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Chapter 1:

ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY
AND DEVELOPMENT

1-1 Introduction to Engineering


Chapter 1: Engineering, Technology and Development

History of Engineering and Technology. Role of engineering and technology as


indicators of development. The contribution of Government in the deployment of
engineering and technology for economic development. New advances in world of
engineering and technology.
Lecture Objectives
Chapter 1: Engineering, Technology and Development

History of Engineering and Technology. Role of engineering and technology as


indicators of development. The contribution of Government in the deployment of
engineering and technology for economic development. New advances in world of
engineering and technology.

Learning Outcomes

LO1 - Characterize professional ethics, sustainability and cost-effectiveness in



engineering design and practice.(cognitive, understanding, level 2)
LO2 - Apply engineering principles in handling societal and environmental issues and
engineering practices (cognitive, applying, level 3)

LO3 - Apply professional and ethical judgement in design and development of

engineering obligations (cognitive, applying level 3)
LO4 - Establish high integrity of professionalism of engineering practices in societal and
environmental contexts.(cognitive, analysing, level 4)
Programme Outcomes

PO8 - Understand the importance of sustainability and cost-effectiveness in design and


development of professional engineering solutions, and their impacts in societal and
environmental contexts

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Contents
Engineering
Technology
Beginnings of Engineering
Engineering in the Middle Ages
The Revival of Science

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Engineering Definitions

Problem solving
The profession in which knowledge of
the mathematical and natural sciences
gained by study, experience, and
practice is applied with judgment to
develop ways to economically utilize the
materials and the forces of nature for
the benefit of mankind.
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Engineering Definitions
According to ABET (the US
accreditation board for engineering and
technology programs):
The profession in which knowledge of
the mathematical and natural sciences,
gained by study, experience, and
practice, is applied with judgment
to develop ways to use, economically,
the materials and forces of nature for
the benefit of mankind.
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Engineering - origins of the word

Practical form of art and a profession,


evolved from the work of builders
thousands of years ago.
Originated probably in the Middle Ages
around 1000-1200 AD
they were mainly builders of civil and
mechanical structures such as buildings,
bridges, roads, mills and war machines.

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Importance of History in
Engineering
History helps us to interpret scenarios
and to sort out the pros and cons of
various options.
Solid knowledge of history completes our
engineering education.

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Engineers
Engineers have in common the desire to
make the world a better place.

The word engineer began to appear. Its


root lies in the Latin word ingeniare, to
design or devise

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Engineers
Drive & perseverance!
How do you get those?
Have to be willing to make the effort.
Dont let anything stand in your way.
Know what youre getting into.

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Engineers
Engineers are Professionals and
Leaders
Need to understand the origins of the
profession
Provides insight as to how the
greatest minds in history have tackled
problems

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Engineers
As an engineer, it is your responsibility to
understand the past and present state of the
art, as well as keep studying throughout your
career
The study of history helps
us understand what good
qualities from the past are
worth emulating

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Engineers
Engineers design, create, or modify nearly
everything we touch, wear, eat, see, and hear
in our daily lives.
Their innovations and inventions fuel economic
growth, fortify national security, improve
healthcare, and safeguard the environment.
(ASEE, 2004)

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Technology
we are referring either to a practical
application of science to address a particular
product or manufacturing need, or to an area
of specialized expertise the practical
application of science. (A.D. Little)

its a specific process that produces a


specific product a manufacturing process
as a way a company does business or
attempts a task. (McKinsey)
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Technology
The systematic application of
scientific knowledge to a new
product, process, or service.

Chinese Paper Making Earler Technology

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Technology
Technology: a Greek word,
Techne = "art, skill, cunning of hand";
logia = the making, modification, usage,
and knowledge of tools, machines,
techniques, craft, systems, and
methods of organization, in order to
solve a problem,

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Technology
Why we need Technology:

improve a pre-existing solution to a


problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied
input/output relation or perform a specific
function.

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Technology
The word technology to refer to the rules,
methods and tools obtained from the
utilization of natural science knowledge in
solving problems in material production.

Technology is the engine of the society and


its economic development. The influence of
technology on economic development is
outstanding everywhere.
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Technology
Technology = "the branch of knowledge dealing
with engineering or applied sciences.
Oxford Dictionary:

the application of scientific knowledge for


practical purposes, such as, in a new product,
process, or service.
the theoretical and practical knowledge, skills
and artifacts that can be used to develop
products, processes and services as well as their
production and delivery systems.
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Technology
Technology is divided into 2 categories

Soft Technology:
Knowledge that comes from non-natural science and
non-traditional science
Operating under spiritual or holistic approach.

Hard Technology:
Knowledge that comes from natural science.
Operating physical world
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Soft Technology
Soft technology
two characteristics required:
it must be a technology and soft.
1. As a technology: it should be an operable
knowledge system of means, tools and rules fo
solution of problems;
2. As soft: it should aim at practice for providing
the service to social change and economic
development.
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Soft Technology

The intellectual technology around


individuals, human thinking, ideology,
emotion, value view, world view, human
and organizational behavior as well as
human society for creation and innovation.

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Soft Technology
1) Technologies originated from knowledge of social sciences: business
technology,, consulting, education, organization, finance, and system
technology;
2) Technologies originated from knowledge of the natural sciences: software
technology, network technology, artificial intelligence;
3) Technologies originated from knowledge of LIFE science: homeopathy,
telepathy, traditional diagnostic technology, therapeutic technology.
4) Technologies originated from knowledge of thinking science: psychology,
psychological technique, spiritual health, decision-making, thinking technology;
5) Technologies originated from non- traditional scientific knowledge: culture, art,
religion, language, law, history, philosophy, cultural technology, music
technology,

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Classification of Soft Technology

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Hard Technology
The skills, tools and
rules that are employed
by people to alter,
accommodate and
manage nature for
human survival and
development.

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Hard Technology

Hard technology takes


material as its carrier,

Hard refers to the tangible


entity upon which an
operation is conducted.

Chinese Paper Making Earlier


Technology

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Prehistoric Engineering
Prehistoric culture
Did not have a grasp of mathematical
principles nor knowledge of natural science.
Many of their designs were built by trial and
error.
Spear after spear, until they perfected it.

No written communication or transportation, so


little info or innovation was exchanged.
Each group developed on its own.
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Prehistoric Engineering
Physical limitations of prehistoric cultures
No written language
Verbal language was limited
Main job - Hunting and gathering
No means of transportation
No specialized methodology to discover
new things
Improvement came about very slowly
How did engineering evolve in these areas?
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The First Engineer
Imhotep
Designed the pyramid near
Memphis, Egypt around 2550 BC.
(BBC, n.d.)

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The First Engineer
The Stepped Pyramid of
Sakkara (2700 BC)
Imhotep, chief engineer to
King Zoser

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The First Engineer
Imhotep
He set a precedent by including temples,
pavilions, corridors, chapels and halls within
the closed walls.
He was a commoner by birth.
Which means he did not have a formal
education (that was only for the rich).
At that time engineers learned the trade
through the apprenticeship system. (BBC, n.d.)

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The Beginnings of Engineering:
6000 - 3000 B.C.
The Agrarian Society (agriculture)
Forms the basis of civilization

Cultivate plants - the need for


increased food production
Domesticate animals - for food
and work
Build permanent houses in
community group

http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_06/d_06_s/d_06_s_mou/d_06_s_mou.html

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The Beginnings of Engineering:
6000 - 3000 B.C.
Early Achievements in this
Era
Copper Age 5000-3000 B.C.
People learn how to shape
soft metals into tools.

http://www.museumofman.org/html/exhibits_copper_age.html
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The Beginnings of Engineering:
6000 - 3000 B.C.
Early Achievements in
this Era
Bronze Age 3000-2000
B.C.
Mixing different kinds
of metals could make
better tools.

http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/b/b6/300px-Bronze_age_weapons_Romania.jpg
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The Beginning of Engineering:
6000 - 3000 B.C.
Major Engineering Projects or
Inventions
Irrigation systems to promote crop
growth.

http://www.payvand.com/news/04/dec/ancient-dam-iran.jpg

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The Beginning of Engineering:
6000 - 3000 B.C.
Major Engineering Projects or
Inventions
Animal-, water-, and wind-driven
machines.

http://www.ourbc.com/travel_bc/bc_cities/thompson_okan
agan/photos/keremeos/grist_mill_01_640.jpg

http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/24700/24788/dutch_wind
mi_24788_md.gif
http://www.museums4schools.net/oxen_breaking.jpg
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The Beginning of Engineering:
6000 - 3000 B.C.
Major Engineering
Projects or Inventions
The wheel and axle
Plow
Yoke http://www.kismeta.com/diGrasse/images/wheel.jpg

http://www.connerprairie.org/HistoryOnline/images/yoke.jpg

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The Beginnings of Engineering:
6000 - 3000 B.C.
Early Achievements in this Era
Development of a system of symbols for
written communications.

http://www.jhu.edu/neareast/uem/page3.html

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The Beginnings of Engineering:
6000 - 3000 B.C.
Mesopotamia cradle of civilization
Clay tile material used for permanent
documentation.
Clay tablets unearthed which show:
maps of caravan routes including

mountains cities and water


city plans

irrigation systems

water supply systems

http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/maps/m_asiaminor.gif
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The Beginnings of Engineering:
6000 - 3000 B.C.
Clay Tablet - Cuneiform

http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Valentin/Jpeg/full171387.jpg

http://www.hotmix.org/history.php
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The Beginnings of Engineering:
6000 - 3000 B.C.
Outstanding contributions to
mathematics
Sexagesimal system

divided circle into 360


degrees
hour into 60 minutes

minute into 60 seconds

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Engineering in Early
Civilizations: 3000-600 B.C.
Babylonian engineers:
Among the first scientific
engineers.
Familiar with basic math
Could figure out areas and
volumes of land excavations
Number system based on 60
instead of 10.
Buildings were constructed
using basic engineering http://www.ccds.charlotte.nc.us/History/MidEast/03/barry/barrywall.jpg

principles still used today.


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Engineering in Early
Civilizations: 3000-600 B.C.
Babylonian engineers:
Roads were surfaced with a naturally
occurring asphalt, a construction system
not used again until the nineteenth
century.
The first recorded use of asphalt
(bitumen) as a road building material was
in Babylon around 625 B.C., in the reign
of King Naboppolassar.
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Engineering in Early
Civilizations: 3000-600 B.C.

Map of
Babylon

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Engineering in Early
Civilizations: 3000-600 B.C.

Gardens of Babylon
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Engineering in Early
Civilizations: 3000-600 B.C.
Egyptian Engineers
Pyramid Age - 2900 B.C and lasts 1000 years

2,300,000 building stones (2.5 tons each) used

to build the Great Pyramid of Cheops, aka


Khufu.
Outstanding examples of engineering skills in

land measurement and building layout -transit


and level.
Irrigation systems.

www.greatbuildings.com
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Science of the Greeks and
Romans: 600 B.C.- 400 A.D.
Engineering in Greece:
Had its origin in Egypt.

Better known for the intensive development

of borrowed ideas than for creativity and


invention.
Famous for outstanding philosophers:

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle (physical scientist)


and Archimedes (mathematics).
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Science of the Greeks and
Romans: 600 B.C.- 400 A.D.
Engineering in Greece:
Use of ideas was

retarded because of the


belief that verification
and experimentation,
which required manual
labor, were only fit for
slaves.
http://www.ecusd7.org/ehs/ehsstaff/dvoegele/work.jpg

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Science of the Greeks and
Romans: 600 B.C.- 400 A.D.
Engineering in Greece:
Even so, Greeks were able
to come up with a few
useful ideas:
Archimedes water screw

Crossbow

Catapult

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Science of the Greeks and
Romans: 600 B.C.- 400 A.D.
Roman Engineering
Liberally borrowed scientific and engineering
knowledge from the countries they conquered
for use in warfare and in their public works.
Superior in the application of ideas and
techniques.

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Science of the Greeks and
Romans: 600 B.C.- 400 A.D.
Heros Inventions:
Gear driven odometer

on chariot
Steam turbine

Hydraulic clock

Fire engine

All ideas stolen from


http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/PuppetShow.html

Hero by the Romans.

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Science of the Greeks and
Romans: 600 B.C.- 400 A.D.
Heros Inventions:
Gear driven odometer

on chariot
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/InventionsO.htm

Steam turbine

Hydraulic clock

Fire engine

All ideas stolen from


Hero by the Romans
http://www.the-
romans.co.uk/g5/37.waterclock.gif
http://patentpending.blogs.com/patent_pend
ing_blog/2004/11/heros_steam_tur.html

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Science of the Greeks and
Romans: 600 B.C.- 400 A.D.
Roman Engineering
Roman road systems- subbase, compact
base, topcoat 180,000 miles

http://www3.shropshire-cc.gov.uk/roots/images/tra_f11a.jpg

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Science of the Greeks and
Romans: 600 B.C.- 400 A.D.
Roman Engineering
Aqueducts for

Water supply

Sanitary systems

Engineering principles

applies to military tactics

http://www.legionsix.org/contact1.jpg

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Science of the Greeks and
Romans: 600 B.C.- 400 A.D.
Great Wall of China 220BC
The great wall of china
220 BC during the Chin Dynasty.

Built by Emperor Shih Huang Ti


to repel Mongolian invaders.
The emperor, and his general Meng Tien functioned
as engineers, even though this was not their
primary role.
3080 miles in length originally, currently 1700
miles.
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Engineering in the Middle
Ages: 1st to 16th Centuries
Collapse of the Roman Empire 4th and
5th centuries A.D. was known as the
Dark Ages, but was it?

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Engineering in the Middle
Ages: 1st to 16th Centuries
Collapse of the Roman Empire 4th and
5th centuries A.D. was known as the
Dark Ages, but was it?
Animals and waterwheels began to replace
humans as the power source Arabs were
developing paper making, chemistry, and
optics.

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Engineering in the Middle
Ages: 1st to 16th Centuries
Collapse of the Roman Empire 4th and
5th centuries A.D. was known as the
Dark Ages, but was it?
Sugar refining, soap making, and perfume
distilling became part of the culture.

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Engineering in the Middle
Ages: 1st to 16th Centuries
Collapse of the Roman Empire 4th and
5th centuries A.D. was known as the
Dark Ages, but was it?
Chinese were developing clocks,
astronomical instruments, the loom and
spinning wheel, and gunpowder.

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Engineering in the Middle
Ages: 1st to 16th Centuries
Johann Gutenburg - movable type produced the first
books printed on paper.
Leonardo da Vinci - acclaimed as a great artist, was
also an engineer, inventor and architect.
Military and civil engineering feats such as catapults
bridges and buildings.
Sketches of future engineering devices such as:
Machine Gun, Helicopter, Drawbridge, Breach-loading
Cannon, Roller Bearings, Universal Joint, Tanks

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The Revival of Science:
17th and 18th Centuries
Hooke Discovers:
material lengthens in proportion to the force

exerted on it, up to the elastic limit, and in


compression it shortens in a similar fashion.
Huygens develops:
spiral watch spring and the pendulum clock and

measures gravitational acceleration.


Newton famous for his three basic laws of motion
developed differential calculus, essential to

mathematical analysis of most physical systems.


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The Revival of Science:
17th and 18th Centuries
Galileo Discovers:
Gravitational acceleration- velocity a body while

falling is independent of weight.


Earth moves around the sun.

Torricelli and Pascal Discovers:


Hydrostatics, dynamics & develop the barometer.

Boyle Discovers:
expansion quality of air and the correlation

between temperature, volume, and pressure.


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The Revival of Science:
17th and 18th Centuries
The Developing Industrial Age
James Watt - steam engine for textile mills, iron
furnaces, rolling mills and other industries.
Hargreaves, Crampton, and Jurgen develops the

spinning and weaving machinery.


Pieter van Musschenbroek develops a device to
hold a static electrical charge, now called the
leyden jar; forerunner to the capacitor.
Luigi Galvani- principles of electrical conduction.

Alessandro Volta - principles of the electric battery

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Beginnings of Modern
Science: 19th Century
Andre-Marie Ampere confirms the flow of
electrical current, leading to the science of
electrodynamics.
Michael Faraday found the means to
generate electricity by moving a conductor
through a magnetic field.
Jagadis Chandra Bose demonstrated the
transmission of electric signals through
space; Marconi was awarded a patent for
the same achievement a year later.
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Beginnings of Modern
Science: 19th Century
Henry Cort develops a method of refining
iron.
James Watt refines and produces an
efficient steam engine.
At last good iron for machines and power
plants to operate the machinery.

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Technology and Development
20th Century Technology
Henry Ford - Builds and sells automobiles and
mass production emerges.
Thomas Edison and Lee DeForest develop
electrical equipment and electron tubes which
starts the widespread use of power systems
and communication networks.
Nikola Tesla introduces the first practical
application of alternating current, the
polyphase induction motor.
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Technology and Development
20th Century Technology

Orville & Wilbur Wright develop powered


aircraft.
Wallace Carothers leads a team of organic
chemists and chemical engineer researchers
at duPont to develop NYLON the first of
many synthetic fibers. The beginnings of
polymer research.

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Technology and Development
20th Century Technology
Using Albert Einstein's model E=mc2 scientists from
Europe and the United States at the University of
Chicago produce the first nuclear pile. The age of
controlled nuclear reaction begins.
John Brainerd , at the University of Pennsylvanias
Moore School of Engineering develop the first
computer called the ENIAC. It weighted over 30
tons and occupied over 1500 square feet.

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Technology and Development
20th Century Technology
John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley,
at Bell labs, discovered that current changes in one
part of a diode caused current changes in another part
of a diode and create the transistor.

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Technology and Development
20th Century Technology
Texas Instruments and Fairchild Semiconductor
discovers that the transistors silicon crystal could
be made to be its own circuit board. transistors -
the switch that controls the world.
Pratt & Whitney develop turbojet engines.
Boeing Airplane Company develop the Boeing 707
capable of transporting 180 passengers at speeds
of 600 mph.

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Technology and Development
20th Century Technology
Theodore Maiman produces the first working laser
which has mushroomed to encompass surgeons,
transmit telephone calls, track storms, to checkout
in supermarkets, to weld steel, to cut fabric and to
produce holograms.
Communication Satellites - now handle more than
half of all transoceanic telephone, television and
audio network program distribution.

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Technology and Development
Computer Age

We live in the computer age


Answers to millions of
questions are at your
fingertips (The Internet).

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