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Chapter 5 Modeling and Simulation of Mechanism

In the present study, KED analysis of four bar planar mechanism using
MATLAB program and ANSYS software has been carried out. The analysis has also
been carried out by considering rigid links in the same mechanism. In the analysis of
rigid links all pin joint forces, angular velocities and angular accelerations of links has
been computed. The coupled solution of governing equations of motion has been
obtained using MATLAB. In this MATLAB analysis each link has been considered as
an element. The simulated results have been validated with the experimental results
available in literature [13]. The modeling and simulations of four bar planar
mechanism has been executed in ANSYS by considering rigid link and flexible links
with more elements. The effect of moment of inertia of coupler and its length, flexibly
of crank and rocker, and rocker length on the strain developed in coupler has been
studied. After the dynamic analysis of four bar planar mechanism this methodology is
extended to six bar mechanism.

Multibody simulation deals with deals with study and analysis of dynamic
behavior of system of flexible and/or rigid interconnected bodies. These bodies are
subjected to constrain with respect to one another through a kinematic constraints
modeled as joints. These systems can represent a space structure with antenna
deployment capabilities, an automobile, a robot with manipulator arms, an aircraft as
an assemblage of rigid and flexible parts, and so on. The components may be
subjected to large displacement, large rotation, and also effects of finite strain.

Multibody systems have conventionally been modeled as rigid body systems


with superimposed elastic effects of one or more components. A major limitation of
these methods is that non-linear large-deformation, finite strain effects or non-linear
material cannot be incorporated completely into model.

The FE method used in ANSYS offers an attractive approach to modeling a


multibody system. The ANSYS multibody analysis method may require more

5.1
computational resources and modeling time compared to standard analysis; it has the
following advantages [75]:

The finite element mesh automatically represents the geometry while the large
deformation/rotation effects are built into the finite element formulation.
Inertial effects are greatly simplified by the consistent mass formulation or
even point mass representations.
Interconnection of parts via joints is greatly simplified by considering the
finite motions at the two nodes forming the joint element.

A general steps for FEM for non-linear analysisis as follows:

(i) Build the model: A flexible mechanism usually comprises of flexible and/or rigid
body parts connected via joint elements. The modeling the flexible parts with any
of the 3-D solid, shell, or beam elements. The flexible and/or rigid parts are
connected using joint elements. In one scenario, two parts may be simply
connected to ensure that the displacements at the joints are identical. In other
scenario, the two connected parts may involve joint such as the universal jointor a
planar joint. While modeling these joints, a suitable kinematic constraint is
implemented on the relative motion (displacement and rotation) between the two
nodes that form the joint.

(ii) Define element types: Simulation of a flexible multibody involving flexible and
rigid components joined together subjected to some form of kinematic
constraints, using appropriate joint and contact element types.

(iii) Define materials: Defining the linear and non-linear material properties for each
components of multibody system.

(iv) Mesh the model: Mesh the all flexible components of multibody system. Two
nodes define joint elements and no special meshing is required to define them.

(v) Solve the model: Multibody analyses generally involve large rotations in static or
transient dynamics analysis, so non-linear geometric effects must be accounted
for.

5.2
(vi) Review the results of model: Results from a flexible multibody analysis consist
mainly of displacements, velocities, accelerations, stresses, strains, and reaction
forces in structural components. Constraint forces, current relative positions,
relative velocities, and relative accelerations in joint elements are also available.

5.1 Analysis of mechanism in ANSYS

The procedure for rigid and dynamic analysis of mechanism in ANSYS


Workbench software is as follows [75]:

5.1.1 Selection of types of analysis

In its most basic use, the ANSYS Workbench process is straight forward to
select the type of analysis that is to be performed from the analysis systems group of
the Toolbox and add that system to the project schematic. When the system is in
place, than work through the cells in the system, generally from top-to-bottom, until
completed all the required steps for analysis are completed. In most cases, data flows
from top to bottom through the system as well. For example, in a mechanical system,
the geometry must be defined before one defines the model; the model cell uses the
geometry defined in the geometry cell as its input.

5.1.2 Renaming Systems

In general, it is good practice to give each system a name which is most


meaningful for analysis as shown in Fig. 5.1. When new systems are added to the
project schematic, the system name initially has focus to encourage the user to enter a
meaningful name. To rename a system that already exists on the project schematic,
one can either double-click on the system name (shown below the system) or right-
click and select rename from the system context menu (right click on the system
header, row 1 in the system, to access the system context menu). The system name
will be highlighted as shown in Fig. 5.1.

5.3
Fig. 5.1 Step for renaming the system

5.1.3 Define engineering data

Engineering data serves as a resource related to material properties that is used


in system analysis. Engineering data can be used as a repository for company or
department data, such as material data libraries. While designing the engineering data
workspace care is taken to allow user to create, save, and retrieve material models,
and also to create libraries of data that can be saved and subsequently used in projects
and by different users or in other analysis. User interface for engineering data is
shown in Fig. 5.2.

Engineering data can be shown as a component system or as a cell in any


mechanical analysis system. As a standalone component system, the workspace
accesses all material models and properties by default. Properties and material models
related to system physics are shown in workspace when viewed as a cell in
mechanical analysis system. The engineering data can be access by inserting an
engineering data component system or a mechanical system into the project

5.4
schematic. The analyst can select edit from the engineering data cell's menu, or opt to
double-click the cell. Subsequently, the engineering data workspace appears. From
here, the user can navigate through the database required for analysis system, access
external data sources, create new data, as well as store data for subsequent use.

Fig. 5.2 Step for defining the engineering data

5.1.4 Attach geometry

There are no geometry creation tools in the mechanical application so


geometry must be attached to the mechanical application. The geometry can be
created from either of the following sources: (i) from within Workbench using design
modeler or (ii) From a CAD system supported by workbench.

To import the geometry following step can be performed. From the analysis
system subroutine, select the geometry cell. Browse to the CAD file from the
following access points: Right-click on the geometry cell in the project schematic and
choose import geometry. The model cell in the project schematic can be selected via

5.5
double click. Subsequently the mechanical application displays the geometry. The
dialogue box related to geometry import as shown in Fig. 5.3.

Fig. 5.3 Step for attaching the geometry

5.1.5 Define the part behavior

After attaching geometry it is possible to access settings related to part


behavior by right-clicking on the model cell in the analysis system schematic and
choosing edit. The mechanical application opens with the environment representing
the analysis system displayed under the model object in the tree, as mention in Fig.
5.4. Under this tree first branch is geometry and second is coordinate systems. In
geometry list of parts or bodies with following options:

(i) Stiffness behavior: In addition to making changes to the material properties of a


part, it is also possible to designate a part's stiffness behavior as being flexible or
rigid. The solution time is reduced significantly by setting a part behavior as rigid
which in turn reduces the representation of part to single point mass. Mass of rigid
part will be calculated from density of the material. In case of density being

5.6
function of temperature, it is evaluated at the reference temperature. For contact
conditions, specify Youngs modulus. Flexible is the default stiffness behavior. To
change, simply select rigid from the stiffness behavior drop-down menu.

Fig. 5.4 Step for defining the parts behaviour

(ii) Coordinate systems: The coordinate systems object and its child object, global
coordinate system is automatically placed in the tree with a default location of 0,
0, 0, when a model is imported. For solid parts and bodies by default, a part and
any associated bodies, use the global coordinate system. If desired, it is also
possible to apply a local coordinate system to the part or body. When a local
coordinate system is assigned to a part, by default, the bodies also assume this
coordinate system but one may modify the system on the bodies individually as
desired. For surface bodies, solid shell bodies, and line bodies by default, these
types of geometries generate coordinates systems on a per element type basis. It is
necessary for the user to create a local coordinate system and associated it with the

5.7
parts and/or bodies using the coordinate system setting in the details view for the
part/body if one wishes to orient those elements in a specific direction.
(iii) Reference temperature: The default reference temperature is taken from the
environment (by environment), which occurs when solving. This necessarily
means that the reference temperature can change for different solutions. The
reference temperature can also be specified for a body and will be constant for
each solution (by body). Selecting by body will cause the reference temperature
value field to specify the reference temperature for the body. It is important to
recognize that any value set by body will only set the reference temperature of the
body and not actually causes the body to exist at that temperature.
(iv) Material property assignment: Once the geometry has been attached, the next step
is to choose a material for the simulation. Upon selecting a part in the tree outline,
the assignment entry under Material in the details view lists a default material for
the part. This can be edited using material properties in the engineering data
workspace.
(v) Non-linear material effects: It is possible to ignore any nonlinear effects from the
material properties. As default setting, all pertinent material properties are used,
including non-linear properties such as stress-strain curve data. Setting non-linear
effects to no will ignore any non-linear properties only for that part. This option
will allow the analyst to assign same material to two different parts and also treat
one of the parts as linear.
(vi) Thermal strain effects: For structural analyses, it is possible to have workbench to
calculate a thermal strain result by setting thermal strain effects to yes. Choosing
this option enables the coefficient of thermal expansion to be sent to the solver.

5.1.6 Define connections

Connections include contact regions, joints, springs, or beams. Explicit


analysis connections include body interactions.

Contact conditions arise where bodies meet. On importing an assembly from a


CAD system, contact between various parts is automatically detected. In addition to
this contact regions can also be set up manually. It is possible to transfer heat flows

5.8
across the contact boundaries and structural loads and connects the various bodies.
The analysis can be linear or nonlinear, depending on the type of contact.

A joint is an idealized kinematic linkage that controls the relative movement


between two bodies. Joint types are characterized by their translational and rotational
DOF as being fixed or free, as shown in Fig. 5.5

Fig. 5.5 Step for defining the connections

5.1.7 Apply mesh control and preview mesh

Meshing is the process in which the mechanism geometry is spatially


discretized into elements and nodes. This mesh along with material properties is used
to mathematically represent the stiffness and mass distribution of the structure.

The model is automatically meshed for further process. The element size by
default is determined based on various factors including body curvature, the overall
model size, the complexity of the feature and the proximity of other topologies. When
required, the mesh size is adjusted up to four times (eight times for an assembly) till a

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successful mesh is achieved. The dialogue box for meshing the model is shown in Fig.
5.6.

If desired, it is possible to preview the mesh before solving. Mesh controls are
available to assist you in fine tuning the mesh.

There are some options available to modify the mesh: (i) default group, (ii)
sizing group, (iv) inflation group, (v) advanced group, (vi) pinch group and (vii)
statistics group.

Fig. 5.6 Step of meshing the model

5.1.8 Establish the analysis setting

For transient structural (ANSYS) analysis the basic controls are:

Slender structures typically require large deflection. The user can use large
deflection in case a slender structure has transverse displacements that are more than
10% of the thickness. Small strain and small deflection analysis assume that

5.10
displacements are small enough so that the resulting stiffness changes are
insignificant. Switching ON large deflection will account for stiffness changes
resulting from change in orientation and element shape due to large deflection, large
strain, and large rotation. This ensures that the results will be more accurate. But this
effect demands an iterative solution. In addition it may also need the load to be
applied in small increments. Hence the solution may take longer time. Use of hyper
elastic materials also requires large deflection to be turned on as shown in Fig. 5.7.

Fig. 5.7 Step for setting the analysis steps

Step controls permits to control the time step size in a transient analysis. In
addition this control also makes it possible to create multiple steps. In case new loads
are to be introduced or removed at different times in the load history, or if the analyst
wants to change the analysis settings such as the time step size at some points in the
time history, multiple steps are to be used. In case nonlinearities are present or if the
applied load has high frequency content, one might be required to use a small time

5.11
step size (that is, small load increments) and compute solutions at these intermediate
time steps to subsequently arrive at more accurate results. This group can be modified
on a per step basis.

Output controls option is useful to specify the time points at which results
should be available for post processing. In a transient nonlinear analysis it may be
necessary to perform many solutions at intermediate time values. However, (i) one
may not be interested in all the intermediate results, and (ii) writing all the results can
make the results file size unwieldy. This group can be modified on a per step basis
except for calculating stress and strain.

Non-linear controls feature allow the user to modify convergence criteria and
other specialized solution controls. Typically one will not need to change the default
values for this control. This group can be modified on a per step basis.

Damping controls are used to specify damping for the structure in a transient
analysis. The following forms of damping are available for a transient analysis: beta
damping and numerical damping. In addition, element based damping from spring
elements as well as material based damping factors are also available for the transient
structural (ANSYS) analysis.

Analysis data management settings make it possible to save specific solution


files from the transient structural (ANSYS) analysis for other analyses. The default
behavior is to only keep the files required for post processing. These controls can be
used to keep all files created during solution or to create and save the mechanical
APDL application database (db file).

5.1.9 Define the initial conditions

For transient structural (ANSYS) analysis the initial conditions are:

A transient analysis involves loads that are functions of time. The first step in
applying transient loads is to establish initial conditions (that is, the condition at initial
time = 0).

5.12
The default initial condition for a transient structural (ANSYS) analysis is that
the structure is at rest, that is, both initial displacement and initial velocity are zero.
A transient structural (ANSYS) analysis is at rest, by default. The initial conditions
object allows to specified velocity.

In many analyses one or more parts will have an initial known velocity such as
in a drop test, metal forming analysis or kinematic analysis. A constant velocity initial
condition can be specified if required. The constant velocity could be aimed at one or
more parts of the structure. The remaining parts of the structure which are not part of
the horizon will be subjected to the at rest initial condition.

Initial condition can also be specified using step controls, that is, by specifying
multiple steps in a transient analysis and controlling the time integration effects along
with activation/deactivation of loads. This is extremely useful when there are different
parts of a model that have different initial velocities or more complex initial
conditions. Some commonly encountered initial condition is tackled as explained
below:

Initial displacement = 0, Initial velocity 0 for some parts: The non zero
velocity is established by applying small displacements over a small time interval on
the part of the structure where velocity is to be specified.

Specify second steps in the analysis. The first step is used to establish initial
velocity on one or more parts. A small end time (compared to the total span of the
transient analysis) is choosen for the first step. The second step will cover the total
time span.

Specify displacement(s) on one or more faces of the part(s) that will give the
required initial velocity. This requires that one does not have any other boundary
condition on the part that will interfere with rigid body motion of that part. Make sure
that these displacements are ramped from a value of zero.

Deactivate or release the specified displacement load in the second step so that
the part is free to move with the specified initial velocity.

5.13
Initial displacement 0, Initial velocity 0: This is similar to previous case
except that the imposed displacements are the actual values instead of small values.

Specify second steps in the analysis. The first step is used to establish initial
displacement and velocity on one or more parts. A small end time (compared to the
total span of the transient analysis) is choosen for the first step. The second step will
cover the total time span.

The initial displacement(s) on one or more faces of the part(s) is specified, as


needed. This requires that the user does not have any other boundary condition on the
part that will interfere with rigid body motion of that part. Make sure that these
displacements are ramped from a value of zero. Further release the specified
displacement load as explained previously.

Initial Displacement 0, Initial Velocity = 0: This requires the use of two


steps also. The main difference between the above and this scenario is that the
displacement load in the first step is not ramped from zero. Instead it is step applied as
shown below with two or more sub steps to ensure that the velocity is zero at the end
of step 1.

Specify second steps in the analysis. The first step will be used to establish
initial displacement on one or more parts. An end time for the first step is choosen
that together with the initial displacement values will create the necessary initial
velocity.

The initial displacement(s) on one or more faces of the part(s) is specified as


needed. This requires that user does not have any other boundary condition on the part
that will interfere with rigid body motion of that part. Make sure that this load is step
applied, that is, apply the full value of displacements at time = 0 itself and maintain it
throughout the first step.

Deactivate or release the specified displacement load in the second step so that
the part is free to move with the initial displacement values.

5.14
5.1.10 Apply loads and supports

For a transient structural (ANSYS) analysis applicable loads/supports are all


inertial and structural loads, and all structural supports. Joint loads are used to
kinematically drive joints.

For joints in a transient structural (ANSYS) or transient structural (MBD)


analysis, one has to use a joint load object to apply a kinematic driving condition to a
single DOF on a joint object. Joint load objects are applicable to all joint types except
fixed, general, universal, and spherical joints. For translation DOF, the joint load can
apply a displacement, velocity, acceleration, or force. For rotation DOF, the joint load
can apply a rotation, angular velocity, angular acceleration, or moment. The directions
of the DOF are based on the reference coordinate system of the joint and not on the
mobile coordinate system.

A positive joint load will tend to cause the mobile body to move in the
positive DOF direction with respect to the reference body, assuming the mobile body
is free to move. If the mobile body is not free to move then the reference body will
tend to move in the negative DOF direction for the joint load. One way to learn how
the mechanism will behave is to use the configure feature. For the joint with the
applied joint load, dragging the mouse will indicate the nature of the reference/mobile
definition in terms of positive and negative motion.

To apply a joint load: Highlight the transient environment object and insert a
joint load from the right mouse button context menu or from the loads drop down
menu in the environment tool bar as shown Fig. 5.8.

From the joint drop down list in the details view of the joint load, select the
particular joint object that has to be applied to the joint load. Apply a joint load to the
mobile bodies of the joint. It is therefore important to carefully select the reference
and mobile bodies while defining the joint.

5.15
Fig. 5.8 Step for applying the load

The unconstrained DOF has to be selected for applying the joint load, based
on the type of joint. This selection can be made from the DOF drop down list. For
joint types that allow multiple unconstrained DOF, a separate joint load is necessary
to drive each one. Joint load objects that include velocity, acceleration, rotational
velocity or rotational acceleration are not applicable to static structural analyses.

Type of joint load has to be selected from the type drop down list. The list is
filtered with choices of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and force if case of
selection of a translational DOF in step 3. The choices are rotation, rotational velocity,
rotational acceleration, and moment if you selected a rotational DOF.

The magnitude of the joint load type is specified in step 4 as a constant, in


tabular format, or as a function of time using the same procedure as is done for most
loads in the mechanical application.

5.16
5.1.11 Description of solve tool

When performing a nonlinear analysis, one may encounter convergence


difficulties due to a number of reasons. Some examples may be initially open contact
surfaces causing rigid body motion, large load increments causing non-convergence,
material instabilities, or large deformations causing mesh distortion that result in
element shape errors. Dialogue box for setting solve method and result tracker is
shown in Fig. 5.9.

Solution output continuously updates any listing output from the solver and
also specifies useful information related to behavior of the structure during the
analysis.

Fig. 5.9 Step for setting solve method and result tracker

It is possible to view contour plots of Newton-Raphson residuals in a non-


linear static analysis. Such a capability can be useful when user experience
convergence issues in the middle of a step, where the model has non-linearties and a

5.17
large number of contact surfaces. When the solution diverges, identifying regions of
high Newton-Raphson residual forces can provide insight into possible problems.

Result tracker is also a useful tool that permits monitoring of displacement and
energy results as the solution moves ahead. This is typically useful when structures
that go through convergence difficulties owing to buckling instability.

5.1.12 Post processing of analysis results

The analysis type determines the results available for user to examine after
solution. For example, in a structural analysis, one may be interested in maximum
shear results or equivalent stress results, while in a thermal analysis, the user may be
interested in total heat flux or temperature. The result in the mechanical application
section lists various results available for post processing.

In order to add result objects in the mechanical application:

Highlight a solution object in the tree structure.


Select the pertinent result from the solution context toolbar or opt for
the right-mouse click option.
To review results in the mechanical application:
Click on a result object in the tree structure.

After the solution has been obtained, it is possible to review and interpret the
output as explained below:

Contour plots - Displays a contour plot of a result such as stress over


geometry.
Vector Plots - Displays some results in the form of vectors (arrows).
Probes - Displays a result at a single time point, or as a variation over
time, using a table as well as a graph. It is also possible to set up
various probes to review results as shown in Fig. 5.10.
Charts Shows various results over period of time, or displays one
result versus another, for example, force versus displacement.

5.18
Animation - Animates the change of results over geometry along with
deformation of structure.
Stress Tool - to access a design using different failure theories.
Fatigue Tool - to carry out advanced life prediction calculations.
Contact Tool - to review contact zone behavior in complex assemblies.
Beam Tool - to study stresses in line body representations.

Fig. 5.10 Step to set the different probe to review results

5.2 Modeling of four bar planar mechanism

The kinematic and dynamic analysis using MATLAB and ANSYS software
have been carried with different considerations and also tabulated in Table 5.1.

5.19
Table: 5.1 Detail of cases simulated in present study

Sr. Cases considered for


ANSYS MATLAB Importance of study
No. simulation
1 Position analysis No Yes Necessary for dynamic
2 Velocity analysis Yes Yes analysis
3 Acceleration analysis Yes Yes
4. To study effect of No Yes Necessary for joint
transmission angle force and torque
5. Determination of joint force Yes Yes calculation which is
useful for selection of
drives
6. Flexible dynamic analysis of Yes Yes Important for light
coupler weight links, which
affect the mechanism
performance due to
deflection of links
7. To study effect of link Yes No Useful for proper
orientation and cross section selection of link cross
section
8. To study the effect of rocker Yes No Useful for proper
arm length selection of link length
9. To study the effect of coupler Yes No and transmission angle
length
10. To study the effect of links Yes No Important for light
flexibility on coupler strain weight links, which
affect the mechanism
performance due to
deflection of links
11. Flexible dynamic analysis of Yes No Important for light
six bar Watts mechanism weight links, which
affect the mechanism
performance due to
deflection of links

Two type of analysis have been carried out in ANSYS software, (i) Rigid
analysis and (ii) Flexible analysis. The links are connected to each other through
revolute joints. The effect of gravity is taken into consideration. The crank, follower
and coupler are modeled using beam elements. A constant time step was chosen for
the simulation. The strain of coupler at various time intervals is calculated.

Flexible analysis is carried out by considering the coupler as flexible and


remaining links are to be rigid. Geometry has been prepared in Pro-E as per the
specification mention in Table 5.2 and exported to ANSYS of analysis. Meshed

5.20
model of four bar planar mechanism has been presented in Fig. 5. 11. Detail related to
modeling and parameters to be selected for analysis have been mention in Table 5.3.

Table 5.2 Specification of four bar planar mechanism [12, 13]

Parameters Fixed link (1) Crank (2) Coupler (3) Follower (4)
Length (mm) 250 110 280 260
C/S Area (mm2) - 108 40 40
Area moment of
- 160 9 9
Inertia (mm4)
Modulus of Elasticity, E = 7.10 104 MPa
Density = 2770 kg/m3 Crank speed = 32.3 rad/sec

Fig. 5.11 Meshed model of four bar planar mechanism

5.21
Table 5.3 Detail of finite element model of four bar planar mechanism

LINK1 LINK2 LINK3 LINK4


Object Name
(Fix) (Crank) (Coupler) (Rocker)
Definition
Stiffness Rigid Flexible Rigid
Behavior
Reference By Environment
Temperature
Material
Assignment Aluminum Alloy
Nonlinear Yes
Effects
Thermal Strain Yes
Effects
Properties
Volume(mm3) 51571 22451 21903 21103
Mass (kg) 0.14285 0.06219 0.06067 0.058455
Moment of
Inertia Ip1 5.9932 4.4632 3.9738 3.8673
kgmm
Moment of
Inertia 799.36 124.38 784.46 665.22
Ip2kgmm
Moment of
Inertia 802.97 122.08 782.45 663.31
Ip3kgmm
Statistics
Nodes 1 924 1
Elements 1 102 1

Modeling of four bar mechanism has been done for varying different
parameter i.e. cross section and orientation of cross section of coupler, length of the
rocker and coupler, and flexibility of other links to study the effect on the strain
produce in flexible coupler. Therefore, different models have been prepared in Pro-E

5.22
and exported ANSYS for analysis as presented in Figs 5.12-5.18 and detail of model
i.e. number of nodes and element are presented in Tables 5.4-5.8.

Fig. 5.12 Coupler link having rectangular cross section with orientation 1

Fig. 5.13 Coupler link having rectangular cross section with orientation 2

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Figures 5.15 to 5.18 show the rectangular, circular and elliptical cross section
with different orientation of coupler link with cross section area of 40 mm2. Due to
the change in orientation of coupler has changed its moment of inertia from Ixx to Iyy
(rectangular cross section). It is worth to mention here, that in case of Ixx, the width of
coupler is parallel axis of rotation while, it is perpendicular to axis of rotation in case
of Iyy.

Fig. 5.14Coupler link having circular cross section

Fig. 5.15Coupler link having elliptical cross section

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Table 5.4 Detail of FE model for different cross section and orientation of coupler

Object Name For For For For


Fig. 5.12 Fig. 5.13 Fig. 5.14 Fig. 5.15
Definition
Stiffness Behavior Flexible
Reference By Environment
Temperature
Material
Assignment Aluminum Alloy
Nonlinear Effects Yes
Thermal Strain Yes
Effects
Properties
Volume(mm) 21903 22386 22014 14102

Mass (kg) 0.060672 0.06201 0.060979 0.039063


Moment of Inertia 4.1438 2.7188 2.5527
3.9738
Ip1 (kgmm)
Moment of Inertia 800.83 785.77 660.59
784.46
Ip2 (kgmm)
Moment of Inertia 799.84 786.37 661.19
782.45
Ip3 (kgmm)
Statistics
Nodes 924 1595 1858 1151
Elements 102 723 958 504

Table 5.5 Detail of FE model for different length of coupler

Coupler length
260 270 280 290 300
(mm)
Statistics
Nodes 883 883 924 921 921
Elements 96 96 102 100 100

5.25
Fig. 5.16 Meshed model of mechanism with flexible coupler and rocker

Table 5.6 Detail of finite element model with flexible coupler and rocker

Object Name LINK1 LINK2 LINK3 LINK4


Stiffness Behavior Rigid Flexible
Reference Temperature By Environment
Material
Assignment Aluminum Alloy
Nonlinear Effects Yes
Thermal Strain Effects Yes
Statistics
Nodes 1 886 845
Elements 1 98 92

5.26
Fig. 5.17 Meshed model of mechanism with flexible crank and coupler

Table 5.7 Detail of finite element model with flexible crank and coupler

Object Name LINK1 LINK2 LINK3 LINK4


Stiffness Behavior Rigid Flexible Rigid
Reference Temperature By Environment
Material
Assignment Aluminum Alloy
Nonlinear Effects Yes
Thermal Strain Effects Yes
Statistics
Nodes 1 904 924 1
Elements 1 114 102 1

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Fig. 5.18 Meshed model of mechanism with flexible crank, coupler and rocker

Table 5.8 Detail of finite element model with flexible crank, coupler and rocker

Object Name LINK1 LINK2 LINK3 LINK4


Stiffness Behavior Rigid Flexible
Reference Temperature By Environment
Material
Assignment Aluminum Alloy

Nonlinear Effects Yes


Thermal Strain Effects Yes
Statistics
Nodes 1 904 886 845
Elements 1 114 98 92

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5.3 Modeling of Watts mechanism

The strain developed in links of Watts mechanism (six bar planar mechanism)
has been investigated using the ANYSYS. In this analysis two links are to be
considered as flexible with numbers of beam elements.

Specifications of six bar mechanism for analysis are mentioned in Table 5.9
and mesh model of six bar mechanism is shown in Fig. 5.19.

Table 5.9 Specification of six bar mechanism

Parameters Link1 Link 2 Link 3 Link 4 Link 5 Link 6

Length (mm) 250 110 280 260 270 200

C/S Area (mm2) - 108 40 40 45 40

Area moment of
- 160 9 9 10 9
Inertia (mm4)
Modulus of Elasticity, E = 7.1 104 MPa

Density = 2770 kg/m3 Crank speed = 32.3 rad/sec

Fig. 5.19 Meshed model of six bar mechanism

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Table 5.10 Detail of finite model of six bar mechanism

Object Name LINK 1 LINK2 LINK3 LINK4 LINK5 LINK6


Stiffness Behavior Rigid Flexible Rigid Flexible Rigid
Reference Temperature By Environment
Material
Assignment Aluminum Alloy
Nonlinear Effects Yes Yes
Thermal Strain Effects Yes Yes
Properties
Volume (mm) 1.0015e+005 22451 37872 3.9238e+005 26751 28067
Mass (kg) 0.27742 0.06219 0.1049 1.0869 0.074101 0.077746
Moment of Inertia Ip1
227.69 4.4632 6.2678 5411.9 4.6573 5.2736
(kgmm)
Moment of Inertia Ip2
5129.4 124.38 1036.6 2914.7 799.88 839.61
(kgmm)
Moment of Inertia Ip3
5352.4 122.08 1032.5 8308.5 797.21 836.42
(kgmm)

5.30
Object Name LINK 1 LINK2 LINK3 LINK4 LINK5 LINK6
Statistics
Nodes 1 152 1 240 1
Elements 1 42 1 88 1
Mesh Metric None

5.31