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1

Rahul Kumar

1

Amrita University, Amritapuri, Kollam, Kerala.

Email ID: rahulkumar_0207@rediffmail.com

Abstract The earliest form of a manual transmission is overall vehicle efficiency. In a developing country like India

thought to have been invented by Louis-Ren Panhard and where people are very much cost conscious, latest technology

Emile Levassor in the late 19th century. This type of such as hybrid and electric vehicles are not the immediate

transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most solution. If the conventional vehicle is considered, its

cases, reverses. Almost all automobiles as of today are

energy efficiency can be improved by increasing the engine

driven by internal combustion engines because of the high

power to weight ratio, relatively good efciency and compact efficiency or by modifying the transmission system of the

energy storage associated with it. The major disadvantage with vehicle that transfers power from the engine to the wheel.

this engine is its incapability of producing torque from the Modifying the engine is costlier, at the same time results

rest, which is the characteristic of ideal traction hyperbola. achieved is also inferior against the transmission modification

This difference between characteristics curve of the [1].

combustion engine and the ideal traction hyperbola can be Thus a considerable effort is going on in the research

approximated by the use of a gear box. In this paper a gear box area for the development of better transmission that can

with 7 forward gears and 2 reverse gears has been described. enhance the vehicle energy efficiency. Packaging is always

A normal 7 speed MT requires 8 gear pairs to provide 7

an issue for an automobile as the automotive industry is

forward and 1 reverse gear but this paper presents a novel

7 speed MT designed with just 6 gear pairs giving 7 forward moving towards improving the fuel economy and reduction

and 2 reverse gears thereby saving both the material cost as of weight. Transmission, which is one of the heavy

well as meeting the space constraints. components in an automobile when modified, can help in

optimizing the overall vehicle efficiency. Even after the

Index Terms Manual Transmission, front-wheel-drive development of many new technologies in the area of

transmissions, Gear Design, Shaft Design, Solid works, transmission like AT, AMT, DCT still the most efficient

ANSYS & 3D Modeling of the Gearbox, Input shaft, clutch transmission with best fuel economy available in the

disk. present scenario is manual transmission [1]. Along with the

advantage of best fuel econ om y i t al so ha s som e

I. INTRODUCTION disadvantage such as compromise in comfort and also the

A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox size of the transmission. The wheel whereas in the advanced

or standard or standard, stick-shift, straight shift, straight or technology planetary gear trains are used which are more

straight drive (U.S.) is a type of transmission used in motor compact. Thus there is always a scope of improving the MT

vehicle applications. It uses a driver-operated clutch engaged from the compactness point of view. Thus, a novel approach

and disengaged by a foot pedal (automobile) or hand lever to reduce the transmission size is proposed here which has the

(motorcycle), for regulating torque transfer from the engine potential to improve fuel economy, reduce the material cost

to the transmission; and a gear stick operated by foot as well as solve the packaging constraint.

(motorcycle) or by hand (automobile). A conventional, 5-

speed manual transmission is often the standard equipment II. GEAR RATIOS F OR 7 SPEED MT

in a base-model car; other options include automated The slowest gears (designated 1 or low gear) in most

transmissions such as an automatic transmission (often a automotive applications allow for three to four engine

manumitted), a semi-automatic transmission, or a rotations for each output revolution (3:1). High gear in a

continuously variable transmission (CVT). three or four speed manual transmission allows the output

Automobiles are one of the most trusted and popular shaft to spin at the same speed as the engine (1:1). Five and

means of transportation available in the world. With the six speeds are often overdriving with the engine turning

invention of IC engines, the application of automobile for less than a full turn for each revolution of the output shaft

transportation has increased significantly contributing (0.8:1, for example). A typical set of gear ratios for a 7 speed

greatly towards a developing ci vi l i z a ti on . Ch ea p MT was 42/32/22 chain set with 11-28 cassette; for a 10 speed

transportation cost with safety in driving, makes automobile (with triple chain set) it is 42/32/24 and 11-36, which is exactly

as one of the best means available for industrial applications. the same top gear ratio. Bigger wheels increase gear ratio

With more development in industrial sector the numbers of too, but the difference between 26" and 29" wheels is only

automobiles in the road are also increasing rapidly. But with about 12%. Increasing the front chaining size from 42t to 48t

the energy crisis, fluctuating price of the petroleum fuels and would increase the top gear by 15%.

environmental damage caused by the automobiles, continuous To design a MT for a SUV, following specifications were

research and development work is going on to improve the taken to estimate the gear ratios by referring [2].

DOI: 02.AETAME.2012.3.21

Short Paper

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2012

TABLE I. SPECIFICATION OF SUV Step:5 Gear material: 16Mn5Cr4. Its design compressive

stress & bending stresses are [c = 25000 kgf/cm2], [b =

3500 kgf/cm2] [3]

Density of 16Mn5Cr4 () = 3900 kg/m3

Youngs Modulus = 340 x 103 N/mm2 Poissons Ratio (v) =

0.220

i = 7, =b/a, = 0.3, [MT] = MT kd k ,MT = 97420 KW/N, kd k

= 1.3[3]

[MT] = MT kD k = (97420x9000x1.3)/3500 =325661.14 kgfcm

Now, minimum centre distance based on the surface

compressive strength is given by

Considering requirements of a SUV, the Overall gear ratio was

calculated as

Overall gear ratio: I =16.81

Final reduction = 4.1

Ia=16.81/4.1 = 4.1 Minimum module based on beam strength:

Considering progressive gear steps following results were

obtained [2].

TABLE II. INTERMEDIATE GEAR R ATIOS

Let Z1 = 18, m = 10, Virtual number of teeth

Zv = Z1 /cos2 = 18/0.744 = 25 from [Table 11, PSG design

data book]

Lewis form factor Yv (for Zv = 25) = 0.4205

III. GEAR DESIGN

In order to design a helical gear system the following

procedure should be followed~ The input conditions are mn > 1.11 cm , mn > 11.16 mm , But for mn = 1116 mm, c and

power, speed, helix angle, gear ratio. b are > [c] & [b] also FS < FD which makes design unsafe.

Step: 1 Gear design starts with material selection. Proper So mn = 18 mm = 1.8 cm

material selection is very important~ 16Mn5 Cr4 has been

selected as a material [3]. If the material for gear and pinion is

same then the design should be based since it is weak.

Step: 2 Find out the minimum central distance based on the

But in order to avoid interference, Zt is taken as 18, No.of

surface compression stress is

teeth on gear, Z2 = iZ1 = 126

N)*Kd*K

Where Kd*K=1.3, =b/a..[Design data] Diameter of the gear (d2) = id1 = 7 x 35.74 =250.2 cm

Step: 3 Minimum normal modules may e determined as

number of teeth Zv=Z1/cos3 , Face width b = .a = 0.3 x142.99=42.899 cm

Lewis form factor Yv=0.1540.192/Zv . [Design data]

Number of teeth on pinion Z1=2acos/mn*(i+1) , Number of

teeth on gear Z2=iZ1

Diameter of pinion D1=mn*Z1/cos , Diameter of gear

D2=mn*Z2/cos

Centre distance a=D1+D2/2 , Face width b= a

Step: 4 checking the calculations: Based on the Compressive Stresses

Based on the compressive stress,

Here the bending and compressive stress values obtained

are less than the material property y values, and then the

design is safe.

2012 AMAE 107

DOI: 02.AETAME.2012.3. 21

Short Paper

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2012

A shaft is a rotating member usually of circular cross-

section (solid or hollow), which is used to transmit power

and rotational motion. Axles are non-rotating member.

Elements such as gears, pulleys (sheaves), flywheels,

clutches, and sprockets are mounted on the shaft and are

used to transmit power from the driving device (motor or

engine) through a machine. The rotational force (torque) is

Fig. 2. Shaft Diameter

transmitted to these elements on the shaft by press fit, keys,

dowel, pins and splines [4]. The shaft rotates on rolling Shear and bending stresses on the outer surface of a

contact or bush bearings. Various types of retaining rings, shaft, for a torque (T) and bending moment (M)

thrust bearings, grooves and steps in the shaft are used to For solid circular section

take up axial loads and locate the rotating elements.

Loads on shaft due to gears :

Failure criterion for non-rotating shafts. The stress at a point

on the shaft is normal stress in X direction and shear stress

in XY plane.

1. From power and rpm find the torque (T), which gives rise

to shear stress.

2. From Torque (T) and diameter (d), find Ft = 2T/d. From Ft

and pressure angles of gears you can find Fr and Fa.

3. Fr and Ft are orthogonal to each other and are both

transverse forces to the shaft axis, which will give rise to

normal bending stress in the shaft [5]. When shaft rotates,

bending stress changes from tensile to compressive and then Fig. 3. Solid Works Model of Gear Box

compressive to tensile, ie, completely reversing state of stress. Parametric design implies the use of parameters to define

4. Fa will give rise to normal axial stress in the shaft. a form when what is actually in play is the use of relations. It

Axial dimensions are often fixed from the layout of the is also known as relational modeling or variation design or

mechanism. Design recommendation is to keep the axial constraint based design. It is a method of linking dimensions

lengths as short as possible to limit bending stress. Simply and variables to geometry in such a way that when its values

supported shaft is better than cantilever or overhang shafted. change, the parts design changes as well. A parameter is a

Shaft design is to determine the diameter of the shaft such variable to which other variables are related, and these other

that it withstands the applied loads, after stress variables can be obtained by means of parametric equations.

concentrations, with a known factor of safety. In this manner, design modifications and creation of a family

of parts can be performed in remarkably quick time compared

with the redrawing required by traditional CAD. Parametric

modification can be accomplished with a spreadsheet, script,

or by manually changing dimension text in the digital model

[6].

DOI: 02.AETAME.2012.3. 21

Short Paper

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2012

Various input parameters used in 3D modeling of involute

gear profile are as follows.

1. Pressure angle: a

2. No of teeth: z

3. Module: m

3D Model of 7 Speeds MT for SUV

Pitch circle radius: r Outer circle radius: Rk Root circle

radius:Rf Base circle radius:Rb

Variable Parameters

1. No of teeth: z Fig. 5. Secondary Map of an IC Engine without and with Gearbox

2. Pressure angle: a [2 ]

3. Module: m A normal 7 speed MT will match the traction curve much

Parametric Relations: [7-8] better than lower speed MT [8]. A normal 7 speed MT offers

7 forward gears & 1 reverse gear using 8 gear pairs & 5

synchronizers making it quite bulky, but this current design

of 7 speed MT offers 7 forward gears & 2 reverse gears with

just 6 gear pairs & 4 synchronizers as shown in fig. 3, thereby

saving the material cost, manufacturing cost of 2 gear pairs

(4 gears), 1 synchronizer & also meeting the space constraints

especially in case of passenger vehicles (SUVs). The overall

length & weight is also less as compared to normal 7 speed

MT. The 7 speed MT has an input shaft, an output shaft, a

counter shaft & 6 gear pairs along with 4 synchronizers. To

operate the 1st gear, power flows from input shaft to counter

shaft via counter gear A & then to output shaft by operating

the 1st synchronizer on output shaft. For selecting 2nd gear

power flows through counter gear B instead of A by operating

the synchronizer at counter gear and then to output shaft.

The power flow diagram fig. 4, gives a brief overview of gear

selection in the 7 speed MT.

Fig. 4. 3D Model

The higher the number of gears the better is the

approximation between the Engine characteristics curve and

Traction hyperbola. As with higher number of ratios the

engine traction available touches the traction hyperbola in

more number of points. But with the higher number of gears

the design and packaging complication also increases thus

there is a tradeoff between the more number of gear ratio and

packaging complication [2].

DOI: 02.AETAME.2012.3. 21

Short Paper

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2012

A. Bending Stress

1. Segmental Analysis

A finite element model with a segment of three teeth is

considered for analysis. The boundary conditions used are

similar to the one proposed by Von Eiff Et Al. [9]. The geometry

was created in Solid Works & was imported to ANSYS

workbench for stress analysis under static load. The 1st gear

of the gear box was selected for static analysis as it transmits

the highest torque so the bending moment is highest in 1st

gear.

A standard spur gear with module 3mm, number of teeth

18, pressure angle 20 degrees, is considered for analysis.The

element selected for bending stress analysis of the gear teeth

Fig. 7. Power Flow Diagram for 7 Speed Gear Box is SOLID 186. The gear material having modulus of elasticity

TABLE III. SHOWING THE EXACT NO TEETH & G EAR REDUCTIONS FOR 7 SPEED equal to 2.1x105 N/mm2 and poisons ratio equal to 0.3 is

MT considered for bending stress analysis. A uniform pressure

of 3000 N/mm2 was applied on a line along the one of the face

of the gear tooth. The bore and the sides of the gear were

fixed to make it similar to a cantilever beam. The FEA results

of stresses developed are comparable with the theoretical

stresses calculated using the Lewis equation[4].

2. Analysis of Complete Gear

A finite element model of 1st gear of the gear box with all

teeth is considered for the analysis. The boundary conditions

used are similar to the one proposed by Von Eiff et al., [9].

The geometry was created in Solid works & was imported to

ANSYS workbench for stress analysis under static load.

A standard spur gear with module 3mm, number of teeth 18,

VII. STRESS ANALYSIS pressure angle 20 degrees, is considered for analysis. The

FEA results of stresses developed are comparable with the

After designing the 7 speed MT a theoretical analysis of stress calculated using the Lewis equation [4].

gears was performed to study the stress patterns developed

& compare it with theoretical calculations. It is widely agreed B. Analysis Results

that both experimental and theoretical analysis of spur gears By comparing fig. 6, [10], with the results obtained by our

can be performed using a 2D approach. This approach analysis in fig. 7 & fig. 8, we can see that the stress distribution

presumes that the load is uniformly distributed along the obtained by us around the tooth root is similar to the one

tooth face (on a line parallel with shaft axis) and, in the most obtained by researchers.

cases, only a single tooth is taking into account. Yet many

3D analyses of the spur gears have been accomplished in

order to investigate if the development of fillet stress in the

axis shaft direction can be ignored or what is the variation of

this stress [9-10]. The stress analysis is further subdivided in

two parts Bending stress analysis & contact analysis.

General hypothesis followed for stress analysis is as

follows [11]

1. The geometry of the tooth and the gear is obtained using

mathematical formulations in Solid Works. The tooth profile

is involute.

2. The geometry of the gear includes rim geometry with a

solid geometry and defined ratio parameters as per standards. Fig. 8. SOLID 186 Elements

3. The number of the teeth taking into account is three, in

order to simulate the single and double pair teeth in contact,

over the whole roll angle.

4. The complete gear is also selected for bending analysis.

5. The load applied is modeled both for torque model and

force loaded at the profile points.

DOI: 02.AETAME.2012.3. 21

Short Paper

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2012

Fig. 9. 2D Deformed Model & Stresses for Gear under Load [10]

comparing fig. 10 [13], with the plots obtained by our analysis

in fig. 9, we can see that the stress distribution obtained by

us around the point of contact is similar to the one obtained

by researchers. Based on surface fatigue strength calculations

the estimated hardness was found to be 475BHN.

CONCLUSION

This new design for the 7 speed MT offers benefit from

all side ranging from better overall efficiency of the vehicle

by higher approximation to the traction hyperbola,

Fig. 10. Stress Distribution in the Gear Tooth improvement of fuel economy as well as reduction of material

cost by eliminating 2 gear pairs and finally the space

constraints. The detailed 3D parametric model was developed

in Sold works so that the design modifications and creation

of a family of parts can be performed in remarkably quick time

thereby avoiding redrawing as required by traditional CAD.

The geometry created in Solid Works & was imported to

ANSYS workbench for performing stress analysis & results

were comparable with theoretical calculations. This design

can also be used in case of high speed gear boxes for

commercial vehicles. The same concept can be developed by

offering 4 reductions at counter & 4 reductions after it giving

Fig. 11. Stress Distribution on the Gear us a compact 16 speed MT having 16 forward gears & 4

reverse gears with just 8 gears pairs for commercial vehicles.

VIII. CONTACT ANALYSIS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Gear tooth analysis is performed to achieve high load

capacity with reduced weight of gears & reduce rotation delay [A]. Dr Balakrishnan sankar. Professor and Chairman of

between drivers & driven caused due to elastic deformation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, and Dean of Amrita

manufacturing defects & assembly misalignment. This leads University. Amritapuri, Kerala, India.

to very serious tooth impact causing noise, vibration &

development of local stresses on or beneath the surface of REFERENCES

contact which are major causes of gear failure. Thus a contact

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analysis of gear teeth was performed in ANSYS so as to Manual Transmission (AMT) with no torque interrupts, SAE

ensure smooth reliable power transmission & estimate the Paper No. 2007-26-061, 2007.

surface hardness for gears used in 7 speed MT. ANSYS [2] Lechner Gisbert, Naunheimer Herald,Automotive transmis-

supports three contact models: node-to-node, node-to- sions Fundamentals selection, Design & Application, Springer

surface, and surface-to-surface. An eight nodded Iso- publication.

parametric plane stress quadratic quadrilateral element was [3] Specification and Supply condition of steels, HMT tractor

used to build the finite element models of these two teeth. Division.

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DOI: 02.AETAME.2012.3.21

Short Paper

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2012

[7] [Online] Available: http://www.mathcurve.com/courbes2d/ [10] Cananau S.,Repartiia drepi, PhD Thesis, longitudinala a

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[9] Baret C. et al.,3D stress analysis of spur gears with profile [12] Refaat M.H., Meguid S.A.,Contact stress analysis of spur

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58, 2009.

DOI: 02.AETAME.2012.3. 21

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