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Creating Lessons for the 21st Century Skills

Context Employing Virtual

Learning Environment
Rosanna V. Ibarra Rowena Bakingkito
First City Providential College First City Providential College
Barangay Narra, Francisco Homes Barangay Narra, Francisco Homes
City of San Jose Del Monte, Bulacan City of San Jose Del Monte, Bulacan
(+63)9153782638 (+63)9331661228
rosannavillapando@ymail.com xxynsxx@yahoo.com

The main objective of this study was to create lessons Employing Virtual Learning Environment (using edmodo)
utilizing virtual learning environment and to evaluate its is an alternative to the traditional approach to instruction
impact in the students learning process. The researchers that has too often meant frustration and failure for too
have chosen the students of the Information Technology many students. edmodo acknowledges and, in fact,
department of the First City Providential College as the capitalizes on the facilitation of effective and efficient
respondents to evaluate the use of edmodo as the virtual learning, which is relevant to the real world of work, by
learning environment. The participants of the study were employing the learning principles of motivation,
students who are currently enrolled in the said department. individualization, reinforcement of learning, self-pacing,
Ninety Two Five (92) students were chosen by the recognition of different learning styles, provision of
researchers using the purposive sampling. The main frequent feedback, opportunities for practice, and active
instrument used in obtaining data required was participation. Virtual Learning Environment differs
questionnaire due to its relatively faster collection of significantly from traditional approaches to training
results. T-test was used to test the hypothesis that there is because of the educational philosophy upon which
significant difference in the assessment made by the competency based education is based. That philosophy
student respondents between the traditional instructional stated very simply is as follows:
materials and the utilization of the virtual learning
environment in terms of the selected variables. Based on Almost all learners can learn equally well if they receive
the result of the study, the competency interpreted to be the kind of instruction they need.
very good is the effectiveness of the edmodo. It tends to
improve the students by demonstrating their competency. To make that philosophy work, Interactive Lesson uses a
There is a significant difference between the utilization of very systematic approach in implementing and delivering
edmodo and Traditional Instructional Materials which is learning.
assessed by the students in terms of the selected variables.
There are twelve factors that differentiate traditional
instructional materials with Interactive Courseware.
Keywords These are the following:
Competence, Curriculum, Developing a curriculum, 1. Traditional instructional material is content-
edmodo, Instruction, Interactive, Module, Skill, Task, based while Interactive Lesson is competency-based,
Usefulness, Virtual Learning Environment
2. Traditional instructional material is time-based
while Interactive Lesson is a performance-based,

3. Traditional instructional material is group paced the west (United States and Canada) and Modules of
while Interactive Lesson is individually paced, Employable Skills (MES), vocational approaches
popularized by ILO (International Labor Organization)
4. Traditional instructional material is group needs and Outcomes-Based Education. Both approaches are
while Interactive Lesson is individually needs, now recognized to be the most responsive to the needs of
the customer in the aspect of international
5. Traditional instructional material is delayed competitiveness, private sector, government reforms,
feedback while Interactive Lesson is immediate feedback, educational and training reforms, technology advances,
emphasis on quality management, and new skills/multi-
6. Traditional instructional material is a
skilling. The education and training systems should begin
textbook/workbook, while Interactive Lesson is modules
and end with the customers needs. And these customers
and media materials,
are the agriculture, commerce, industry, and government.
7. Traditional instructional material is limited field The needs are identified through a job analysis processor
experience while Interactive Lesson is learning in the or what is known as DACUM (Developing a Curriculum).
field, DACUM is a powerful alternative in developing a CBE
program that requires rigorous identification of worker
8. Traditional instructional material is lectures, competencies.
demonstration while Interactive Lesson is assistance of
resource person, In the field of Information Technology, specifically
teachers must adapt an improved teaching technique in
9. Traditional instructional material has general delivering instructions for the major subjects of IT
objectives while Interactive Lesson has specific students. This is to develop and enhance their skills in
objectives, their specific field of study The researchers chose the
major subjects in preparing Interactive Lessons because
10. Traditional instructional material has subjective IT skills are integrated in the said lessons. The researchers
criteria while Interactive Lesson has objective criteria, intended to prepare a competency based interactive
lessons employing edmodo for the said subjects with a
11. Traditional instructional material has norm- target IT occupations.
referenced while Interactive Lesson has criterion-
referenced, and The preparation of interactive lessons employing edmodo
is the principle of this study. Its purpose is to guide and
12. Traditional instructional material has final direct the IT students in acquiring skills and knowledge in
grades while Interactive Lesson is learner competence. their field of study.

Reforms are basically aimed to promote the The researchers, prepared Interactive Lessons for the
implementation of Virtual Learning Environment. following reasons:
Through edmodo Interactive lessons are designed to help
instructors and students learn new procedures of adapting 1) Employment Opportunity
Competency-Based Learning Management System. The
purpose is to enable instructors to incorporate the IT students should be given the opportunity to prepare for
approach into-day-to-day instructional management the professional job as IT Professionals in the limited time
activities when teaching. they have.

The researchers adapted the competency-based education 2) Capability to Master

system which learned from the seminars conducted by the
TESDA Group. Preparing interactive lessons for the major Many IT students who do not possess the physical and/or
subjects of Information Technology which is one of the mental capacity to master the task of a profession could
key reforms in technical education and training. One of conceivably master the tasks of a particular job and,
the key steps in promoting this innovation is Competency-
3) Interest Limitations
Based Technical Education and Skills Development
(CBTESD) at our vocational and technical education Many IT students have limited interests. They could be
institutions. Competency-Based Technical and Skills more motivated if they were presented smaller goals or
Development (CBTESD) is the term used to describe the allowed to experience more milestones during their tenure
TESDA way of adapting the Competency-Based at the training center, as jobs are smaller goals than an
Education (CBE) a vocational movement popularized in occupational.
The primary mission is to promote the quality of the questionnaire to assess the impact of the lesson delivery
instructional materials of IT major subjects through through edmodo in terms of the selected variables.
appropriate instructional applications.

Profile of the Respondents

From the total of 114 students (representing 80%)
The preparation of an interactive lessons employing currently enrolled in FCPC, a sample of 92 students were
edmodo corresponds with the course objective. This is to chosen by systematic/purposive sampling.
prepare interactive lessons that could help to enhance the
IT major subjects into a competency-based one. Instruments Used
In order to attain the objectives of the study, the The instrument used in obtaining data required was a
descriptive method was used in gathering information. A questionnaire. This instrument is selected due to its
descriptive research gives information as basis of relatively faster collection of results as compared with
planning, and decision making on the preparation and other techniques. This is aside from the pre-established
improvement of the instructional materials. This can fact that students are literate and they can easily answer
distinguish significant relationship or the difference the straight-forward questions.
between phenomena. It can supply practical information
to justify and improve findings. One prepared questionnaire was issued to evaluate the
utilization of edmodo in the delivery of lessons for student

Sampling Technique The assessment made by the Student Respondents were

consisted of 4 parts: (1) focused on the learning
Determination of sample size (Students in IT major competencies, (2) content such as learning objectives, and
subjects). :The sample size is a portion that represents the topics procedures, (3) acceptability such as illustrations,
population. It is determined by the margin of error clarity, usefulness, interactivity, and adequacy, and (4)
formula: effectiveness of an interactive lessons.

N The questionnaire for student respondents consisted of

1 Ne 2
questions that were very simple, brief, and clear to avoid
confusion in the interpretation of the given statements.

n= 114 / 1 + 114(0.05)2
n= 91.2 is equivalent to 80% of 114 Validation of the Instrument
To reinforce the validity and suitability of the instrument
Description of the Respondents to this area of study, the opinion and expertise of
component and experienced practitioners and educators
The participants of the study were the enrolled IT students were sought. Books and similar studies also served as
of First City Providential College (FCPC) who were guides in constructing the questions.
currently enrolled in the 2nd Semester AY 2014-2015.
Before floating the questionnaire to the various
respondents, suggestions from the experts help in the
Nine two students were chosen by the researchers using improvement of the questionnaire. Hence, the initial draft
the purposive sampling to evaluate the utilization of of the questionnaire was counter checked by them and
edmodo. The primary consideration of the researchers in revisions were made. These experts were interviewed and
choosing this sampling technique is that the judgment was their responses were examined.
based on who can furnish the best information to achieve
the objectives of the study. The mentioned respondents The researchers, however, are aware that the questionnaire
were included in gathering data as they were in the best as a tool of investigation has inherent limitations. The
position to make an assessment. They were given value of the findings largely depends on the sincerity,
% 100 %
truthfulness, and objectivity of the respondents. It cannot f
totally be unbiased. However, interviews were also
conducted for clarification purpose. The researchers also N
conducted direct observations among our students.

Weighted Mean. This enabled us to calculate an average

that takes into account the importance of each value
Data Gathering Procedure to the overall total (Levin, 1998). ). It is expressed

X w wi xi
using the formula:
The researchers sought the assistance of the Head of
Information Technology of First City Providential
College. Related documents like record of the number of The use of the weighted mean employed in this study is to
enrollees were provided by the department Head which describe the evaluation ratings in the faculty and student
was helpful in the evaluation of the prepared interactive respondents checklist on the following areas: Learning
lessons through edmodo. Competencies, Content, Learning Objectives, Topics
Procedures, Acceptability, Illustrations, Clarity,
As soon as the content of the lessons had been established,
Usefulness, Suitability, Adequacy, Interactivity, and
it was presented to the members of the faculty of
Effectiveness, and Acquired Skills.
Information Technology who were teaching IT major
subjects, and they were asked for comments and The questions are answerable with the following
suggestions for the final copy of the lessons. descriptive answer with corresponding scales shown
below. The descriptive answers assigned to the following
Enrolled students in the Information Technology course of
arbitrary mean ranges are as below.
2nd semester 2014-2015 were involved in the study.
There were 92 students taking up Information Table 1. Population Frame and Sample Size
Technology. The students respondents were selected
through random sampling, and through the help of the Respondents Population Sample Percentage
faculty assigned in each class, the students were using the Size
interactive lessons and were later asked to evaluate the Students 114 92 80%
whole content of the prepared interactive lessons by
answering the prepared questionnaire. This was also
accompanied with unstructured interviews from the Table 1 indicates the number of respondents which
faculty and students on the validity of the instructional encompasses the population considered in the study.

Table 2. Description of the Respondents

Statistical Treatment of Data Respondents School Description Dept. %

Students FCPC IT Students IT 80%
The researchers considered all the elements in the
population as its sample to make it more inclusive and
represented. This was chosen to have sufficient and Table 2 indicates the description of respondents who
adequate data of greater statistical efficiency. assessed the interactive lessons through edmodo and
traditional instructional material.

3. Sample size: The sample size is a portion that

Statistical tools used by the researchers were: represents the population. It is determined by the margin
of error formula.
1. Percentage is the proportion of the
frequency of responses by the total number 4. T-test (Pagoso, Cristobal. Fundamental
of respondents per hundred (Levin, 1998). Statistics, Sinagtala Publishers, 1987) The statistical
The percentage is used to describe the significance used to determine the difference between
fraction of the frequency with respect to means score of the students assessment,
the total number of sample. It is expressed
by the formula:
x1 x 2
activities (right and left in yellow boxes) are internal to

either the student or the teacher. If we suppose that the
1 1 medium involved is a VLE, then this model provides a
sp clear set of requirements for evaluating the systems
n1 n2
effectiveness for supporting the processes that form the
where basis of interactive learning.

(n1 1) s1 (n2 1) s 2
2 2

Standard deviation, measurement of how spread-out
the scores of the respondents are. The standard In view of the findings gathered, the researcher
deviation of the faculty and the students was recommends the following measures and actions:
computed using the formula:

( xi x )
1. The utilization of Virtual Learning Environment

2 should be used implemented by a faculty member in the

n 1
major subjects of IT with the main objective of preparing
the students into a particular or specific job as IT

Illustrations 2. Faculty members should be updated with the

latest technology trends, strategies, techniques, and
methods of applying technology in effective teaching
through continuous seminars and trainings.

3. There should be close coordination between the

academe and the latest technology used in the
industry/organization especially in the field of information
and communication technology.

4. Other researchers should conduct related studies

in designing and developing an effective instructional
material such as a book or computer-aided instructions
manual in which the major concern is to impart and
upgrade the level of skills of professionals in the
educational sectors with the end view of coming up with
quality products/service, optimal use of equipment, tools
and materials for increase of productivity.

5. Other researchers should conduct experimental

research as a comparison of the traditional instructional
materials and an interactive lessons through Virtual
Learning Environment.

6. More interactive courseware should be

developed to enrich the delivery of lessons.

Figure 1 The Virtual Learning Environment Framework

(adapted from Crawley, 1999)
Adam, S. (2004) Using Learning Outcomes, Scottish
The VLE model as shown in the diagram of figure 1
Executive. Available at:
depicts the workflow between tutor and student during
learning. Certain activities (centre in blue boxes) are
interactive and take place through some medium. Other
Biggs, J. (2006 ). Teaching for quality learning at
university: what the student does Open University Press

Biggs, J. (2003) Aligning teaching and assessing to

course objectives, paper presented at Teaching and
Learning in Higher Education: New Trends and
Innovations, University of Aveiro, 1317 April 2003.

Crawley, R.M.(1999) Evaluating CSCL - Theorists' &

Users' Perspectives

Gosling, D. and Moon, J. (2002) How to Use Learning

Outcomes and Assessment Criteria, 3rd ed., London:
SEEC Office.

Kennedy, D. (2007) Writing and Using Learning

Outcomes, Cork: Quality Promotion Unit, UCC

Levin, Weighted Mean, 1998

Pagoso, Cristobal. Fundamental Statistics, Sinagtala

Publishers, 1987