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SDH Optical Transmission System

Training Manual
SDH Principle

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Copyright(C) 1999 by Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

All Rights Reserved

No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by

any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


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, C&C08, EAST8000, HONET, , ViewPoint,
INtess, ETS, , DMC, OptiXTM, TELLIN, InfoLink,
Netkey, Quidway, SYNLOCK, TM
and RadiumTM are registered
trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Every effort was made to ensure that the information in this document was
complete and accurate at the time of printing. However, information is subject
to change.
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About This Course

1. Overview

Welcome to this course! With the development of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.,
its telecommunication products has found increasingly broad application in the
industry. One of its products, the SDH optical transmission product named OptiX-
series of 155, 622, 2.5G, 10G, has also found more and more applications in the
construction of the transmission networks on different levels.

You are our honored guests. If you want to study the OptiX-series optical
transmission products produced by our company , this book on the principles of
SDH will be your best choice. Through this book, you will have a general concept
of SDH, and get profound knowledge for your future study of the SDH equipment.


Through the study of this book, you are supposed to have mastered the knowledge

the technical background of the emergence of SDH and its features compared with

the composition of the SDH signal frame and the procedures of multiplexing PDH
signals into SDH frames;

the fulfillment of the SDH monitoring function overhead and the mechanism of
pointer alignment;

the composition of the logic function blocks of SDH equipment and the generation
mechanism and flow chart of maintenance alarm signals;

Document organization

This course is divided into four sections which form an organic integrity in a
specific order. Please read these sections in the order they are arranged.

Section 1 SDH Overview

After completing this section, you will have an overall concept of SDH and
understand why SDH emerged and what exactly SDH is.
Section 2: The frame structure and multiplexing procedures of SDH signals

This section describes the composition of the SDH signal frame and the functions
of each part of the frame, as well as the procedures of multiplexing PDH signals
and SDH low-order signal into SDH high-order signals.

Section 3 Overhead and Pointer

This section describes the realization of monitoring functions on each layer of the
SDH system section overhead, path overhead; and the working mechanism of
pointers which guarantees the function of direct dropping of low-rate signals from
SDH high-rate signals.

Section 4 Logic Composition of SDH Equipment

This section describes the functions of each logic function block which composes
the SDH equipment; the alarms and performance events detected by each function
block and its monitoring mechanism; alarm flowchart of the equipment, and
common NE types and their functions of the SDH transmission network.

2. Intended Audience

This course is mainly intended for the maintenance personnel of the OptiX-series
optical transmission products. This book is written on the assumption that you have

the basic theory of telecommunication, such as the related knowledge on PCM and

the basic theory of the optical fiber telecommunication.

the strong desire and absolute decision to prepare solid foundation for later
maintenance work by completing this course, despite its difficulties.

3. How to learn this course?

This course deals with theories. You are required to read it through carefully in the
arranged order to achieve thorough understanding of the theories. They are the
fundamentals for your later maintenance work and for further improvement of your
maintenance performance. As the SDH principles include many contents difficult
to be arranged in a clear order, you'd better sort them out and form a system in
mind while reading. The theories require only understanding, which is key for your
study, but not mechanical memorizing.

There are some funny and lively icons in every part of the book. The correct use of
these icons will make your study more easy and interesting and efficient..
This icon indicates that the content of this part is your objectives in the study of the
corresponding chapter.

A Note:
This icon means that if operations are not carried out according to the instructions,
the operations may be invalid or can not achieve expected results.

Technical details:
This icon indicates that this part belongs to the technical details and is quite
professional. You may skip this part if you don' want to go deeper.

B Tips:
This icon indicates that this part is some tips which can facilitate your operations or
save your time.

Be careful and avoid such problems if possible. Otherwise they will result in
serious consequences!

? Questions:

These are questions for you to answer. You may refer to the answers if you have
troubles in answering them. After all, it is not an examination.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Huawei Customer Service Building, Kefa Road,
Science-based Park, Shenzhen, P. R. China
Zip Code:518057
Tel: +86-755- 6540808
Fax: +86-755- 6633000