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PREPARATION OF

ACETYLENE
FROM CALCIUM
CARBIDE

Group No. 2
Members:
Alayon, Ericdan
Alib, Lhester
Bagsit, Winona
Guillano, Justin
Magadia, Jesy
Parsaso, Zarah
Sabido, Mikee
Sarmiento, Rolando III
Torres, Jean Adrian

I. INTRODUCTION
Crude oil and fractions derived from it are shaped molecules called
hydrocarbons and by a combination of tetravalent carbon atoms with monovalent
hydrogen atoms. However, in crude oil there are no specific types of molecular
structures such as the unstable olefinic ones being converted to stable molecules in
the deposits themselves during the course of the centuries. Saturated hydrocarbons
contain only single bonds, whereas unsaturated hydrocarbons contain more links,
due to the addition of hydrogen to other atoms. In this experiment we have a series
of aliphatic hydrocarbons (methane, ethylene and acetylene) in which we have to
synthesize them and check some of their chemical properties, in addition to
comparing the properties of unsaturated hydrocarbons with the saturated ones.
PREPARATION OF ACETYLENE AND ITS PROPERTIES
Acetylene (C2H2) is industrially obtained from calcium carbide or methane.
Ethylene commonly called acetylene is an alkyne, its linear molecular geometry is
due to sp hybridized carbon atoms that form it. Acetylene is a highly flammable and
colorless gas with its pleasant characteristic odor, not when it is in its pure form,
because of the presence of phosphine PH3 in small amounts. In 1836 John Davy
prepared acetylene by first reacting calcium carbide with water. Acetylene is one of
the few organic compounds can be prepared directly and economically from what
we might consider starting inorganic products. Calcium carbide, which from coke
(coal) and limestone (CaO), is treated with water to give acetylene. The carbon
atoms in acetylene have an sp hybridization. In the carbon carbon bond it involves
an sp orbital on each carbon atom and the other is part of the hydrogen-carbon
bond that leaves perpendicular p orbitals on each carbon atom, which are coated
with opponents to form two perpendicular orbitals. (Stermitz 1988). The objective
of this laboratory is to know obtaining acetylene from calcium carbide and water,
also to check certain properties of acetylene and reactions with some elements.
II. INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES
To produce methane, ethylene and acetylene gases
To test each gas by different methods
To understand the significance of each gas in the industry

III. MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND REAGENTS


Test tube Matchstick
Test tube rack Calcium Carbide
Separatory Funnel Distilling Flask
Tripod Iron Clamp
Rubber Tubing Iron Stand
Rubber Stopper Distilled Water
Trough

IV. PROCEDURE AND SET-UP


1. Prepare the set-up.














2. Prepare an amount of distilled water into the separatory funnel and


leave the stopcock closed.
3. Prepare an amount of water into the trough enough to sink the test
tube halfway.
4. Put an amount of calcium carbide into the distilling flask.
5. Gradually open the stopcock and let some distilled water flow down
the distilling flask.
6. Hold the test tube and observe until the water inside the test tube
has subsided.
7. Set out the test tube from the water and quickly cover it with a
rubber stopper.
8. Repeat the process for other remaining test tubes.
9. Perform the test on each test tube: Lime Water Test, Flammability
Test, Von Baeyers Test.

V. DATA AND RESULTS

TEST OBSERVATION/S
Flammability It ignited and produced a luminous
flame
Addition of The solution produced a white
Lime Water precipitate.
Von Baeyers The solution turned brown from
violet.



VI. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS


For the combustion of acetylene, it burns in air with a luminous flame,
forming carbon dioxide and water. Acetylenes are highly dangerous explosives
when mixed with air or oxygen.
Acetylene gas reacts with potassium permanganate in the Von
Baeyers test. The reaction is evident because of the rapid
disappearance of the purple color. The resulting product has a
brown color.

VII. CONCLUSION
Methane gas is an odorless and colorless gas which is readily
flammable at concentrations of 4.4 to 17% in atmospheric conditions.
Concentrations lower than the given range may not combust. Methane is
used as a fuel for different chemical processes. It is also important in
generation of electricity with use of gas turbine or steam generator. It is also
used as a fuel for rockets and as feedstock in producing synthesis gas.
Ethylene is a colorless gas with strong, sweet odor and is flammable when it
is pure. In chemical industry, it has a variety of uses and it has the highest
global production compared to all organic compounds especially in producing
plastics such as polyethylene. Acetylene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon and
the simplest alkyne. It is a colorless gas with distinct odor upon presence of
impurities. It is widely used as a fuel for different industries and processes.
This gas is used as fuel in welding and cutting processes, as a portable
lighting for mining, in hardening steel by carburization and in volatilizing
carbon by radiocarbon dating applications.
VIII. RECOMMENDATION
In performing the experiment, it is important to make sure that
theres enough space in the rubber tubing for the gas to pass through and to
avoid having high internal pressure and sudden water entry to the beaker
upon heating. Also, make sure to just pass the beaker in the flame every so
often. After the experiment, handle the materials and equipment properly in
cleaning and use wash bottle. Ensure proper disposal of products and
reagents, especially hazardous chemicals such as concentrated sulfuric acid.