You are on page 1of 6

www.aamj.

in
ANVESHANA
Review Article AYURVEDA MEDICAL JOURNAL ISSN: 2395-4159

A CRITICAL STUDY OF SHODHANA SANSKARA OF VISHA AND


UPAVISHA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RASATARANGINI
Uday V. Pawade1, Revenshidh Usturge2, Anantrao S. Bangar3
1Asst. Prof. of Agadatantra, 3Asso. Prof. of Shalakya Tantra, S.C.Mutha Aryangla Vaidyak
Mahavidyalaya, ITI Road, Gendamal, Satara, Maharashtra, India
2Asst. Prof. of Agadatantra, Seth Govindji Raoji Ayurved College,

Samrat Chowk, Solapur, Maharashtra, India


Corresponding Author: drudayvp143@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A substance which enters in the body and causes harm to rasadi dhatus resulting in ill
health, disease or death is called as Visha (poison). Rasatarangini divides Sthavaravisha
(inanimate poison) in two groups that is Visha & Upavisha. Visha & Upavisha mainly includes
plant origin poisons. These plant poisons are subjected through Shodhana sanskara(purification
process) before using it in internal medicinal formulations. In Rasatarangini various shodhana
methods are described for plant poisons. This review will summarize different methods of
shodhana sanskara of Visha & Upavisha in Rasatarngini.
Key words: Shodhana sanskara, Visha, Upavisha, Plant poisons, Rasatarangini

INTRODUCTION ried out, they are attributed with useful


Ayurveda is basic science of life in properties like Rasayana,Yogawahi,
which various principles are explored to Tridoshaghna, Brihana, Veeryavardhaka and
maintain the health of human being or to Prandayi(providing life).4 Thus Shodhana san-
cure the diseases. Any poison if processed or skara reduces harmful properties of Vi-
used properly is a potential medicine and shadravya and keeps it to optimum level.
any medicine with improper use is a fatal Hence it is necessary to do shodhana sanskara
poison.1 By using this principles many poi- on poisonous plants before using it for
sons are converted in to life saving drugs by therapeutic purpose.5 This review article will
doing some sanskara(process) like shodhana, highlight shodhana sanskara of Visha &
marana etc. on it. The process in which sub- Upavisha as mentioned in Rasatarangini.
stance are treated with advised matter by Review of Literature
rubbing, steaming etc so as to eliminate its Visha, Garala, Kalkuta are synonyms
harmful effects is known as shodhana san- of poisons and they are divided in to two
skara(Purification process).2 Visha (poison) categories Sthavara visha & Jangama visha.6
carries harmful properties like Vyavayi,Vi- Poisons of plant & mineral origin are in-
kasi, Agneyam, Vatakaphanashana, Yogavahi & cluded in Sthavara visha & poisons of animal
Madavaha due to which it will act as origin are included in Jangama visha.7 Sthava-
Pranahara(causing death).3 When shodhana ra visha is further divided in two sub types
sanskara on these poisonous plants are car- that is visha & upavisha.8Halahal, Kalkuta,
Uday et. al: A Critical Study of Shodhana Sanskara of Visha & Upavisha w.s.r. to Rasatarangini

Shringaka, Pradipana, Sourashtrika, Brahmapu- 3) Third method- Potalli with small pieces of
tra, Haridra, Saktuka & Vatsanabh these are Vatsanabh is tied in a dolayantra filled up
nine Visha. Out of these nine visha only with Goat milk. This dolayantra is heated for
Vatsanabh is used for therapeutic purpose 3 hours and Vatsanabh became pure.13
hence it is described in Rasatarangini. Poi- Vishatinduka/Kuchala (Strychnous nux-vomica
sons up to Saktuka are not used for therapeu- Linn.) Shodhana Methods
tic purpose. Hence they are not well ex- 1) First method- Matured kuchala seeds are
plained in Rasatarangini.9 Vishatinduka beeja, put in Kanji (sour gruel) for three days. After
Ahiphana, Jayapal, Dhatura beej, Vijaya, Gun- three days these seeds are removed from
ja, Bhallataka, Arka kshir, Snuhi kshir, Langali Kanji and its external skin is peeled off.
& Karveer these are eleven plant poisons These seeds are dried in sun and powdered.
which are included in Upavisha Gana. 10 Thus Thus Kuchala seeds became pure.14
by highlighting therapeutic importance only 2) Second Method- Kuchala seeds are fried in
Vatsanabh from Visha & all said eleven a pan with ghee on low flame. It is fried un-
Upvisha; their Shodhana methods, properties, til its outer skin became Kapish (slightly red)
therapeutic use and formulations are well de- in color. Then its outer skin is separated and
scribed in Rasatarangini. Shodhana san- its hot inner part is powdered. By this meth-
skara(purification process) of Visha and od Kuchala seeds are rapidly purified when
Upavisha are carried out to reduce their needed.15
harmful properties and to increase their 3) Third method- Kuchala seeds are tied in a
therapeutic properties. pottali. This pottali is placed in a dolayantra
Shodhana methods of these plant poi- filled up with cow milk and heated for three
sons which are mentioned in Rasatarangini hours. After three hours seeds are removed,
are as follows: its skin is separated and it is powdered im-
Vatsanabh (Aconitum ferox Wall.) Shodhana mediately in the iron Kharal. By this method
Methods kuchala seeds became pure.16
1) First method- Proper Vatsanabh is taken Ahipphena/Opium (Papaver somniferum) Sho-
and it is cut in to small pieces similar to dhana Method
Chanaka (Chick pea) size. These pieces of Ahiphena Niryas (Opium resin) is dis-
Vatsanabh are taken in a stone or black soil solved in water and filtered through a cloth.
pot. Fresh cow urine is filled in that pot and This ahiphena niryas is placed in water mixed
pot is placed in sun rays. Every day in the with cow milk and heated on low flame. Af-
morning old cow urine is replaced by fresh ter sometime it became clean.17Ahiphena
cow urine and pot is placed in sun rays. Af- washed with cow milk and water is pro-
ter three days Vatsanabh pieces are removed cessed with Aadrak swaras (ginger juice) for
from the pot, their skin is peeled off and seven times. Then it is dried and it became
they are dried in sun .Thus Vatsanabh be- pure.18
comes shuddha (pure).11 Jayapal (Croton tiglium Linn.) Shodhana
2) Second method- Vatsanabh is cut in to Methods
chickpea size small pieces and tied in a pot- 1) First Method- New Jayapal seeds are taken
tali (cloth bag). This pottali is placed in a and its external skin is removed. The seed is
dolayantra (Swing apparatus) filled up with centrally bisected and a green color tongue
cow milk. Dolayantra is heated for about 3 or like projection present centrally is cut and
6 hours. Thus Vatsanabh became pure.12 thrown. Now these tongue less Jayapal seeds
are tied in a pottali. This potalli is heated with

AAMJ / Vol. 1 / Issue 6 / Nov Dec 2015 477


Uday et. al: A Critical Study of Shodhana Sanskara of Visha & Upavisha w.s.r. to Rasatarangini

cow milk in a dolayantra for 3 hours. Thus 2) Second Method- Dried Bhanga leaves are
three times this procedure is repeated and heated in Babbul twak kwath(Acacia arbica
Jayapal seed became pure.19 bark decoction) for half an hour. When
2) Second Method- Skin less and tongue less these leaves are properly boiled, they are re-
Jayapal seeds are mixed with 1/8th part of moved from decoction and dried in sun.
tankan (borax) and tied in a pottali. This po- These Bhanga leaves boiled in Acacia arabica
talli is heated with cow milk in a dolayantra bark decoction became pure.25
for six hours and jayapal seeds became pure.20 Gunja (Abrus precatorious Linn.) Shodhana
3) Third method- Remove the external skin Methods
& tongue of Jayapal seed and tie it in a pot- 1) First method- New gunja seeds are pow-
tali. This pottali is heated with cow milk in a dered and tied in a double layer cloth to
dolayantra for 3 hours. Then pottali is opened make a pottali. This pottali is heated with
and jayapal seeds are finely powdered. Now cow milk in a dolayantra for 6 hours. Thus
this finely powdered coat of Jayapal seed is gunja seeds became pure.26
applied over a new mud pot. When oil from 2) Second Method- A pottali is prepared by
this powdered seeds is dried, this powdered tying new gunja seeds in it. This pottali is
seeds are scratched and collected. If new heated in kanji for 3 hours with the help of
mud pot is not available, this fine powder of dolayantra. These seeds are dried & they be-
seed is placed in between two blotting pow- came pure.27
der for one day. Oily part of this powder is Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.)
absorbed in blotting paper. If oil is still not Shodhana Methods
absorbed, then again powder is placed in 1) First Method- Bhallataka fruits and Ishtika
blotting paper till its dryness. Thus jaypal churna (brick powder) are filled up in a
seeds became pure.21 strong pottali which is made up of 3 to 4 folds
Dhatura (Datura metel Linn.) Shodhana of cotton cloth. This pottali is rubbed by
Methods hand with moderate pressure. When brick
1) First method- Dhatura seeds are tied in a powder becomes wet with oil, skin of Bhalla-
pottali. This pottali is heated with cow milk taka fruit is peeled off and it is washed with
in a dolayantra for three hours. Then pottali is hot water. Thus bhallataka fruits became
opened and Dhatura seeds are washed with shuddha (pure).28 (Precaution- Cap of Bhal-
hot water. These pure Dhatura seeds are then lataka fruit is removed before putting it in
used in the formulations.22 brick powder. Coconut oil should be applied
2) Second Method- New Dhatura seeds are on the hand before rubbing the pottali.)
heated in cow urine with the help of dolayan- 2) Second Method- Bhallataka fruits are cut
tra and dried in the sun. These seeds are in two pieces and placed in a pottali. This pot-
powdered & filtered through cloth. Then it tali is tied in dolayantra containing coconut
is used for therapeutic purpose.23 water. Dolayantra is heated for 1-2 hrs. By
Bhanga (Cannabis sativa Linn.) Shodhana this method Bhallataka fruits became pure.29
Methods Karveer (Nerium odorum Soland)Shodhana
1) First Method- Dried Bhanga leaves are Methods
soaked in water and squeezed. These leaves Karveer roots external skin is com-
are dried in sun and heated with cow ghee monly used in local or external application
on low flame. When they are well fried, for therapeutic purpose. Internal use of
they can be used for therapeutic purpose.24 Karveer root is rare hence its shodhana meth-
ods are not described.

AAMJ / Vol. 1 / Issue 6 / Nov Dec 2015 478


Uday et. al: A Critical Study of Shodhana Sanskara of Visha & Upavisha w.s.r. to Rasatarangini

Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) Shodhana Snuhi (Euphorbia nerifolia Linn.) Shodhana
Method Method-
As langali is not used internally, its 2 Pala (40 ml) snuhikshir(latex of
shodhana sanskara is not mentioned in Rasa- Euphorbia nerifolia) is placed in 2 tola(20 ml)
tarangini. For local application, kanda(rhi- of Chincha patra swaras(Tamarindus indica
zome) of langali should be washed and used. leaves juice). When liquid part is dried snuhi
Arka (Calotropis procera/Calotropis gigantea) latex is separated and used for therapeutic
Shodhana Method- purpose.30
Kshir (latex) of arka is used in diseas- OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS
es like Kushtha, gulma, udara. But its shodhana
sanskara is not mentioned in Rasatarangini. It Vatsanabh from Visha and all eleven
is also used externally in Krimidanta, mouth Upavisha (Vishatinduka to Snuhi) are men-
ulcer, piles etc. tioned in the following table with their sho-
dhana dravya(media for purification).
Table 1: Visha & Upavisha with their Shodhana dravya
Visha/Upavisha Part of Plant to Shodhana dravya(Media) used for
Sr.No Latin Name
(Plant poisons) be purified purification
i)Cow urine
1. Vatsanabh Aconitum ferox Wall. Kanda(Rhizome) ii)Cow milk
iii)Goat milk
i)Kanji(Sour gruel)
Vishatinduka/
2. Strychnous nux-vomica Beej(Seed) ii)Ghee
Kuchala
iii)Cow milk
3. Ahiphena Papaver somniferum Linn. Niryas(Resin) Aadrak Swaras (Ginger juice)
i)Cow milk
Tongue less ii)Tankan(Borax), Cow milk
4. Jayapal Croton tiglium Linn.
Beej(Seed) iii)Cow milk, Mud pot/ Blotting
paper
i)Cow milk
5. Dhatura Datura metel Linn. Beej(Seeds)
ii)Cow urine
i)Cow ghee
6. Bhanga Cannabis sativa Linn. Patra(Leaves) ii)Babbul twak Kwath(Acacia arabica
bark decoction)
i)Cow milk
7. Gunja Abrus precatorious Linn. Beej(Seed)
ii)Kanji(Sour gruel)
i)Brick powder
8. Bhallataka Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Phala(Fruit)
ii)Coconut water
9. Karveer Nerium odorum Soland. Mula(Root) Not mentioned
10. Langali Gloriosa superba Linn. Kanda(Rhizome) Not mentioned
Calotropis procera/Calotropis
11. Arka Kshir(Latex) Not mentioned
gigantum
Chincha patra swaras(Tamarindus
12 Snuhi Euphorbia nerifolia Kshir(Latex)
indica leaves)juice

DISCUSSION their harmful effects on the body. Hence


their shodhana sanskara is described in Rasa-
Vatsanabh from visha and all said tarangini by treating it with various shodhana
eleven upavisha are described in Rasatarangini dravya like cow milk, cow urine, Kanji(sour
for internal & external therapeutic use. Po- gruel), brick powder etc. Cow milk and cow
isons of plant origin which are suggested for ghee have properties which is exactly oppo-
internal use should undergo through Sho- site to poison hence most of the poisonous
dhana sanskara(purification process) to avoid plants are purified with media like cow milk

AAMJ / Vol. 1 / Issue 6 / Nov Dec 2015 479


Uday et. al: A Critical Study of Shodhana Sanskara of Visha & Upavisha w.s.r. to Rasatarangini

& cow ghee. Cow urine & Sour gruel also 3. Prof. K. C. Chunekar, Bhavaprakasha
helps in removing harmful effects of poisons Nighantu of Shri Bhavamisra, Revised
during their purification process. Ginger edition, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy,
juice is teekshna (sharp) in property hence it Varanasi; Dhatwadivarga/203; 2010. p.621.
is used for purification of opium which is 4. Prof. K. C. Chunekar, Bhavaprakasha
sedative. Bhanga is treated with Acacia arabi- Nighantu of Shri Bhavamisra, Revised
ca bark decoction which decreases its adverse edition, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy,
effects. Bhallataka is treated with brick pow- Varanasi; Dhatwadivarga/204; 2010. p.621.
der which absorbs its corrosive oil or treated 5. Prof. K. C. Chunekar, Bhavaprakasha
with coconut water which has property ex- Nighantu of shri Bhavamisra, Revised
actly opposite to Bhallataka. Latex of snuhi is edition, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy,
treated with Tamarindus indica leaves juice Varanasi; Dhatwadivarga/205; 2010. p.621.
which lessens corrosive property of Snuhi. 6. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
As karveer, langali & arka are mostly pre- of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
ferred for external therapeutic use; their sho- tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; chapter
dhana sanskara is not mentioned in Rasa- 24/2, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.647.
tarangini. 7. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
CONCLUSION
tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; chapter
Poisonous plants which are included 24/3, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.647.
in Visha & Upavisha category can give quick 8. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
relief in various diseases with their internal of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
use. But if they are used without purification tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; chapter
process, they may cause harmful effects on 24/6, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.648.
human body. Hence poisonous plants are 9. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
always used in medicinal formulation with of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
specific purification process which is men- tilalBanarsidasPrakashak, Delhi; 24/7-9,
tioned in Ayurvedic texts like Rasatarangini to Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.649.
avoid their adverse effect & to increase their 10. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
medicinal value. For external therapeutic of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
use, shodhana sanskara (purification process) tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; 24/163-164,
of poisonous plant is not emphasized in Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.675-676.
texts. 11. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
REFERENCES
tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; 24/19-22,
1. Pandit K Shastri, Dr. G Chaturvedi, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.651-652.
Charaksamhita of Agnivesha, 22nd edition, 12. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
ChaukhambhaBharati Academy, Varanasi; of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
Sutrasthana 1/27, Deerghajeevitiyaadhyaya; tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; 24/23-24,
1996, p.49. Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.652.
2. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini 13. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo- of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; chapter tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; 24/25,
2/52, Paribhashavidnyaneeya; 1994. p.22. Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.652.

AAMJ / Vol. 1 / Issue 6 / Nov Dec 2015 480


Uday et. al: A Critical Study of Shodhana Sanskara of Visha & Upavisha w.s.r. to Rasatarangini

14. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini 24/394-395, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994.


of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo- p.720.
tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; 24/172-173, 25. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.678. of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
15. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini tilalBanarsidasPrakashak, Delhi; chapter
of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo- 24/396-398, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994.
tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; 24/174-175, p.720.
Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.678. 26. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
16. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo- tilalBanarsidasPrakashak, Delhi; chapter
tilalBanarsidasPrakashak, Delhi; 24/176-177, 24/443-444, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994.
Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.679. p.728-729.
17. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini 27. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo- of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
tilalBanarsidasPrakashak, Delhi; 24/237-239, tilalBanarsidasPrakashak, Delhi; chapter
Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.691 24/445, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994.
18. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini p.729.
of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo- 28. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
tilalBanarsidasPrakashak, Delhi; 24/242, of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.692. tilalBanarsidasPrakashak, Delhi; chapter
19. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini 24/477-478, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994.
of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo- p.735.
tilalBanarsidasPrakashak, Delhi; 24/310-312, 29. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.704. of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
20. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini tilalBanarsidasPrakashak, Delhi; chapter
of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo- 24/479, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994.
tilalBanarsidasPrakashak, Delhi; 24/314, p.735.
Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.705. 30. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
21. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo- tilalBanarsidasPrakashak, Delhi; chapter
tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; 24/315-317, 24/517-518, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994.
Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.705. p.744.
22. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo- How to cite this article: Uday et. al: A Critical Study of
Shodhana Sanskara of Visha & Upavisha w.s.r. to Rasatarangini.
tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; 24/346- AAMJ 2015; 1: 476-81
347, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994. p.711. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared

23. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini


of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; chapter
24/348-349, Vishopvishavidnyaniyam; 1994.
p.711.
24. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Rasatarangini
of Sadanand Sharma, Reprint edition, Mo-
tilal Banarsidas Prakashak, Delhi; chapter

AAMJ / Vol. 1 / Issue 6 / Nov Dec 2015 481