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. .




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-- 2007
532.5: 629.12
22.253 7
594

:

-
,
. , . . . ;
. . , - . , . . .


( )

, . .
594 : . / . . . -
-- : , 2007. 106 .
ISBN 978-5-7765-0516-4

-
, .

Flow-3D.
180100 -
-
.

2.1.2.1809
-
(2006-2008).

22.253 7



--

ISBN 978-5-7765-0516-4 , 2007

.5

1. .......................................................................7
1.1. -................................... 7
1.2. ................................................................................... 8
1.3. ......................................................................10
1.4. .

1.5. ,
..........................................................14

2. ................................................................18
2.1. ....................18
2.2. . ..................................................................20
2.3. .
................................................................23
2.4. ...................................................................25
2.5. . . ........................................................26
2.6. . .......................................27
2.7.
....................................................................................29
2.8. . .........................................35
2.9. ..........................................................36

3. ......................................................................39
3.1. ............................39
3.2. .
.....................................................40
3.3. , ......................................42
3.4. ....................................44
3.5. ...............................46
3.6. ...........................................47
3.7. .
. .......................................................51
3.8. .
...............................................55
3.9. .
.............................................58

3
4.
FLOW-3D ....................................60
4.1. .........................60
4.2. ...............................64
4.2.1. ......64
4.2.2. .....66
4.2.3.
()..66
4.2.4. ......70
4.2.5. ...71
4.2.6. ..73
4.2.7. . ...76
4.2.8. .79
4.3. ............................................................................81
4.4. ......................................................89
4.5. ....................................................101
...........................................................................106

4

,

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5
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6
1.

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1.1. -


: p, -
T, -
/16/ (. 1.1).

. , ,
T = 647 , p =22 , = 0.4 /3.

T = const

T

()

()
1/

. 1.1.

T -
.

7
( -
. 1.1) (
). -
, -
.
= 373 (100 ) -
1 /3 ( ), 5.8 .10-6 /3
( ). 98 .
.
= 288 (15 ): 1 /3,
1.28 . 10-5 /3; 1.7 . , -
, 1,7 , -
.
.
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1.2.

-
() . -
,
, .. , -
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.

v
= , (1.1)
n
- , ; v - , /; n - -
, ,
.
.

(. 1.2) , .
() (. 1.2, )
,

8
. (. 1.2, ), -
"" , ,
.
, -

.
, -
. -
v0 .
) r r
n ) n
r r
v0 v0

. 1.2.

-
. .
-

: = 2
, /.
, -
. -
. 1.1.

1.1


,
, , 2/ , , 2/

273 1,792 10-3 1,792 10-6 1,709 10-5 1,32 10-5

293 1,005 10-3 1,007 10-6 1,803 10-5 1,5 10-5

9
, (1.1), -
. ,
(, , -
, , .).

1.3.

, -
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. -
,
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.
, -
,
. ( ) = 293
= 72,810-3 /.
. -
-
(), .
:
- (. 1.3).
. < /2, c;
> /2 - .

. 1.3.

10

p, .
:
1 1
p = + , (1.2)
R
x R y

Rx Ry -
. (1.2) ,
.
. -
, .

1.4. .

-
. , -
.
, -

. -
/16/.
-
(
):
l = L1 = const .
L2

.
-
.

= t 1 t - .
2

v1 a1
=l ; = l
v2 a2 2,
v1, v2 - , a1, a2 - .
1 m V m1 1
: = 1 2 = 3 ,
2 m 2V 1 m2 l

11
m1 m2 - V1 V2 .

.

( ):
F1 m1 a1
= .
F2 m 2 a2
:
F1 F2
= ,
1v S 1
1
2
2 v 22 S 2 (1.3)

S1 S2 - . -
:
F = cF v 2 S , (1.4)
cF - , .
, , -
. (1.3) -
-.
, (1.4) -
(1.1)
F v S v
cF = = = idem F = .
v S
2
n v S
2
L v 2

idem cF -
.

1 vL vL
Re = = = .
F
Re .

mg L3 g gL
cF = = = idem F = .
v 2 S v 2 L2 v 2

12
1 v
: Fr = = .
cF gL
.

:
p
Eu = .
v 2

-
p p
( ): = k
,
v 2

2
p pk - .
.
:

M = v ,
c
.
, ,
:

We = .
v L
2

, -
, L v t . :
3

L
Sh =
vt - .


: Re, Fr, We, Sh, M, Eu, .
-
.
, -
. -
.
.

13

, -. -
.
n (,
, , ..), k -
( : ,
, ). -, (n-k)
( ),
.
-
, , -
. .
.
, ,
.

1.5. ,


, -
.
-
. -
.
,
, -
. , -
-
.
() -
.
-
( ).
. /8/
, ,
-
() , -
-
.

14
,
. , 100
0.5 % .
. ,
( 70 /) -
. , -
( 1500 /, 340 /),
.
, , (-
) , .
, ( -
, , , -
.) , -
.
(). .
,
.
.
.

, .

.
,
.
, ,
-
( -
). -
. -
.
, , (-
) . , -
() , .
(FV = gV = mg ) (FV = ma ) -
. () :
r
r FV
g = lim ,
V 0 V

15
r
V ; FV - -
. -
.

V
(. 1.4).
, S .
:
. : -
,
; , .

r r
n F
r
pn
S
r
V s
r
p
r r
ps =
S

. 1.4.

r
F :
r
r F
p = lim .
S0 S

(/2).
r r
p : n -
r
s S S. -
. -
. , -
,
(). -
.
r

. -
. -
() = 0.

16

(. 1.5), , -
9 .
, -
() :

pxx pxy pxz pxx xy xz



yx yy yz
p p p = p yy yz .
p p p .
zx zy zz zz
(
): yx = xy ; yz = zy ; zx = xz .
, -
, : pxx = pyy = pzz .
,
. , -
. ,
,
pxx = pyy = pzz = - p. p .

r
z p zz

dy pzx
pzy
pyy pxz
pxy
pxx pyz
pyx pxx
pyz pxy
pxz pyy
dz pyx

pzy x
pzx
dx pzz
y

. 1.5.

17
2.

, -
,
, , .
(
).

2.1.

: -
.
: (, -
); ( , -
); (, ); -
( ).
(-
) -
( ).
:
, .
. -
t0 ""
. -
- -
, . . ( , , , t ) .
() .

r
r = f (, , , t ) .
-

r r
r dr r
v (, , , t ) = = ,
dt t
r r r
r dv v 2 r
a (, , , t ) = = = .
dt t t 2


, d/dt
/ t .

18
,
(
). -
. -
, -
, .

, .
.

x,
y, z t.
, ,
. , -
(), (, -
, .). - ,
, .

x, y, z, t:
r
v = f ( x, y , z , t ) .

r r r r r
r dv v v d x v d y v d z
a= = + + + . (2.1)
dt t x d t y dt z dt
()
. ()
. , -
,
r r r
v v v r r
vx + vy + v z = (v )v .
x y z
,
, -
(). , -
. -
. -
, .

19
2.2. .


.
,
.
,
. -
, -
.
,
,
(. 2.1, ). -
. 2.1, . . 2.2 -
, . -
.
, -
(. 2.2, ). -
(. 2.2, ).

r -
d l ,
r
Oxyz. v - (
r
). d l
r
v :
dx = d l cos ( x , l ); v x = v cos ( x , l );
dy = d l cos ( y , l ); v y = v cos ( y , l );
dz = d l cos ( z , l ); v z = v cos ( z , l ).
dx dl dy dl dz dl
:
= ; = ; = .
vx v vy v vz v
dx dy dz
, = =
vx vy vz
dx v x dx v x dy v y
= ; = ; = . (2.2)
dy v y dz v z dz v z

20
)

. 2.1. () ()

. 2.2. ()
() /2/

, -
. . -
(. 2.3).
,
. ,

21
. -
, , .
. -
,
.

. -
. -
(2.2) . , -
.
().

r
v

. 2.3. .

,
. .
.
-
.
(. 2.4).

. 2.4.

22
S -
, :

Q = v S
n dS . (2.3)

- 3/.
,
, Q ( - ).

2.3. .

,
-
,
. .
, -
.

(. 2.5).
(x,y,z) ,
, vx(x,y,z); vy(x,y,z); vz(x,y,z).
M1 (x+x1, y+y1, z+z1)

v x1 = v x ( x + x1 , y + y1 , z + z1 );
v y1 = v y ( x + x1 , y + y1 , z + z1 );
z1
v z1 = v z ( x + x1 , y + y1 , z + z1 ); z M1
x1, y1 z1 -
M x1
. x y1

vx, vy vz - y
x1, y1, z1 . 2.5.
(x,y,z). -
-
,

23
vx vx vx
v x1 = v x + x1 + y1 + z1 ;
x y z
v y v y v y
v y1 = v y + x1 + y1 + z1 ;
x y z
vz vz vz
v z1 = v z + x1 + y1 + z1 ,
x y z

, vx(x,y,z) vx . .
:
v x1 = v x + x x 1 + y z 1 + z y 1 + y z 1 z y 1 ;
v y1 = v y + y y 1 + z x 1 + x z 1 + z x 1 x z 1 ;
(2.4)
v z1 = v z + z z 1 + x y 1 + y x 1 + x y 1 y x 1 ,

vx v y vz
x = ; = ; z = ;
x y z
y

vz
1 v y vz
1 v y
x = + ; x = ;
y
2 z 2 y z
1 vx vz 1 vx vz
y = + ; y = ; (2.5)
2 z x 2 z x
1 v y vx 1 v y vx
z = + ; z = .
2 x y 2 x y
(2.4):
- vx, vy vz - ;
- (yz1 - zy1 .)
, . -
-
, x, y, z -
(). (2.5) ,

r 1 r
= rot v , (2.6)
2
r
rot v - ;

24
- (2.4) -
. x , y , z -
() ,
x , y , z - ().
-
: -
, , -
, , -
.

2.4.

-
() .
. .
1. (. 2.6) -

. :
v1 dS1 = v 2 dS 2 . r
dS 2 v2
2. r
v2
S2 r
v2 .

, - r
- v1

r
- dS1 r v1 .
v1 S1
(. 2.7):
v1 dS 1 = v 2 dS 2 , . 2.6. - . 2.7.

v1 , v2 -
.
(2.3).
3.
. -
.
(. 2.8).
( ) 4 -
dxdy:

25
v x v y
v x dy v x + dx dy + v y dx v y +
dy dx = 0.
x y
v x v y
: + = 0.
x y
:
vx v y vz
+ + = 0. (2.7)
x y z
:
r
div v = 0 .
r r -
vy + d vy
, -
-
r r r . V
vx vx + d vx
-
dy
. , -
,
r . , -
dx vy

. -
. 2.8. -
().

2.5. .

, , -
xOy. (2.7):
v x v y
+ = 0.
x y
( x, y , t ) , -


vx = ; vy = . (2.8)
y x
(2.8) (2.7),

26
2 2
= 0.
xy xy
, ( x, y , t ) .
.
:
dx dy
= , v x dy v y dx = 0 .
vx vy
(2.8),

dy + dx = 0 d = 0 .
y x
, = const . .

(. 2.9).
:
B
A B
Q = d = B A .
A
A B

, -
. 2.9.
, ,
.

2.6. .

- -
. -
, , ,
,
r r
: 2 = rot v = 0 . ,
x = y = z = 0 . (2.5)

v x v y v x v z v y v z
= ; = ; = .
y x z x z y
, -
r
, v -
, ..

27
r
v = grad = , (2.9)

.

vx = ; vy = ; vz = . (2.10)
x y z

, n: vn = .
n
, ,
, . -
, -
. -
.
(2.10) (2.7), , -
(x,y,z,t)
2 2 2
+ + = 0 2 = 0 ,1 (2.11)
x 2 y 2 z 2
. ,
, . ,
, -
, ( ). -
-
.
-
, :
v x v y
z = 0 = 0.
y x
(2.8),
2 2
+ = 0.
x 2 y 2
, .
-
(). (2.8)
(2.10) ,
.
(. 2.10).

28
2.7.


-
-
.
/3, 7, 8, 9/.
1. , -
:
= ax + by + cz , (2.12)
a, b, c - , (
). (2.12) (2.11), -
, .
, (2.12),
. ,
(vy = vz = 0; vz = v0),
:
dy v y dz v z
= = 0; = = 0.
dx v x dx v x
y = const , z = const ,
= v0 x .
2. ,
= a r, (2.13)
- , ,
r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 - .
, ,
. -
: r - ; - , -
; - . -
:
1 1
vr = ; v = ; v = .
r r r sin

1
2 : = 0 .

29
(2.13), vr = a r 2 , v = v = 0 .
, , ,
-, ,
, , . -
- -
, - -
, .. (. 2.4).
, ,
. (r 0)
. , -
.
-
() R.

Q = v r S = 4R 2 a a =Q
2
R , 4 ,

, . -
Q (),
. ,
Q 1
= (2.14)
4 r
,
( ) ( ).
, () -
,
Q
= ln r .
2
3. , , 1
, ,
1 , Q (. 2.10).
(2.14), -
:
Q Q Q 1 1
= = .
4 r1 4r 4 r1 r

30
) )
r r1 r
s
r 1 Q
s
AA 1 0


(=const)


(=const)

. 2.10. :
; ()

1

|A1|. -
, (. 2.10) M = Q AA1 = const .
r
s . -
, ,
M cos
= .
4 r2
, . 2.10, .

31
,
( -
) .
,
,
, . , -
,
-
(. 2.11). , -
( : = const).
, -

,
. -



= const vn = = 0 , (2.15)
n
vn - -
n .

,
-
, -
, - . 2.11. ,
, -
-
(2.15) .
-


= vn , (2.16)
n
v n - .
-

: (-
) ( ). -
() ,
(2.15) (2.16).

32
, -
,
(2.12) (2.14)
1 q
= v0 x + dS , (2.17)
4 S r
q - ( ) -
, . (2.17) -
, . -
.
, -
N ( ) -
.
N , -
.

. -
-
(. 2.12). :
-
.
y

d=2
2
x
b=4

vx = 1 / vx = 1 /
. 2.12.


, . 2.13, ( -
). -
,
. ,
, ,

33
. = 0, -

= v x dy = y ,
y
= 2.

=2 =0
2 2 n

=0
=1
n
=0 =0
=0 n

. 2.13. :
;

-
, . 2.13, . -
-
(2.15).
,
( = 0 , -
). , (2.16):
= vx = 1 /.
n

. 2.14.
(2.8) (2.10). -
.
=5 4 3 2.4 1.7 0.9 =0
= 1.9
1.5

1.0

0.5
= 0.1

. 2.14.

34
2.8. .
r
rot v 0 , .
, ,
r r r
1 , 2 , n ,
. , -
(. (2.2)):
dx dy dz
= = .
x y z
, , -
(. 2.15).
. ,
. -
.


: 2 n S .

.
,
. -

r
(. 2.16). d r -
r
, v - . -

B B

(v dx + v y dy + v z dz ).
r r
AB =
A
v dr =
A
x

r
r 1
r 3 r
2 2
3
r
r 2 3
1

1

. 2.15.

35
r -
+ v ():
B
A r r
r
dr = dr .
v

-
+
: -

. 2.16.
( -
).

2.9.

, -
- (. 2.17)
/8/. -
, -

v y v
d z = v x dx + v y + dx dy v y dy v x + x dy dx =
x y

v y v x r
= dxdy = 2 z dS = rot z v dS .
x y
r
n :
r
d n = rot n v dS . (2.18)
,
. S -
, -
(. 2.18).
(2.18).
(),
r
d = rot n v dS .
S S

36
v x
vx + dy
y

vy v y
vy + dx
x
vx
S

. 2.17. . 2.18.

,
(. 2.18),
, -
. ,
r r
=
S
rot v n dS . (2.19)

(2.19)
: , -
1, -
, .
: -
.
: -
() -
( ).
:
. -
:
- ( );

(. 2.19, );

1
,
.
.

37
- ; , -
-
, (. 2.19, );
- , -

;
, -
, (. 2.19, ).

) )

. 2.19. :
; , , ( -
); /2/

38
3.

,
, , -
, .

3.1.

, -
/8/. -
V S (. .
3.1). dV ,
M = dV dS.
r r
() FV g -
r r
F
S p n .
r d vr
a = .
dt
:
r r r
Ma = FV + FS
r S
dv r r V
dV = dV g + p n dS . dV
dt
- dS
:
r . 3.1.
dv r r

V
dt
dV = g dV +
V

S
p n dS . (3.1)


-:


r
p n dS = ( r
p x cos( n , x ) + p y cos( n , y ) + p z cos( n , z ) ) dS =
r r
S S
r r r
p x p y p z
= + + dV .
V
x y z
(3.1),
r r r r
dv r p x p y p z
V dt g x + y + z dV = 0 .

39
V ,
.
:
r r r r
dv r 1 p x p y p z
= g + + + .
dt x y z
(3.2)


:
dv x 1 p xx yx zx
= gx + + + ;
dt x y z
dv y 1 xy p yy zy
= gy + + + ;
dt x y z (3.3)
dv z 1 xz yz p zz
= gz + + + ,
dt x y z
v x , v y , v z - , g x , g y , g z - -
x, y z .
-
.

3.2. .

, -
, -
,
. -
(3.2).
.
dv 1 p
x
= g ;
dt
x
x
dv 1 p
y
= g ;
dt
y
y (3.4)
dv 1 p
z
= g ,
z
z
dt
:

40
r
dv r 1
= g grad p .
dt
-
.
. (3.4) -
(2.7):
v x v y v z
+ + = 0.
x y z
C (2.1), (2.5) (2.6) (3.4) -
, -
:
r
v v2 r r r 1
+ grad + rot v v = g grad p . (3.5)
t 2
-
.
, , -
r r r
( rot v v ), ( v t ),
.

, -
. -
.
-
. -

, ,
.
()
, . -
.
. (,
, ), -
(, ).
, -
, , -
. -

:

41
vn = 0 ,
, :
vn = vn .
v n - .

, . , -

pa. z = ( x, y, t ) , -

p = pa z = .

3.3. ,

, . -
r
g = grad U , U - , -
r
g
g x = U ; g y = U ; g z = U .
x y z
, gx = gy = 0, gz = -g,
U z = g ,
U = - gz. (3.6)
(3.6) (3.5),
:
r
v r r v2 p
+ (rot v v ) = grad U . (3.7)
t 2
-
.
.
. (3.7) :
v2 p
grad U = 0
2
.
v2 p
+ U = C, C = const (3.8)
2
.

42
(3.8) ,
m , /2/.
mv2/2 , mp/ -
()
, mU
. , -

. (
C ).
,
v 2
+ p + gz = C 1 ,
2
C1 .
: v2/2 - ; p
; gz . -
.
,
.
. -
r
, rot v = 0 . -
(x,y,z,t),
r r
v (2.9): v = grad = .
(3.7)
,
v2 p
grad = grad U .
t 2
grad t -
grad ,
v2 p
grad + + U = 0 .
t 2
:
1 p
+ ( ) +
2
U = . (3.9)
t 2

, : = (t), -
.

43
-
. :

1
2 2 2
p
+ + + + + gz = .
t 2 x y z

.
.
t = 0 ,
(3.9)
v2 p
+ U = ,
2
,
.
, ,
:
, -
. -
,
, -
.

3.4.

.
(, ,
) ( -
).
(. 3.2):
v 02 v12
+ gz 0 = + gz 1 .
2 2
, , -
, 1

v1 = v 02 + 2 g ( z 0 z1 ) .

44
. 3.2.

.
, ,
(. 3.3). ,
. -
: v0 = 0. :
v12
+ gz 1 = 0 v1 = 2 gz 1 .
2
-
.
. ,

v1 (. 3.4). ,
,
:
v 02
1 = + 0 . (3.10)
2

z0=0; v0=0
0

z1
v1
1

. 3.3. . 3.4.
v1

45
0 , 1 - .
.
, -
, . 3.5. -
1 ( ) 0 (
) , .
v0 (3.10). -
, (, -
).

. 3.5.

3.5.

,
.
1 .
() (.. -
U), (..
), (3.4)

r
dv p
= grad U .
dt
,
( ):
r
d
=
d
( v d r ) = d r
r r dv r .
dt dt dt

46
, :
d p r p
= grad U - d r = d U - = 0 (t ) = const .
dt
, : -
, ,
, , -
.
: -
-
, -
.

(, ). , -
, . . .
.
-

.
. -
, -
. -, -
, -
, .,
. ,
. , ,
. , , -
.

3.6.

(3.3) -
,
/8/.
(2.7) 6 -
3 . -
.
, .
1. , -

47
p xx = p + xx ,
p yy = p + yy , (3.11)
p zz = p + zz ,
p - ,
; xx , yy , zz - , -
.
2. (1.1)
(2.5), , -
:

xx yx zx x z y

xy yy zy = 2 z y x . (3.12)
yz zz x z
xz y
(3.11) (3.12), -
:
vx
p xx = p + 2 ;
x
v y
p yy = p + 2 ;
y
v z
p zz = p + 2 ;
z
vx v y (3.13)
xy = + = yx ;
y x
vx vz
xz = + = zx ;
z x
v y vz
= + = zy .
y
yz
z

,
v v y v z
p xx + p yy + p zz = 3 p + 2 x + + .
x y z

48
(2.7).
, -
:
p= 1
3
(p xx + p yy + p zz ) .
(3.13)
(3.3) . :
dv x 1 p 2vx 2vx 2vx
= g x + + + 2
;
dt x x 2
y 2
z
dv y 1 p 2v y 2v y 2v y
= g + + + ; (3.14)
dt
y
y x 2 y 2
z 2

dv z 1 p 2vz 2vz 2vz
= g z + + + .
2
dt z x
2
y 2
z

:
r
dv r 1
= g grad p + v . (3.15)
dt

= 0 , (3.4). -
(3.14) (2.7), -

p v x , v y , v z . -
(3.14) -
.
, . .
-
(3.14) (2.7),
.

1.2
. ,
, , S, -
r r
v = 0 , v - . -
r
v ,
r r
v = v S.

49
(3.15) , -
(3.5):
r
v v2 r r r 1 r
+ grad + rot v v = g grad p rot rot v . (3.16)

t 2


. , -
, ( -
(3.16)).
(
(3.16)). ,
- :
1
v = grad p . (3.17)

. -
r v0 -
(3.17)
: R x = 6 v 0 r .
,
/6/:
3 9 1
R x = 6 v 0 r 1 + Re Re 2 ln ,
8 40 Re
Re = vr .
.
v0 , -
1, -
x. (3.14),
, p y = p z = 0 , . . -
. - (3.17)
/6/:
2v 2v 1 dp 1 p
+ = = ,
y 2 z 2 dx L
1
, , . .
. -
.

50
p L.
R -
, , -
r

v=
p 2
4 L
( )
R r2 .

p 4
Q = R .
8 L
-
,
.

3.7. .
.

-
. , -
. , ,
, , ,
.
. -
-. , -
-
.
Re
, ,
.
.
.
,
, Re . -
(Re = Dv/, D -
) 2000 3000. -
-
Re = Lv 10 6 (L - ).
,
.
.
.

51

.
, , x,

v x (t ) = v x + v x (t ),

v x - ; v x - -
.

,
.
-
.

(3.2) ,
, ,
,
. , (3.2)
x,
p xx = p xx + p xx ; yx = yx + yx ; zx = zx + zx ,
(3.22)
, -
/8/.
(3.2) (3.18)
-
.
(3.2) - (3.14)
, . -
. -
.
-
-
,
. -
, , -
(. 3.6).
, ,
-
. , ,
-,
.

52

.
,
, ,
. -
-
.
-
, .
( )
, , -
, , . ,
, -
- .
-
, .

: , .
,
-
, (. 3.7). -
, -
.
. 3.8.

) r ) r ) r
n n n
r r r
v0 v0 v0

. 3.6. : ;
;

53
dp/dx>0 dp/dx=0
dp/dx<0

. 3.7.

. 3.8.

, -
, . -
, .
.
-
, (. 3.9). , -

54

. .

.

. 3.9. () () /2/

3.8. .

-
.
r
v0
.
,
. ,
r
v0 .
, ..
(. 3.10).
-
, ,
. -
,
-
.

55
. 3.10.

, ,
r
, v0 , p0
r
, v1 , p1,

1 1
p0 + v02 = p1 + v12 .
2 2
(3.10):

v12 v02 v02


p1 = p 0 + 1 2 p1 p 0 = c p .
v0 2 2

v 02 2 .
c p . -
c p , ,
(3.10), , , c p
. , ,
-
, .

, -
,
r r
= 0l ,
r
l - dS -
. , -
S , :

56
r r r
R = p n dS + 0 l dS . (3.19)
S S


v 02 2 -
(3.10).

=
0
( v 2
0 2 ),
. S0 -
(, -
). (3.19)
r v 02 r dS r dS
R = S 0 c p n + c l ,
2 S S 0 S S 0

1
v 02 S 0 , -
2

:
r r dS r dS r r
cR = c p n + c l = cR p + cR ,
S S0 S S0
r r
c R p- , c R - .
,
,
r r v 02
R = cR S0 .
2


r r v 02
M = cM S0 L ,
2
r
c M - ; L - , -
, .

r r
c R c M .

57
3.9. .

-
. -
,
/8/.

, .
dV
(
dT = v 2 2 dV , )
v - . -
(2.10).
, ,
v 2
T = dV .
V 2
, V , ,
, , -
.

. v0 (t ) - .

2
v 02 v v 02
T = dV = 0 ; (3.20)
2 V 0
v 2

0 = (v v0 )2 dV .
V
0 , , ,
, V . ,
, ,
, 0
, .
, ,
. R.
,
, -
: dT = Ru ds , ds - , .

58
dT dT dt 1 dT
Ru = = =
ds dt ds v 0 dt
(3.20)
1 v dv dv 0
Ru = 2 0 0 0 = 0 . (3.21)
v 0 2 dt dt
,
, -
.
dv0 dt = 0 .
, m,
r
R (, )
r
dv0 dt ,
r r
dv0
m = R .
dt

(3.21).
r r
d v0
(m + 0 ) = R .
dt
,
-
, -
. , -
. , -
, .

.
( ,
, )
-
,
.
36 .

, -
,
( , ) /10, 14, 15/.

59
4.
FLOW-3D

4.1.

-
, .. -
.
. , -
? -
-
. -
, , .

.
, .
,
. ,
(. 1.4), ..
, ,
,
.
, -
. , -
:
v vL
Fr = ; Re = .
gL

,
.
, -
, .
,
,
,
.
- -
(CFD computer fluid dynamic). -
-
-.

60
CFD
, FLOW-3D, Flow
Vision, ICEM CFD, ANSYS, SHIPFLOW . /17 21/. -
FLOW-3D Flow Science.
, -
-
, -
. FLOW-3D -
()
(VOF volume of fluid), Hirt
C.W. Nichols B.D. /17, 18/
( ) -
, -
. -
. -
, .
-
. -
,
.
, , , -
. ,
, ,
.
, , , .
,
, -
. ,
.
, -
.
, , . -
-
. -
: -
;
; ;
; . ,
: , -
.
-
, , , -

61
. -
, , -
. -
, .
,
. FLOW-3D

.
-
, -
(, .).
FLOW-3D -
. -
FAVOR, -
.
,
.
FLOW-3D
. -
,
.
-
,
. -
.

,
, , .
FLOW-3D
: -, - -
;
;
; ;
; ; -
() ; -
.
-
:
1. ( -
), , ,
..
.

62
2. ,
( , ,
.). ,
.
3. .
.
4. .
5. ,
.
6. ( ).
7. (-
) .
8.
.
FLOW-3D :
, , .

,
. ,
, -
, . , -
, namelist. -
, ,
,
. -
, ,
.

. ,
; -

.

. -
-
, , -
, ,
. -
.
,
.

63
, -
.
, ,
.
. -

. -
: , , , ,
, ..
-
, , -
.
-
.
, -
, , .

4.2.


FLOW-3D -
Z -
X
(. 4.1). -
. 14
30
2 .
g = 980 /2 :
,
. 4.1 -
/ .

4.2.1.

,
Project / New. Model
Building. Global -
. 4.1. ,
. 4.2.

64
:
 -
. , -
(Finish Time). -
(Fill Fraction - ).
, , -
. , . -
Finish Fraction (1.0
). Finish Time
, ,
, ,
( ) .
 ( ), -
.
(
), Free
Surface or Sharp Interface. -
, .
 (compressible)
( ) (incompressible) . -
( , ) -
. RCSQL
.

. 4.2. Global

65
 : .
, -
(One Fluid).
() , -
( ). -
(Two Fluids), -
.
, -
, -
. -
, -
, .

4.2.2.

. -
- ,
. -
, .
Meshing & Geometry (. 4.3).
: Meshing Geome-
try. Meshing (Carte-
sian), (Fixed Pt.(i)),
(Cell Size) (# of Cells).
, . 4.3. XZ
Show Mesh XZ.
Add Point. (Total Cells) -
: 20 - 43 - Z.
, Save As. -

Save. - prepin.inp.
, , .
prepin.fill.
".fill". ,
FLOW-3D.

4.2.3. ()

-
(obstacle) (regions).
, . -
Geometry. Add.

66
. 4.3. Meshing & Geometry

Add New Geometry (. 4.4), -
Flow-3D, -
(Type Source Type):
- Stereolithography (STL) File I-DEAS File -
, ,
- File Name;
- Other Non-CAD Data Flow-3D Primitives -
(, ).
, . 4.4, Add.
Edit Region Region Limiters (.
4.5) Z High, 1.0 ( 1 ). -
Solid , Region 1 .
.
Geometry -
Obstacle 1 Region 1 (. 4.6). -
, Region 1
Edit.

67
Region 1.
Obstacle 1 Add.
,
. 4.7.

. 4.4. Add New Geometry 7 8 Flow-3D

. 4.5. Edit Region . 4.6. Geometry

Add (Region 2) -
Obstacle 1. Edit Region (. 4.8), -
(X Low: -1.0; X High: 1.0)
(Z High: 2.0). ,
, , Z High = 2.0,
. -
, (Hole), OK.

68
Save .

. 4.7. - ( 7 8 Flow-3D)

. 4.8. Edit Region

69
4.2.4.
Physics (. 4.9).
Physics -
, , , .. -

, , , .., -
, .
, ,
, ,
. ,
, .
0.1, .
, .

. -
. -, . -
,
, . -, -
, -
, . ,
, ,
( ) -
.

. 4.9. Physics

70

Re = 24500,
, -
, .
Viscos-
ity Viscous
flow.
,

-
. , ,
-
, , -
, , -

: Laminar (. 4.10).
. 4.10. Physics -
, ,
.
Gravity
Z:
-980 /2 (. 4.11).



Physics.
. 4.11.
Props
.

4.2.5.


, Fluids Database Props.
, . 4.12. Water at 20
degrees C (CGS) Load, . -
(. 4.13), -
, .
20 . -
. Fluids
Database Close, (. 4.14).

71
-
Props, . -
Units Name.
Save ,
.

. 4.12. Fluids Database

. 4.13. . 4.14.

72
4.2.6.

Flow-3D
: (Symmetry); (Wall); -
(Continuative -
, , , ,
, ); -
(Periodic , ,

. 4.15). , -
(Specified Pressure, Specified Velocity).
Boundaries (.
4.16). , -
.
X min Wall (
) X min Boundary Boundary Type (. 4.17). -
Wall (X max) (Z max)
.
(Z min) (Specified
velocity). X, Y Z -
u velocity, v velocity, w velocity. w velocity -
: 175. , -
. ,

.
, (Y min) (Y max)
(Symmetry).
.
(Velocities Pres-
sure)
.

r
v
r Periodic
v

Periodic

. 4.15. Periodic

73
. 4.16. Boundaries

. 4.17. Wall ( )

74
Initial. -

, -
Void Initial State. Pressure -
: 1.013e6 (. 4.18). ,
. -
, .
( ) -
,
: hydrostatic pressure in z direction (. 4.18).
,
Output (. 4.19). Fill Fraction Basis for
Output ,
, .
Fractional Data Data Interval 0.1, -
, 0.1 (10 %)
, 11 .

. 4.18.

75
. 4.19. Output

4.2.7. .

( Save). -
. Model
Building . Preview.

(. 4.20).
-
, Successful completion of pre-
processor. , -
,
Modify. , -
(estimate solver output file size).
-
Done. .
.
Results. FLOW-3D Re-

76
sults (. 4.21). prpplt.fill . prpplt.fill
.
, , , -
( ).
(.
4.22).
4
Enter.
Enter. .
0 Enter.
,
Diagnostics (. 4.23).

. 4.20.


. Run Solver. -
: -
; ; -
. FLOW-3D Solver -
(. 4.24): ; (time
step size); (stability limit); -
(epsi & max. residual); (iteration count);
(volume error); -

77
(mean kinetic & fluid thermal energy)
.
-
, Done.
. . .

. 4.21. FLOW-3D Results

. 4.22.

78
. 4.23.

4.2.8.

Results, -
FLOW-3D Results (. 4.21).
.
.
Existing (. 4.21). flsplt.fill -
OK. (.
4.22). , -
, ,
, -

GRAFIC ( , ).
-
.
FLOW-3D Results Custom,
flsgrf.fill OK.
( 4.25). , -
: 3D FLOWVU.

79
. 4.24.

. 4.25. 2-D

80
-
4.4.
,
, .
Render. ( 4.22), -
. -
. 4.26.

. 4.26. 2-D

4.3.


. 1
1 /.
, Project New. -
(. 4.27).
, -
. Global ( ) -
: ( "" (Sharp) (Free)
); (Incompressible) ; -
1 (One Fluid).
(,
, ), 1 - .

81
. 4.27.

Meshing & Geometry ,


. 4.28. , Show Mesh.
( ).
Geometry Add.
Add New Geometry (. 4.29) : -
( STL), -
File Name, .
Other or Non-CAD Data Add. -
(=1) ,
. 4.30. Edit Region OK.

"Obstacle 1" "Region 1"
. , "Edit", "Edit Region".

( Boundaries). -
Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, Ymax, Zmin Zmax.
Xmin . 4.31. Xmax
. Z (Symme-
try), Y (Wall).
Numerics ( )
(Maximum Time Step = 0.02).

82
. 4.28.

. 4.29.

83
. 4.30.

84
. 4.31. Xmin

-
prepin.inp,
Flow-3D.
Edit
File Model Building. -
:
Title
This is a sample input file
$xput
remark='units are ...', twfin=1.,
itb=0, ifvis=0,
dtmax=0.02, apltdt=0.2,
$end
$limits
$end
$props
rhof=1.0,
$end
$scalar
$end
$bcdata
wl=1, wr=6, wf=2, wbk=2, wb=1, wt=1,
ubc(1)=1., ubc(2)=1.,
$end
$mesh
nxcelt=40, px(2)=5., nycelt=40,
nzcelt=1, pz(2)=1.0, py(2)=5.,
$end
$obs
avrck=-3.1, nobs=1, iob(1)=1, ioh(1)=1,
rah(1)=1., trnx(1)=2.5, trny(1)=2.5,
$end
$fl
$end
$bf
$end
$temp
$end
$motn
$end
$grafic
$end
$parts
$end

85
Documentation: general comments, background, expecta-
tions, etc.

, . -
$< > $end -
. , -
.
Help Flow-3D.
-
. ()
,
, . ,
.
, , -
.
grafic :
$grafic
nvplts=2, contpv(1)='vel', contpv(2)='p',
$end

( Save)
.
Preview (
). Re-
sults
prpplt.dat.
(. 4.22) "4" -
Enter.
Enter. "0" -
.
Run Solver.
-
. flsplt.dat. . 4.32
.
() -
. -
OBS prepin.inp
IFRCO(m) = 1, m (obstacle).
FLOW-3D -
prepin.inp, -
, .

86

Model Building.
prepin . ,
-
, prepin , -
.
(Namelist) , -
, BCDATA,
PROPS, .. Namelist- . 4.1
, prepin. -
namelist- ( ,
).

. 4.32.

87
4.1
Namelist- prepin.inp
-


XPUT
LIMITS
PROPS
SCALAR
CHM
BCDATA
PCAP -
(
IDRG = 5 XPUT)
RBDATA -
( IACCF = 2
XPUT)
USRDAT
( IUSRD = 2 XPUT)
MESH
OBS
FL
BF (baffle)
TEMP -

MOTN
(reference frame)
GRAFIC
PARTS
USRDAT
( IUSRD = 1 XPUT)

88
4.4.

(. 4.33).
. 4.33 .

,
. , -
Model Building ( ),
. 4.34 4.40.

. 4.33.

. 4.34. Global

89
. 4.35. Physics

. 4.36. Props

. 4.37. Meshing & Geometry

90
. 4.38. Meshing & Geometry

. 4.39. Boundaries

. 4.40. Initial

91
prepin.inp :

3-D flow over a standard rectangular weir.

$xput $obs
remark='units are ...', avrck=-3.1,
twfin=1.25, itb=1, nobs=1, iob(1)=1, iob(3)=1,
gz=-980., ifvis=0, ioh(1)=1, ioh(3)=1,
ipdis=1, xl(1)=0., xl(3)=0.,
$end xh(1)=0.5, xh(3)=0.5,
yl(3)=5., yh(3)=10.,
$limits zh(1)=10.,
$end zh(3)=16.,
$end
$props
rhof=1., $fl
units='cgs', nfls=2,
mu1=0.01, remark=' 2 -
$end :',
fzh(1)=14.5, fxh(1)=0.0,
$scalar fxl(2)=0.5, fzh(2)=1.7,
$end ui=20.,
$end
$bcdata
wl=5, wr=5, wf=1, wbk=1, $bf
wb=2, wt=3, flhtl=14.5, flhtr=1.7, $end
ipbctp(1)=1, ipbctp(2)=1, $temp
$end $end
$motn
$mesh $end
nxcelt=60, px(2)=20., $grafic
nycelt=20, $end
nzcelt=34, pz(2)=17., $parts
px(1)=-10., py(2)=10., $end
py(1)=0.0,
$end

fl ,
(nfls=2), -
. fxl, fxh fzh -
fluid , (x, y z) ,
(l low, h high).
Preview.
Done.
. , - prpplt.dat -
, .

92
Results , - . (.
4.22) "4" Enter. . 4.41 -
.

. 4.41.

Run Solver, -
(. 4.24).
, , -
,
. , -
.
.
1. (,
) (
) -
. , , -
. -
: Finish Time Global
Model Building, Time Step
Size Numerics.

93
2. (Time Step Size)
(Stability Limit), -
.
, .
,
, (-
).
3. epsi & max residual -
. Epsi (convergence
criterion) .

, (max residual) -
psi (convergence criterion), , -
ITMAX. -
ITMAX,
(error message).
4. volume of fluid -
. mean kinetic energy -
.
.
5. ,
( ) -
.
:
,
, . -
-
;
(cells) ,
.
, -
, , .

. -
,
;
( ) -
, . ,
-
. -
, -
.

94
, -

, Terminate, -
.
-
flsgrf.dat flsplt.dat.
, . flsgrf.dat

().
Results. Custom flsgrf.dat -
k. Results .
Custom
, Existing, -
. -
, Results.
Custom.
Custom flsinp.dat.
, -
.
. -

, -
(
Results) .
,
Render flsinp.tmp. -
,
Custom, flsinp.tmp , -
Save as...
.
, -
Custom .
flsinp (namelists) .
ontrl .
(pltreq) .
pltreq. ,
flsinp , Help.
Probe.
-
(I, J, K)
(. 4.42). , ,
Data Variables. :

95
fraction of fluid
(0 ; 1 );
pressure ;
x, y, z velocity .

Data Point Time Frame ( 7- Flow-3D Time
Frame ,
).

Render.

. 4.42. Probe Results

1-D.
-
. , -
-
(. 4.43). Data Variables -

96
pressure. Plot Location (X-
direction), (Y, Z). Time
Frame .
2-D.
(. 4.25 8- Flow-3D, . 4.44 7-
) -
.
( ) Contour
Variable.

. 4.43. 1-D Results


-
Vector Type.
, -
Particle Type.

97
Plane
Limits, Time Frame. Con-
tour Type : B/W
contour lines ; color
contour lines ; shaded .
- Scaling.
.
,
(Y=0). ,
. ,
Symmetry Reflection Vertical (. 4.45).

. 4.44. 2-D Results

98
. 4.45.

3-D.
-
. . 4.46 3-D 7- Flow-3D ( 8-

).
.
2-D .
Iso-Surface .
fraction of fluid -
. EyePoint (Auto)
(
).
Iso Surface Options -
, Color Variable: Wireframe
, ; Solid
Surface (Shaded Surface) .
: No obstacles -
; Transparent obstacles

99
; Solid obstacles -
.

. 4.46. 3-D Results

FlowVU STL Viewer.


3-D,
. ,
Render STL Viewer, -
OpenGL (. 4.47).
STL Viewer
(-
).
-
. STL Viewer , -
, .
, . -
, , -
, , .

100
. 4.47. STL Viewer

4.5.

-
1 /. ,
.
- STL (Stereo li-
thography). Flow-3D
STL Viewer (. 4.48).

. 4.49. Props
Fluids Database, -
Load (. 4.50). Set Units Name -
(SI).
. 4.51 .

101
. 4.48.

. 4.49.

102
. 4.50.

subm.stl

. 4.51.

103
Meshing & Geometry Geometry
Add STL-, . 4.52. ,
Add Add New Geometry,
STL- (Magnification) -
(Translation), . 4.53.
Boundaries,
, :
Xmin: Specified Velocity; u velocity = 1;
Xmax: Specified Velocity; u velocity = 1;
Ymin, Ymax, Zmin Zmax: Specified Pressure; Pressure = 500;
Initial : U velocity = 1.
. 4.54 .

. 4.52. (Obstacle) STL-

. 4.53. STL- 4

104

. 4.54. :
;
;

105

,
. -
, . ,
,
.
, -
, :
. .
.
. .
..
. .
. .
. .
.
.
. .
. .
. , .
. . .
. ,
, , .
. . -
.
,
,
Flow-3D. -

, -
.
.
, (
, .).
,
: kks@knastu.ru, chizhium@rambler.ru.
. ,
,
. , -
. .

106

1. , . / . . - . : , 1963. - 244 .
2. -, . / . -. -
. : , 1986. 184 .
3. , . . / . . ,
. . , . . . . : , 1982.
4. , . . /
. . , . . , . . . . : , 1984.
5. , . . -
/ . . , . . . . : , 1977. 408 .
6. , . . : . : 10 . . 6.
/ . . , . . . . : , 1988. 736 .
7. , . . :
/ . . . . : , 1987. 840 .
8. , . . / . . . . : -
, 1990. 192 .
9. -, . . / . . -
. . : , 1964. 660 .
10. , . / . . . : -
, 1985. 368 .
11. , . / . . :
"", 2000. 576 .
12. / . .. -
. . : , 1975. 352 .
13. , . / . . . : , 1967.
392 .
14. : . 1. / .
. . . . : , 1985. 768 .
15. , . . /
. . . : - . -, 1999. 182 .
16. , . . : . /
. . . . : . ., 1990. 384 .
17. http://www.cad.ru/flow3d/flow3d.htm ( FLOW-3D)
18. http://www.flow3d.com ( FLOW-3D
FLOW SCIENCE)
19. http://www.flowvision.ru ( FLOW VISION -
)
20. http://www.cadfem.ru/program/icem/icem.htm (
ICEM CFD)
21. http://icemcfd.com ( ICEM CFD)
22. http://xoptimum.narod.ru/rus/index.html ( -
-).

107

. .

. .

28.12.2007.
60 84 1/16. . FR3950-.
. . . 6,27. .-. . 7,41. 100. .

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