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Wireless system using CDMA

techniques

9/1/16 Emmanuel Duker UNDERGRADUTE THESIS


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Wireless system using CDMA techniques

BY
Emmanuel Duker
CNS 095

B.Sc. in Information Science and Technology in the field of


Communication Networks and Security.

Supervised by Prof Mahdi Khosravy


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Acknowledgements
I would like to thank my supervisor Prof Mahdi Khosravy for his supervision,
assistance and cordiality throughout this project.

Declaration
I hereby affirm that, except where otherwise indicated, this paper is entirely my own
work and has not been submitted in whole or in part to any other university.

Signed: ..................................... Date: ...............................


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Acronyms
2G Second Generation
3G Third Generation
ACA Adaptive Channel Assignment
AP Access Point
ARS Ad-hoc Relaying Station
ASP Adaptive Switching Point
ATDMA Advanced Time Division Multiple Access
BS Base Station
CAMA Cellular Aided Mobile Ad-hoc Network
CBM Cellular Based Multi-hop Systems
CDD Code-Division Duplexing
D-PRMA Distributed PRMA
DA Demand Assignment
DCA Dynamic Channel Assignment
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Abstract
The last few years the world has witness rapid growths and widespread success of
wireless connectivity. There is the growing demand for performance and capability in
wireless systems which has motivated the development of advanced signal processing
techniques for signal reception.
This project includes developing, analyzing, and simulating several signal processing
techniques for the modification of nosiness in code-division multiple-access (CDMA)
systems. I made clear emphasis and contributions to sample areas such: space-time
processing and transmitter precoding. In each case, we will see that the algorithms
presented offer significant advantages over existing techniques. At the end of this
project I presented suggestions for future research work on CDMA systems.
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Table of Content Page:


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 6
1.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE PROJECT 6
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT 7
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS 8
2.1.1 ILLUSTRATIONS ON CMDA 8
2.1.2 CDMA CHANNELS
2.1.3 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA)
2.1.4 FREQUENCY-DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (FDMA)
CHAPTER 3: IMPLEMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES OF CDMA SYSTEM
3.1 SYNCHRONOUS CDMA
3.2 ASYNCHRONOUS CDM
CHAPTER 4: CDMA SYESTEM SIMULATION
CHAPTER 5: SOLUTIONS OBTAINED FROM MATLAB SIMULATION
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
6.1 CONCLUSIONS
6.2 RECOMMENDATION IN FUTURE WORK
REFERENCES
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) has become the chosen technology for the
current and future generation of wireless systems. CDMA like other communication
system, the CDMA System have transmitter, channel and receiver.
As a result of recent developments, the electrical power supply system is on the way to
migrate from a pure energy distribution network to a multipurpose medium delivering
energy, voice, and various data services. In particular, Internet access is currently in the
focus of the efforts of various research activities.
As compared to outdated wireless systems, in which there is one transmitting and one
receiving antenna, the systems use arrays of multiple antennas at both ends of the
communication link, all operating at the same frequency at the same time.
This introduces spatial diversity into the system, which can be used to tackle the
problem of multipath. In wireless communications system, such as point to point radio
links, radio waves do not simply broadcast from the transmit antenna to the receive
antenna. Rather they bounce and allocate off objects, this process is known as
multipath.
CDMA currently a method for implementing a multiple access in communication system.
MULTIPLE ACCESS is a technique where many subscribers or local stations can share
the use of the use of a communication channel at the same time or nearly so despite
the fact originate from widely different locations. A channel can be thought of as merely
a portion of the limited radio resource, which is temporarily allocated for a specific
purpose, such as someones phone call. A multiple access method is a definition of how
the radio spectrum is divided into channels and how the channels are allocated to the
many users of the system.
Since there are multiple users transmitting over the same channel, a method
must be established so that individual users will not disrupt one another.
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1.2 Objectives
This project aims is to understand how CDMA technology works and look into it deeply
on two objectives.
a) Implement Code Division Multiplexing
b) To simulate CDMA Communication System in MATLAB and analyze its
performance under different noise conditions
1.3 Structure of the Project
This project has been divided into six chapters.
Chapter1 deals with the introduction of the project background, objectives and
procedure used.
Chapter: 2 provides the related literature review;
Chapter: 3 discusses in detail, the implementation and techniques of CDM system;
Chapter: 4 deals with the simulation of CDMA system in MATLAB;
Chapter: 5 provides the results obtained from MATLAB simulation;
Chapter: 6 presents the concluding remarks and recommendation for further
improvement.
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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Code Division Multiple Access
The term CDMA refers to any of protocols used in second-generation (2G) and third-
generation (3G) wireless communications. CDMA is a form of multiplexing, which allows
many signals to occupy a single transmission channel, optimizing the use of available
bandwidth. The technology is used in ultra-high-frequency (UHF) cellular telephone
systems in the 800-MHz and 1.9-GHz bands.
CDMA employs analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) in combination with spread
spectrum technology. Audio input is first digitized into binary elements. The frequency of
the transmitted signal is then made to vary according to a defined pattern (code), so it
can be intercepted only by a receiver whose frequency response is programmed with
the same code, so it follows exactly along with the transmitter frequency. There are
trillions of possible frequency-sequencing codes; this enhances privacy and makes
cloning difficult.
CDMA networks use a scheme called soft handoff, which minimizes signal breakup as a
handset passes from one cell to another. The combination of digital and spread-
spectrum modes supports several times as many signals per unit bandwidth as analog
modes.
The original CDMA standard, also known as CDMA One and still common in cellular
telephones which offers a transmission speed of only up to 14.4 Kbps in its single
channel form and up to 115 Kbps in an eight-channel form. CDMA2000 and wideband
CDMA deliver data many times faster.

2.1.1 A Simple Illustration


Lets take and assume a simple analogy to understand the concept of CDMA. For
instance, we have a few students gathered in a classroom who would like to talk to each
other instantaneously. Nothing would be clear if everyone starts speaking at the same
time. Either they must take turns to speak or use different languages to communicate.
The second option is quite similar to CDMA students speaking the same language
can understand each other, while other languages are perceived as noise and rejected.
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Similarly, in radio CDMA, each group of users is given a shared code. Many codes
occupy the same channel, but only those users associated with a particular code can
communicate.

2.1.2 Basis of CDMA Spread Spectrum


Basis of CDMA is the spread spectrum technology. SPREAD SPECTRUM is a means
of transmission in which the data sequence occupies a bandwidth in excess of the
minimum bandwidth necessary to send it. Spread spectrum is accomplished before
transmission through the use of a code that is independent of the data sequence (PN).
It can provide secure communication in hostile environment such that the transmitted
signal is not easily detected or recognized by unwanted listeners. It can reject
interference whether it is the unintentional interference by another user simultaneously
attempting to transmit through the channel, or the intentional interference by a hostile
transmitter attempting to jam the transmission. Another application is in multiple access
communication in which a number of independent users can share a common channel
without an external synchronizing mechanism.

2.1.3 TYPES OF SPREAD SPECTRUM


DIRECT SEQUENCE SPREAD SPECTRUM
DS sequence allows each station to transmit over the entire frequency Spectrum all the
time. Multiple simultaneous transmissions are separated using some sort of coding
technique that is each user is assigned a chip sequence. The sender and receiver
synchronize by the receiver locking into the chip sequence and the sender and receiver
locking into the chip sequence of the sender. All the other (unsynchronized)
transmission is then seen as random noise. So with CDMA each user uses the full
frequency spectrum.
They employ a high speed code sequence along with the basic information being sent,
to modulate their RF carriers. The high speed code sequence is used directly setting the
transmitted RF bandwidth.
Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is the most common technique used in DS system.
Direct sequence is, in essence, multiplication of a more conventional communication
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waveform by PN sequence in the transmitter.

2.1.4 FREQUENCY HOPPING SPREAD SPECTRUM


FH CDMA is a kind of spread spectrum technology that enables many users to share
the same channel by employing a unique hopping pattern to distinguish different users
transmission. The type of spread spectrum in which the carrier hops randomly from one
frequency to another is called FH spread spectrum. A common modulation format for
FH system is that of M-ary frequency shift keying (MFSK).the combination is referred to
as FH/MFSK.
A major advantage of frequency hopping is that it can be implemented over a much
larger frequency band than it is possible to implement DS- spreading, and the band can
be noncontiguous. Another major advantage is that frequency hopping provides
resistance to multiple access interference while not requiring power control to prevent
near far problems. In DS systems , accurate power control is crucial but becomes
less effective as the carrier frequency is increased.
Frequency hopping does not cover the entire spread spectrum
Instantaneously, we are led to consider the rate at which the hops occur. So, we may
identify two basic characterizations of frequency hopping.
1) Slow frequency hopping, in which the symbol rate Rs of MFSK signal is an
integrator multiple of the hop rate Rh. that is, several symbols are transmitted on
each frequency hop
2) Fast frequency hopping, in which the hop rate Rh is an integrator multiple of the
MFSK symbol rate Rs. that is, the carrier frequency will change or hop several
times during the transmission of one symbol.

2.1.2 CDMA CHANNELS


Code division multiple access (CDMA) describes a communication channel access
principle that employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme
(where each transmitter is assigned a code). CDMA channels can be broadly
categorized as Forward channel and Reverse channel. CDMA has the following
channels it communicates through
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a. Time division multiple access (TDMA)


b. Frequency-division multiple access (FDMA)
By contrast, time division multiple access (TDMA) divides access by time, whiles
frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) divides it by frequency.
CDMA is a form of "spread-spectrum" signaling, since the modulated coded signal has
a much higher bandwidth than the data being communicated.
This concept can be visualized with time, frequency and code in three axes as shown in
figure 1.

Fig: 1 Code
Division
Multiplexing with respect to Time and Frequency

2.1.3 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)


Time Division Multiplexing is a technique where a short time sample of each channel
is inserted into the multiplexed data stream. The sample period has to be fast enough to
sample each channel according to the Nyquist theory, and to be able to sample all the
other channels within that same time period. It can be thought of as a very fast
mechanical switch, selecting each channel for a very short time, then going on to the
next channel. Each channel has a time slice assigned to it (whether the terminal is
being used or not).

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is a complex technology, because it requires an


accurate synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. TDMA is used in
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digital mobile radio systems. The individual mobile stations cyclically assign a
frequency for the exclusive use of a time interval.

In most of the cases, the entire system bandwidth for an interval of time is not assigned
to a station. However, the frequency of the system is divided into sub-bands, and
TDMA is used for the multiple access in each sub-band. Sub-bands are known
as carrier frequencies. The mobile system that uses this technique is referred as
the multi-carrier systems.

In the following example, the frequency band has been shared by three users. Each
user is assigned definite timeslots to send and receive data. In this example,
user B sends after user A, and user C sends thereafter. In this way, the peak
power becomes a problem and larger by the burst communication.

2.1.4 Advantages of TDMA


Here are some advantages of Time Division Multiple Access:
Permits flexible rates (i.e. several slots can be assigned to a user, for example,
each time interval translates 32Kbps, a user is assigned two 64 Kbps slots per
frame).
Can withstand gusty or variable bit rate traffic. Number of slots allocated to a
user can be changed frame by frame (for example, two slots in the frame 1, three
slots in the frame 2, one slot in the frame 3, frame 0 of the notches 4)
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2.1.5 Disadvantages of TDMA


The disadvantages of TDMA are as follow:
High data rates of broadband systems require complex equalization.
Due to the burst mode, a large number of additional bits are required for
synchronization and supervision.
Call time is needed in each slot to accommodate time to inaccuracies (due to
clock instability).
Electronics operating at high bit rates increase energy consumption.
Complex signal processing is required to synchronize within short slots.

2.1.6 Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA)


Frequency Division Multiplexing or multiple Access (FDMA) is an analog technique
where each communication channel is assigned with a carrier frequency. To separate
the

channels, a guard-band would be used. This is to ensure that the channels do not
interfere with each other. FDMA does not require all channels to terminate at a single
location. Channels can be extracted using a multi-drop technique; the terminals can be
stationed at different locations within a building or a city. FDMA is an analog and a
slightly historical multiplexing technique. It is prone to noise problems, and has been
overtaken by Time Division Multiplexing
The frequency band is divided into channels of equal bandwidth so that each
conversation is carried on a different frequency (as shown in the figure below).
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2.1.7 Advantages of FDMA


As FDMA systems use low bit rates compared to average delay spread, it offers the
following advantages:
Reduces the bit rate information and the use of efficient numerical codes
increases the capacity.
It reduces the cost and lowers the inter symbol interference (ISI).
An FDMA system can be easily implemented. A system can be configured so
that the improvements in terms of speech encoder and bit rate reduction may be
easily incorporated.
Since the transmission is continuous, less number of bits are required for
synchronization and framing

2.1.8 Disadvantages of FDMA


FDMA offers several advantages, it has a few disadvantages such as the once listed
below:
It does not differ significantly from analog systems; improving the capacity
depends on the signal-to-interference reduction, or a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).
The maximum flow rate per channel is fixed and small.
Guard bands lead to a waste of capacity.
Hardware implies narrowband filters, which cannot be realized in VLSI and
therefore increases the cost.

Forward Channel
The Forward channel is the direction of the communication or mobile-to-cell downlink
path. It includes the following channels
Pilot Channel Pilot channel is a reference channel. It uses the mobile station to
acquire the time and as a phase reference for coherent demodulation. It is continuously
transmitted by each base station on each active CDMA frequency. And, each mobile
station tracks this signal continuously.
Sync Channel Synchronization channel carries a single, repeating message, which
gives the information about the time and system configuration to the mobile station.
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Likewise, the mobile station can have the exact system time by the means of
synchronizing to the short code.
Paging Channel Paging Channels main objective is to send out pages, that is,
notifications of incoming calls, to the mobile stations. The base station uses these
pages to transmit system overhead information and mobile station specific messages.
Forward Traffic Channel Forward Traffic Channels are code channels. It is used to
assign calls, usually voice and signaling traffic to the individual users.
Reverse Channel
The Reverse channel is the mobile-to-cell direction of communication or the uplink path.
It consists of the following channels
Access Channel Access channel is used by mobile stations to establish a
communication with the base station or to answer Paging Channel messages. The
access channel is used for short signaling message exchanges such as call-ups,
responses to pages and registrations.
Reverse Traffic Channel Reverse traffic channel is used by the individual users in
their actual calls to transmit traffic from a single mobile station to one or more base
stations.
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CHAPTER 3
CDMA TECHNIQUES AND IMPLIMENTATION
3.1 CDMA Techniques
CDMA is based on one core concept of orthogonal and spread spectrum. It is actually a
kind of spread spectrum multiple access technique (SSMA).
SSMA uses pseudo-noise (PN) sequence to convert a narrowband signal to a wideband
noise like signal before transmission. Digital signaling a data source which may be
either digital or analog, is encoded into a digital signal.
The actual form of digital signal depends on the encoding technique and is chosen to
optimize use of the transmission medium.

3.1.1 Preferable Codes


Preferable code is used in CDMA. There are different codes that can be used
depending on the type of a system of CDMA. There are two types of system:
Synchronous System and Asynchronous System.

3.1.1 Synchronous CDMA


In a synchronous system, orthogonal codes (Orthogonal Code) can be used. In
asynchronous system for this, such as pseudo-random code (Pseudo-random Noise) is
used.

3.1.2 Asynchronous CDMA


In asynchronous CDMA system, orthogonal codes have bad cross correlation.
Unlike the signal from the base station, the signal from the mobile station to the base
station, becomes the asynchronous system.
In an asynchronous system, somewhat mutual interference increases, but it uses the
other codes such as PN code
3.1.3 Generation of Spreading Sequences (Pseudo-noise Sequences)
A central problem in wireless communications is to allow multiple share at the same
time a limited amount of spectrum. This is referred to as the multiple access problem.
This problem arises in wired environments as well, e.g., the Ethernet.
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The CDMA system uses two types of sequences which is the PN sequences generator
and orthogonal codes. The PN sequence is made by the pseudo-random noise
generator. It is basically a binary linear response shift register, involving of XOR gates
and a shift register. This PN generator has the ability to create a sequence identical for
both the transmitter and the receiver, and retaining the needed properties of the noise
chance bit sequence. However, because it is required that transmitter and receiver must
have a copy of the random bits stream, a predictable way is needed to generate the
same bit stream at transmitter and receiver and yet retain the desirable properties of a
random bit stream. A PN generator will produce a periodic sequence that eventually
repeats but that appears to be random
A PN sequence has many features such as, having an equal number of zeros and ones,
has very low association between shifted versions of the sequence, and very low cross-
correlation with other signals such as interference and noise.
Another important feature is the autocorrelation of the sequence as it determines the
ability to synchronize the spreading code for the received signal.
PN sequences are generated by an algorithm using some initial value called seed. The
algorithm is deterministic and therefore produces sequence of numbers that are not
statistically random. However, if the algorithm is good, the resulting sequences will pass
many reasonable tests of randomness. Such numbers are often referred to as
pseudorandom numbers or pseudo noise sequence (PN sequences).
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CHAPTER 4
SOLUTIONS OBTAINED FROM MATLAB SIMULATION
Below I made simulations and with several sequences in MATLAB. The components
implemented in Matlab simulation with outcome below.
clear
clc
G=63; % Code length
%Generation of first m-sequence using generator polynomial [45]
sd1 =[0 0 0 0 1]; % Initial state of Shift register
PN1=[]; % First m-sequence
for j=1:G
PN1=[PN1 sd1(5)];
if sd1(1)==sd1(4)
temp1=0;
else temp1=1;
end
sd1(1)=sd1(2);
sd1(2)=sd1(3);
sd1(3)=sd1(4);
sd1(4)=sd1(5);
sd1(5)=temp1;
end
subplot(3,1,1)
stem(PN1)
title('M-sequence generated by generator polynomial [45]')

%Generation of second m-sequence using generator polynomial [67]


sd2 =[0 0 0 0 1]; % Initial state of Shift register
PN2=[]; % Second m-sequence
for j=1:G
PN2=[PN2 sd2(5)];
if sd2(1)==sd2(2)
temp1=0;
else temp1=1;
end
if sd2(4)==temp1
temp2=0;
else temp2=1;
end
if sd2(5)==temp2
temp3=0;
else temp3=1;
end
sd2(1)=sd2(2);
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sd2(2)=sd2(3);
sd2(3)=sd2(4);
sd2(4)=sd2(5);
sd2(5)=temp3;
end
subplot(3,1,2)
stem(PN2)
title('M-sequence generated by generator polynomial [67]')
%Generation of Third m-sequence using generator polynomial [75]
sd3 =[0 0 0 0 1]; % Initial state of Shift register
PN3=[]; % Third m-sequence
for j=1:G
PN3=[PN3 sd3(5)];
if sd3(1)==sd3(2)
temp1=0;
else temp1=1;
end
if sd3(3)==temp1
temp2=0;
else temp2=1;
end
if sd3(4)==temp2
temp3=0;
else temp3=1;
end
sd3(1)=sd3(2);
sd3(2)=sd3(3);
sd3(3)=sd3(4);
sd3(4)=sd3(5);
sd3(5)=temp3;
end
subplot(3,1,3)
stem(PN3)
title('M-sequence generated by generator polynomial [75]')
CHAPTER 5
RESULTS FROM MATLAB SIMULATIONS
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This chapter presents the simulation results for the CDMA system at different channel
conditions of a Pseudorandom Noise Sequence (PN sequence)
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PN sequence is widely used in CDMA systems for the following reasons.


Spread the bandwidth of baseband modulated signal to the much larger
bandwidth before transmission
to distinguish between different users by assigning a unique PN sequences to
them.
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MULTI-PATH FADING IN CDMA SYSTEM


Fading is a fluctuation in the received signal strength at the receiver or a random
variation in the received signal is known as fading. Fading of radio waves is the
undesired variation in the intensity or loudness of the waves received at the
receiver.
Correlation time of the spreading, then they can be separated by the dispreading
correlator in the receiver. They do not interfere because each components correlate
at a different delay. When the multipath components are separated by less than the
correlation time, then they cannot be separated in the receiver, and they do
interfere with one another, leading to what is sometimes called flat fading.

FADING ON CDMA CHANNEL


Fading is different in the forward and reverse links. It also depends on the fading
rate, which in turn depends on the velocity of the mobile station.
Generally fading increases the average SNR needed for a particular rate. In the
reverse link the power control will mitigate the effects of fading at low speed, at
high speed it has little effect.
So we can say that in the demodulation of the CDMA signals, the different paths
may be independently received, which greatly reduces the severity of the multi-
path fading. However, multipath fading cant be eliminated because occasionally
there may be multipath that cannot be independently processed by the
demodulator.
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CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
CDMA is radically new concept in wireless communication. It has gained widespread
international acceptance by cellular radio system operators as an upgrade that will
dramatically increase both their systems capacity and the service quality.
Capacity of CDMA is interference limited the obvious way to increase capacity of the
CDMA is to reduce the level of interference.

Future work on this project will consist of Multi-Carrier CDMA system


Multi-carrier modulation (MCM) is a data transmission technique where several sub
carriers are employed to transport the users data stream signal. Today using very fast
and cost effective digital signal processors, multi-carrier modulation can be
implemented using discrete Fourier transform (DFT) as the set of orthogonal sub
carriers. This makes the technique very attractive.

Multi-Carrier Modulation (MCM) improves system capacity by making transmission


more robust to frequency selective fading and enhances user spectral efficiency. The
main drawbacks are:

Difficult sub carriers' synchronization in fading transmissions.


Sensitivity to frequency offset is more pronounced than for a single carrier.
Sensitivity to non-linear amplification (peak factor problem).
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Bibliography: Reference Books:

Simon Haykins Communication Systems-John Willy & Sons , Fourth edition


Simon Haykins-Digital Communication System-Fourth Edition
John G. Proakis Digital communication-Third Edition
CDMA TECHNIQUES FOR THIRD GENERATION MOBILE SYSTEM by
Francis Swarts ,PETER Van Rooyan , Ian Opperman & Michael P. Loyyer