Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

Department of Food Engineering and Technology

The department of Food Engineering and Technology is one of the four constituent department in
the Faculty of Engineering, started its function from the very beginning of the establishment of the
faculty and university as well. This department offers very important courses related to the degree
awarded as B.Sc. Food and Process Engineering. The objectives of this department is to prepare the
students in order to gather knowledge about basic food Engineering operations, unit operations and
processing as well as packaging engineering etc. Proper theoretical and practical knowledge are
delivered to the students so that they are able to enough design, develop and modify the different
food processing equipment and machineries.

1. Course offered from this department


Major courses for B.Sc. Food and Process Engineering offered from FET

Level Semester Course Course Title Credit Contact


Code hour
1 1 FET-101 Introduction to Food and Process Engineering 2 2
3 1 FET-301 Packaging Engineering 2 2
3 1 FET-302 Packaging Engineering 1 3
3 1 FET-303 Engineering Properties of Biological 2 2
Materials
3 2 FET-305 Food and Packaging Machinery 3 3
3 2 FET-306 Food and Packaging Machinery 1 3
3 2 FET-307 Food and Process Engineering-I 2 2
3 2 FET-308 Food and Process Engineering-I 1 3
4 1 FET-401 Food and Process Engineering-II 3 3
4 1 FET-402 Food and Process Engineering-II 1 3
4 1 FET-403 Food and Process Plant Design and 2 2
Management
4 1 FET-404 Food and Process Plant Design and 1 3
Management
4 1 FET-405 Sugar Engineering 2 2
4 1 FET-406 Sugar Engineering 1 3
4 2 FET-407 Process Modeling and Simulation 2 2
4 2 FET-408 Process Modeling and Simulation 1 3
4 2 FET-409 Biochemical Engineering 2 2
4 2 FET-410 Biochemical Engineering 1 3
4 2 FET-411 Dairy Engineering 2 2
4 2 FET-412 Dairy Engineering 1 3
Total 33 51
January-June

No. of Level Semest Course Course Title Credi Contact


Course er Code t hour
1 1 1 FET-101 Introduction to Food and Process Engineering 2 2
2 3 1 FET-301 Packaging Engineering 2 2
3 1 FET-302 Packaging Engineering 1 3
3 3 1 FET-303 Engineering Properties of Biological Materials 2 2
4 4 1 FET-401 Food and Process Engineering-II 3 3
4 1 FET-402 Food and Process Engineering-II 1 3
5 4 1 FET-403 Food and Process Plant Design and 2 2
Management
4 1 FET-404 Food and Process Plant Design and 1 3
Management
Sub Total 14 20
Optional
6 4 1 FET-405 Sugar Engineering 2 2
4 1 FET-406 Sugar Engineering 1 3
Sub Total 3 5

July-December

No. of Level Semeste Course Course Title Credi Contact


Course r Code t hour
1 3 2 FET-305 Food and Packaging Machinery 3 3
3 2 FET-306 Food and Packaging Machinery 1 3
2 3 2 FET-307 Food and Process Engineering-I 2 2
3 2 FET-308 Food and Process Engineering-I 1 3
Sub Total 7 11
Optional
3 4 2 FET-407 Process Modeling and Simulation 2 2
4 2 FET-408 Process Modeling and Simulation 1 3
4 4 2 FET-409 Biochemical Engineering 2 2
4 2 FET-410 Biochemical Engineering 1 3
5 4 2 FET-411 Dairy Engineering 2 2
4 2 FET-412 Dairy Engineering 1 3
Sub Total 9 15
Total 33 51
Suggested: January-June

No. of Level Semest Course Course Title Credi Contact


Course er Code t hour
1 1 1 FET-101 Introduction to Food and Process Engineering 2 2
2 3 1 FET-301 Packaging Engineering 2 2
3 1 FET-302 Packaging Engineering 1 3
3 3 1 FET-303 Engineering Properties of Biological Materials 2 2
4 4 1 FET-403 Food and Process Plant Design and 2 2
Management
4 1 FET-404 Food and Process Plant Design and 1 3
Management
Sub Total 10 14
Optional
5 4 1 FET-405 Sugar Engineering 2 2
4 1 FET-406 Sugar Engineering 1 3
6 4 2 FET-407 Process Modeling and Simulation 2 2
4 2 FET-408 Process Modeling and Simulation 1 3
Sub Total 6 10

Suggested: July-December

No. of Level Semeste Course Course Title Credi Contact


Course r Code t hour
1 3 2 FET-305 Food and Packaging Machinery 3 3
3 2 FET-306 Food and Packaging Machinery 1 3
2 3 2 FET-307 Food and Process Engineering-I 2 2
3 2 FET-308 Food and Process Engineering-I 1 3
3 4 1 FET-401 Food and Process Engineering-II 3 3
4 1 FET-402 Food and Process Engineering-II 1 3
Sub Total 11 17
Optional
4 4 2 FET-409 Biochemical Engineering 2 2
4 2 FET-410 Biochemical Engineering 1 3
5 4 2 FET-411 Dairy Engineering 2 2
4 2 FET-412 Dairy Engineering 1 3
Sub Total 6 10
Total 33 51
Detailed Syllabus of Food Engineering and Technology Department
For the Degree of B. Sc. in Food and Process Engineering
1. Subject: FET-101 Introduction to Food and Process Engineering
Credit: 2+0

Introduction to food and feed. Nutritional requirement of food and feed. Principles of food and feed
preservation. General classification of food and feed and their constituents. Different agro-industries
related to food, feed, agrochemicals and pharmaceutical products. Importance of value addition in
food in agricultural sector. Role of raw materials, processing materials, manpower, packaging
materials, processing methods and machineries in food, feed, agrochemicals and pharmaceutical
processing. Preliminary operations in food and feed industries e.g., handling cleaning, sorting,
grading packing, washing transportation and storage. Introduction of different food preservation
methods e.g., chilling, refrigeration, freezing and canning. Environmental aspects of food and
processing. Utility services (water, power etc.).
2. Subject: FET-301 Packaging Engineering
Credit: 2+1
Introduction to packaging: Importance of food packaging: Mechanical, physical, chemical and
biochemical properties of food packaging. Various kinds of food packaging materials their features
and application. Scientification of film packaging materials. Packaging and storage study on a
variety of food products. Method of tin plate and glass container manufacture and testing. Statutory
regulation affecting food packaging. Evolution of packaging,; package functions and selection of
packaging. General principles; requirement and functions of containers. Heat and mass transfer
aspects.
Type of containers: Primary and secondary containers, degree of rigidity, pre-formed and in-lined
forming, hermetic closer.
Materials of packaging: Paper and board materials, wood and textiles; flexible films, laminar,
rigid and semi-rigid plastics, metal and glass. Gums, Lacquers, coatings, etc.
Package Testing Equipment and Machineries.
Filling, Closing and sealing equipment; filling equipment; operations and principles of simple
gravity filler vacuum gravity filler, vacuum filler, a counter, presser filler, a piston filler, a
volumetric cup filler for solids and fully automated weight control system.
Sessional: FET-302: Packaging Engineering
Introduction to various food packaging materials (Paper and board materials, wood and textiles;
flexible films, laminar, rigid and semi-rigid plastics, metal and glass. Gums, Lacquers, coatings,
etc.). Orientation with various food packaging equipment. Handling, operation and maintenance of
filling, Closing and sealing equipment; filling equipment; operations and principles of simple
gravity filler vacuum gravity filler, vacuum filler, a counter, presser filler, a piston filler, a
volumetric cup filler for solids and fully automated weight control system.
Text and Reference Books:
1. Food Engineering Operation Third Edition By Brennan, J.G Butters, R. Cowell., N.D and
Li-hay, AEV. 1990. Elsvier Applied Science.
2. Food Science By N.N. Potter The AVI Pub. Co.
3. Commercial Fruit and vegetables products By W.V. Cruess, Mc.Graw Hill. Book Co.
4. Food Engineering System Vol-1 By Farral A.W The AVI Pub. Co

Suggested for Packaging Engineering

1. Course Code and Title: FET-301: Packaging Engineering


2. Term Hours of credit: 2.0 Contact hour: 2.0
3. Course Description:
This course is designed to give the student the basic knowledge on the progress and the
importance of packaging and types of packages and their characteristics and the tests carried
on them with examples of packaging some food products. Moreover, the effects of
environmental conditions on packed foods and their stability.

4. Course Objectives
The student should be able to know and understand:
To enable the students to understand about packaging and packaging materials,
interaction of food items with packaging materials.
Know types of packages mostly used for foods and know their characteristics.
Know the characteristics of packages and methods of sealing and materials used for
that.
To apply this knowledge to protect the food product till they reached to the final
consumers.

5. Course Content: Number of Classes= 28

Unit-I
Introduction to packaging of food: Definition, role and importance of food packaging.
Main functions of food packaging, package environment, packaging strategy, framework for
packaging strategy. Basic consideration for development of a package, Types of package
container, types of container according to their use and its classification, functions of
packaging container, printing of packages and barcodes on the package.
Unit-II
Packaging materials: Basic types of packaging materials, factors affecting the choice of
packaging materials. Metal as food packaging material, basic types of metal used for food
packaging tin-plate and their types, structure of tin plate, TFS container, tinning of tin plate,
aluminium as aluminium foil, manufacturing process of aluminium foil. Types of can, three
piece cans, two piece cans, can dimension, End making process, can end joining process,
double seaming process, lacquering and its application. Glass as packaging material,
composition of glass, types of glass, properties of glass, parts of a glass container, forms of
glass container, glass making process and closures for glass container. Paper and paperboard
as food packaging material, properties of paper and paperboard with additional function,
types of paper package used for packaging of food.

Unit-III
Flexible films packaging: Formation of films and pouches, Plastics used and their Specific
applications - Polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), Cellulose, Polypropylene (PP), polyesters,
polivinylidene chloride (PVDC), polyvinyl chloride, copolymers and their application.
Laminates, rigid and semi-rigid plastic packaging, seal ability and closure of plastic
packaging. Edible and biodegradable packaging material and films, Aseptic packaging
technology, composition of tetra pack and its types used for packaging.

Unit-IV
Filling and sealing operations for various types of packages: Filling and sealing of
Flexible plastic containers, Seal types-Bead seals, Lap Seals and Fin seals Differences and
advantages, Hot wire sealing, hot bar sealing and impulse sealing differences and relative
advantages. Form fills seal equipment, gravity filler vacuum gravity filler, vacuum filler,
volumetric cup filler for solids and fully automated weight control system.

Unit-V
Interaction of food material with packaging material: Theory of permeability, factors
affecting permeability, permeability coefficient, gas transmission rate (GTR) and its
measurement, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and its measurement; prediction of
shelf life of foods, selection and design of packaging material for different foods Active
packaging, oxygen scavenging, modified atmosphere packaging, intelligent packaging and
anti-microbial packaging of foods. Visit to a packaging industry.

6. Text and References Books:


1. Coles, R., McDowell, D., and Kirwan, M. J., Food Packaging Technology, 2003.
Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK.
2. Kirwan, M. J., Paper and Paperboard Packaging Technology, 2005. Blackwell Publishing
Ltd., Oxford, UK.
3. Ahvenainen, R., Novel Food Packaging Techniques, 2003.Woodhead publishing limited,
New York, England.
4. Charles L.W., Intelligent and Active packaging for fruits and vegetables, 2007. Taylor
and Francis group, Boston, New York.
5. Heldman, D. R., and Lund, D. B., Handbook of Food Engineering, 2007. 2 nd edition,
CRC Press Publication Ltd., New York, USA.

Course Code and Title: FET-302: Packaging Engineering


Term Hours of credit: 1.0 Contact hour: 3.0
List of Experiments:

1. Identification of different types of packaging and packaging materials.


2. Measurement of thickness of packaging materials.
3. Identification and functions of different types of food packaging equipment.
4. Determination of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the given packaging
material polythene.
5. Estimation of water vapor transmission rate of the given packaging material
polypropylene.
6. Determination of continuity of tin coating in cans by thiocyanate test for porosity
7. Measurement of tin coating weight by Clarkes method
8. Estimation of thermal shock resistance of glass bottles.
9. Testing the strength of filled pouches by drop tester.
10. Determination of grease resistance of papers used in food industry butter paper& toffee
wraps.
11. Determination of half value of products stored in LDPE (low density polyethylene) films
by direct weighing method & break down method.
12. Estimation of half value of products stored in HDPE (high density polyethylene) films
by direct weighing method & break down method.
13. Determination of wax from wax paper.
14. Testing of lacquered tin plate sheets.

1. Subject: FET-303 Engineering Properties of Biological Materials


Credit: 2+0
Theory
1. Introduction: Examples of operations in which engineering properties of foods may be useful in
the design of equipment, processes, and for quality evaluation.
2. Structure, compositions, and retention of water in food materials.
3. Physical Characteristics: I) Shape and size, II) Volume, density and porosity, III) Surface area,
IV) Design applications
4. Mechanical properties
5. Biological systems and mechanical properties: I) Analysis of force-deformation relationships,
II) Food Rheology and visco-elastic characterization., III) Aero-and hydrodynamic properties, IV)
Flow of granular materials, V) Selected applications in food texture evaluation and design of
equipment and processes.
1. Thermal Properties: I) Specific heat, II) Thermal diffusivity, III) Thermal conductivity, IV)
Surface heat transfer coefficient, V) Applications in heating, cooling, and drying processes
2. Electrical Properties: I) Electrical conductivity, II) Dielectric properties, III)
Electromagnetic radiation, IV) Electrostatic properties, V) Applications in ohmic and
microwave heating, moisture detection, separataion and cleaning.
3. Optical Properties: I) Light transmittance and reflectance properties, II) Color attributes
and specifications, III) Delayed light emission, IV) Applications in non-destructive testing,
sorting and grading.
Test Book:
1. M.J. Lewis: Physical Properties of Foods and Food Processing Systems, Weinheim:
VCH, 1987.
Reference Books:
1. M.R. Okos: Physical and Chemical Properties of Food, (Editor), the American
Society of Agricultural Engineers, Michigan, 1986.
2. M.A. Rao, and S.S.H. Rizvi (Editors): Engineering Properties of Food, 2rd Edition
Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994.
Journals: Transactions of the ASAE, Journal of Food Engineering, and Journal of Food
Process Engineering, Journal of Food Science.

Suggested for Engineering Properties of Biological Materials


1. Course Code and Title: FET-303: Engineering Properties of Biological Materials
2. Term Hours of credit: 2.0 Contact hour: 2.0
3. Course Description:
This course is designed to give the student the basic knowledge on the science of the
deformation and flow of matter. The focus of this course is food where understanding
rheology is critical in optimizing product development efforts, processing methodology and
final product quality. Furthermore, process engineering calculations involving a wide range
of equipment such as pipelines, pump, mixers, and heat exchangers etc where rheological
equations of state is necessary to know for ingredient functionality in product development.
4. Course Objectives
The student should be able to know and understand:
To enable students to understand the different engineering properties of food
materials.
To make the students to acquire knowledge of engineering properties in the
designing of food processing systems.
To gain knowledge of engineering properties during processing, packing, storage and
transport.
5. Course Content: Number of Classes= 28
Unit-I
Physical properties: Engineering properties - physical, thermal, aerodynamic and
dielectric propertiesimportance and applications in the crop processing design - factors,
affecting the properties. Physical characteristics - grains, fruits and vegetables - shape - size
-description. Volumedetermination-platform scale method-bulk density and particle density
porosity-air comparison pycnometer. Surface area, importance of surface area
determination, types of method used. Friction - concept - laws of friction - measurement of
static and kinetic friction - effect of normal load, sliding velocity, surface, moisture and
environment - rolling resistance - angle of internal friction and angle of repose -
determination. Flow of bulk granular and solids materials in bins, hoppers through orifices
& chutes.
Unit-II
Rheological properties: Introduction to rheological properties of food, definition, various
types of materials - Hooks lawclassic ideal material. Stressstrain-density relationship-
Rheological models-Maxwell model-creep behavior of materials - uses - elastic - plastic
materials generalized Maxwell model. Kelvin modelstress relaxation behavior of
materials - generalized Kelvin model. Viscometry- Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids
flow behavior equations, mechanics of flow in rotational and capillary viscometers. Yield
stress and power law equations for Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids.

Unit-III
Textural properties: Texture of food materials, subjective and objective methods, imitative,
empirical tests and dynamic test. Firmness and hardness measurements methods used on
various foods. Mechanical damage on food due to different biological and chemical
reactions- detection and evaluation of static and dynamic resistance to mechanical damage
and their comparison.
Unit-IV
Thermal properties: Thermal properties of food, specific heat, determination methods of
specific heat for solids and powders. Thermal conductivity, steady state and unsteady state
methods for thermal conductivity determination, thermal diffusivity, methods used for
thermal diffusivity measurement, relationship among specific heat, thermal conductivity,
bulk density and thermal diffusivity and effect of moisture content on thermal properties.
Unit-V
Electrical and aerodynamic properties: Electrical properties of food materials, resistance,
capacitance, dielectric loss factor, methods of determination. Thermal conductivity,
dielectric constant determination & effect of moisture content on electrical properties. Aero
and hydrodynamic characteristics of food: Concepts and application of drag coefficients,
terminal velocity in agricultural products processing and handling.

6. Text and References Books:


1. Rao, M.A., Rizvi, S.S.H., and Datta, A. K., Engineering Properties of Foods, 2005. CRC
press, Taylor and Francis group, London.
2. Steffe, F. J., Rheological Methods in Food Process Engineering, 2 nd edition, 1996.
Freeman press, East Lansing, USA.
3. Singhal, O.P. and Samuel, D.V.K. Engineering Properties of Biological Materials,
2003.SarojPrakasan, Allahabad.
4. Serpil, S. and Servet, G. S., Physical Properties of Foods, 2006. Springer, USA,

Subject: FET-307: Food and Process EngineeringI


Credit: 2+1
Preliminary food and feed process operations ( sorting grading, size reduction, cleaning etc.)
Air-drying of food: Theory of thin layer drying, temperature and thickness effect on rate
constant. Simultaneously heat and mass transfer. Deep bed drying of food- theory and
application. Quality aspects as affected by drying parameters.
Theory of Vacuum drying and freeze drying process; quality of dehydrated product as affected
by drying parameters.
Drum drying and spray drying process and equipment design, operation and maintenance.
Instant- -zing of fruit juice and milk powder. Design of freezing process, its application on
food freezing and related quality aspects. Design of canning process and development of
canned products. Egg processing, poultry and meat processing and packaging; manufacture of
ice cream and condensed milk; description, operation and maintenance of associated
machineries. Instantinizing
Sessional: FET-308: Food and Process Engineering--I
Experiments on shelf life aspects of poultry, meat, egg, fish, fruits and vegetables as affected by
chilling, handling and transportation.
Text and reference Books
Heldman, D.R.1975. Food process engineering. The AVI pub.Co.Inc
Brooker,D.B. Arkemma,F.W. and Hall, C.W.1974. Drying cereal garfains. The AVI publ. Co.Inc.
Farral, A.W.1976. Food engineering systems Vol. I operation. The AVI publ. Co. Inc.
Van- Arsdel, W.B. Copley, M.J. and Morgan, A.I. 1973. Food dehydration. Vol. 1 and 2. The Avi
publ. Co.Inc.
Desrosier, N.W. 1977. Elements of food technology. The AVI . publ. Co. Inc.
Keneth, J.V., Levine, L and Clark, j.p. 1991. Food processing operation and scale-up. Marcel
Dekke, Inc. Newyork-Hongkong.

Suggested for Food and Process Engineering-I

1. Course Code and Title: FET-307: Food and Process Engineering-I


2. Term Hours of credit: 2.0 Contact hour: 2.0
3. Course Description:
This course is designed to give the students an understanding of the engineering
principles involved in the processing of food products. They may not able to design
process equipment in detail but they should understand how the equipment operates with
an understanding of the basic principles of process engineering. In addition, they will be
able to develop new food processes and modify existing ones.
4. Course Objectives
The student should be able to know and understand:
To understand the engineering principles involved in the processing of food
products.
To enable the student to understand the importance of mass transfer processes in
food engineering applications.
To understand the operation of equipment
To develop new food process equipment and modification of existing equipments.

5. Course Content: Number of Classes= 28


Unit-I
Introduction: Basic principles of food process engineering, conservation of mass and
energy, overall view of an engineering process, units and dimensions of engineering
parameters. Heat and mass balances- modes of heat transfer, energy balances, heat
balances, rate of heat transfer; thermal boundary layer, heat transfer by convections,
conduction and radiation.

Unit-II
Preliminary food and feed process operations: Cleaning, objectives of cleaning,
contaminants in food raw materials, cleaning methods, equipment used for cleaning
operation and their operating principles. Sorting, Reasons for sorting, Weight sorting, size
sorting, Shape sorting, photometric sorting of food materials, Grading, grading factors,
grading methods and equipment used for sorting and grading of foods with their
operating principles. Image processing -image acquisition, image analysis and
measurement analysis of agricultural raw materials for sorting & grading purposes. Size
reduction operation- objectives of size reduction, methods, procedures, principles of
comminuting, characteristics of comminuted products, energy and power requirement for
comminuting different foods, Rittingers, Kicks and Bonds law, and equipment used for
size reduction operation with their operating principles, emulsification, and
homogenization.
Unit-III
Drying and dehydration: Thermodynamic properties of air-water mixtures and moist
solids, moisture content and its measurement methods- direct and indirect method, Water
activity, free and bound water, Intermediate moisture food, sorption isotherm,
Equilibrium moisture content (EMC), importance of EMC, methods of determining
EMC, hysteresis effect, EMC models- Henderson, Kelvin, BET and GAB models.
Drying- theory of drying, drying rate, drying rate constants, drying kinetics and
mathematical modeling of drying process, effective moisture diffusion, activation energy
calculation during drying. Air- drying of food: Theory of thin layer drying, temperature
and thickness effect on drying rate constant, constant rate period, falling rate period,
mathematical modeling of thin layer drying and its application in food industry. Deep bed
drying- principles and assumptions, mathematical modeling of deep bed drying process
and its application in food industry. Mechanical drying- vacuum & freeze dryers
principles, design, selection criterion, and different dryer used in industrial food process.
Unit-IV
Food Freezing: Properties of frozen foods, methods of freezing process, freezing
temperature, freezing rate, growth rate of ice crystals, crystal size and its effect on texture
and quality of foods, enthalpy change during freezing, Plank's equation for predicting
rates of product freezing, Planks equation for brick shaped objects, freezing point
depression, thawing, freezer burn, manufacturing process of ice cream, design and
operating principles food freezing equipment used in the industry..
Unit-V
Canning of foods: Introduction, principles of canning process, establishment of thermal
process. Thermal inactivation kinetics of bacterial spores-sterilization value, commercial
sterility, process lethality and thermal death time relationship, treatment of canned
product, heat penetration testing and its curve, thermal process calculation and canning
procedure of different fruits and vegetables.
Unit-VI
Instantizing process: Theory of instantizing process, objectives, methods of instantizing
process, and instantizing process of milk product and fruit juices. Visit to a food industry.
6. Text and References Books:
1. Paul Singh, R and Dennis R. Heldman, Introduction to Food Engineering, 4 th edition,
2009. Academic Press, London, UK.
2. Arun S. Mujumdar, Handbook of Industrial Drying, CHIPS, 3 rd Edition, 2006. CRC
Press, London, UK.
3. Dennis R. Heldman and Daryl B. Lund, Food Engineering, 2nd edition, 2007. CRC
Press, London, UK.
4. Jashim, A and Mohammad S. Rahman, Handbook of Food Process Design, 1 st edition,
2012. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK.
5. Romeo T. Toledo, Fundamentals of Food Process Engineering, 3 rd edition, 2007.
Springer Science, Spring Street, New York, USA.
6. James G. Brennan, Food Processing Handbook, 2006. WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
7. Albert Ibarz and Gustavo V. Barbosa-Canovas, Unit Operations in Food Engineering,
2003. CRC Press, London, UK.
Suggested for Food and Process Engineering-I lab

Course Code and Title: FET-308: Food and Process Engineering-I


Term Hours of credit: 1.0 Contact hour: 3.0
List of Experiments:

1. Particle size analysis and energy requirement in comminution.


2. Experiments on attrition mill and hammer mill.
3. Size reduction using Ball Mill and calculation of critical speed of mill.
4. Size reduction using Jaw crusher and calculation of equivalent diameter of solid
particle.
5. Analyze the given product for its particle size distribution using Sieve shaker.
6. Measurement of size of fat globules of milk before and after homogenization.
7. Determination of equilibrium moisture content.
8. Experiment on drying of seeds by thin layer drying.
9. Dehydration of vegetables in cabinet tray dryer.
10. Drying of fruits and vegetables in vacuum dryer.
11. Experiments on determination of freezing time of particular shaped food using Planks
equation and evaluation of product quality.
12. Experiment on canning of fruits and vegetables.

1. Subject: FET- 401: Food and Process Engineering-II


Credit: 3+1

Evaporation, crystallization, mixing and emulsification. Design of contact equilibrium process such
as absorption, extraction distillation. Design of mechanical separation process such as filtration,
sedimentation, centrifugation, description, operation and maintenance of associated machineries.
Scale of food process.
Sources, compositions and properties of fats and oils, extraction techniques, refining processe4s and
modification technology, storage stability, production techniques of edible fat and oil products, and
field studies. Roles of Oils, Fats and Fatty Foods in human diets. Structure, composition, reaction
and physical properties of oils, fats and fatty foods. Source of raw materials, utilization
classification, extraction, refining, bleaching, hydrogenation, deodorization, fractionation,
polymerization, and isomerization of oils and fats. Utilization in food industries, i.e. cooking and
salad oils butter and margarine ,bakery products and confection manufacture. Fat processing.
Manufacturing of feed, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. Preservation of food and feed by
irradiation.
Food pasteurization, sterilization, canning aseptic processing, chilling and freezing and effects of
preservation methods on food nutrients. Dairy engineering. Fish Processing technology.
HURDLE TECHNOLOGY: Hurdle technology - principles and applications -hurdle effect in
fermented food, shelf stable products, and intermediate moisture foods- total quality of foods
-optimal range of hurdles and potential safety -application of hurdle technology fruit
preservation, dairy products and meat
.
Sessional: FET- 402: Food and Process Engineering-II

Manufacture of fruit juices, nectars, cordials, squash. Analysis of the prepared products. Extraction
and refining of oil. Maintenance of quality and microbial load of the prepared products. Preparation
of fermented milk products-cheese, butter, yoghurt and their packaging. Demonstration of effect of
process parameters on product quality. Dairy plant design & layout. Industrial visit for 2 days

Text and Reference Books:


Elements of Food Technology by N.W. Desrosier, 1977. The AVT Publishing Company Inc.
Food Science by N.W. Potter, 1968. The AVT Publishing Company Inc.
Industrial Microbiology- S.C. Prescott and C.C. Dunn. 1999. McGraw Hill Book Company.
AIBA, Humphrey and Mills N.E. and Mill. N.F. 1973. Biochemical Engineering 2rd Edition.
Academic Press. Inc. New York.

2. Subject: FET-403 Food and Process Plant Design and Management


Credit: 2+1
Hygienic design of food plant, site selection, planning the building on the site. Criteria of a good
plant layout. Examples of plan layout for different products, Such as fish canning plant, milk,
Cheese, Youghart and ice cream plant, drying plant, poultry and processing plant, egg
processing plant etc.
Hygienic design of various component of food plant such as foundation, supporting structure,
Wall, floors, floor drains, insulation, doors, piping etc. water supply, water quality and
treatment. GMP, Hygienic design of equipment contacting food. Design of utility services
Company and its classification. Food services systems technology. Description of various
systems and their management aspects. of Visit to food industries for 2 days.
Sessional: FET-404 Food and Process Plant Design and Management
Orientation of site selection, layout, design and construction of different types of food and
process plants and buildings. Visit to food industries and report.
Text and references Books:
Farral, A.W. 1979. Food Engineering System Vol.2 Utilization. The AVI pub. co. INC.
Westport, Com. USA.
Farral, A.W. 1976. Food Engineering Systems. Vol. 1- operation. The AVI publ.Co.Inc.
Lundy, J. L. Effective industrial management, New Delhi, Eurasia pub.1968.
Allen, L.A/ management and organization. New York, McGraw-Hill,1958.

3. Subject: FET- 405: Sugar Engineering


Credit: 2+1
Introduction to sugarcane and sugar processing industry. Sugarcane diseases, Maturity, Harvesting,
Loading and transportation of sugar cane. Composition of the cane as affected by varieties and
environmental conditions, Sugar cane and sugar beat as industrial raw material. Effect of conditions
and quality of cane and beet on sugar out put. Industrial manufacture of sugar and sucrose recovery.
Progressive improvement of raw sugars, refining of bulk sugar. Outline of refining process, cane
syrup, fancy molasses, edible syrup. Process control and quality control. Process machineries and
equipments and sugar plant layout.
Process By-products: Baggages-fuel, industrial use, furfural, alpha cellulose, plastics, Molasses-
description, com0position and uses: production of rum, industrial alcohol, acetone and butanol,
Industrial applications of fermentation products and their derivatives-food yeast and other food
products, Molasses as a feed for livestock. Filter cake cane wax.

Sessional: FET- 406: Sugar Engineering

1. Sugarcane harvesting, transportation and storage


2. Mechanisms of extraction of juice from sugarcane.
3. Technology of sugar production from sugarcane juice.
4. Sugarcane machinery handling, operation and maintenance.
5. Utilization of sugarcane byproducts.
6. Processing, Preservation and storage of sugar.
7. Visit to a sugar mill.
References:
The sugarcane, A.C. Barnes, World crop Books Interscience Publishers Inc New York, 1964
The principles of cane sugar manufacture. J.G. Davies. Norman Rodger, London 1938.
Cane sugar Handbook. G.P. Meade; J.C.P. chen, 10th Ed. John Wiley, New York. 1977
Sugarcane factory analytical control. Payne, J.H. Elsevier Pub.Co. 1968
Handbook of cane sugar Engineering. HGugot, E. Elsevier Pub. Co. 2nd Ed. 1972.
Hand book of cane sugar Technology B.L Mathur.

8. Subject: FET-407: Process Modeling and Simulation


Credit: 2+1
Introduction to systems, model and simulation.
System: Definition types of system (discrete and continuous system), system boundary and
limitations.
Model: Definition and classification of models; techniques and modeling of complex systems
Verification and model of model. Usefulness of a model.
Simulation and modeling of Food Engineering systems.
System modeling procedures, parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis and validation.
Modeling of Horticultural crop growth and diversification
Modeling of environmental impacts of agricultural and industrial pollution .
Modeling of Food plant engineering.
Modeling of agricultural mechanization.

Sessional: FET-408: Process Modeling and Simulation


Theory related assignment and preparation of modeling & simulation on recent Food and Process
Engineering activities

9. Subject: FET-409: Bio-chemical Engineering


Credit: 3+1
Introduction: Review of characteristics of biological material including mutation. Directing the
chemical activities of microorganisms: energy yielding compounds, system providing energy and
metabolites for growth, accumulation of metabolites, Kinetic: enzyme systems, absolute reaction
rate theory as applied to Kinetics, Kinetics patterns of various fermentations, expressions for the
Kinetic parameters for the Kinetic parameter for cellular activities, oscillatory system Kinetics.
Continuous cultivation: steady state continuous cultivation theory, microbial dynamics in
chemostat culture, batch and continuous cultivation, examples of continuous cultivation and
Sessional problems, design calculations.
Aeration and agitation: mass transfer and microbial respiration, buble aeration and mechanical
agitation, oxygen temperature coefficients and operating variables, other factors influencing oxygen
transfer coefficients.
Translation of laboratory culture results to plant operation.
Media sterilization, PVA filler for air sterilization.
Equipment design and asepsis: fermenter design ,cardinal rules, materials of construction and
vessel size, bearing assemblies, motor drive, aseptic operation, tangential flow filtration (TFF),
piping and valves for biochemical engineering, pressure relief ,cleaning and sterilization. of process
equipment.

Sessional: FET-410: Bio-chemical Engineering


Translation of laboratory culture results to plant operation. Media sterilization, PVA filler for air
sterilization and other theory related experiments.

Text and Reference Books:


AIBA, Humphry, A.E and Mills,N.F. 1973. Biochemical Engineering. Second Edition. Academic
Press INC. Newyork and London
Lyndersen, B.K Dielia, N.A. Nelson,K.M.1994.join Wiley & Sons, INC. Newyork.
Prinrose,S.B.1987. Modern Biotechnology. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Conn,E.E. and Strumpf,P.K. 1976. Outlines of Biochemistry.4th Edition. John Wiley and Sons, INC.

10. Subject: FET-411: Dairy Engineering

Credit: 2+1
Theory:
Material and energy balance in dairy industry. Pumps, piping, motors and boilers used in dairy
industry. Market milk plant- milk tanks, pasteurizer, homogenizers, and heat exchangers. Methods
of chilling. Evaporators, concentrators for condensed milk. Drying of milk and dryers used.
Fermented milk products and equipment used. Ice cream and ice cream plant equipments.
Manufacture of butter and cheese. Butter and cheese plant and equipments. Packaging materials and
packaging machineries. Process control- quality control: cleanliness and sanitation in dairy industry.
Cost estimate of dairy plants. Dairy plant design and layout.
Sessional: FET-411: Dairy Engineering
Dairy products processing machineries handling, opration and maintenance. Site selection, layout
and design of dairy industries. Manufacture or market milk/ condensed milk. Milk powder, butter
and cheese.

Visit to dairy plant.