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1) (a)
L : Erythrocyte.
M : Agranulocyte.
N : Granulocyte.
P : Blood Plasma.

(i) Transport oxygen.
Has haemoglobin which combines with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin.
Its flattened, biconcave shape gives a large surface area/volume ratio and thus
facilitates the diffusion of gases.
Its flattened shape enables it to pass through narrow blood capillaries.

(i) M : produces antibodies to fight pathogens that enter the body.
N : engulfs bacteria/pathogens and breaks them down with hydrolytic enzymes.
(ii) M has no granules in its cytoplasm while N has granules in its cytoplasm.

Excretory substances eg. urea.
Mineral salts.
Nutrients eg. glucose, amino acid.

2) (a)
A : Platelets.
B : Thromboplastin/Thrombokinase.
C : Prothrombin.
D : Thrombin.

(i) Vitamin K.
(ii) Liver.

(c) Calcium ion.

(d) E : Fibrinogen.
F : Fibrin.

(e) Fibrin are threads of insoluble protein which forms a mesh across the damaged vessel
and blood corpuscles get trapped in the mesh to form a solid clot so as to prevent the flow
of blood

(f)(i) Prevents the entry of pathogens through the wound

(ii) Prevents the loss of blood.

3) (a)
Q : Right auricle/atrium.
R : Right ventricle.
S : Left auricle.
T : Left ventricle.
(b) Q and R.
(c) M : Vena cava.
N : Pulmonary vein.
O : Pulmonary artery.
P : Aorta.
(d) The aorta and pulmonary vein.
(e) Closed, double and complete circulatory system.
(f) Pulmonary circulatory system.
Systemic circulatory system.
(g) Pulmonary circulation carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
Systemic circulation carries blood from the heart to all parts of the body and back to the

4) (a) Due to the high pressure in the arteriole end of the blood capillary.

(b) Interstitial fluid.

(c) Lymph is fluid that is not reabsorbed into the blood capillary but flows into the lymph
capillary. It is yellowish, alkaline and similar to blood except that it contains less proteins
and no red blood corpuscles.

(d) Pocket valve.

(i) lymph node.
(ii) Produce lymphocytes which can produce antibodies to fight pathogens. They can also
remove particles of debris and ingest bacteria.

(f)Left and right subclavian vein.

(i) Contraction of muscles squeeze the lymph vessels and cause the lymph to move
(ii) Valves are present which allow the lymph to flow in one direction only.

5) (a)
(i) X : Stoma.
Y : Cortex.
(ii) Transpiration.

(i) Osmosis.
(ii) Transpiration pull.

(i) Guard cell.
(ii) Light intensity.
(iii) When light intensity is high, osmotic pressure in cell Z rises as the concentration of
glucose increases. Water is absorbed into the guard cell from the neighbouring cells. the
guard cell becomes turgid and the stoma opens.
If light intensity is low, the stoma closes.

(d) Root pressure and capillary action.


6)(a)the accumulation of manufactured food in region P (due to the inability to go to

region Q) causes the swelling.

(i) Yes, the leaves would wilt.
(ii) The root region will be deprived of 'food' and hence would be unable to absorb water,
mineral salts etc.to sustain the leaves.

(i) To transport manufactured 'food' from the leaves to the roots and other parts of the
(ii) Sieve plate.
Companion cell.
Phloem parenchyma.

(d) Bark ringing in forestry is employed to kill a tree before it is chopped down.