0.3394

From the experiment conducted, we can see that different surface finish will emit
different value of radiation.

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Radiation Heat Transfer Apparatus

Experiment 5; Emissivity:

Test 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 - Black Black Black Black Black Polished Polished Polished
Slot

2 - - Polished Grey - Polished - Grey -


3 - - - - Grey Grey - - Grey
TH

400.1 400.3 400.3 400.2 400.1 400.1 400.4 400.0 399.8


TB

- 83.5 94.3 88.9 87.9 96.8 - - -


Recorded Data

TG

- - - 38.1 36.0 32.2 - 31.2 30.8


TP

- - 37.4 - - 35.5 53.4 55.3 54.1

472.9 57.5 4.8 6.8 5.4 3.9 10.5 6.2 5.2


R
Rc

340.4 41.4 3.5 4.9 3.9 2.8 7.6 4.5 3.7


Position

Radio
meter
(mm)

300 280 300 300 320 320 280 300 320

As seen from the above sample results, the effects of the emissitivity and distance between
plates each have an effect on the radiation interchange.

Experiment 6; Kirchhoffs Law:

Sample Used PLATE WALL ICE


2
Radiometer Reading, R (W/m ) 42 0.5 - 1.7
Ambient Temperature, TP (oC) 31.7 31.7 31.8

By theory, the laboratory wall will be the same temperature of the ambient hence the
radiation exchange is minimal or at least not measurable. (Zero)

By theory, the grey plate at elevated temperature will result in a heat transfer from the
plate to the radiometer and a positive reading will achieved. (Positive)

By theory, the ice will have a temperature below that of the radiometer and hence a
transfer of radiation from the radiometer is observed. (Negative)
Experiment 7; Area Factors:

EES
Radiation Heat Transfer Apparatus

Radiometer
Width (mm) Rc F
Reading (W/m2)
No aperture Ro = 255 - -
5 40.50 28.71 0.1588
10 91.50 64.86 0.3588
15 135.20 95.83 0.5302
20 181.00 128.30 0.7098
25 206.10 146.09 0.8082
30 220.40 156.22 0.8643
35 231.60 164.16 0.9082
40 241.80 171.39 0.9482
45 244.30 173.16 0.9580
50 249.70 176.99 0.9792
55 251.60 178.34 0.9867
60 252.60 179.05 0.9906
65 254.30 180.25 0.9973
70 254.60 180.47 0.9984

From the calculated data, it can be seen that the shape factor varies from approximately
zero to one within the limit of experimental accuracy.

EES
Radiation Heat Transfer Apparatus

Experiment 8; Inverse Square Law for Light:

Distance X (mm) 200 300 400 500 600 700 800


Light Meter Reading L (Lux) 126 53 31 19 14 10 8
Log X 2.3010 2.4771 2.6021 2.6990 2.7782 2.8451 2.9031
Log L 2.1004 1.7243 1.4914 1.2788 1.1461 1.0000 0.9031

The slope of the graph should be -2 assuming perfect results and no external influences
on the test data. As the radius increase, the same amount of radiation is therefore reduces
by the inverse square of the radius. This concludes the objective of the experiment.

EES
Radiation Heat Transfer Apparatus

Experiment 9; Lamberts Cosine Law:

Angle Displacement, (Degree) Lux meter reading (L) Io cos


-90 0.0 0.0000
-80 4.0 20.6641
-70 11.0 40.7004
-60 24.0 59.5000
-50 44.0 76.4917
-40 60.0 91.1593
-30 79.0 103.0570
-20 96.0 111.8234
-10 109.0 117.1921
0 119.0 119.0000
10 112.0 117.1921
20 94.0 111.8234
30 76.0 103.0570
40 56.0 91.1593
50 37.0 76.4917
60 19.0 59.5000
70 7.0 40.7004
80 3.0 20.6641
90 0.0 0.0000

The calculated data and the measured data are similar to each other. The difference may
be contributed by the instrument error or the reflection from the laboratory wall.

EES
Radiation Heat Transfer Apparatus

Experiment 10; Lamberts Law of Absorption:

(a) Variable Filter Thickness Test

Medium filter Thickness (mm) If (Lux) Ln If


none 0 116 4.753590191
1 3 96 4.564348191
2 6 79 4.369447852
3 9 65 4.17438727

(b) Variable Optical Density Demonstration

Thickness
Filter Density If (Lux) Ln If
(mm)
none 0 116 - -
clear 3 108 4.682131227 0.01841041
medium 3 96 4.564348191 0.0208506
dark 3 67 4.204692619 0.14073579

From the calculated , it can be seen that the value of increases as the visual density of
filter increase.

EES
Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

APPENDIX D
Sample Calculations

EES-HE-LH
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Experiment 2; Stefan-Boltzmann Law:

For the first row,

Ta = T9 + 273.15 Ts = T10 +
273.15
= 30.7 + = 400 + 273.15
273.15
= 303.85K = 673.15K

qb = (Ts4 Ta4)
= 5.67x10-8 (673.154 303.854)
= 11158.77W/m2
Where = Stefan Boltzmann constant = 5.6 x 10-8 W/m2K-4

From the radiometer reading,


Rc = R x c
= 463.3 x 0.708819
= 328.40 W/m2

F = qb
R
= 11158.77
328.40
= 33.98

Experiment 3; Radiation from a Source by the View Factor:

For the first row,

Ta = T9 + 273.15 Ts = T10 +
273.15
= 28.3 + = 405 + 273.15
273.15
= 301.45K = 673.45K

qb = (Ts4 Ta4)
= 5.67x10-8 (673.454 301.454)
= 11194.63W/m2

From the geometrical illustration shown,


= tan-
50.0
1
X

EES-HE-LH
Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

Heated Surface Radiometer Radiometer

1 2

50.0m

X1

X2

For the first position,

-1 50.0
= tan
800

= 0.062419 rad

Sin2 = 0.00389

From the data,


qb x Sin2 = 11194.63 x 0.00389
= 43.56 W/m2

From the radiometer reading,


Rc = R x c
= 58.4 x 0.708819
= 41.40 W/m2

EES-HE-LH
Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

Experiment 4; The Emissivity of Radiating Surface:


For the Black Plate,
Ta = T8+ 273.15 Ts = T7 + 273.15
= 29.0 + = 67.3 +
273.15 273.15
= 302.15K = 340.45K
qb = (Ts4 Ta4)
= 5.67x10-8 (340.454 302.154)
= 289.14W/m2
From the radiometer reading,
Rc = R x c
= 61.3 x 0.708819
= 43.45 W/m2

The view factor may be determine from the black plate,

F R
=
(Ts - Ta 4 )
4

R
=
qb
43.45
=
289.14
= 0.1503
For the Grey Plate,

Ta = T9+ 273.15 Ts = T8 + 273.15


= 27.8 + 273.15 = 49.6 + 273.15
= 302.95K = 332.65K

qb = (Ts4 Ta4)
= 5.67x10-8 (332.654 302.954)
= 216.67W/m2
The emissivity of the grey plate may be calculated from,
R
=
F (Ts 4 - Ta 4 )
R
=
Fqb
21.05
=
0.1503 x 216.67
= 0.6465
The same step may be applied to calculate the emissivity of the polished plate.

EES-HE-LH
Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

Experiment 5; Emissivity:

The corrected radiometer reading


Rc = R x C
= 57.5 x 0.719897
= 41.39 W/m

Experiment 7; Area Factors:

For 5mm aperture opening, Ro=255.0W/m2


F R
=
Ro
40.5
=
255.0
= 0.1588

Experiment 9; Lamberts Cosine Law:

For angle 80o,

I80 = Io x cos 80
= 119 x 0.1736
= 20.6641

EES-HE-LH
Emissivity Measurement Apparatus

Experiment 10; Lamberts Law of Absorption:

From Lamberts Law of absorption,

if = (Io- Ir) e-t

Taking natural Log of both side,

Ln = Ln (Io- Ir) + (t)


(if)

By plotting a graph of Ln (if) against thickness t, it is possible to estimate the reflected


component Ir. From the graph plotted above, the slope can be estimated for the hence = 0.0737
for the medium filter.

From the intercept at zero (t=0), the value of Ln (Io- Ir) is determined,
Ln (Io- = 4.7553
Ir)
(Io- Ir) = e4.7553
= 116.1985
From the test result, Io is determined from the non-filter reading Io =206.6460 Lux hence,

(Io- Ir) = 116.1985


Ir = Io - 116.1985
= 117 116.1985
= 0.8015 Lux

Again, from the Lamberts law of absorption,

if = (Io- Ir) e-t


Ln = Ln (Io- Ir) + (t)
(if)
= Ln (Io- Ir) - Ln (if)

t

By using Io = 117 Lux and the calculated Ir = 0.8015 Lux, is calculated.

For Medium filter,

= 4.7553- 4.5643

3
= 0.06366

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