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HB 2.

22003
(Incorporating Amendment Nos 1 and 2)

Australian Standards for civil


engineering students

Part 2: Structural engineering


Originated as part of HB 21982.


Previous edition HB 2.22002.
Eighth edition 2003.
Reissued incorporating Amendment No. 1 (March 2003).
Reissued incorporating Amendment No. 2 (July 2004).

COPYRIGHT
Standards Australia International
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written permission of the
publisher.
Published by Standards Australia International Ltd
GPO Box 5420, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
ISBN 0 7337 5027 3

INTRODUCTION

This Handbook is the eighth edition (2003) of Part 2 of Australian Standards for civil
engineering students. It was first published by Standards Australia in 1982 as a text book of
abridged Standards suited to civil engineering subjects taught at tertiary level. The continuing
intention is to make Standards more readily accessible to students and educational institutions.
Because of tightened copyright laws and the increased surveillance of copyright breaches, by
1981 the organization had become aware of a real need for a publication of this type. Lecturers
from schools of civil engineering were asking for rights to copy and reproduce Standards,
because purchase of Standards in their complete form was financially beyond most students.
The Handbook was, therefore, designed to fill the requirements of both students and lecturers
for a copy of commonly used parts of relevant Standards, at a reasonable cost.
This Handbook
a) is re-issued incorporating Amendment No. 1 (March 2003), which corrects the editorial
errors in some characters/symbols (such as f c , , , , , , , ) on the following pages:
Introduction (this page), pages 6, 7, 11, 14, 15, 19, 27 to 32, 37, 38, 46 to 49, 51 to 53,
72, 78, 79, 84, 106, 112, 117, 118, 120, 121, 132, 526, 527, 545 to 547, 554 to 557, 560,
569 and 570;
and
b) incorporates Amendment No. 2 (July 2004). The changes required by this Amendment
are indicated in the text by a marginal bar and amendment number against the clause,
note, table, figure, or part thereof affected.
This Handbook was prepared by Standards Australia in consultation with Schools and
Departments of Civil Engineering and Building in Universities, Institutes of Technology and
Colleges of Technical and Further Education in all States. It is not an Australian Standard but
comprises extracts from selected Australian Standards considered relevant to undergraduate
courses in civil engineering and advanced courses in building and building sciences. It is hoped

that by this means, students will be better able to understand and use Standards when they enter
the workforce.
Extracts in this part of the Handbook were selected to familiarize students with the nature and
extent of structural engineering Standards and the type of constraints they imposed on persons
working in the building industry. While extracts include portions of Standards that refer to
frequently encountered situations, they do not contain all requirements that may be of critical
importance to their assessment. In addition, while the Standards from which these extracts were
taken were current editions at the time of publication of this Handbook, at any subsequent time
the relevant Standards may have been amended or superseded.
For the foregoing reasons, this Handbook should only be used for educational purposes.
Standards Australia does not accept any liability for any consequences that may result from the
use of the Handbook for any purpose other than student instruction.
Views of teachers and students on this Handbook will be welcomed by Standards Australia,
particularly on the inclusion of additional material or the deletion of other material in future
revisions. Because this Handbook is comprised of extracts, it will be noted that, in some
cases, Standards that are referred to are not necessarily included in the Handbook.

Page

Concrete structures




Australian Standard
Concrete structures












f



f


f






Approved

Building authority or other relevant regulatory authority


Drawings

Specification


Action


Action effects


Average ambient temperature

T T
Cement


Characteristic strength

Composite concrete member




Concrete


Construction joint



Cover




Creep factor

Critical tensile zone

M
M

Direct loading


Ductility Class


Effective depth



Effective span
L D L
Exposure classification

Fire-resistance level

Fire-resistance period

Fire-separating function

Fitment

Flat slab



Footing


Foundation

Grout



Headed reinforcement


Hollow-core slab or wall

Initial force

Insulation

Integrity


Jacking force

Lightweight concrete


Limit state

Loadbearing member

Movement joint


Normal-class concrete

One-way slab

Plain concrete member

Post-tensioning

Prestressed concrete


Prestressing steel

Pretensioning

Reinforcement, reinforcing steel

Ribbed slab

Shear wall

Slag

Special-class concrete


Strength grade
f

Structural adequacy

Tendon


Transfer

Transmission length


Two-way slab

Uniform elongation












M


A
A
A

A
A
A
A

A

A
A


A

A
A
A

A
A
s
A
A
A A
a
a
a

b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b

c
D
D
D

D
D
d
d
d
d =
d =

D
d =


d =

E =

E =

E =

E =

e =
=
e =

F =
F =

F =

f =
f =

f =
f =
f =

f =
f
f
f

f


f

f

f


f

f

G
g

H
H
H
I

I I
I

I
J
j
k
k

k
k
k


k

d
k
d
L
L

L L D L

L D
L
L


L
L
L
L
L
L
LL

L
L

L

L
L
L

M

M

M M



M M

M

M

M


M

M


M k fE
M

M
M

M M
N
N


N
N

N
k f E

N

N

n
P

P
p
p
Q
q
R

R

R
r
S
s


L


T



T

T
T

T

T
t
t
t
Au
t

u

u
t
u A

V

V
M
V
V
V
V

V

V
V
V

X
x

Y
y


y
Z












k d


























S

R



R S






k
k M M
N N

N N

N N N N





L
L













G W Q

G
G W Q

P)


G P
G P






P)








f






f

f










f









General


Standard formwork and compaction


f

Cast against ground







Rigid formwork and intense compaction


f
Structural members manufactured by spinning or rolling













f A





b

b










General


Structural adequacy by calculation



f L
D

k f D D N L


k
A A
A A
f
D
D
N
N
L

D D
L D L D
D D
A

Structural adequacy by proportioning









b







N f c Ag H t

N f c A
H t



N
H


H L
H
H L
L H H L
L






Application of test results



Members identical to the prototype













Floor or roof members, or systems, similar to the prototype






General




Acceptable forms of insulation

Thickness of insulating material













Reinforcement in sprayed or trowelled insulating materials





t k td

t
k




t















H
L
H
L












Characteristic compressive strength
f






Characteristic flexural tensile strength
f
f


Characteristic principal tensile strength
f
f



E

f











f


v








Basic shrinkage strain







Design shrinkage strain





k


Basic creep factor

f


Design creep factor






k k

k k






f



E
f







f

f
f
f
f




General


Basic relaxation
R f





Design relaxation
R)
R k k k R

k
j
j
k f

k = T)
T










General


Loss of prestress due to elastic deformation of concrete




Loss of prestress due to friction





Friction in the jack and anchorage


Friction along the tendon

a

L
e















L a


Loss of prestress during anchoring






Loss of prestress due to other considerations










General



Loss of prestress due to shrinkage of the concrete
E



E
A A

Loss of prestress due to creep of the concrete




f
E

E





Loss of prestress due to tendon relaxation


R)



Loss of prestress due to other considerations











Column strip






L

Design strip







Middle strip


Span support
a









Transverse width
L










q g









F L
...............................................................................F L
.................................................................................F L

FL
FL


FL
FL



FL
FL
FL

FL
...............................................................................................F L














M M
L L


M F L

M F L
F


L L







L L


L L












q g


M

F L L
M


F
L
L L a



M

M



M

g q Lt L g L L


L L




























Q
G
Q G







Q
G
Q
G



General









Relative stiffness






Member stiffness



















General requirements












Simplified approach for Class N reinforcement






k

k
k
k

k



Approval for Class L reinforcement






L





E I E I









Combined bending and axial force










Rectangular stress block


f



k d
f


Dispersion angle of prestress



k
M
k
k



M

M
k

M


d M
k



General
M M

M Z f P A Pe


Z

f

e P



M M



A bd D d f f

Prestressed beams at transfer





f

f


f

k k
f


k
f f
k

k A f A A f
b d f

d d
k




f
f c b d

A
f b d

A




General procedure for detailing reinforcement and tendons


D

Distribution of reinforcement


Continuation of negative moment reinforcement

D

Anchorage of positive moment reinforcement





L
V V
d L


d

d D



Shear strength requirements near terminated flexural reinforcement





D
V V
A A
D A A

Deemed to comply arrangement of flexural reinforcement


q g



L

L



d


L

D

Restraint of compression reinforcement




Bundled bars








Detailing of tendons










V
V V V V
V
V






d

d

d

d




V V


V V V A



V V D

V V

V V


V
V f b d P

b b d
d

P


Reinforced beams
V

A f
V b d
b d


d

NA
N A

d a
a
A

Prestressed beams
V



Flexure-shear cracking

A A f
V b d V P
b d


A
N

V
M

M Z

V M M
V
M V


M
V
Web-shear cracking
V V P


V

f

Secondary effects on Vuc

V

V

A
A b s f

A

V V b d

V


V A f s d s

V A f d s




V V
V V






Types



Spacing
D
V V D


D
Extent

D





Anchorage of shear reinforcement











d d







End anchorage of mesh













T V

T V

V
T f c J
J
x y
x y
Ab A




T T

T V

T V



T V

T V
T V




T V

T V
T
V




T T

T

T J f f

T

T f A s A


A



T T
T T




A
f u
s

A
f u F
s

u A
F













s
u










VAA


AA


AA


V

V
V A f d s b d f f c b d



A
f
d
s
b
f









b sf















Short-term deflection

E
I
I I








I


I I I I M M I


I I
A
I p
bd
A
I p
bd

b
M

M Z f f P A Pe

Z

f
f


p
E
p

p A A bd


I

I pbd p

I pbd bd p
Long-term deflection






Multiplier method for long-term deflection of reinforced beams


k

k A A
AA




q
g


k L b E
L d
k F


L
F
k g k q
k g k q


k

k I bd
p p
p p
k








primarily tension
primarily flexure



M

M

f







A

A k A f


k



A

f

f
d






f

d
f f
f

d
f f f


f f



M M

M


f

f


f



















b b a
b b a
a
L






L
L b b D


L b L b
b D

L b
Lb
A


A A f f






A bd









General procedure for arrangement




D


d D




d D



d
d








Deemed-to-comply arrangement for one-way slabs





q
g







Deemed-to-comply arrangement for two-way slabs supported on beams or walls







L


L






A
A
A

Deemed-to-comply arrangement for two-way flat slabs







for positive moment reinforcement,

for negative moment reinforcement,




Critical shear perimeter

d

Critical opening

b

Effective area of a support or concentrated load


Torsion strip
M

a
M
b

b
D
D
d d
M

u
y
Y
X Y




V V

M V V

M V
M
M V

V ud f



f f f


V ud f ud f

M
M
V
V
V V uM Vad

V
V
V V uM v Va
M
V V
V V D D uM Vab

V
V V A s y f

V
V V
V V x y
x y




A s y f





L
s

s D D











L


L aL L


One-way slabs and two-way flat slabs


q g



L E
L d k k
F

L

L
L
F
k g k q
k g k q


k s
l
k


L
D, D

k






Rectangular slabs supported on four sides

q g



k
k

k
L L





M

M


f







A

A k A f

k


A

f

f
d


D

f
d
f




f f

M M

M


f



d D








d d
d d D
d d D




f


f

General





D
Reinforcement in the primary direction





Reinforcement in the secondary direction in unrestrained slabs

bD

Reinforcement in the secondary direction in restrained slabs







bD

bD

bD



bD

bD
bD
Reinforcement in the secondary direction in partially restrained slabs













b a aL

a








N D D



Braced columns


Short columns

Slender columns








L
L N











L r

M
M N N


L r

r

MM


M
DN
L

L
L
L


N f A







q g


N N
N

k N N

N
k MM

k






N N
N




G/(G Q L r N MD G Q




E I E I


N

N
L d M


M k



L r




r L


r
r D D
r
D

L kL
k













(I/L )
I/L


I/L


I/L























f


kd

f


N
N
f











M


M M


M M
N
M M

N N




A
A Af N
A






General requirements






Lateral restraint









Diameter and spacing of ties and helices


D d
D d

D

d










Detailing of ties and helices











Column joint reinforcement

A bs/f


General


Minimum tensile strength

fA A


Where tensile force exceeds the minimum tensile strength






End-bearing splice in compression





Offset bars

















N f A









M N t








H /t
N f A


H

H
L



H
L


H
L


N

N t e e f


N
t
e

e H t













L
H

V

V V V
V V
V

V f L t

V
H L

H
V f f L t
L
H/L

f
V f L t
H
L

V f L t


V

V pw f L t

p
HL p


HL p



p







t












d
t





N N



Application






Design basis







Spacing of reinforcement




Structural idealization




Concrete strut
b d f

b
d
f f f
Nodes
f

Tension tie


Additional reinforcement



Additional requirements for corbels
















Additional requirements for continuous concrete nibs














Additional requirements for stepped joints




D




Analysis



Compressive strength

f



Tensile forces











T P k

P
k

















D D

D D







f c A A f


A
A
A


A

A








Development length to develop yield strength
L f


k k f A
L kd
a d f


k


k



A

a

d
L d

L d

Development length to develop less than yield strength


L
f
L L f

d

Development length around a curve



d
Development length of a bar with a standard hook


L L
Standard hooks


d


d

Development of headed reinforcement




Development length of plain bars

d

L f
d










d



L





L


f d f f d f


As A


As n A

A






L

f



L

L

f f
d d
d d

d d


M M
f




b V

V bD f
D



V uM V aD

V uD f uD f


u
a



N

N f A




M M N

M M N

Steel structures



Australian Standard
Steel structures





Action
Action effect or load effect
Authority
Bearing-type connection


Bearing-wall system
Braced frame
Braced member

Building frame system

Capacity factor
Complete penetration butt weld

Concentric braced frame
Constant stress range fatigue limit

Cut-off limit

Design action effect or design load effect

Design action or design load

Design capacity
Design life

Design resistance effect

Design spectrum

Detail category

Discontinuity
Drift
Dual system
Ductility
Earthquake design category
Earthquake resisting system
Eccentric braced frame

Exposed surface area to mass ratio



Fatigue

Fatigue loading

Fatigue strength

Fire exposure condition
three-sided fire exposure condition

four-sided fire exposure condition
Fire protection system

Fire-resistance level (FRL)

Friction-type connection



Full tensioning

Geometrical slenderness ratio lr
l r

Incomplete penetration butt weld

In-plane loading


Intermediate moment resisting frame
Length (of a compression member) l


Limit state
Load
Miners summation

Moment resisting frame system
Nominal action or load
Nominal capacity

Nominal loading event
Non-slip fasteners

Ordinary moment resisting frame


Out-of-plane loading

Period of structural adequacy (PSA) (fire) t

Pin
Plastic hinge

Prequalified weld preparation
Proof testing

Prototype (fire)

Prototype testing

Prying force



Segment (in a member subjected to bending)
or

Serviceability limit state
Shear wall
S-N curve

Snug tight

Space frame
Special moment resisting frame
Stability limit state

Standard fire test
Stickability

Strength limit state
Stress cycle
Stress cycle counting method

Stress range
Stress spectrum
Structural adequacy (fire)

Sway member


Tensile strength

Yield stress








A
A
A or

A
A
A
A or

A
A
A or

A
A
A or
or

A or

a

a
a
a a
a a
b or
or
or

b b b b
b
b
b
b
b or

b
b
b b
C C C
c

c

d or
or

d
d
d or

d or

d
d or
or

d or

d d
d
d
d d
d
E
E(T), E(20)
e or
or

e e

F
F
F
F
f
f
f n
f
f
f n
f
f
f
f

f
f(T) f T
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f i

f

f
f
G or

h
h
h
h
h
I
I
y
I I
I I
I I

I
I I x
I I y
i
J

K
K
k
k
k k
k
k
k
kl

k
k or
or


k
k
k or

k d t
kk
l or
or

l
l
l or

l
r

l
r

l
r

l
r


l
r

l
l
l or

l
l or

l
M
M M x
M M
M M M

M
M
M M x
M M y
M or

M
M
M M
M l l
M M

M x
M
M
M M x
M M y
M M x
M M y
M
M M x
M M y
M M M
M
M
M

M
M M

M M M M )
M h

M

M
M x
M y
M , M , M
N
N N h

N N y
EI
Nl
l
EI

Nl
l
N
N N
N N
N
N or

N
N
N or

N
N
N
N
N
n
n
n
n i
n

n
n
n
n
n

Q
Q or

R
R
R
R
R
R

R
R or

R
r or

r
r

r
r
r y
S
S
s or

s
s
s
T
Tl
t or
or
or
or

t or

t
t or
or

t
t t t
t
t t t
V or

V
V
V i

V
V
V
V or

V or
or

V
V
V l
V
V or




x
y
y
y
Z
Z Z
Z
Z
x h







l l

R




or








or




or



or
or







h h
l l













or
















l or
II


f
f
















f
f


t

(continued)

(continued)

t
(continued)

(continued)


t

(continued)

(continued)





S



R








S

R R


R
S
S R




(continued)

(continued)













Braced member




Sway member


















Q
G Q
Q
G
Q
Q
Q







M



I/l



Assumptions



Second-order effects






General






M



Moment amplification for a braced member
M

M M
N
M
M
M

c

N
N

N
M

c

c


c













Moment amplification for a sway member
M

M

M M




Sway members in rectangular frames



N

h V

h V
N



Sway members in non-rectangular frames





N

N
N


N

EI
N
k l
k l


General k



k






Members with idealized end restraints k

Members in frames
k



Stiffness ratios in rectangular frames




I
l
I
l





Il


Il



Members in triangulated structures l


l







Rectangular frames with all members braced
N


N

N

Rectangular frames with sway members


N


N
l

N
l

N




x
M M
M M

M x

M
x
M
x
y

M M

M y
M
y



M M

M


M
M f Z
Z

b f
t


b

t




d f
t
d


















(continued)

(continued)

Z
S Z S Z


Z


Z Z Z Z

Z Z

Z


Z Z





Z


Z Z


Z Z



Z Z




ff

ff

AA A
A



M
M





General

M
M
Segments with continuous lateral restraints




Segments with intermediate lateral restraints





l

Segments with full or partial restraints at both ends

l

l
r
f

l
r
f

l Ad
r
Z

l b
r
b f

l b
t
b f


A
b b
b b
d
I y
I y
r y
t
Z
II



l



M


Fully restrained








Partially restrained


Rotationally restrained



Laterally restrained




Restraint against lateral deflection



M M


M M


Restraint against twist rotation











Parallel restrained members




Restraint against lateral rotation











Open sections with equal flanges

Segments of constant cross-section M

M M M



M





M
M , M
M






M M
s
M M

M
M M M


M

EI EI

M GJ
l l


E G
I J I
l
J I
Segments of varying cross-section M



M


r

r ll

A d
r
A d
A A

d d

l
l

I-sections with unequal flanges M
M

EI EI EI EI

M GJ
l l l l


I
d
I


d
I
y

x y y A y

I
y


Angle sections M
I
Hollow sections M
I
M




M M

M M M


M M


M M

M
M

l

l k kl k l

k
kl
k
l


d t
l t
n


d t
l t
n


kl


d
n
t
t






M


M
M
M



M

M

M

M l l





Q

Q



Q
Q





t
s d


d f

d f

d


R




d f
sd

s f
sd

d f
sd

sd d

d f
sd

s f
sd

d f
sd

d f
sd


d f
d

V
d



f

l
ld

ld






V
V V


V

V

V V
V

dt
d
t
f

V
V V
V
dt
d
t
f

V
V V
V
V


V
V V
f


f

V


f
, f

V V

V

V fA
A
V
V fA
A


Unstiffened web V

V V V

Stiffened web V
sd
V V V

sd

sd




s
d



b
b t

d t

t

f





d f
t


M
M M
M
M Adf

A
A Aff
A
A
d

V V

V V
V



V V

V V M M

M
V M M M
M

V
M



b





R
R R


R
R
R

R

R b t f
b
R

R b t f

b
R


b d

k




k k k


b
d



k k
k
r
t
k d t
d
t

r
b
b b r d
b d

k k
b
d
b b r



R

k tb
lr dt b
b

lr t
b d lr dt b d b

R



R M b d
t
R M b

R M
R M


R
M
b
b



R R

R


R
R Af
R

A
f

R R


R
k



t
s
2
f

l R

l d


l d


b
t
b
f

t
f





R

V

R

l R
l d

I

s
I d t
d
d t
I s
s d
b


Increase in stiffness F
M F e F e
F I

d F M F e d
Ed t
Increase in strength




t f

b
b t



A

V V
A
ef


V
e




d
I

A A
I d t
d t d t

A

I
I d t


N
N N
N N


N
N


N

N kAf

k
A
ff

k
A
k
A

A
A
A

b f
t

b or

t

d f
t

d
t

b b
d d


b

b b b


d d d



d d

b
k
b b b
k
k

k

k
k





(continued)

(continued)


N

N


N

N
N




V
V

N
N

N
V N


N
N
N




Slenderness ratio of a main component lr




Slenderness ratio of a laced compression member

lr
Lacing angle



Effective length of a lacing element


Slenderness ratio limit of a lacing element

Mutually opposed lacing









Tie plates









Slenderness ratio of a main component lr



Slenderness ratios of battened compression member lr



l l l
r r r

l
r

l
r

lr
lr
Effective length of a batten



Maximum slenderness ratio of a batten

Width of a batten


Thickness of a batten



Loads on battens
V l
V s
V l
n d
M
V s
M
n

V
s
n
d



Application



Configuration

Slenderness

Connection






Design forces
V
V l
l
V l V r

lr

Application

Configuration

Slenderness

Connection



Design forces
V
V l














N N

N N


N

N N


N



N Af
N kAf

A
f
k
A



f


k


k

Eccentrically-connected angles, channels and tees

k
I-sections or channels connected by both flanges only

k








Where the components are separated




Where component members are in contact back-to-back




















N
M , M x y

N
M , M

M , M


M , M

First-order linear elastic analysis


Second-order elastic analysis M


First-order plastic analysis M



Second-order plastic analysis M

Advanced structural analysis M M



x

y









Connections in rigid construction


Connections in semi-rigid construction



Connections in simple construction






Connections in structures analyzed by the plastic method




























N
M

N l
M



Hole area

Holes not staggered


Staggered holes



s t s

s

t
s



Bearing-type connection



Friction-type connection



Full tensioning

In-plane loading


Non-slip fasteners

Out-of-plane loading

Pin

Prying force



Snug tight


Bolt in shear V

V V


V
V
V fknA nA

f
k
l k
n
A
n
A


kr


l l l

k l

Bolt in tension N
N N


N
N
N Af
A
Bolt subject to combined shear and tension V
N

V N

V N


V
N
Ply in bearing V

V V



V
V
V d t f

V

V atf

d
t
f
a

Filler plates
V




Design
V

V V


V
V
V nNk


n
N
k




Contact surfaces






Combined shear and tension
N
V N

V N

V
N

V
N
N
N N
N



V V



V
V
V fnA

f
n
A
V
V V


V

V
V fdtk

f
d
t
k

M
M M


M
M
M fS

f
S
V



d


Standard holes



Non-standard holes

d

d d d


t t


t

t






General

Weld types

Weld quality



Definitions
Complete penetration butt weld

Incomplete penetration butt weld

Prequalified weld preparation

Size of weld





Design throat thickness
Complete penetration butt weld

Incomplete penetration butt weld




d
d d
d
d d

d d d d









Effective length

Effective area

Transition of thickness or width






Strength assessment of a butt weld



Complete penetration butt weld






Incomplete-penetration butt weld



Size of a fillet weld
t t

t
t


Minimum size of a fillet weld






t t

t
t
t
t

Maximum size of a fillet weld along an edge








Design throat thickness t







Effective length







Effective area

Transverse spacing of fillet welds

t

t t



Intermittent fillet welds

t
t
Built-up membersintermittent fillet welds











d
d

d
Strength limit state for fillet weld
v
v v


v
v

v
v ftk

f
t
k
l k

l
l l l

k l


Plug and slot welds in the form of fillet welds around the circumference of the hole or
slot


Plug and slot welds in hole filled with weld metal A


V
V V


V
V
V fA
Limitations


Description of a compound weld

Design throat thickness






Strength limit state



General method of analysis






v




v






Alternative analysis






General method of analysis








Alternative analysis





General method of analysis


Alternative analysis








Centre Line Average Method



t t

t






General





f
f
Hole size






Oversize or slotted hole

d d
d


d d

d
Limitations on use

Oversize hole


Short slotted hole







Long slotted hole









General










Tensioned bolt


Preparation of surfaces in contact
General





Friction-type connection







Bearing-type connection







a a
a a
b
b
d
d
d
e
l








d
d
d
d

d
b
b

a a
b
b
b

a a
b
b
b


d d a a b
b e
d


d
b
d b

d

d d
200



a a


b
b

b


Straightness
l
Full contact splice





Length


Straightness


Camber
l
Sweep
l
Length


Straightness
l l
Length

























Placement of a nut

Packing



Tightening pattern





Retensioning






General


Part-turn method of tensioning











Tensioning by use of direct-tension indication device





Position in plan

Level

Full contact
























l l









l l
l l l

h h
h h h

l

h



l

h




Part-turn tensioning

Direct-tensioning indication device









l l


l l





l l


l l


l



l GJ

K K


l GJ

K K







l l l


C C

C

C
C l EI

C l EI



International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering



Civil Engineering Transactions

Theory of elastic stability

Handbook of structural stability

Guide to stability design criteria for
metal structures
The behaviour and design of steel structures

Developments in the
stability and strength of structures. Vol. 2, Beams and beam-columns


The Structural Engineer


The Structural Engineer
Instability and Plastic Collapse of
Steel Structures
Steel
Construction
Journal of the
Structural Division


M ) V N R

R f R f V
f
b t b t A

N M
f
A Z
b

M


Z
t d



M ) V N R

R N V M

R N V M

A f
A f
d f
t

V

M

R
btf



d f
t

b d
d

d b

s s

Timber structures
Design methods





Australian Standard
Timber structures





Visually graded sawn timber

Mechanically graded timber

Proof graded timber

Structural plywood

Laminated veneer lumber

Glued laminated timber

Round timber














General






Duration of load




General



Strength limit state

R
S
R S


R


S

R

Stability limit state





Serviceability limit state


































Experimentally based design









Buckling restraints


Erection and other extraneous forces




Secondary stresses



Shrinkage







Shrinkage and Density of Australian and Other
South-west Pacific Woods

Shrinkage and Density of some Australian and South-east Asian Timbers

Durability
















Design for Durability

The Development of Reliability Based Durability Design
Methods for Timber Structures
















Moisture Content Predictions for Eight Seasoned Timbers under Sheltered
Outdoor Conditions in Australia

An Equilibrium Moisture Content Survey of Timber in Queensland

Equilibrium Moisture Content Variation of Timbers
commonly used in Western Australia













Building authority or other regulatory authority



Professional engineer

professional engineer







Capacity factor

Characteristic, strength-reducing



Characteristic strength


Collapse-susceptible timber



Shrinkage and Density of Australian and Other
South-west Pacific Woods

Shrinkage and Density of some Australian and South-east Asian Timbers

Continuous monitoring



Corewood




Design action effect or design load effect



Design action or design load


Design capacity

Design life


Design resistance effect


Duration of loading





F-grade




Hardwood
Angiosperm






In-grade evaluation


Joint group







Limit state

Nominal capacity


Periodic monitoring



Primary structural element

Proof testing


Prototype testing

Seasoned timber




Secondary structural elements

Serviceability limit state

Softwood
Gymnosperm





Stability limit state


Strength group









Strength limit state



Stress grade












Structural element

Structural timber

Unseasoned timber









R



R k f X



f

k
k k k
f X

X

k
k k k k k k k
Z f

M k k k k k k f Z




Characteristic strengths for bearing, shear at joint details and tension
perpendicular to the grain






















continued

continued
















continued



continued










Pinus


Pinus























f f f

Characteristic strengths for bending, tension, compression and shear and elastic
moduli











TABLE 2.4
STRUCTURAL DESIGN PROPERTIES FOR F-GRADES
Characteristic strength, MPa Characteristic Characteristic
short duration short duration
Tension parallel to
Shear Compression average average
Bending grain
Stress- in parallel to modulus of modulus of
ft
grade beam grain elasticity * rigidity for
parallel to the beams, MPa
fb Hardwood Softwood grain, MPa
fs fc
(E) (G)
A2 F34 100 60 50 7.2 75 21 500 1 430
F27 80 50 40 6.1 60 18 500 1 230
F22 65 50 40 6.1 60 16 000 1 070

F17 50 30 26 4.3 40 14 000 930


F14 40 25 21 3.7 30 12 000 800
F11 35 20 17 3.1 25 10 500 700

F8 25 15 13 2.5 20 9 100 610


F7 20 12 10 2.1 15 7 900 530
F5 16 9.7 8.2 1.8 12 6 900 460

F4 13 7.7 6.5 1.5 9.7 6 100 410


*
The average modulus of elasticity, E , includes an allowance of about 5 percent for shear deformation
(see Clause 2.1.3 and Appendix B).

2.2.2.3 Species joint group classification


The characteristic strength properties applicable for various fastener types related to species
joint group classification are given in Section 4. The joint group classifications for species
are given in Tables 2.1 and 2.2.
2.2.2.4 Design density
The density of unseasoned and seasoned timber for different species for use in calculating
design dead loads are given in Tables 2.1 and 2.2.

NOTES:
1 The density of unseasoned timber depends on its moisture content, which reduces as the
timber dries. The values given in Tables 2.1 and 2.2 have been computed on the basis that the
percentage saturation of the timber is 45 percent for softwoods and 80 percent for hardwoods.
2 The values of density given in Tables 2.1 and 2.2 do not represent average values for the
species indicated; they are intended for use in computing the dead loads imposed by timber.
3 A more extensive list of timber species and species groups is given in AS 1720.2.
2.2.2.5 In-grade evaluation
Characteristic strength and stiffness design properties may also be established by in-grade
evaluation in accordance with the requirements of AS/NZS 4063 for timber products and
AS/NZS 2098.9 for plywood products. Properties derived by in-grade evaluation shall be
used in preference to properties given in Tables 2.3(A), 2.3(B) and 2.4.

2.3 CAPACITY FACTOR


Values of the capacity factor, , for calculating the design capacity, ( R), of structural
members and structural joints are listed in Table 2.5 and Table 2.6 respectively. The basis
for assigning these values is detailed in Appendix I.
NOTE: For the factor to be used when applying AS/NZS 4063 refer to Appendix I.



Effect on strength
k


k




















k










k

k

Effect on stiffness

j j









j j










j j







General


k
k

Unseasoned timber
k



k

Seasoned timber
k


k
EMC
k


k


EMC



k


k





k

k


General



k
k



Strength sharing structural systems





k
n










k

n n

n
n




E xample
n com = 4
g 31 = 1 . 2 4
n mem = 1
n com n mem = 4
g 32 = 1 . 2 4

(a) Combined parallel system

s s s E xample
n com = 1
g 31 = 1 .0
n mem = 4
n com n mem = 4
g 32 = 1 .2 4

(b) Discrete parallel system

s s s E xample
n com = 3
g 31 = 1 .2 0
n mem = 4
n com n mem = 1 2
g 32 = 1 .3 3

(c) Combined and discrete parallel system


FIGURE 2.3 PARALLEL SYSTEMS

2.4.5.3 Modification factor for strength sharing


The strength sharing factor k 9 is given by the following equation:
2s
A2 k 9 = g31 + (g32 g 31) 1 , but not less than 1.0 . . . 2.4.5
L
where
g 31 = geometric factor appropriate to the number of members (ncom) in a combined
parallel system given in Table 2.11
g 32 = geometric factor appropriate to the number of members (n com n mem) in a
discrete system given in Table 2.11
s = the centre-to-centre spacing of the discrete parallel members
L = the effective span of the parallel members
The strength sharing factor k 9 is illustrated graphically in Figure 2.4.




g g
n n n









s L



k

k d
k d
k
k
k VV V
V



k




k




Design capacity
M

M M

M k k k k k k f Z


M

k k
k
f

Z
Z bd Z db b d

Bending about both axes

M M

M M


M

M

M

M










General




Beams of rectangular cross-section


Beams that bend about their major axis having discrete lateral restraint systems

L
S

d L
S
b d

Lay

Lay

L ay

FIGURE 3.2 DISCRETE RESTRAINTS TO THE COMPRESSION EDGE

For a beam that is loaded along its tension edge and has discrete lateral restraints at
points Lay apart, along the tension edge of the beam as indicated in Figure 3.3, then
the slenderness co-efficient, denoted by Sl , may be taken to be
A2 1.35 0.25
d Lay
S1 . . . 3.2(5)
b d

Lay

Lay

L ay

FIGURE 3.3 DISCRETE RESTRAINTS TO THE TENSION EDGE

(b) Beams that bend about their major axis having continuous lateral restraint
systems A continuous lateral restraint system (see Figures 3.4 and 3.5) may be
assumed to exist when
2
Lay b
64 . . . 3.2(6)
d bd



S
d
S
b



L
S
d b
S


d

L

Beams that bend only about their minor axis


S
S
Beams that bend about both axis





k

S
k
S
k S
S

k

S

S k

k



k

k




k


V

V V

V k k k k f A

V

k k k k
f
A
A bd b d





Design capacity in bearing perpendicular to the grain
N

N N


N k k k k f A


N

k k
f
A

Design capacity in bearing parallel to grain


N

N N

N k k k f A


k k k
f
A
Design bearing capacity at an angle to grain
N
N N
N
N
N


N
N
N



Design compressive capacity parallel to grain
N

N N

N k k k k k f A

N


k k
k
f

A
Buckling about both axes

N N


N N

N N


General




Columns of rectangular cross-section


Slenderness coefficient for buckling about the major axis
S


L
S
d

g L
S
d

L


g



S

Slenderness coefficient for buckling about the minor axis


S

L
S
b

g L
S
b


L


g


d
S
b
Columns that can bend about both axes




k

S
k
S
k S
S

k
S


S S
S


3.3.4 Strength of notched columns


The appropriate design procedure for notched columns shall be as given in Appendix E.
3.3.5 Spaced columns
The slenderness coefficients required for computing the design axial strength of spaced
columns shall be as given in Appendix E.

3.4 TENSION MEMBER DESIGN


3.4.1 Design tensile capacity parallel to grain
The design capacity in tension parallel to grain, ( N t), of unnotched tension members, for
strength limit state, shall satisfy
( Nt) N t* . . . 3.4(1)
where
A2 ( Nt) = k 1 k4 k 6 k11 f t At . . . 3.4(2)
and
N t* = design action effect produced by strength limit states design loads
(tension parallel to grain) (see Clause 1.5.2.2)
= capacity factor (see Clause 2.3)
k1 to k 11 = modification factors given in Section 2
ft = characteristic strength in tension parallel to grain

At = net cross-sectional area of tension member.


3.4.2 Notched tension members
The appropriate design procedure for the design of notched tension members is given in
Appendix E.

3.5 DESIGN CAPACITY IN TENSION PERPENDICULAR TO GRAIN


The design capacity in tension perpendicular to grain, ( N tp), of unnotched members, for
strength limit, shall satisfy
( N tp) N p* . . . 3.5(1)

where
( N tp) = k1 k11 f tp Atp . . . 3.5(2)
and
N tp* = design action effect produced by strength limit states design loads (tension
perpendicular to grain) (see Clause 1.5.2.2)
= capacity factor (see Clause 2.3)
k1, k 11 = modification factors given in Section 2
f tp = characteristic strength in tension perpendicular to grain (see Table 2.3(B))

Atp = member width (thickness) by effective length stressed in tension. Refer to


Figure 3.10. This is the effective area resisting tension perpendicular to the
grain.

tp

d
2 tp

E ffe c tiv e l en g th = 2 t p

(a) Fixed at one point

tp

tp

(b) Minimum end distance

FIGURE 3.10 EFFECTIVE LENGTH STRESSED IN TENSION


PERPENDICULAR TO GRAIN

3.6 COMBINED BENDING AND AXIAL ACTIONS


3.6.1 Combined bending and compression

Rectangular members with cross-section as shown in Figure 3.1 subject to combined axial
compression and bending about the x-axis only, shall be proportioned so that
A2 2
M x* N c*
1 . . . 3.6(1)
Mx N cy

and

M x* N c*
1 . . . 3.6(2)
Mx N cx

where
M x* = design action effect in bending about a beams major principal x-axis

( Mx) = design capacity in bending about a beams major principal x-axis,


Clause 3.2.1.1
N c* = design action effect of the design loads acting in compression,
Clause 1.5.2.2
( N cy) = design capacity in compression for buckling about the major y-axis
( N cx) = design capacity in compression for buckling about the major x-axis.

NOTE: Equations 3.6(1) and 3.6(2) contain an allowance for the effect of bending moment
amplification due to the axial load. For non-rectangular members, Equations 3.6(1) and 3.6(2)
may be used in the absence of other information.
For the unusual case of a beam-column subjected to bending simultaneously about both the x- and
y-axes, a conservative criterion of strength is given in Appendix E.
3.6.2 Combined bending and tension
For a rectangular member subject to combined bending and tension design load effects shall
be proportioned so that

k12 M * N t*
1 . . . 3.6(3)
M Nt

and

M x* Z N t*
A2 1 . . . 3.6(4)
Mx A Mx

where
k 12 = stability factor used in bending strength calculation see Clause 3.2.4
*
M = design action effect in bending produced by the design loads about a
beams appropriate axis (see Clause 1.5.2.2)
( M) = design capacity in bending about a beams appropriate axis (see
Clause 3.2.1.1)
N t* = design action effect produced by the strength limit states design loads
acting in tension (see Clause 1.5.2.2)
( Nt) = design capacity of a member in tension (see Clause 3.4.1.1)

M x* = design action effect in bending produced by the design loads about a


beams major principal axis (see Clause 3.2.1.1)
( Mx) = design capacity in bending about a beams major principal axis (see
Clause 3.2.1.1)

Z = section modulus about the appropriate axis


A = cross-sectional area.

















Type 1 joint

Type 2 joint













Shrinkage and Density of Australian and
other South-west Pacific Woods

Shrinkage and Density of some Australian and South-east Asian
Timbers

The Mechanical Properties of 174 Australian Timbers






Type 1 joints

Lateral loads in side grain (see Figure 4.3(a))



Lateral loads in end grain (see Figure 4.3(b))



k

Type 2 joints

Withdrawal loads from side grain (see Figure 4.4(a))




Withdrawal loads from end grain (see Figure 4.4(b))





General


Type 1 joint to resist direct loads
N n

N N

N k k k k k n Q

N

k
k


k

k


k

n
Q

k



n n n n


n

N k





n r r

Type 1 joint to resist in-plane moment


M n


M M



n
r
M k k k k k r Q
i r


M

k
k

k

k


k

r r
Q

n

r i
Type 2 joint
N n


N N

N k l nQ

N

k


l

N
Q

k





D D
D D

D D
D D




Two-member joints (nails in single shear) t D
t D
t t
t t
t t D

Three-member joints (nails in double shear) t D

t D
t D
t t t
t t t
t D






General



Type 1 joints

Lateral loads in side grain, joint (see Figure 4.3(a))



Lateral loads in end grain (see Figure 4.3(b))



k

Type 2 joints

Withdrawal loads from side grain (see Figure 4.4(a))



Withdrawal loads from end grain (see Figure 4.4(b))



k

Maximum tensile load capacity





Interpolation



General


Type 1 joint to resist direct loads
N n

N N

N k k k k k n Q

N


k

k

k

k



k

N
Q

Type 1 joint to resist in-plane bending moments
M n

M M


n
r
M k k k k k r Q
i r


M

k
k


k

k



k

r r
Q

n

r i

Type 2 joint
N n


N N
N
N k l n Q
N n N

N

k

l

n
Q

N

k




D


D
D

D
D
D






t D
t D

t t
t t t t
D

















General


Characteristic capacity parallel to the grain
Q


Characteristic capacity perpendicular to grain


Q


Characteristic capacity for a bolted joint system
Q


Q Q
Q

Q Q
Q

Q Q
Q
Q Q



Maximum tensile load capacity



Q
b
b t Q
t

b t Q
t

b Q

t t
b Q

t t

Q

Q

Q




b








Q




b











b Q
b t Q

b t Q

b t Q

b Q

t
b Q
t
b
t
Q

Q




b








Q



b








General


Type 1 joint
N n

N N

N k k k n Q

N

k
k

b D bD
b
D

k
n
Q

TABLE 4.11
VALUE OF k 17 FOR USE IN THE DESIGN OF MULTIPLE FASTENER JOINTS
FOR BOLTS, COACH SCREWS, SPLIT RINGS AND SHEAR PLATES

Values of k17
Type of joint
na 4 na = 5 na = 10 n a = 15 na 16
Seasoned timber 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Unseasoned timber (no transverse restraint*) 1.0 0.95 0.80 0.55 0.50
Unseasoned timber (transverse restraint*) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
na = Total number of rows of fasteners per interface.
* The term transverse restraint refers to the possibility of restraint to timber shrinkage due to the joint
detail.
Where a connection consists of a single fastener, k 17 is taken as 1.0 for all timbers.

4.4.3.3 Type 2 joints


The design capacity ( N j) for a Type 2 joint in which bolts are loaded in direct tension shall
satisfy:
( Nj ) N* . . . 4.4(4)
where ( Nj ) is the lesser of
( Nj ) = n ( Ntb) . . . 4.4(5)
where crushing under the washer poses a limit to the strength
A2 ( Nj ) = k1 k7 n f pj Aw . . . 4.4(6)
and
N* = design action effect in shear
n = number of bolts in the joint
( Ntb) = design tensile capacity of bolts (see Table 4.12). See also Clause 4.4.5
= capacity factor for bolted joints (see Clause 2.3)

k1 = duration of load factor for fasteners (see Clause 2.4.1.1)


k7 = length of bearing factor (see Table 2.10) where the length of bearing is taken
as the diameter or side length of the washer (see Table 4.12)
f pj = characteristic bearing capacity for timber in joints (see Table C6)

Aw = effective area of washer for bearing (see Table 4.12).





N












A

Bolted joints with loads at an angle to the bolt axis


N




General


Loads parallel to grain




Similarly, the required end distance lpar shall be at least 8D in tension joints in unseasoned
timber, 7D in tension joints in seasoned timber, and 5D in compression joints and in joints
subject to bending moment for both moisture conditions. However, lesser end distances may
be used in tension joints provided that the characteristic capacity is reduced in proportion to
the reduction in end distance. In no case shall the end distance for tension joints be less
than 6D for unseasoned timber and 5D for seasoned timber.
4.4.4.3 Loads perpendicular to grain
The minimum edge, end and between-fastener spacings shall be not less than those shown
in Figure 4.10(b). The distance a shall be at least 2.5D for a b/D ratio of 2, and it shall be
increased proportionately so that it is at least 5D for a b/D ratio of 6 or more, where b is the
effective thickness of the member loaded perpendicular to the grain.
4.4.4.4 Loads acting at an angle to the grain
For loads acting at an angle 0 to 30 to the grain, the spacings, edge and end distances may
be taken as for loads parallel to the grain. For loads acting at an angle of 30 to 90 to the
grain, the spacings, edge and end distances may be taken as for loads acting perpendicular
to the grain.
4.4.5 Washers
In all timber-to-timber bolted structural joints, every bolt shall be fitted with a washer at
each end, of a size not less than that given in Table 4.12. If smaller washers are used, then
the characteristic capacities for laterally loaded bolts given in Tables 4.9 to 4.10 shall be
reduced in proportion to the dimension of the washer diameter or side length.
4.4.6 Eccentric joints
When it is impracticable to ensure that all the members meeting at a joint (see Figure 4.10)
are arranged symmetrically, that is, the members centroidal axes intersecting on a common
axis which is also the axis of resistance of the bolt or group of bolts, then the combination
of primary stresses (induced by axial loads) and secondary stresses (induced by bending
moment resulting from bolt eccentricities) shall be checked to ensure that no member or
fastener is excessively stressed. In addition, the design capacity in transverse shear at an
eccentric joint ( Vsj) shall satisfy

( Vsj) Vsj* . . . 4.4(7)

where
A2 ( Vsj) = k1 k 4 k6 f sj Asj . . . 4.4(8)
and
Vsj* = design action effect on joint produced by strength limit states design loads
(transverse shear at joint detail)
= capacity factor (See Clause 2.3)
k1, k 4, k6 = the modification factors given in Section 2 with k1 appropriate for the
member
f sj = characteristic strength in shear at joint details appropriate to species
strength group. See Table 2.3(A)
Asj = transverse shear plane area at joint section
= 2 bds /3. See Figure 4.11 where b is the thickness of the member.






Type 1 joints

Lateral loads in side grain (see Figure 4.3(a))








t D
t

t D
t D
t D
t D
t
t
t D
Lateral loads in end grain (see Figure 4.3(b))


k

Type 2 joints

Withdrawal loads from side grain (see Figure 4.4(a))



Withdrawal loads from end grain (see Figure 4.4(b))



k

Maximum tensile capacity




Type 1 joints
N n

N N

N k k k k n Q

N

k
k

= 0.6 for coach screws in end grain


A2

k16 = 1.2 where the load is applied through metal side plates of adequate strength to
transfer the load and the coach screws are a close fit to the holes in these
plates
= 1.0 otherwise
k17 = factor for multiple coach screwed joints given in Table 4.11
n = number of coach screws in the connection
Qsk = characteristic capacity defined in Clause 4.4.2.4 taking the thickness of the
innermost member as equal to tp, the depth of penetration of the coach screw
into that member (see Figure 4.6).
4.5.3.2 Type 2 joints
The design capacity, ( N j), for coach screw joints axially loaded in withdrawal shall
satisfy
( Nj ) N* . . . 4.5(3)
where ( Nj ) is the lesser of
( Nj ) = n ( N tc) . . . 4.5(4)
( Nj ) = k13 lp n Qk . . . 4.5(5)
or where crushing under the head poses a limit to the strength
( Nj ) = k1 k 7 n f pj Aw . . . 4.5(6)
and
N* = design load action effect on the joint produced by strength limit states
design loads (tension across the joint)
n = number of coach screws in the connection
( Ntc) = design maximum tensile capacity of a single coach screw given in
Table 4.14

= capacity factor (see Clause 2.3)


k13 = 1.0 for withdrawal from side grain
= 0.60 for withdrawal from end grain
lp = depth of penetration of the threaded portion of the coach screw into the
innermost member
Qk = characteristic capacity given in Tables 4.13(A) and 4.13(B) see also
Clause 4.4.5
kl = duration of load factor for fasteners (see Clause 2.4.1.1)
k7 = length of bearing factor (see Table 2.10) where the length of bearing is
taken as the diameter or side length of washer, see Table 4.12
f pj = characteristic bearing capacity for timber in joints, see Table C6

Aw = effective area of washer for bearing, see Table 4.12.


NOTE: The duration of load factor k1 does not apply to withdrawal capacity for coach screws.











Q



N n

N N

N k k k k n Q

N

k
k

k

k


k

n
Q

k





D D






D D













Q



N n

N N
N
n V
k k k k n Q

N
n
V

k
k

k
k


k

Q






V V









Z I


Z I

Z I


f f f f f E G












k j j



k j

k







k