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National Service Training Program


Republic Act (R.A.) 9163 also known as National Service Training Program (NSTP)
Act of 2001
Republic Act 9163 is an act establishing the National Service Training Program (NSTP)
for tertiary level students, amending for the purpose Republic Act 7077 and Presidential
Decree 1708 and for other purposes.
R.A. 9163 enacted on January 23, 2002- date of approval and signature of President
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.
What is the guiding principle in establishing the NSTP?

Section 2 of R.A. 9163 affirmed that it is the prime duty of the government to
serve and protect its citizens. In turn, it shall be the responsibility of the citizens to defend
the security of the state and in fulfillment thereof, the government may require each
citizen to render personal, military or civil service.

What are the goals of the State from among the youth in nation building?

In recognizing the vital role of the youth in nation building, the state shall promote
their civic-consciousness and develop their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual and
social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and advance their involvement
in public and civic affairs.

What should the state do to pursue the afore cited goals?

The youth shall be motivated, trained, organized and mobilized in military

training, literacy, civic welfare and other similar endeavors in the service of the nation.

What is the National Service Training Program (NSTP) all about?

It is a program aimed at enhancing civic consciousness and defense

preparedness in the youth by developing the ethic of service and patriotism while
undergoing training in any of its three (3) program components.

What are the three (3) program components of NSTP?

1. Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) is a program institutionalized under

section 38 and 39 of RA 7077 designed to provide military training to tertiary-level
students in order to motivate, train, organize and mobilize them for defense

2. Literacy Training Service (LTS) is a program designed to train students to become

teachers of literacy and numeric skills to school children, out-of school youth and other
segments of society in need of their services.

3. Civic Welfare Training Services (CWTS) refer to the programs or activities

contributory to the general and betterment of life for the members of the community or the
enhancement of its facilities, especially those devoted to improving health, education,
environment, entrepreneurship, safety, recreation and morals of the citizenry.

Are there any institutions not covered by the NSTP?

Philippine Military Academy (PMA), Philippine Merchant Marine Academy ( PMMA),

National Defense College of the Philippines ( NDCP), Philippine Public Safety College
(PPSC) and other schools similar stature, in view of the character of their institutions,
shall not be covered by the NSTP.

National Service Training Program: Introduction. . .

Source: Social Action Office, DLS-College of St. Benilde. NSTP Civic Welfare Training Service Handout

Module 1: Values Clarification

I. Description

This module aims to relate the personal values of the students to the ideas and principles
that he/she needs to understand in order to have a clear picture of the rationale and the
significance of the CWS program.

II. Rationale

The Civic Welfare Service program, as an outreach activity of the DLS-College of St.
Benilde, aims to respond to the mission-vision of the institution which hopes to bring about
socially responsible students. The program hopes to contribute to the general welfare and
betterment of the life for the members of the community or enhancement of its facilities,
especially those devoted to improving community organization, education, health, spirituality,
sports/recreation and the morale of the citizenry.

III. Benildean Core Values

Value is something freely chosen from alternatives and is acted upon. Value is that which
one acts to gain or keep as a quality or principle that is intrinsically valuable or desirable.

Values Clarification is a process by which a person can discover values or principles

through ones behavior, feelings, ideas and important choices one has made.

It is during the early adult stage that an individual can really clarify what decision in
his/her life had a major influence on ones personality. Thus, this process can help one
understand his/her character and the choices that a person will make in the future.

A person is continually developing his/her values: values can never be static but must be
continually re-chosen as a person matures. As a person grows, he/she is continually choosing
values and fashioning his/her hierarchy of values.

Looking at the problems being faced by every Filipino at this point, one can surmise that
oppression, violence, greed, exploitation, environmental degradation and corruption are by-
products of a decrepit and twisted value system. As Filipinos, we should realize that if we want to
see a better Philippines, we should break this culture of corruption and oppression. For any
positive social, economic and political change to begin, every Filipino should take the time to
evaluate his/her personal value system and practice the right values that promotes justice, truth,
honesty and fairness. Now is not time to blame those who came before us, but now is certainly
the time to let the tides of positive change transform this nation and uphold what most of us
consider as undoubtedly true, good, lasting and supports life.

Our Trade tools:

Benildean Core Values -Creative Christian Builders

1. deeply rooted in faith ever conscious of Gods presence steeped in Christian values,
ethics and morals;

2. appreciative of individual uniqueness that of ones own and that of ones neighbor;

3. socially responsible aware of ones actions and committed to the recognition and
development of ones own and the other persons responsibilities and duties;

4. professionally competent - effective in thought and expression, decisive and


5. Filipino in ideals is able to exhibit a strong sense of nationhood; pro-life, pro-people,

pro-Philippines; Nationalistic in ideas and perspective

6. creative and innovative leader

IV. St. La Salles Philosophy

In the words of St. La Salle, the poor have the right to education and a better life: You
are under the obligation to instruct the poor. You should therefore have a great tenderness
towards them and supply their spiritual wants to the best of your ability, looking upon these
children as members of Jesus Christ and as His much loved ones. The faith which animates you
should lead you to respect Jesus Christ in their person and should make you prefer them to the
rich ones of earth since they are the living images of Jesus Christ our Divine Master.

Source: Social Action Office, DLS-College of St. Benilde. NSTP Civic Welfare Training Service Handout
Module 2: Lasallian Spirituality: Seeing with the eyes of faith

I. Description

There are many charisms of Lasallian formation. In this module we shall discover more
about an important Lasallian charism in the context of leadership.
Each has his/her own role to play in leading everyone to the right path. Thus, it is vital to
draw a common ground regarding the concept of leadership with the use of tenets influenced by
the Lasallian concepts of Faith and Zeal.

II. Input

John Baptist de La Salle

- Born - April 30, 1651 in Rheims, northern France, it was the golden age of King
Louis XIV. Rheims is a city which is famous for its wines, cloths, and cathedral.
- Enjoyed watching the parades in honor of St. Remi.
- His father- a judge
- Ordained priest April 9, 1678
- Died- April 7, 1719
- Beatified- February 19, 1888
- Canonized May 24, 1900
- Proclaimed Patron of Christian Teachers May 15, 1950
Source: (I, John Baptist de La Salle and http://www.lasalle.org/English/Heritage/History/hehijbdls2.html

Main Tenets in Lasallian Spirituality

1. Seeing with the eyes of faith trusting in the Divine Providence. To see that the totality of
creation with Christ at its center, is ordered to God and destined through Gods love for
the happiness and salvation of humankind.
2. Doing all things in the eyes of God it is to look upon God as the prime mover and
motive force of our actions, and to act only by the guidance of His divine spirit.
3. Attribute everything to God Accepting the result of ones action with humility and joy. An
attitude of profound trust in Gods saving power and compassionate fidelity to human
beings in the midst of trials and difficulties.

Practical lessons we can learn from St. La Salles leadership style

1. Believing in what others can do (Confidence)

2. Developing human potential (Competence)
3. Humility in accepting greater tasks (Christian)
4. Dedication to serve (Commitment)
5. Resolving conflicts through peaceful means (Christian)
6. Honest in his dealings (Competence)
7. To analyze things objectively (Competence)
8. Listening what others have to say (Compassion)
9. Taking time to evaluate the task at hand (Competence)
10. Treat everyone with justice and fairness (Compassion)

The expression LASALLIAN SPIRITUALITY refers principally to the vision and way of
life generated by St. John Baptist de La Salle and the early Brothers as they struggled to discern
Gods will within the context of their societys needs. (ANIMO LASALLE 2011)

Elements of a Spirituality

John Baptist de La Salles God is a personal God, a God who graciously invites us to an
ever-deepening love relationship in order to bring about our salvation. This God does not force
anyone to act, but invites us to move from one commitment to another

While St. La Salle taught that prayer and daily reflection on the Scriptures are important
paths to a deeper union with God, Lasallian spirituality is founded on the conviction that it is in the
encounter between teacher and student, in and outside of the classroom, that Jesus comes alive
in our hearts To Teach competently and devotedly helps us grow in our relationship with our
students and with God, just as praying helps us deepen our relationship with God and with our


attentiveness and openness to the will of God at all times; seeing God alive in
every person, in every event, and in every situation; and recognizing that these are Gods
ways of calling us in our day-to-day experiences;


An active commitment to serve the human and spiritual needs of the young,
especially the poor, as a natural expression of our faith; giving the best that one is capable of
for the sake of the children and enabling them to become the best that they can be for the
sake of God and the work of Gods reign


a Gospel-based, preferential concern for the poor and the marginalized; a spirit
of compassion that brings with it an active commitment to ease the plight of all those who
are deprived of opportunities to live fully human lives

John Baptist de La Salles God is a personal God, a God who graciously invites us to an ever-
deepening love relationship in order to bring about our salvation. This God does not force anyone
to act, but invites us to move from one commitment to another

De La Salle identified the spirit of faith and zeal as the spirit characteristic of members of the
Insitute. In the Founders thinking, faith and zeal cannot be dissociated: Faith in God is
expressed in the active zeal for the salvation of everyone, especially the poor. Faith without
work will be a disembodied faith.

This spirit is so important that without it one can be considered a dead member of the society.

FAITH and ZEAL are as inseparable as THEORY and PRAXIS for Lasallian spirituality to thrive in

Lasallian Context

1. Faith a Lasallian has a mindset of God.

- Sees with the eyes of faith
- Does all things in view of God
- Attributes all things to God
2. Zeal: Faith in action Lasallians give their best in whatever they do
- singularity of purpose
- self-donation
- imaginative/inventive

Lasallian Spirituality

Faith in Action Lead Initiate Change

Christian, Confident, Committed, Competent, and Compassionate

Module 2: Lasallian Spirituality: Seeing with the eyes of faith . . .
Source: Social Action Office, DLS-College of St. Benilde. NSTP Civic Welfare Training Service Handout
Module 3: Preferential Option for the Poor (A Lasallian Tradition)

I. Description

This module seeks to put into context the social teachings of the Church within the
framework of Lasallian education/ministry. The Church understands that Christ identifies with the
poor and the underprivileged. Now the Church, looks at this truth with a new sense of urgency. In
reading the signs of times Christians see Gods face in the faces of suffering and wounded
people. As a result, fidelity to Christ requires identification with an option for the poor.
The module aims to review the actual situation of poverty and oppression in the
Philippines, and providing an opportunity to evaluate the direction and concerns of the institution
and align them with the true charism of Lasallian institutions.

II. Input

A. Historical Perspective

For a long period of time, the church tried to ignore the plea of those who were
oppressed and were suffering from injustices in society. The church simply ignored poverty for her
mission does not include the concerns of the temporal world. Her mission is to save souls and
that which concerns the afterlife. The church chose to turn her back from the poor, the destitute
and the powerless. But a dramatic change happened in 1891 when Pope Leo XIII wrote his
famous encyclical entitled Rerum Novarum, an encyclical (Papal teaching) that discusses the
labor problems and examines the situations of poor people and workers at the turn of the 20 th

Following the social thought of Rerum Novarum, and other social encyclicals that ensued,
modern day Christians have realized that they play a significant role in society. The social
doctrines of the Church are the applications of the evangelical message of the Gospel on social
realities, manifesting to all men Gods plan. The social teachings of the Church came about due
to the desire of Popes to solve the problems of the poor. Through the encyclicals, the church
presents her dual mission, one directed towards spiritual salvation and the other towards social

B. Significant Points in Churchs Social Teaching

Dignity of the Human person

Belief in the inherent dignity of the human person is the foundation of all Catholic social
teaching. Human life is sacred, and the dignity of the human person is the starting point
for a moral vision for society. This principle is grounded in the idea that the person is
made in the image of God. The person is the clearest reflection of God among us.

Common Good and Community

The human person is both sacred and social. We realize our dignity and rights in relation
to others, within a community. Human beings grow and achieve fulfillment in a

community. Human dignity can only be realized and protected in the context of
relationships with the wider society.

Option for the Poor

The moral test of a society is how it treats its most vulnerable members. The poor have
the most urgent moral claim on the conscience of the nation. We are called to look at the
decision making process on public policy which directly affect the poor. The option for
the poor is not adversarial slogan that pits one group or class against another. Rather it
states that the deprivation and powerlessness of the poor further erodes the capacity of
the whole community into achieving its full potential.

C. Lasallian Perspective

St. John Baptist de la Salle believed that Gods saving grace embraces all people, in
effect no one should be excluded from the benefits of Christian education. In praxis, this points to
a preferential option for the oppressed, the exploited, and the marginalized, those whom St. John
Baptist De La Salle (SJBDLS) understood as those who needed God compassion and love the
Today, we stand by this commitment by making service to the poor an effective priority in
all our educational projects. The plight of the youth at risk is the spur that drives us to greater zeal
and creativity in our educational apostolate. Following the Founder, service to the poor must
enable persons to take hold of their lives and work towards their liberation. (Animo La Salle
2011. Philippine Lasallian Family: 2000 p. 20)
By the poor we mean all those classes of people who are the victims of injustice in
whatever form-the exploited, the marginalized, the oppressed. The poor are not poor because
they want to be poor. They are poor because they are made poor and they are poor because they
are kept poor.
In the first category are the marginalized and exploited poor, all those who are forced to
live outside the economic system or are excluded from participation in it. These include
abandoned children, unemployed, migrant workers, tenant farmers, immigrants. A second
category includes the victims of discriminatory laws and customs aboriginal people, women.
There is the danger all too prevalent among us of giving up all hope of changing the
situation. It is true that individually and alone, there is not much one person can do in any area of
life; but the truth is that we are never intended to live alone.
Solidarity is the reality of human existence and its first hope for survival. We are tightly
bound together across this small village home which no one of us owns, all of us receive co-
equally, each calls home, and all must share. (http://www.stauros.org/notebooks/v11n3a01)
Education is about liberation. Real and perceived care liberates. Learnings must be at
the service of liberation; that is about building character, teaching young people to care and
equipping them with skills needed to embody that care effectively in a violent and divided world.
The founder also believed that service to the poor, which must be directly and promptly
extended, is the essence of Christianity. By doing so, we help the poor liberate themselves from
sin and enable them to achieve their full potentials as human beings. Sauvage and Campos
elaborated on this central teaching of SJBDLS: it is in the poor person himself, in his
wretchedness, in his marks of suffering, that we must perceive the face of Jesus Christ. In order
to be united with Christ in him we must first encounter the poor man himself and accept him as he
is. However, at the same time that this poverty constitutes a revelation of Christ, it also embodies
a hope: the poor man is called to become the child of God which he is perhaps not even
conscious of being. And the Brother is sent to him in order to help him achieve gradually the
sonship that is his by assisting him to free himself from the grip of sin and from the enslavements
which prevent his growing in accordance with the nature of his divine vocation. (St. JBDLS and
Education Today, edited by Dr. Emerita S. Quito, 1992)

D. Poverty . . .

One of five households live below the food poverty threshold.

15 out 100 infants are born underweight.
5 million families live in abject poverty.
60% of Filipino children drop out of school upon reaching the second grade due to poor
brain development.
Infant mortality is at 57 per 1,000 live births.
33% of Filipino children below six are underweight.
Some 2.82 million youth aged 15 to 24 are out of school.
Some 12 million do not have access to safe drinking water.
18 million do not have sanitary toilets.
Around 30 million are threatened with cholera
[Source: Bringing Glad Tidings to the Poor, (Frank Padilla 2000)]

Source: Social Action Office, DLS-College of St. Benilde. NSTP Civic Welfare Training Service Handout
Module 4: An Authentic Human Person
Authentic Christian Humanism

I. Description

Every person has his/her own preconceived notion when asked. What does it mean to
be human? Differences in opinion are even wider depending on the maturity of the individual.
Ideas, needs, desires and wants differ from one person to another, depending on his/her
experience, which is often affected by the values being held by the person.
However, in working with the community, it is vital for everyone to have a common
understanding of the important concepts or principles related to the question of what does it really
mean to be called human.
In this module we shall try to discover various facets about humanity and try to form a
synthesis through a framework that can be acceptable to all. The module would aim to present a
concept of the Human person that would use as a springboard five basic relationships that a
person ordinarily relates with in order to have a sense of completeness.

II. Input

According to Authentic Christian Humanism a person is looked at first and foremost as

someone that ought to be respected. Humanistic philosophy focuses on the actualization of
human potentials, enhancement of human experiences as they would contribute to personal
happiness, social justice, democracy and a peaceful world. A person primarily has 5 essential

A. In relation to HIMSELF

1. Man has intellect and freewill

Everyone is endowed with natural capacities and abilities. Primary among them is the
ability to reason and to decide freely. The person has the ability to grasp, recognize, and
appreciate truth and goodness, and the ability to choose among options: to work for or disregard
truth and goodness.
And because of intellect and freewill, everyone has the unalienable right to freedom of
expression, to information, to education, to assembly, to worship and to collective action.
Therefore, the person has the right to seek truth and act in freedom.
With freedom comes responsibility the duty to respect the rights of fellow humans, and
to be accountable for his/her actions. While one enjoys freedom, one does not have the right to
hamper or curtail the freedom of others. Rather, one should promote the welfare of everyone as
he/she knows for his/her own happiness.

2. Man has dignity

Man is bestowed with dignity. It is not something which can be given or taken away at
will. It cannot be destroyed even if the recognition is being denied.
The person by virtue of his/her dignity is an end and should not be treated as a means or
a tool. This dignity demands absolute respect; therefore it does not allow the manipulation or use
of persons.

3. Man is created in the image and likeness of God

This underlines the freedom and dignity of the human person. In each person, there is a
God-likeness for a biblical truth describes mans life coming from the breath of God. (Gen. 2:7)
The person, therefore, is a co-creator, co-worker and co-savior of God. Creation and
salvation is an on-going process; and we are all a part of it. We are all called to engage ourselves
in the stewardship of Gods creation. In the process, we affirm that the self is not alienated from
the creation process, for it is being created continuously.

4. Man is Unique

No two persons are ever the same. Even twins would have major differences in
personalities. We are genuinely created so that even with past and future generations, no one
can duplicate whatever actions we have in this world. Because of this uniqueness, we can never
put any person in a box and have it labeled or stereotyped. This uniqueness should always be
kept in mind and should be respected. The emphasis of collectivity should not be made at the
expense of the uniqueness and the dignity of each person.

B. In relation to fellow HUMANS

1. Man is a social being

God did not create the person as a solitary being, but wishes him/her to be a social
being. Every individual is oriented towards other people and needs her company. No one came
to this world alone; our being here is made possible through others.
The person fulfills the self with and through others. Through and with help of others, a
persons limitations are filled up and his/her potentials are enriched. Thus, it is imperative that
people cooperate with each other in order to improve the quality of their lives in society.

2. Man is of equal value to other persons

Admittedly, natural inequality exists among people, but God has gifted all men with equal
dignity. We are all equal in basis rights and basic needs on a person-to-person and on a nation-
to-nation level. This equality is not synonymous to uniformity, but equality in the midst of
uniqueness. Thus all persons are to be treated as equals; regardless of status, culture, education,
economics and gender.

C. In relation to SOCIETY

One cannot deny that we owe a lot of what we have in life through the everyday activities
of people within the social structure. We benefit largely from the system that allows us to buy and
sell our goods, produce and services, to enjoy the luxuries of life, to learn new lessons, to earn a
living, to travel on paved streets, to communicate with friends from afar, to move about in a
peaceful environment.

1. Man is an intervenor

Persons create social structures to respond to similar needs and for the welfare of all.
The person affects structures and structures affect the person. Failure to analyze and criticize
existing structures means agreeing with or sanctioning them. Since, people put up the structures
the people have the capacity to maintain, stabilize and strengthen just structures. On the other
hand, people also have the capacity to change and create anew, if the structures were unjust. But
this can only be achieved through persons active participation in the process of change.

Module 4: An Authentic Human Person:Authentic Christian Humanism . . .
D. In relation to the MATERIAL WORLD

The person needs the resources of the material world for his/her personal and social
fulfillment. This is the manifestation of the bodily dimension of the person.
The things of this world are for all people to use, not adored, nor amassed. We are
caretakers of this world not owners of it. Ownership is only a secondary right to use.
All the earths resources must benefit all, now and for the succeeding generations. As
caretakers, we are responsible for the preservation and development of the earth. When the earth
is abused, life itself is put in danger. No one has the right to destroy the earth. No one has the
right to manufacture anything that could destroy it.

E. In relation to GOD

The person needs to relate to a greater being. The materiality and temporality is
transcended because of the touch of the divine in each person. The person has but one final
goal: GOD. He/she is called to know, love and serve God, and to constantly choose that which
would lead him/her to God.
The person constantly and continually tends and goes back to God. This dependency is
not opposed to human freedom; for human freedom takes its meaning and consistency in the
persons relationship with God. It is in doing Gods will that the person truly fulfills his/her freedom.

Module 4: An Authentic Human Person:Authentic Christian Humanism . .
Source: Social Action Office, DLS-College of St. Benilde. NSTP Civic Welfare Training Service Handout
Module 6: Social Analysis and Good Governance

Social Analysis
I. Introduction

The Philippines is currently experiencing a downturn in its economy. The rapid increase in
the prices of oil has created a relative impact in the prices of basic commodities. As the currency
continue to fluctuate, the Filipino peoples cost of living remarkably increased with the decrease of
the pesos purchasing power. Globalization has come to invade every nation, prepared or not, in
which the world is integrated as one market.
Amidst the economic crisis, the pillars of the government have been continuously
questioned in the basis of its integrity. The executive branch has been notably linked to big time
anomalies. The legislative has been divided in dealing with the national concerns and seemed to
be protecting self-interest and party affiliations. Our courts of justice have not been that
convincing in carrying out trials effectively given the backlog in unresolved cases.
The issue of the separation of the government and the church has again entered into the
picture. While the government has been proposing bills on same sex marriage and divorce, the
church has been resistant concerning the morality of the issues.

II. Input

The concept of a person presented us the different relationships that everybody has in his
personal life. In relation to self, we believe that every person has a dignity that requires
unconditional respect whatever is his/her status in the society, regardless of race and religion.
Thus, we are of equal value with others. In relation to a larger society, we intervene with what is
happening, we create structures that will hasten our lives. In relation to the material world, we
were given the right to explore the resources and the right to ownership according to our labor,
but we are above these material things. In relation with the Supreme Being, we are all children of
God as we were all created in His own image and likeness. Through this analysis, we could pose
a question whether what happens now increases or decreases the dignity of a Filipino individual.
Social Analysis is not really a sufficient tool of understanding the complex problem of a
society. Rather, it is a process of putting things into perspectives so that in the long run, in a
persons experiential learning, one could relate each issue to another.

Analysis - is an interpretation of an observation.

- Its a process of breaking up a whole system into parts to find their nature.

Social Analysis

- can be defined an effort to obtain a more complex picture of a social situation by

exploring its historical and structural relationships.
- a tool to help us a grasp the reality
- is a systematic study of economic, social, political, cultural, and religious situation
of any given milieu ( location/environment).

Approaches in Social Analysis

1. Historical analyzing past events

- is a study of the changes of a social system through time.

2. Conjunctural Analysis is an attempt to examine a societys situation using an
important moment in its recent history as a reference point for discussion.

3. Class understanding and looking into the different social structures or classifications;
ex. rich-average-poor

4. Gender examining the status of men and women in society

5. Environment understanding the condition of our resources/ surroundings

General Recommendation

1. Growth

The Philippine economy has to grow in order for it to develop. Without growth,
there is nothing to be distributed among the people. Without increasing the productive
capability of the country, our economy will stagnate. Thus, growth is a necessary (but not
sufficient) condition for genuine development.

2. Efficiency

The economy must be able to utilize resources with very minimal waste. We must
be able to tap all our creative potentials such that we are able to use the most
appropriate technologies in our industries. Fair competition enhances the efficiency of
firms in the market. Monopolies and cartels are the most inefficient forms of industrial

3. Sustainability

We have limited resources and their proper use must be guided by the principles
of sustainable development. This has great consequences with regard to the exploitation
of our natural resources and the protection of our environment. Genuine development
must be sustainable, it must improve the quality of life of the people without destroying
the environments natural productive capacity.

4. Equity

Growth, efficiency and sustainability are useless without the equity component.
Without equity, any form of human resource development is meaningless. Without equity,
the domestic market will not expand markedly. Without equity, there will never be
economic and political stability.


It is not yet a game over situation. It is not a hopeless case. There are things that we
can do as individuals to contribute to the betterment of the society. In answering the signs of the
times, everybody plays a vital role in nation building, rebuilding and for social transformation.

Module 6: Social Analysis. . .
Source: Social Action Office, DLS-College of St. Benilde. NSTP Civic Welfare Training Service Handout
Good Citizenship for Good Governance
I. Introduction

A countrys success as lies heavily dependent on the efficiency of its leaders, but the
efficiency of the leaders depends just as much on their followers disposition to be governed. The
governments policies, no matter how spotless and impeccable these may be, are useless without
the cooperation of its citizens. Cooperation of citizens does not only entail submission. More than
that, cooperation warrants the citizens active participation in the conceptualization, formulation,
and execution of methods that are supposed to alleviate the nations current status.

However, being good citizens does not end with abiding with the governments laws and
policies. It also entails being vigilant and critical, and, most of all, becoming good examples to
the next generation. Once a stable foundation of values has been set, there will be a greater
chance of having a population that will meet the ultimate need of a nation striving for success a
sustainable approach of getting to where we want to go.

II. Input

1. The value of UNITY

Unity is about sharing a common vision and working towards the same dream of social
justice, prosperity, and happiness.
A sense of unity will lead our people to feel each others needs and deepest sentiments
and will lead them to share in the fruits of each others progress.
In the fight against poverty, graft and corruption, injustice, decadent values, and violence,
unity is the key through which we can triumph over all these. There is indeed strength in
numbers. If we are together to really work sincerely towards making ourselves good
citizens, how can such evil elements thrive in our society? But this fight is won by the
collective effort and resolve of our people. We should not allow one of our members to fail
or falter because we view the failure or success of one of our countrymen as that of our
Solidarity in the service of humanity as opposed to crab mentality.

2. The value of EQUALITY

All men are created equal, gifted with reason and freewill
Every person should be given equal opportunity to develop himself, be a better person,
and pursue happiness in his lifetime.
No man is over and above the law. Justice should be blind when it meets out justice.
The value of equality should move every citizen to look after and take care for the less
fortunate and the oppressed.
As we come from the same Maker, we share in the same destiny to live happily, in dignity,
in peace and harmony.
Respect for equality means respect for others in the same light that we want them to
respect us.


Implication of the following social issues: 1. basic obedience of traffic rules and
regulations, 2. water and electricity pilferages in household, 3. tax evasion, 4. vote buying
and other acts of electoral fraud.
The law is not meant to curtail freedom; it is meant to ensure that every citizen acts
responsibly while exercising freedom.
The law provides equality; it protects the weak and makes sure that those who are strong
do not abuse their strength in expense of those who are not.
The nature of laws is to provide sanctions for the irresponsible practice of freedom.
The law does not warrant slavery but order.
We should not fear the law; we should love the benefit it has on us and on our loved
Our own respect for the law and government should stem from the ultimate law of the
heart: that of mutual respect, charity and love for others. Respect from the law means
respect for each other.

III. Synthesis

How the young generation acts and thinks today shows us a clear picture of how the
nation will move in the future. What the young people learn now will be what they will live when
they grow up. Being a citizen starts from the moment we were born. Our duties as citizens
multiply as we grow older; consequently, our benefits as citizens progress in the same way
provided that we have lived up to our end of the bargain. The government cannot do it alone. No
act will ever be small enough not to affect us in the future so let us make each move count.


Modules on Good Citizenship Values. The Institution Building Team. EDSA People Power Commission. 2004

Module 6: Social Analysis and Good Governance. . .
Source: Social Action Office, DLS-College of St. Benilde. NSTP Civic Welfare Training Service Handout
Module 7: Process of Change and Active Non-Violence

Process of Change
I. Introduction

The society exhibits varied human conditions. It provides us with a laboratory of

experiences, values and resources that ascertain our kind of life. Such state of life is accepted,
rejected or modified. Thus, the men and women have the capacity to either change or keep their
prevailing state of life.
The students as a sector are gifted with opportunities, values and resources, which can
be utilized to change the present condition. Should it aspire for a better society, the student sector
is capable of initiating positive change.
For decades, several means have been tried to effect social reforms. People tried to
explain the dynamics of change. They continue to search for formula in making a better society.
Here, the module offers four approaches to change. These approaches are based on experiences
and on the relative analysis of social conditions.

II. Input:

1. Welfare Approach
2. Project Development/ Modernization Approach
3. Participatory/ Liberationist Approach
4. Sustainable Development

(Note: These approaches are explained and expounded in the next page- APPROACHES TO

III. Synthesis

Christian love of neighbor and justice cannot be separated. Love implies absolute
demand for justice; recognition of the dignity and rights of ones neighbors. Justice attains its
fullness of love.
We are a social creation that developed through our relations with others. Thus,
advancement of ourselves is linked with the advancement of society. Our past high and low
moments in life affect our present and future choices. We need to be conscious of the way we
make decisions in life for they would certainly affect others.

Source: Social Action Office, DLS-College of St. Benilde. NSTP Civic Welfare Training Service Handout
Active Non-Violence

Active Non-Violence

Violence as defined is a force that is injurious to the quality of human life in its various
manifestations. It diminishes, violates and destroys human life. One can distinguish
personal, structural and psychological violence.
A societal framework founded on violence could never lead to a sustainable life.
Nonviolent social empowerment is about people regaining their own power to creativity
shape their lives to influence the course of events around them against oppression and
exclusion, for democratic participation, peace and human rights.
Nonviolent power is not about domination: it is the power to be and to do.

Three different responses to Violence

Many governments resort to repression and violence to stay in power. When this
happens, the people may choose among three different reactions.

1. Passivity
2. Counter violence
3. ANV ( Alay-Dangal )

Among the three, Alay-Dangal breaks the spiral of violence.

Definition of Alay-Dangal

A system of personal, social and international change aimed at liberating the oppressed
and the oppressor through persuasion, moral pressure, and manifold forms of non-violent
resistance. It refuses use of counter violence and builds upon the conviction that the willingness
to accept oneself the consequences of non-violent action is both liberating and effective and
mobilizes local, national and international solidarity.

Bases of Alay-Dangal

a. Humanistic Basis

Absolute respect for the dignity of the individual.

Unconditional regard for life. The right to life is the most basic of all rights,
because all other lose meaning without life. Therefore, to destroy life of another,
which is not ours anyway, is to destroy that other totally.
Has a conscience that enables him to distinguish right from wrong.

b. Christian Basis

The person is created according to the image and likeness of God. He/She is
also called to live a life of grace and to build His Kingdom through Christ. (Gen.
1:26-31, Eph. 1:3-10)
Christ is the Truth, the Way, and the Life.

Church Teachings
1. Gaudium Et Spes (Pastoral constitution of the Church in the Modern
World): supports non-violence and conscientious objections.
2. Populorium Progressio (The Development of People): With situations
of injustice, recourse to violence is a grave temptation. Present
situation must be fought against and overcome. Caution against
revolutions; greater misery may result.
3. Evangelii Nuntiandi (Evangelization in Modern World): The Church
cannot accept violence.

c. Political Basis

Political power is the capacity to control the behavior of others, directly or


1. Nature of Power

a. Monolith Theory of Power

Power as self-perpetrating, durable, not quickly controlled or destroyed. It comes
solely from the government. People depend on the goodwill, decisions and support of
their government. Thus, they have no choice but to stay.

b. Pluralist Theory of Power

Power as fragile. The government depends upon the goodwill, decisions and support
of the people. If the people withhold their support from the government, it loses

2. Source of Power

Authority the right to command and direct, to be heard or obeyed by others;

voluntarily accepted by the people, and therefore existing without the imposition
of sanctions.
Human Resources number of people/groups that obey and assist the ruler.
Skills and Knowledge the talents and abilities of those who obey and how
these talents and abilities respond to the rulers needs.
Psychological/Ideological Factors attitudes towards submission/obedience
Material Resources the degree to which the ruler controls property, natural
resources, financial resources, the economic system, etc.
Sanctions the type and extent of sanctions at his disposal, both for use against
his own subjects and in conflicts with other rulers.

Principles of Alay-Dangal

a. The aim must be objectively just.

b. It should be a means consistent with its end. Persons should not be used as mere means
to an end.
c. It emphasizes process or gradual transformation; henceforth, it calls for a coherent
perseverant and continuing commitment until the end is obtained. Therefore, there is a
need for a strategy of action.
d. It evolves creative ways of resolving conflict
e. It is collective, for its power and effectivity lie in unity

Some Guidelines

a. Alay-Dangal is a way of life that demands a continuing commitment.

b. It shares from the person and grows towards united action.
c. It adheres to democratic processes.
d. It never condones killing, harming, and using people.
e. It underscores united action.
f. It is relentless in its struggle to work for the rightful end.
Source: Social Action Office, DLS-College of St. Benilde. NSTP Civic Welfare Training Service Handout
Module 8: Sustainable Development

I. Introduction:

Socio-economic and political growth is always a dream of any society. But this growth
sometimes comes across of compromising our environment. Thats why the concept of
sustainable development emerged.

What is sustainable development?

The World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland

Commission) defined sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." In other
words, development is essential to satisfy human needs and improve the quality of human life.
At the same time, development must be based on the efficient and environmentally responsible
use of all of society's scarce resources - natural, human, and economic.
(Source: http://www.sdinfo.gc.ca/what_is_sd/index_e.cfm)

A commitment to meet the needs of present and future generations has various
implications. Meeting the needs of the present means satisfying:

1) Economic needsincluding access to an adequate livelihood or productive assets;

also economic security when unemployed, ill, disabled or otherwise unable to secure a livelihood.

2) Social, cultural, and health needsincluding a shelter which is healthy, safe,

affordable, and secure, within a neighborhood with provision for piped water, drainage, transport,
health care, education, child development, and protection from environmental hazards. Services
must meet the specific needs of children and of adults responsible for children (mostly women).
Achieving this implies a more equitable distribution of income between nations and, in most
cases, within nations.

3) Political needsincluding freedom to participate in national and local politics and in

decisions regarding the management and development of ones home and neighbourhood, within
a broader framework that ensures respect for civil and political rights and the implementation of
environmental legislation.

Meeting such needs without undermining the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs means:

1) Minimizing use or waste of non-renewable resourcesincluding minimizing the

consumption of fossil fuels and substituting with renewable sources where feasible. Also,
minimizing the waste of scarce mineral resources (by reducing use, reusing, recycling, and

2) Sustainable use of renewable resourcesincluding using freshwater, soils, and forests

in ways that ensure a natural rate of recharge.

3) Keeping within the absorptive capacity of local and global sinks for wastesincluding
the capacity of rivers to break down biodegradable wastes as well as the capacity of global
environmental systems, such as climate, to absorb greenhouse gases.

( Source: http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_781534285/Sustainable_Development.html)

II. Philippine Agenda 21

Philippine Agenda 21 is the sustainable development program of the country and it was
conceptualized during the time of President Fidel Ramos.

The image of society that guides Philippine Agenda 21 characterizes a significant number
of modern societies today, some of which recognize that the key actors in any critical and
principled partnership or conflict regarding sustainable development are the government,
business, and civil society (Figure 2). To humanize development, there must be an interplay of
market forces, state intervention, and civil society participation.

Business is the key actor in the realm of the economy where the central social concern
and process is the mutually beneficial production and distribution of goods and services to meet
the physical needs of human beings. Government is the key actor in the realm of polity where
the central social concern and process is participatory, democratic governance and rule making to
secure the human rights of all citizens including justice and equity. Civil society is the key actor
in realm of culture where the central social concern and process is the development of the social
and spiritual capacities of human beings in order, among others, to advance the frontiers of
knowledge, to achieve clarity and coherence of values and to advocate the public interest. The
three key actors in sustainable development can simply be viewed as the most organized and
significant representatives of the prevailing social processes in each of the three essential
dimensions of society.

The Philippine Agenda 21 approach adheres to the following principles of sustainable


1. Primacy of Developing Full Human Potential. People are at the core of development

2. Holistic Science and Appropriate Technology. The search for solutions to the complex
milieu of development problems has to be undertaken with the perspective that situates specific
problems in the larger social and ecological context. This approach facilitates the development
and use of appropriate technology.

3. Cultural, Moral and Spiritual Sensitivity. Nurturing the inherent strengths of local and
indigenous knowledge, practices and beliefs while respecting the cultural diversity, moral norms
and spiritual essence of Filipino society.

4. Self-determination. Respecting the right and relying on the inherent capacity of the country
and its peoples to decide on the course of their own development.

5. National Sovereignty. Self-determination at the national level where the norms of society and
the specifics of the local ecology inform national governance. Includes human and environmental
security as well as achieving and ensuring security and self-reliance in basic staple foods.
Recognizing the crucial role of farmers and fisherfolk in providing for the nutritional needs of the

6. Gender sensitivity. Recognizing the important and complementary roles and the
empowerment of both men and women in development.

7. Peace, Order And National Unity. Securing the right of all to a peaceful and secure existence.

8. Social Justice, Inter-, Intra-Generational and Spatial Equity. Ensuring social cohesion and
harmony through equitable distribution of resources and providing the various sectors of society
with equal access to development opportunities and benefits today and in the future.

9. Participatory democracy. Ensuring the participation and empowerment of all sectors of

society in development decision-making and processes and to operationalize intersectoral and
multisectoral consensus.

10. Institutional viability. Recognizing that sustainable development is a shared, collective and
indivisible responsibility which calls for institutional structures that are built around the spirit of
solidarity, convergence and partnership between and among different stakeholders.

11. Viable, sound and broad-based economic development. Development founded on a
stable economy where the benefits of economic progress are equitably shared across ages,
communities, gender, social classes, ethnicities, geographical units and across generations.

12. Sustainable population. Achieving a sustainable population level, structure and distribution
while taking cognizance of the limited carrying capacity of nature and the interweaving forces of
population, culture, resources, environment and development.

13. Ecological soundness. Recognizing nature as our common heritage and thus respecting the
limited carrying capacity and integrity of nature in the development process to ensure the right of
present and future generations to this heritage.

14. Biogeographical Equity and Community-Based Resource Management. Recognizing

that since communities residing within or most proximate to an ecosystem of a bio-geographic
region will be the ones to most directly and immediately feel the positive and negative impacts on
that ecosystem, they should be given prior claim to the development decisions affecting that
ecosystem including management of the resources. To ensure biogeographic equity, other
affected communities should be involved in such decisions.

15. Global Cooperation. Building upon and contributing to the diverse capacities of individual
( Source: http://www.cadi.ph/pa21_principles_of_unity.htm)

III. Conclusion:

Sustainable Development (SD) is a significant topic nowadays. It is important and

necessary to incorporate the principles of SD into the realm of socio-economic and political arena
because the benefits of which if taken properly will help solve the enormous problems not only of
our country but the whole world.
SD is not only concerned in addressing the issues of the environment but it encompasses
and touches also the dynamics of political, social and economic life of a community or nation.
Here we can see a holistic methodology in the form of a trinitarian approach. This means that the
key actors are not only coming from the government but also the process of socio-economic and
political development must be shared by the business and civil society respectively. In this regard,
problems in the different areas whether political, economic or social in nature can be solved by
helping one another and this approach creates an impact because the work is shared by
everyone. Cooperation and unity is a vital component in sustainable development especially in
Philippine Agenda 21.
Moreover, the idea of Sustainable Development and the different programs and principles
under the Agenda 21 is not an instant solution to our problems rather they are processes that
guides our action whether we are in our community, in the market or in the government.
Lastly, the success of the programs and aspirations of SD will really depend on how
UNITED we are in our actions towards our common goal sustained development.

Center for Alternative Development Initiatives (2005). PA 21 principles of unity.

Retrieved May 24, 2005, from http://www.cadi.ph/pa21_principles_of_unity.htm

Encarta (2005). Sustainable development. Retrieved May 24, 2005, from


"Sustainable Development," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005
http://uk.encarta.msn.com 1997-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Government of Canda (n.d.). What is sustainable development? Retrieved May 24, 2005,

from http://www.sdinfo.gc.ca/what_is_sd/index_e.cfm

Source: Social Action Office, DLS-College of St. Benilde. NSTP Civic Welfare Training Service Handout

Module 9: The Role of Students in Social Transformation

I. Introduction

For years, the student sector has proven to have significantly influenced the course of our
history. During the martial rule, the students showed its force. And up to these days, the student
sectors contribution during the victorious event of EDSA could not be ignored. They comprise a
large part of the population and thus, play a vital role in society. They possess certain strengths
that are necessary in the process of change. They are privileged that they can considerably
generate influence on other sectors; however, they can no longer identify themselves with the
oppressed. Thus, this module will help redefine the role of students in the process of change
within the context of their faith and experience of Gods presence.

II. Input

What can students do in the process of change?

Catalyst or support change

Articulate can understand and articulate problems without making decisions for
themselves or preempting their primary role in society.
Concerned can raise the peoples concern inside the campus and get support
Knowledgeable can go to people and facilitate their education and formation

Primary Agent of Change

Full of energy
Aggressive can apply pressure for change
Critical can advocate relevant issues
Decisive can participate in decision-making and implementation of policies in the
educational system

Social Development Worker


~ Students should view education as a call to service and not just a passport to privilege, in
accordance with the social cost and the teaching of the scripture (When a man has had a
great deal given him, a great deal will be demanded of him. Luke 12:48)

~ Students must be equipped with the knowledge, skills and orientation they need to be
socially responsible.

Build a Counter Culture

Effective- can influence other students and raise their consciousness

can be CONSISTENT in witnessing to the values they espouse
ADVOCATE can advocate the gospel values of social justice, simplicity, truth and
~ This role must be reflected in school and within the communities

Profile of the Studentry

A. Strengths

They are at the stage when individuals are psychologically disposed to rebel and to
question so many things about themselves and the world around them.
More open to new ideas, unlike old people who have already formed deep rooted biases.
Have acquired some measure of skill and comprehension, conceptualization and
communication through schooling. They possess the ability to think and articulate their
thoughts and actual experiences.
Naturally organized, have more time to spare for other non-academic involvement
Have relatively easier access to resources finances, facilities, resource persons,
expertise, etc.
Willing to take risks and to give unconditional commitment for a cause, even to one which
may oppose their familys immediate interests because generally, they have no firmly-
entrenched economic or class interests yet.

B. Weaknesses

Have strong emotional dependencies on significant others which could hinder them from
exploring other forms of personal involvement.
Tend to over-emphasized intellectual training to the point of sacrificing experience. They
become dogmatic and rigid articulate but inconsistent because they have not
internalized many of the things they have learned.
Generally, students give seasonal commitment and usually their involvement is isolated
from the mainstream of society.
Can misuse resources that are readily available at their disposal splurge on senseless

Channels of Socio-Political Involvement

Students socio-political involvement must take place both within the school and in the
larger society. To confine efforts at change to the school is to risk aimlessness and isolation from
the rest of society; to neglect the issues of school and education while tackling issues of the
larger society is to risk a poorly internalized vision of social change.
The three channels of students socio-political involvement are presented here:

A. Community Work

Student community work consists of direct assistance to community or sectoral peoples

organizations acting on local issues. The most common type of student involvement in community
is parallel i.e. done by extra-curricular socially oriented student groups on the students own
time. Other types are intervening, or done during long school breaks ( e.g. summer work camps

in rural villages or Summer of Service Program); interwoven or integrated into the curriculum or a
specific course and subsequent or done after graduation from college (e.g. Lasallian Volunteer
Formation Program).
The work may be general or directed towards the development of general skills in social
change work- for instance, tutorials, catechism, literacy training or the building of basic Christian
communities. Or it may be related to the students own academic program for instance,
paralegal work for law students, community-based health programs for medical students,
participatory research for social science students.
Student community work, particularly in base-group building, contributes to the whole
effort to build a peoples movement for social transformation. For the students themselves, this
involvement provides a venue for developing a more concrete analysis of the social situation,
rooted in actual experience. Close contact with the poor translates an abstract social
responsibility into a deep personal commitment to flesh-and-blood people.
The work can also serve as training for the development of skills useful anywhere, but
most especially in professional social change work after graduation. Significantly, community
work is also an important factor in the students personal growth, nurturing their confidence in
themselves and a sense of meaningful direction and contribution to society. This increased
student morale and the rich learning resources provided by any poor community also benefit the
school. Student community work probably provides the best model yet for a genuinely liberating

B. Issue Advocacy

Issue advocacy is a natural extension of community work, enabling students to share

their learning and propagate their convictions among other students and in the larger society. It is
also the most direct way of pressuring for change in the school and the educational system when
decision making structures do not allow for substantial participation.
Issue advocacy contributes to the movement for national transformation by publicizing
community, sectoral and national issues, propagating the peoples perspective, building solidarity
with sympathetic sectors of the general public, and compelling the authorities concerned to take
public sentiment into serious consideration. For the students it allows a development of skills in
empirical study, organization and the advocacy of convictions. Advocacy that deals with education
issues strengthens student base group formation and enables the students to develop confidence
in their own collective power, besides opening the way for the transformation of formal education.

C. Direct Political Action

Direction political action refers to the harnessing of organizational power for participation
in decision and policy-making, whether on the national, community or school level. It may be seen
as the next logical step to issue advocacy.
Direct political action begins with the strengthening of student base groups, usually those
formed through issue advocacy and community involvement. At a certain level of political
consciousness and organizational discipline, these groups can become the mass base for
movement loosely united by common issues and proposed concrete programs, philosophies and
A more structured organization is the student party, which acts directly to affect campus
politics with the primary responsibility of protecting students rights and welfare. Or the formation
of alliances with students group from other schools which can be considered a higher level of
direct political action and which can become fully integrated into the national movement got social
change through coalitions with other sectoral alliances on national concerns. (Social
Development Index).

III. Synthesis

Our experiences in life affect our present and future choices. We need to be conscious of
our process in making significant decisions for they point to us the consequent direction in our

Concepts and Principles of Volunteering

I. Introduction

Volunteering takes many forms and meanings in different settings. It is strongly influenced by the
history, politics, religion and culture of a region. What may be seen as volunteering in one country
may be dismissed as low-paid or labor intensive work in another. And yet, despite the wide variety
of understandings, it is possible to identify some core characteristics of what constitutes a
voluntary activity.

II. Input

A. Volunteerism in the Philippine Context

Volunteerism in the Philippine context is a crucial tradition called bayanihan or helping

one another. Bayanihan is a Tagalog word rooted in the word bayani or hero, hence, the word
means a heroic act of service or sacrifice. Other schools of thought believe that it probably came
from the word bayan which literally means town but metaphorically refers to a community of
persons. Bayanihan could refer to a community undertaking in this sense.

Bayanihan is a summary of other Filipino social and moral virtues which include-

Pakikisama to be concerned, to be supportive

Pakikipagkapwa harmony with others
Pakikiramay sympathize, condole, share suffering
Pakikitungo act humbly, concede, deal with someone properly
Hiya- painful feeling of having done something wrong; embarrassment; shame
Dangal - social honor
Utang na loob debt of gratitude
Paggalang respect
( The Volunteer: Centennial Edition. Quezon City:PNVSCA, 1998)

B. Volunteerism in the Lasallian Context

Saint John Baptist De La Salle, founder of the congregation called Brothers of the
Christian Schools, was born rich but lived poor. Like an ordinary man, he lent his ears and heart
to the people, the underprivileged mainly, as he prayed for Gods will
Teaching the poor became De La Salles Life work. At first, mostly in association with
Adrian Nyel, a layman who had come to Rheims, France to establish a charity school for boys.
De La Salle opened other schools for the poor. Amid objections from relatives and friends, De La
Salle formed a community of teachers to serve the poor and gave away his worldly possessions
to live like the poor.
A practical innovator, De La Salle studied and found effective ways to educate the poor.
He gave up individual tutoring and formed groups of pupils to be taught simultaneously, and

undertook individual monitoring of student progress. He also conducted classes in the native
language of the pupils in France- French instead of traditional Latin.
For De La Salle, improving quality education for the poor also meant fighting crime, sin
and destruction spawned by poverty, ignorance and oppression. In accomplishing his mission, De
La Salle always firmly believed that God was with him. ( DLS-CSB Studetn Handbook, SY 98-99:
C. Characteristics of Volunteering:

1. The activity should not be undertaken primarily for financial reward, although the
reimbursement of expenses and some token payment may be allowed.
2. The activity should be undertaken voluntarily, according to an individuals own free will.
3. Volunteering is based on personal motivation and choices freely taken.
4. Volunteering is a way of furthering active citizenship and community involvement.
5. Volunteering takes the form of individual or group activities generally carried out within
the framework of an organization.
6. Volunteering enhances human potential and quality of daily life, building up human
7. Volunteering provides answers for the great challenges of our time, striving for a better
and a more peaceful world.
8. Volunteering contributes to the vitality of economic life even creating jobs and new
9. The activity should be of benefit to someone other than the volunteer, or to society at
large, although it is recognized that volunteering brings significant benefits to the
volunteer as well.

D. Four Different Types of Volunteer Activity

Mutual aid or self-help

Philanthropy or service to others
Participation or civic engagement
Advocacy or campaigning
( Expert Working Group Meeting on Volunteering and Social Development, New York, November

E. Two Main Types of Volunteering

a. Unmanaged volunteering the spontaneous and sporadic helping that takes place
between friends and neighbors for example, child care, running errands and loaning
equipment or in response to natural or man-made disasters. It is the dominant form of
volunteering in many cultures.
b. Managed volunteering takes place through organizations in the non-profit, public and
private sectors and tends to be more organized and regular.

F. Key Concepts and Principles of Volunteering


is a non-free based personal service directed towards social change and empowerment
is value-driven, centering on commitment to social change, service for public interest
and to people in need, a means to humanize technology and a bridge to connect
people, sectors ad countries.
is rooted in the countrys culture
Volunteers are key actors in volunteer organization and their nurturance is a crucial
factor in sustaining volunteer work and volunteer organizations
(Source: Training Manual On Volunteer Management. Philippine Association for Volunteer Effort.)

G. Some Motivations for Volunteering ( Why do people Volunteer?)

1. To enrich and give new meaning to life

2. To demonstrate love for others
3. To work for social change
4. To develop leadership skills
5. To improve your community
6. To experience new challenges

H. The Benefits of Volunteering

Volunteering makes an important economic contribution to society

Volunteering is a key means by which individuals articulate their engagement as citizens,
and by building trust and reciprocity among citizens volunteering contributes to a more
cohesive, stable society.
Volunteering helps to integrate into society people who are excluded or marginalized
Volunteering plays a role in promoting full employment

Module 9: The Role of Students in Social Transformation
Source: Social Action Office, DLS-College of St. Benilde. NSTP Civic Welfare Training Service Handout
Module 10: Community Development and Management

I. Community Development Framework

Economic Social
low level of living Personalized politics
low level of productivity Community disorganization
poor marketing system Poor health conditions
oppressive tenurial Low level of education
arrangements/ practices Culture of silence and poverty
unemployment/ Powerlessness of the majority
underemployment Government politics
Misdistribution of income and


Lack/limited support facilities

for socio-economic
Ecological imbalance

II. Development of People Centered Strategy for Empowerment:

Community or People Empowerment is a process and an outcome. It is a continuing

process of building leadership capabilities among the people, uplifting their self esteem and
developing self reliance within the community. Through this, they are able to control the
community resources, utilize them for their own benefit, and make decisions on matters affecting
their lives.

Features of an Empowered Community:

Increased community control over resources, decisions and processes;
Existence of viable community institutions and organizations;
Increased political participation;
Capacity to plan, take initiatives and shoulder maintenance responsibilities;
Increased self-reliance and positive self-concept; and,
Pool of capable and committed community leaders.

III. Integral Development:

The value of integral development is that it is concerned with improving the different
dimensions of community life social, political, economic, environmental, cultural and spiritual. Its
focus is to enhance the potential of the people for action so that they can direct their own
Achieving integral development implies improvement in the quality of life and standard of
living. This means that the different dimensions of community life have the following

1. Social:

Access to basic services (health nutrition, water and sanitation, basic clothing, housing,
education, and psychological requirements)

2. Political:

Peoples participation in community organizations;

People-initiated development projects based on individual and community needs;
Presence of viable community based organizations; and,
Pool of strong capable and committed community leaders.

3. Economic:

Access and control of capital resources for production (e.g. cash, farmland, irrigation,
farm inputs, roads);
Increased productivity and equitable distribution of benefits;
Responsive and appropriate economic systems; and,
Enough jobs/employment opportunities.

4. Environmental:

Interdependence between human beings and nature;

Environment-friendly technology; and,
Community plan for ecological protection and preservation.

5. Cultural:

Indigenous culture is utilized for community development; and,

Culture-based community-development processes.

6. Spiritual:

Mission to love or do something worthwhile for others, especially among the poorest of
the poor;
Discernment as a way of life; and,
Values-centered developmental processes.

IV. Community Development and Management Process:

A. Community Organizing a problem solving process where the community is
empowered with knowledge and skills to identify and prioritize its needs and problems,
harness its resources to deal with these problems and take action collectively.

1. Community Organizer is an outsider or a member of a community who facilitates

together with the community
2. Attributes of a Community Organizer:
Superiority vs Respect
Desire to learn from them/honest curiosity
Listen and Learn
Recognition and acceptance of community members as colleagues
Openness and flexibility to accommodate community members agenda
Conscious of non-verbal cues, seating arrangements, and practices open
Able to respect and show interest for what they show and say
3. Roles of a Community Organizer:
a. Information Carrier
b. Friendly Listener
c. Motivator
d. Process Facilitator
e. Agency Linker
f. Ability Builder of People
g. Teacher of Skills
h. Work Helper
i. Program Administrator
j. Group Worker
k. Peacekeeper
l. Promoter
m. Local Leader
n. Counselor
o. Protector
p. Institution Builder


a. How much and when community organizer must lead?

b. How much decision making and other factors of community life must the community
organizer leave to the initiative of the people?
c. How much must the Community Organizer involve him/herself in the planning and
management of the community to avoid lack of direction?
d. How much must the community organizer leave unstructured?
e. Authoritarianism vs. Dialogical approach

Factors Affecting Peoples Participation:

a. Tenure status
b. Attendance in training services
c. Membership in local based organizations
d. Values orientation of respondents
e. Leadership styles of local leaders.

B. Situational Analysis: a collective process of examining the prevailing social, political,
economic, environmental, cultural conditions and spiritual condition of a given community.
It is a preparatory step to the actual planning process.

1. Roles of Community Leaders in Situational Analysis:

a. Guide the community members in determining how they can improve
in the prevailing situation to achieve community goals;
b. Enable the community to collectively understand and define their
own needs and problems ; and,
c. Facilitate the process of identifying change strategies and resources,
and making decisions on how to implement the identified solutions.
2. Situational Analysis Team (SAT)
The SAT is an expression of community based leadership and empowerment. Its
formation aims to broaden the leadership structure and participation of
community members in the situational analysis process.

a. Considerations in the SAT Composition:

Gender-based representation (equal number of men and
Sector based representation (priority sectors e.g. farmers,
fisher folks, youth, etc.); and,
Area-based representation (barangay, sitio or purok levels)

b. Functions of the SAT:

Facilitate the different steps in Situational Analysis;
Coordinate related activities;
Draw out the participation of each community member;
Supervise the day-to-day implementation of the Situational
Analysis process;
Document the process.

c. After the Community Profile has been finalized and disseminated:

The SAT should take time to reflect on the Situational
Process undertaken ( the over-all leader facilitates the
reflection process).

C. Situational Analysis Process:

Step 1. Community Orientation

Step 2. Data Gathering
Step 3. Data Processing
Step 4. Preparation of the Community Profile
Step 5. Presentation, validation and approval of the Community Profile
Step 6. Finalization of the community profile and dissemination.

D. Community Planning - a process where the people collectively define their priority
problems, determine their development vision, set goals and objectives, identify
resources which they can utilize, and develop a plan of action to achieve community

1. Roles of Community Leaders in Planning:

a. Enable the community members to address their needs and problems;
b. Develop their planning skills;
c. Involve community members in decision-making;
d. Provide them with a process where they can plan their own development;
e. Guide them in developing a plan of action geared towards achieving
community goals

E. Community Planning and Implementation Team (CPIT):

The CPT is also an expression of community based leadership and empowerment.
Its formation aims to broaden the leadership structure and participation of community
members in the planning process.

1. Considerations in the CPIT Composition:

Gender-based representation (equal number of men and women);
Sector based representation (priority sectors e.g. farmers, fisher folks, youth,
etc.); and,
Area-based representation (barangay, sitio or purok levels)

2. Functions of the CPIT

Facilitate the implementation of the different steps of the planning process;
Prepare the Community Plan of Action and Budget (CPAB);
Submit the CPAB to the community for validation and approval;
Formulate indicators for monitoring and evaluation; and,
Lead the implementation of the CPAB.

3. After the Community Plan and Budget has been finalized and disseminated:
The CPIT should take time to reflect on the planning process undertaken (the
over-all leader facilitates the reflection process).

F. Community Planning Process:

Step 1. Formation of a Community Planning and Implementation Team

Step 2. Community Visioning
Step 3. Setting of Community Goals and Objectives
Step 4. Identifying of Resources and Constraints
Step 5. Preparation of Community Plan of Action and Budget
Step 6. Presentation, Community validation and approval of the Community
Action Plan and Budget
Step 7. Finalization of the community profile and dissemination

G. Implementation a process of carrying out the projects and activities in the

Community Action Plan. Its main purpose is to test the feasibility of the planned projects
and activities, and institute necessary changes or modifications if necessary.

H. Roles of Community Leaders during Implementation:

1. Oversee the direct implementation of projects and activities;

2. Conduct an information and advocacy campaign on the Community Plan;
3. Motivate the community members to contribute to the projects and activities
(material, labor, cash, ideas, time, etc.);
4. Monitor the status of implementation ( come up with a checklist or data board on
the status of projects and activities);

5. Make quick adjustments when problems arise in consultation with the community
6. Coordinate various activities, tasks and efforts of community members;
7. Mobilize community resources for the projects or activities;
8. Conduct regular consultation and feed backing with community members;
9. Clarify roles of each member in projects or activities;
10. Manage interpersonal relationships and conflict management; and,
11. Facilitate team-building activities (reflection processes, values formation, and
skills enhancement) among the members of the CPIT and Community Members.

I. The Community Planning and Implementation Team (CPIT) should put the
following into consideration:

1. During the implementation of projects and activities, it is important to:

Carry out projects and activities with the community members;
Encourage their activity;
Motivate them to perform tasks;
In times of conflict, mediate rather than aggravate;
Be an effective coach by helping community members accomplish targets,
measure accomplishments, diagnose performance problems, and take
remedial actions;
Provide the community members with regular feedback;
Organize and coordinate tasks, methods and efforts/contributions of each
member; and,
Communicate with each other, and with the community members on both a
one-on-one and a group basis.

2. As the CPIT oversee and direct the implementation process;

They should take time to reflect on their progress ( the over-all leader
facilitates the reflection process)

J. Community Monitoring and Evaluation is a process of looking into the status of

the implementation of the plan to determine areas of weaknesses and strength. It is
concerned with how objectives are being attained, and what necessary adjustments have
to be done in the course of the plan implementation.

K. Definition of Terms:

1. Participatory Monitoring Participatory monitoring is a process where the

community members pause to check whether or not results of activities match
with the set of objectives. It also involves systematic recording, integration and
periodic analysis of information gathered throughout the implementation process
by the community members themselves.

The specific purposes of participatory monitoring are:

To provide an overall picture of project/activity implementation;
To identify problem areas in project/activity implementation, and remedy the
situation immediately;
To gather information which will be used for future evaluations.

2. Participatory Evaluation a process where the community members take the

lead in assessing in the impact of the projects and activities on the community. It
is concerned with determining the accomplishments of goals and objectives.

The specific purposes of participatory evaluation are:
To enable the community to make good and appropriate decisions;
To develop the evaluation skills of the community members;
To have better understanding of the community situation;
To facilitate communication between the community members and the
community leaders;
To gather and analyze information which can further improve the community
situation; and,
To mobilize community participation in resolving community problems.

V. Roles of Community Leaders in Monitoring and Evaluation:

1. Guide the community in planning what is to be evaluated;

2. Provide them with a process on how to undertake the evaluation process;
3. Assist them in carrying out the evaluation;
4. Facilitate the process of analyzing the information; and,
5. Prepare the evaluation report and present the results to the community.

VI. Functions of Monitoring and Evaluation Team (MET);

1. The main functions of the MET are:

Facilitate the implementation of the different steps in the monitoring & evaluation
(M&E) process
Finalize the scheme;
Lead the M & E activities; and,
Prepare the Evaluation Report to the community for validation and approval.

2. After the community validation exercise and information dissemination, the MET should:
Take time to reflect as a team on the process undertaken;
Not hesitate to voice out anxieties, apprehensions, and criticisms of your team
At the same time, dont forget to appreciate your contributions, as well as those
of your team members;
Reflect on the things you see, feel, understand as you participate on the
evaluation process; and,
Share your innermost thoughts on how the M & E process can be further
improved relative to community needs and capabilities.

VII. Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Process:

Step 1. Formation of Monitoring and Evaluation Team

Step 2. Formulation of the Monitoring and Evaluation Plan
Step 3. Actual Monitoring Analysis and Presentation of Results
Step 4. Actual Evaluation and Data Analysis
Step 5. Preparation of the Evaluation Report
Step 6. Presentation, Community Validation of the Evaluation Report
Step 7. Finalization of the Evaluation Report and Dissemination of Results

Source: Social Action Office, DLS-College of St. Benilde. NSTP Civic Welfare Training Service Handout