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. .

STUDIA ACADEMICA


. .




811.111
81.2-03
cso


. .

. .
CSO / . . ;
[ . . . ]. - 4- . - . : , ,
2011.- 236 .
ISBN 978-5-98227-795-4
. . (1903-1954)

XI .
. ,

.
, .
,
.

.

811.111
81.2-03

ISBN 978-5-98227-795-4 4:, 2011


1- ...................................... 5
2- ..................................... 8


I.

XI-XV ...................................... 14
I.
. XI-XV ....................................... 14
II.
.
. ................ 24
III.
.............................. 36
IV.

. ................................. 4 7
II. .......................... 52

I. .
........................................ 52
II. .......................................... 57

III.
......................................... 83

III. .................... 95
I. ................................................ 95
II. ............................................ 121

I. -


...................................... 140

II. ........................ 154



1. .................................... 154
11. ........................................ 157

111. ................... 176
III. .................. 182

1. .............................................. 182
11. ............................................ 187

111.
........................................ 200
IV.
.... 209

V. ............................. 215
........................................... 225
1-

"
( )''
.
. . " ".

. . .
40- .
,

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. . . .

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.


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5

- 1945/46, 1948/49 1949/50.


1950 , .
. . .
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,
.

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,
.

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, ,

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. . . 1945/46 1948/49
, 1949/50
. . . -

: . . .

6
. . , . .
. . .

. . .
, 1
.

,

"
VII XVII .", .
. . 2
,
"". ,
IV - "

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"",
, .


. . .

(
).
.
. . ,
.
. . - . . , . .
, . . .
, -

2 . .
VII XVII . - .: - -

7
2-

. .
1965 ., 11
.

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.,
.

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8
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, 1977-1978).
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. - ., 1954. - . 6).
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1



XI-XV

1.
XI-XV

,

.

VIII
() .

,

,
.
.
, ,

.
IX
.

14

.

IX-X .


.

,
-son (
). ., ,
- (.-. byr, .-. b!i1r
, ):
Grimsby . " "
, Wilson, Johnson3
70- IX

.
.
,

. .
8 78
,

-

3 . , Egill

Skallagrimsson, Snorri Sturluson -son ,


1>orger.:\r Njalsdttir, Ingunn 1>orisd6ttir,
-dttir .

15
(Danelaw<
. Denala3u).
, .

- .
:


,

J 4 .


,
()
(1016-1042).


,

. 1042 ,
,
,

1066
.

5 , IX-
4
. , . 140.
5 . . Normann . " ",
, .

16
,

. ()

. 912

,
,
.

.
,
, ,

6



.

6

.
, , ,
,
w, ,

g(u). . . werre (>. war)


11 .guerre, . werre (= . werra); warden
(>. ward) 11 . garder (. .-. war-
don); . William 11 . Guillaume; . wages
11 . gage(s) .

17
1.

.
IX
.


; ,

-, - -, -
.


.
, ,

. (
,

):
(
), -
,
,
, . .

2. - ,
, -

. IX-X

, ,
,
,
[1].

18
3. [2]
, ,
, ,

. ,

. ,
JEpel-stan (. "
")
, : Adal-steinn.
,

.

, ,

,
-
[3].

,
,

.

.
,
- .

,
,

, , ,

19
.

(uplandish), (rude).
,


, ,
, is not told
of, . ,
,
,

.
, .



.

, ,
(. they) (
, . till).


.

, ,


.
-

20
,
.
steinn stan (
dm , . dm-r;
. fisc - . fisk-r; . cyn , .
kyn; . gd , . g-r; . sun-u ,
. sun-r .),

. ., ,

.-. .

. . dag-ar dag-as
fisk-ar fisc-as

. . han-ar han-an
syn-ir t8 sun-a
-

,
,

,
,
,

.

,
. , -

21
,
.
,
,
, ,

.

.
, ,
should
would
,

7
,



,


8

-

.
8 ,
.. -(e)s

22
- .
,

,

. ,
,

,

,
.
, ,
-l, ,
, . remarkale
, passale , amyale
., readale
, eatale ?J, understandale
.
-esse
(. -ess), ,
, . dutchesse , empresse
, princesse . (
duke , emperour , prince ),
-in.
, . 3ydin . godesse
(. goddess).

. ,
,
, .. ,

XIV .
, ,
.

23
re-, .
. return , refresh .

. re-read , re-write , re-
make .

11.


1.

,

.


. ,
r ,
. .,
, .

r
, : . husbonde
(. htlsbnda) < . htls-bndi (.
" "); . skye , (.
. sky ) < .
sky ; . felawe
(. fela3a)< . felagi (.
"r"); . windowe (. windo3e)< .
vindauga (. " "); .
ugly < . yggligr ; . wrong
(. wrang)< . *wrangr , ,

24
.; . want< . vant -
vanr ; .
deyen< . deyja .

, , ,
, .
. niman ,

Hiken< . taka .
: . weorpan
, .
casten< . kasta ; . clipian> .
clepen , . callen <
. kalla ,
. clepen.


.

3-
. they < . peir, . . .
peim< . . . peim,

hie, . . hem.

. peire,

(> . peir(r)a),
. hira (>hiera).

25
. though 9 , til , , fro
, to and fro
.

, ,
-

,
.
- . dram> . drm
( dream),
, ,

,
, ,
.

,

.


,
.

.
: . 3iefan> . yeven, yiven
[j].

9 ,
. though< . poh, . . peah.
- ,
., ,

. . peah.

26
given
[g], . give.
g
; . .

. gefa.
. geten< . -3ietan, -3ytan, ,

,
*yet, get.
,
. -3ietan

: . . be3ietan , ,
, for3ietan , under3ietan
. .

. -geten
,
;
get.

-
.
,
-
.


,
,

, .
- -

27
. shirt ,
.
. sc>sh [/], skirt
. .
sk; . .
shatter scatter
, . -
. .
road , raid , ,
.

. ridan ..
*ai
. -
.
, ei.

raise rear ,
, .

, ..
.
. risan .

.

.
,
,

, ,

28
10 ,
,
-


. -
.
starve < . steorfan
die < . deyja; . heaven
, < . heofon sky < . sky
:, heaven sky
.

,
.
, ,
(. . niman, weorpan, clipian, hie
.) (. . dream,
steorfan .), -
.

2. ::


.
,



XIV , XI-XII -

10 , ,

(. . raise rear,
).

29
-
, , XIII
,
,

,
, , ,

"
" , ,
.
,
-
,
, ,

, ,
, , ,
,
, ,

, ,
,
. . , . emperor ,
baron ,duke , prince ; governen
, government , serven
, justice , judge , court
, , prisun , condemnen
.; . werre , army , bataille
, regiment , victory .; .
feste , plesir , leysir
, dinner , soper ,
: . beef -

30
, mutton ,
veal , pork
. 11 ,
. musike , art ,
colour ; tailor ; peintre ;
bocher .; . religion , charitee
, preyen , preyere ,
saint .

,
.
, , tale ,
chair .
,
: ,
,
,
, ,
,

.
,
tale,
chair,
board , (< . bord ),stool
(< . stol), bench (< . benc)
. ,

,


.
, ,

11
: , sheep ,
calf , pig .

31
, , ,

sure, certain(ly) , .
perdie ! (. .
pardieu) .
., .
.., , .
,
. - (=
) .
.

(
, ) ( ,
) ..
, . friar< . frere <
.-. frere< . frater . brother ;
. paternal , < . paternel
< . paternus . fatherly . 12


. .
,
- .
. ,
.

. ,
.
. ,

12 . pater [peit()]
. father .

32

, .
. . yard < . 3eard . garden <
. gardyn < .-. () gardin,
, ,

gardo //. Garten; .


ward , < . weard . guard
, < .-. () guard;
. choose <. chesen ,
. choice < . chois , < .-.
chois < . (.) kiusan .
..


.
. .
catch < . cacchen < .-. (
) cachier , . chase
, < .-.
chasier; . cattle < .-. (
) catel chattels
< .-. chatel
, .
- ,
,
.
,

.
. , . feat < . feet , ,

13 -
,
cha- [tia]> . [Ja].

33
< .-. (-.) fet, fait < . factum
. fact,

; . inch < . ynce <. uncia


. ounce , . uncia,

.
. mint money ,
, . moneta,
(mint < . mynet)

, (money <. moneye) -


.-. moneie.



- ,

,
.
,
. ., ,
begin

commence,
; life existence , tongue
language , look regard ,
, ship vessel (
), deed , feat .


. , -

34

, .

..
,

.
readale ,
rewrite , goddess , fulfilment
.
,
, ,
, fading ,
beautiful , faithful .

,
.,
,

,
,
,

.
, ,

, ,

, father
paternal , mouth oral
, sun solar . .
vision see .
,

,
.
,
, -

35

,
.

,

111.
:


(XI-XII )
,

. ,

: [k] [k'].
[k'], ,
[tJ],
[tJ] [k] .



.
,
, ,

.
,

36
--.
. ,
.
,

.
,
, .
,
, .
,


,
, ,


.

, ""
,
, ,


.
XIV ,

.

,
?
,

37
(, )

.

.
,
, 314
g
.
,
(3><;;),
: g
[g] [d3], 3 -
[j] []. . .
good (>
. good ) . geste (> . jest
), . r (> . year ), . (> .
they ) . rit (> . right ), . lit (>
. light ) . ,
[j]
[], ,
: 3
h (. riht,
niht, liht .).
[] gh (
3 g),
g

, h - .

, light, night, right . [j],

14 3
: [g] [g'] [].

38
, , .
. you , year , yard , yield
.
3 .

(, ),
[j] j (. . . Jahr
, ja . .). ,
3
: (
[j]), g ( [g] [d3], gh ( []).

.: . ,
,
. , ..!\

;
th.
..!\ , (porn)
(XV ).

- ,

that, ,
t
, ( , pat) 15

re ( ) ~ (wen).

15 ,

. 1
.
, ,
==; yt=yt=pat.

39
=vv,
i w,
dl [dlj:],
- .
, i
,
, , k q, :
-
, -
cw. . . kpen
. n , . king, kyng .
cynin3 , . qeen . cwn ,
. qellen . cwellan .
[z]
z.
-
. . , ,

, , ,
[k] [s] .
-
[k], , . callen ,
casten , cmen ,

[s], , . recven , .
k
[k]
(. i).
(
v )
[v]. , f
[v]

40
; u
[u] [v]. . .
loue/ love (. love ), seruenjserven (.
serve ), vpjup (. up , ),
vsenjusen (. use ) .
V
v u :
u
[u], v - [v].
, u

[ii],
. . . bryd > . brud
, . fYr > . fur 16 .
[ii] ( u),

[i] [j].
i

[i] [j].
,
.

.
, ,
, ,
, , -

16 ,
.
()
i,
, build , fruit . .

41
.

, ,
.
i
[i] [j].
, ,
(m, n, v u),
, i
, ,
i. .

'lltl= tzty; HHH=t.Hytt,


t.= =VVYtt (win)
.

17
, i

(.
taxi , rabi .)
,
u
. ., , . cuman ,

. t., u,
,

. u

17
1.

42
.
.

[] [],
on>n. -
,
.

[] ,
. , . sm -, sn ,
cuman , luf
. som, sone, comen, love,
[]18

k
. n
k. '
k ,
i, w ,
.



i.

-

18 , XVII
,
[].
, some, son,
, love .
-. .
sun son .

43
. ., , .
feet t , boot t , good
gd .
, ii
(., . caas).

, .
, , ,

, , ,
[tt\>] [Q]
[~] [QiJ],
; , ,

19
[]
, [i:],

. . . see sea .,
meet ( ) meat . .

. -ou(ow)

19 , []
ie,
;
,
.
; . see ,
meat , field , . [Qu]
,
: . boat :, open :, go .
. . 209.

44
fi 20 . . hfis> . hous,
hows , . fit> . out, owt ; . nfi>
. nou, now 21
ou (ow)
u ,


[fi],
[ou].
,

,
.
ou (ow)
, house , now
, out , , soul
, low - .

, .
h
.
,

,
h.
.
, [tJ]
ch, -

20 : -ow
, ou - .

21 ,
.
[ii]
[au]. . . 157.

45
chair , chamber .
. techen
, ch.Ild .
th [] [],
gh - [] (. . 38).

ph ch

[k]
[f]
, philosophy ,
phonetics , chemistry , architecture
22

sh [f].

, [/]
. ,
[/] <
. [sc]
- sch, sh, ssh, shc, ss .
sh,
.

,
, ,


, m .
, , -

22 , ch -
.. ,
, ,
( ), - : .
child chemistry .

46
.

IV.

JIr [4]

,

, .
- .

,

,
,

[5].

3
: ) ,
,
,
~;
) , ,

.

, , , -

23 ,
XIV -XVI ,
. (lnglis) (. . 151).

47
..
;
)
(-) ,

.


[6],
.
. , , (
) - ()
, - -
- (),
XIV

.
,
,
,


.
(Peter-
borough'ca. 1122-1154 ),
-

. , ,
, ,

"Ormulum" ( 1200 ),

.. -

48
.

,
,

24

-
"" ("Brut"),
"Brut d' Angleterre"
Wace'a, XII .

" " ("Ayenbyte of Inwit")
. -
"Le somme des Vices
et des Vertus" .
,
,

, ,

,
(1340 ) ().
, "
"
, ,

(
) :
, ,

24
,
;
.

49
" " 25

XIV .
-

"Polychronicon",
_
. -

(1387 ).

XIV-XVI
,

. -
"" ("Bruce", 1375 )

, ,

.

""
111,
.
""
,

,
""

25 "Lyvede in London meny longe eres". .


;. .
VII XVII . - ., 1953. - . 56.

50
.

XIII , ,
, ,
-en

-eth.
.

XIV ,
, "
11" ( 1315 ).

XIV

,

" " ("Canterbury
Tales"). ,
,
(. . 138).
"0
VI" ("On the Times")
.
( 1455 )

,
( , i)
.
11

1. .


,
,
.

, ,

.
,

i, , ,
26

26 .

teacher , genius wanted , horses


, , , [], - [i].
, ,
['w:ted], ['h::>:sez].

52
, sone 'U(> . sunu ), lov(i)e'Un (<.
lufian ),ds'U (< . dae3es1t . .
. . da3as - .-. . . . dre3
) .

n
.
n
, n,

, ,
. . .
. .. . stanu > .
stan
stQi>ne(n); . fiscu fisc > . fishe(n);
. horsu hors > . horse(n).
,
.


, .

, ,


,
, , .

, - . ,
,
en.
en, n
27
:
, "" ,
.

53
, .
, . . . . . oxe(n) < .
oxan , .
,
, ,
: - oxen.
-n

(Past Participle)
, given , taken , born
, torn .
,

: -n
, .
., , 11 torn, given, taken
tear , give , take ,
11 come come , begin
, sprung spring , clung
cling , drunk , won win
. . , , -n
, got -
11 get ( forgotten
forget ) .
. ,

.

a(n).
, ,

, :
book , an apple .

54

- . mi(n) .
pi(n) .
my myn, pyn;
,

.
.: . myn '~i>re . , n ' . ,
my 'nose . noc, my 'k . .

-n
,

. . tis 'min.
, (. my
mine, thy thine)

. , ,

: -n (my, thy)
, -n
(mine, thine) - ,
.


.

n

55
) .
,



: ""
, -

"
", " ",
- ,

.

,

.
,

,

(
) -
, ,

. ,

56
,
,
,
, ,

.
, ,
,


. ,


( ),


( )
, ,

(
). ,
-
-


[7].

11.

,
,

57
1.


()
,
,

. . . .

> 28 > re
> >re

,

; , ,

: . re < . re; . re < .
re ; . < . ; . < . 29


, : . herte > . herte;
. herd > . herd(e), . fer(r)
> . fer(r) -
. seon > . s~(n) ( see(n));
. der > . d~r ( deer); .
flen , > . fleen; .
d > . deep; . n > .

28 ,

,
[rea] .
29 ie,
ijy.

58
been, - .
.
~' . ,
.
.
.
,
XI .
,
XII
re ,
: re > ,

re > ( ). . .
heard > hrerd (XI ) > blird (XII
.
); . earm > . rerm (XI ) > arm
(XII ); . hearpe > . hrerpe > harpe;
. healf , , > . hrelf >
half; . hearm , , > . hrerm > harm;
. feallan > . frellen > fallen; . mearc
, > . mrerk > mark.

re. . .
wres > . was; . pret , > . pat,
that; . hwret > . hwat, what; . wreter
> . water; . refter , > . after.
~ <re (< . )
, : . beatan >
. breten (XI ) > b~ten (XII ,
beten), . beat; . east > . rest >
~st ( eest), . east; . heap ,
> . hrep > h~p ( heep), . heap;
. stream , > . strrem > str~m

59
( streem), . stream; . leaf >
. lref > l~f ( leef), . leaf.
.~ < re <
~
re. . . sre , > . s~
( se, see), . sea; . rredan
>. rreden ( reden), . read
. rede; . mrenan , >
. m~nen ( menen), . mean; . drel
> . d~l ( deel), . deal; .
trecan , > . t~chen, . teach.
,


(. > . re > ~ )
(. re > . ~).

(>~) ~.

:
XI XII
.

:~\.
~
>
___1"-::::::==========t: : >ii

_ ~ \.
1 >~
"-
_ __::::::==========:::t >

60
,

, ,
, ,

: (~ < . , re)
,
(. . beat
, east , heap , leaf , deal
, stream .),
(~ < . , )

(. . see , tree , deer ) 30

. .

.
:

,
- .

.

30

, , ,
.
,
~ ~
,
, . deel, beten, eest, heep, leef
( . deal, beat, east, heap, leaf)
seen, tree, deer. , ,
,
. . deal, beat, sea,
tree, deer, see. [8]

61
(
re). . . land ,
> Pnd (. [lrend]); . can > .
.
can (. [kren]); . mann , > .
man (. [mren]); . pancian > .
panken, tblinken (. [8reuk]).
.
, ,

JJ.
. song , long
, strong , belong
.31



, ,
, .
-

, -
( )
,


,
, (u . , . . 38).

.
----
----

3

~

i
( )

31 . s1in3 s1in3 (. . . sin3


an )

, . song , sang .

62
.,

,

, . -

. > i.
. -

. -

i. .

. fyllan > .
{ fillen > . fill
fullen
fellen

. dyde > .
{ dide > . did
dude
dede

. cyssan > .
{kien> . kiss
cussen
kessen

. bryd > . brid > . bride


{ briid
brd

. fyr > . fir > . fire



{ fiir
fr

. ,

63

.

( -)
:

miry(e)
}
. myr(i)3e > . mury(e)
r () >. merry32

irien
. byr(i)3an >.} burien > . bury
berien > [beri]
-

(> ),
(bury).

busy [izi],
-

,
.

bisy > . [izi]

. bysi3 > . }
busy >. busy
besy

32 ., , mirth
, , -
.

64

build -
[ild], ,
(. . 41, .).
, XI ,
. > . Q.
Q, ,
, -

. ,

, ,
(.
, boat
, load .).
. > Q
,

,
, . .
, .

:

----

. > Q
:

. . . hQm
ham . > .
( hoom); . stan . stQn >
( stoon); . hali3 > .
hQly ( holy); . ban > bQn (-

65
boon); . > . <}k (
oak) .

,
. . . wrat (. . writan )
> .
wr<}t (. . writen); . rad (.
. ridan ) > . r<}d (. .
riden).

> Q
33

2. 8



.
: 1)

; 2)
;

3)
.

, -

33 ,
, .;
, gae (
[] < . 3an)
go.

66
, -
.
ld, rd, nd
mb.

(IX ),
,
34 ld: . d > . child
(. [tfaild]); . wde > . wde
(. [waild]); . mde > . mde
(. [maild]); . ( ) iild > ald
> . Qld (. [ould]); . ciild > cald >
. CQld (. [kould]). nd: .
findan > . finden (. [faind]); .
indan > . inden (. [baind]); .
II : . fnden
> . founden, ou
u (. [faund]); . biinden > . bounden
(. [baund]) . mb: . climban > .
climben (. [klaim]); . camb > .
CQmb (. [koum]).
, ,
, nd, mb. .,
, .camb > . CQmb . lamb
> . lamb (. [lrem]) ,
. hand [hrend] , land [lrend]
.


rd, -

34
(
) .

67

(. . 170).

,
.
,

, , child . . children,
. .
child, ..
children,
-
wild wilderness ,
bewilder (< . bewildrian).

, .

,
,

, " "
. . . finden
, bmden < . findan, indan,
, . drinken ,
singen < . drincan, sin3an, .

,


drink, sing find, ind

: sing - sang - sung,


ind - bound - bound.

(

68
)
XI ,

,



1
. , , . n ,


: t.

, : .

kpen - kepte.
- ,
(.
. keep [ki:p], . . kept [kept].
,
kepen
.

. .: . hfis . > . house
[haus] , .
hfisbonda ( ), .
".. " > . husband ['hzb~:d]
,
35. . . wis . > .

35
: hsonde
hfis; . , .
husandry - ; .

69
wise [waiz], . wisdom . > .
wisdom [wizdem].
1.

s + .
, . ., , .
.-. . . . - 3ast > . giist, . .
. . . 3astes > . gQstes.

:

,
.
:
, - ,

ghost [goust] .
2.

. - i3,
: . .: . reni3
-, ren(i)3e,
i
. . -ni < . reni3 , .
renie, anie < . ren(i)3e.
,

,
any . iinie, m
[eni] . -ni ,
, (
- iinie -
).

. . . hali3 ,
(
) hal3a, :
hQly - hiilwe - ,
: holy [houli] -
. , hallow [hrelou] - .
All Hallows .

70
XIII


, , .
i ,
.,

.. .
, i
., .

, , ,

. ..

, ,
( )
: e{ltan >
1) .
. -ten (. [i:t]); . > . m-te
mete
(. [mi:t]) ; 2) . n >
. Qpen (. [n]); . Ofer > . Qver
(. [v::)]); 3) . nama .. > . name
(. [neim]); . taken < . taka
(. [teik]); . macian > . mak(i)en
(. [meik]) .
; i
,

. ., ,
,

. risan , ridan .,
writan , drifan .,

. -

71
. i I: . . risan - . II
risen, drifan - drifen, ridan - riden, writan -
writen.
., rise [raiz],
risen [rizn]; drive [draiv], driven [drivn];
ride [raid], ridden [ridn], write [rait],
wri tten [ri tn]36

, .
give (.
3i(e)fan), son (. sunu), some ,
(. sum, .. sume) .
.J_I
,

.
. wicu >. wike
w~ce (
i), . [wi:k].
:
,
,

i. 1}. ~. Q.
,

,
,
.

,
, i u
.
I, V. ,
, 1 ii,
. ,

36
3t
.

72

, [9].

,
.

(. . eten
, n ..),
, , ,
. ,
, - .
, make [meik]
.
( "
") ,
, ""
. ":
" ,
. ., , .
house . < .hiis, wise < . wis, mice
. < . mys.
,

, , ( i, u)
(= ) 37
37 .
( )
i. , ,
, [gosti], [kosti].
,
,
(i) .

.

73

, XI
XIII , ,
.

,
.



. .
(
):

mtan 2+1=3 ( +
)
mtte 2+2=4 ( +
)
mete 1+1=2 ( +
)

mtan 2+1=3 ( +
)
. mette 1 +2=3 ( +
)
2+1=3 ( +
)

74
, , ,
,

, [10].

, ,

.
r
,

.
,


.

, ""
[11].


.

, ,
;
, , ,
r ,
r
. ,
, . mete,
,
[12]. -

75
iii
: +

: m--te,

,
~;t. ,

, met-te < . mtte (poiii. . .


mtan )38

3.
39

,
iii ,


.
, ,



( )
:

38 ,

,
mete. . . better [t()], [t]
,
[13].
39 1400 .

76



*
. i ()


*
. i ()
. ~ Q
:t Q
.

3 '40
1u, , QU, au, m, 1

*
.

,

. , ,
,
.

, [14].
, ,
, re
a;J ,


.
( ,

40
"" (. . 86).

77
),
- I I.
ai> (< . a{l) ,
,

r' ei (. . 158).

r,

,
.

4.



, r,

, (. . 69).
,
:
.--------,
.!

. Y--t-~ --t---.

. - - + - . ()*
.
.

. . re
* .
**
.

78
1. I
:
1) . i (. . drincan > . drinken;
. . . 3- . . . . . hit > .
(h)it;
2) fyllan > .
. (. .
fillen; cyssan > . kissen; . cyn
.
, > . kin);
3) . ie (. . 3iefan > . yiven).

. I
i; . . wisdom > .
wisdom.
2.
:
1) . (. . helpan > .
helpen);
2) . (. . heorte > . herte;
. heord , > . herde).

(-.
); . . byr3an > .
beryen, . bury [beri],

: . . mette >
.mette; . cepte > . kepte.
3.
(. . sunu
> . sune, sone; . . 11 druncen
> . drunken); 11
(. . husbnda
> . husbond .).

79
4.
,
(. .
nord
> . north; . on , bord , . lang
> . longjlang, . long).
5.
:
. 1) . (. . abbod > . abbot;
. arwe > . arwe );
2) . (. . mann -, hand , land
. > . man, hand, land);
3) . retl (. . pret , - > .
that; . brec cnuna > . bak; . hret >
. hat);
4) . (. . heard , >
. hard; . healf > . half).

,

. f
.
.
. r .

.
.
.
.
.
.
. ii
.
.
.

. ()

80
, :
1. I
:
1) . I (. . writan , drifan ,
min > . writen, driven, min);
2) . (. . fyr > . fir; .
hydan ( ) > . hiden; . hyran
> . hiren);
3) . I+
(. . cild , findan , indan
> . chnd, finden, inden).
2. ~
:
1) . (. . her > . h~r; .
deman > . d~men, . deem [di:m]
; . he . > . h~);
2) . (. . seon , deor >
. seen, deer );
3) . +
(. . feld > . ~ld, . field [fi:ld]).
3. -
:
1) . re (. . sre ,
rredan ,
> . s-, r-den, .
sea, read);
2) . (. . beatan , east ,
, eare > . -tn, -st, -r, . beat,
east, ear);
3) . (. .
mete , etan > . m-te, -ten, .
meat, eat)41
41 ~
3 [i:], ,
. -

81
4. J J' ii :
1) . u (. . hus ., ut , mus
, mup > . hous, out, mous, mouth
;
. . 44).
2) . u +
(. . .
11 funden , bunden
> . founden, bounden; . hund
> . hound .).
5. Q
:
1) . (. . don , n , 30s
>. doon, moon(e), goos);
2) . +
(. . wolde . . willan > .
w{)lde [wolde], . would).
6. Q
:

1) . (. . stan , ham ., ,
ban > . stQn, hQm, Qk, bQn, .
CQld , Qld , CQmb
. );

.
(~ ) , - ie, (.
meet, keep, field, thief, he, ), > , -
(. beat, meat, sea, eve < . refen).

XVI ,
XVII . ~ - 3-> [i:]
r,


. . . deer [di::>], ear [i::>] .

82
2) . (. .
open , ofer , , .... > . Qpen,
Qver .) 42
7.

. (
)
(. . 71). . . scacan > . shaken;
. bacan > . baken; . macian >
. maken; . talu > . tale; . ima
.. > . name; . gamen > . game(n);
. scamu > . shame .

111.

.

;

42 . ~ 3 , 9 Q
;
[u:] (
[u]), - [ou].
. 9
, ,
. Q .
. .moon , goose , soon , tooth , do
, home , bone , stone , open
, boat , loat , foam nena.
XVI .
,
. . . do [du:] go [gou]:
. doon < . don, . goon < . 3an.

83
,

.

() [15]. , . sc' > . [J],



sh, sch; . . fisc > .
fish; sci > . shi ; . sceal
.
> . shal, . shall; . scolde
> . sholde, . should .
. ' > . [tJ],
ch; . .
benc > . benche; . cild >
. child; . trecan > . techen; . cin
> . chin .
. 3' > . [d3],
g( ); . . sen3an
> . sengen, . singe; . bryc3
. > . brigge, . bridge; . 3 ,
, .> . egge, . edge .
,
[J], [tJ] [d3],
.

1.


, [tJ] [d3] .
2.

[3]. -

84
.
,
[3] [d3].
[3] zj > 3
XVII-XVIII
measure , pleasure , vision
. . (. . 180).

bourgeois , rouge ,
[3] < .-. [d3].
[3] ,

: ., , ,
measure, vision, - ourgeois, rouge.


3[9J ,
w ;

, -
[.] . 3[9J > . w
.
[g]
,

.
,
,

43 . . ii3en

43
-, - (, ),
, , , ,
[9] > [v] .

85
> . <)wen; . dra3an , > .
drawen; . 3 > . bowe .
g. > w

w: . .
dra3an > . drawen . 3rwan
>. growen.

g. > w

j w (< . g. w),

1J , . ,
. ,
. +

... ,
- i u,
.


: , ,
. 3rwan
,
3r-wan.

,
, [16].
3rwan
,
44 -
44
:

86
a3an
awen, ,
, t
,
, . t
, Q
ate Q, ate
Q 3rwan
[ou].

: [grou] [oun]
.
t
:

. 3r-wan >. grow-en.


. a-3en >. a-wen > Q-wen > ow-en

, .
t

(grow [grou] own [ oun ])


,
. t
: . . do [du:] go [gou] <
. dn 3an.
. 3rwan
a3en ,
t
, . -

[u:]; . . soon , moon ,


goose , foot .

87
,

.
. . .
3 ; > . bo-we > bow-e, . bow
[u], w

,

,
.
,
, , , . dra3an
, la3u ; .

,
,

.
, .

drawen, lawe w (
. draw [dr:):], law [1:):]).
, w
. , , ,
w

[ou]; . .
grow, own, w.

j > i . . . . . .
dre3es ,

j > i [ai]:
. dre-3es > . da-ies > dai-es (

88
dayes).

(
).
. . . . . we-3es > . we-ies >
wei-es ( weyes ).

ai ei,
.

, .

XIV ai ei
, . dayes . weyes
[re1].
day way
,

(. . dre3,
we3).
j
.
. 3rre3 , > . gr-i > grei
.
( grey), , ,
grey gray.

,


,

, . g> w
j w,
-

89
. -
i u.
i: ai, 3i, ei,
. u: au, QU
(<Qu, QU), eu (< yU, ~u), iu.
,
oi ui,
.

1.
w [ <9] j

.
, g u, j i.
u, i
,

,
fu3ol > . fu-wel > fou-el (fow-el),
. . .
ou (ow) u.
. u au,
fowl [faul]
.


: bow
[bau] , ; bow [bou] , -

. . . bfi3an > . buwen, bowen ( U)
. 3 > . bowe ( [ou]).
2.
i < j i
. -i3 > . 1,
1 > 1,

-:icy , snowy , rosy .,
any -, many .
. 3- > . i-(y-): . . . 11
3e-boren , > . i-boren; . 3-

90
3an > . y-gon; . 3e-ho1den
> . y-ho1den .

h + .

h : hl,
hr, hn, hw. . . hlaf , hrin3 , hnutu
, hwrete .
'
, ,

h.

45 :
.hl- > . l- 46 ; . hr > . r-; . hn- > .

q-; . hw > . ~- 47 -
,
,

,

45 . . . .
.,

1. :r;, , ,
, ,
.

46 .
47
,
h
1h, rh, nh, wh.
, ,

() 1, r, n, w,
.

91
,

. ,
48 ,
.

l, r, n. . . hlaf > .
lhQf, . loaf , . hlaford ,
> . lhoverd > lo(ve)rd, .
lord , ; . hlystan > .
lhisten, listen, listnen 49 , . listen; . hrin3
> . rhing > ring; . hrf >
. rhf > roof; . hnutu > . nhute,
nute, . nut; . hnecca > .
nhekke > nekke, . neck .
, l, r, n

. l, r, n . hl-, hr-, hn-.

hw-, -
: ,
, .

quh-, qhu50 -
48 . . laf : hlaf ,

.
49 listnen
. hlysnan .
50

. h,

92

, h
(hl, hr, hn):
w,
wh.

.

,
. . . hwret -
> . what, . [w::>t] ( . quhat
[xwat]); . hwrete > . whete, ..
[wi:t]; . hwy > . why, . [wai];
. hw1t > . whit, . [wait] .
, ,
w ,


( )



[/], [tJ] [d3].
f-v, -, s-z,

,


[h],
[')G],
[h].

93
, ,
, ,

[v]:
vju, f,

[f].
- k' g',
,
g, w.


-
- -

-
t k
d g
- f 8sJ h
v oz-
- tJ
d3

1r

m n lJ

- Cw > j
w

*
III

1.

,
,

.


,

.
.

, ,

-

,
,
.
,

95
- -

.
,
,

, ,

1.


, , ,
,
.
,
, .


.

. , ,

- --,

-

,
. -

96

,


.
,

.
()
,
.
XIV , , ,
,
.
, ,

" ":
"... the younge sonne ha th in the Ram his
halve cours y-ronne" (" ...
1 ") 51 ,
his, sonne,
,
(
), ,

(. seo sunne).

.
, , ,

51 .

VII XVII . - ., 1953. - . 66.

97

, ,
,
.

. , ,
-n
, ,
/ - ,

-, /
- -.

,
[1 7].
, ,

,
(. se, seo, pret)
.

,

(), (
) .
,

,

,

98
. (., , .
steorra .. - .-. stjarna ..;
. blit .. - .-. beit . .; .
beorh .. - .-. bjarg ..).

. ,



,
.
. ,
,
.


,
.
:

,
, -
.

2. . .


.


:
( . - ..)
..

. .

99


.
, (=
)
(Common Case),
,
,
.
.


52

,

,
. ,
,
,

,
.
:

(Possessive)
{Genitive).
,
(= ) ,

52 ,

; . , . he blid westan windes
.

100

,
.

,

53 ,
dai daie, .
.-. . dre3 . . dree,
,

54
;
,
,

.
, , ,


.

, . lore
, (. . . . lar); . fatnesse
, (. . . .
fretnes(s)) [18].

53 ,
,
,
.
54 . . ,
,
.

101
, ,
,

.
.
-
55

. ., ,
. .-. . hwrel, , . hwrele,

: . whal whale 56
., whale [weil],
whale <
. hwrele.


,
. ,


,

.
-. . . . .
sceadu > . shade . . sceadwe >
. shadwe, .

55
,
.
56
(. . 71).

102
shade shadow.
mead
meadow,
.

.

.
,
, ,

-
(. . one - one's,
somebody - somebody's .).
, (. . 108),
,

(. . .
. this - these, that - those) [19].

, ,

, ,
;

,
.

, ,

.
, -

103
.
- .


.

,
(mec, !Jec)
(me, !Je), .
,
3-

.

3-
( ) ,
,
(Objective Case).

. .

. h"e . he
. hine . hi
_-
. (.) hi

. his . . his

,
(..
his - .. hise),
, -

104
(
) 57
,
,

, ,


,
- ,

hit > it.


.
, -
,
-

, , ,

.
-
,

, , -
57 . . : , ,
,
- ,
-
,

: . , , .

,

, : , ,
, .

105
, ,

,
,
.

1- 3- . .

. . .. .. .. . .

. ich, 1 * we . he heo, she


. us . him hire hit, it *
2- . .

. thow . hi, they


. thee yow . hem, them

* .

1.
ich
() 1,
1 [ ai ]58
2. 3-
.. heo < . heo
XII scre, she,

she.
. ,

58 .
, ,
(. . 42).

106


(. heo seo).
3. 3- . . .
hi, hem (him)
.

: thei, the(i)m.

, , ,


,


.

they them
.
.


,
.
, , . . thei,
. . hem 59


.
-

59
hem ,
take'm ., them (
), hem.

107
,

.

-
: that < . pret this < . pis
.
.
(. tho, thos
. these)
-


. ,

,
. . . . . . . dai , .
. daies . good dai
good daies.
,
-

(
) ,

. ,
- +
(= +
) - ,
.
,

108
,


60

. i

. ,

i

( )
. . . . . smal , . .
smale; , : and smale foweles
maken melodye 61

: .
()
ng sqier
() the n g
sonne .

60

, , ,
;

.
61 . . . - . 66.
(-)
.

-(e)s;
,
- .

109
,

:

. .

. - (smal) (smale)

. - (smale) (smale)

. ,
( -
) ,

.
,
,
,
- -

.

(.. smal - .. smale),

.
.
,


,

. smale.
-

110
,


, .
,
,

, .
. -ja/ -
j ,
, .
, . wste -
1-lt, wilde , swte , rice
. .
,

.

,


.
,
,

(
), .
.
.
,

- .
.
- ,
, -

111
,


,
,

3.




.

.

;

.

- (. . swete ,
wylde , rlche . (. . 111).
, ,
,

. , ,
.

,


, ,
- .

112

, .


, ,

62

-

:
1. . -es < . -as.
.

.
. ,
-es .
2. . -0 () < . -0.
.
-,
.
,

,
. .
3. . -. ,

, .
.

4. . -en < . -an.


-n.
62 . .
. . -um,

, . . . . -,

113

. ,
,
,
.

..

.
2- ( )

; - (3- )
,
.
,
.

1- 4- : -es -en.
,
,

, -es
,

-en

. ,

( ).

. -( )n -

114
, children ,
brethren kine
(.. cow ),
63
-en
,

(. . 53). ,

- -es.
-es,
,

64. , ,
,

,
. , ,
yeer
,

.

. -es , -

63 . child
-z-, brother - -r-, cow -
.

64 , ,
-s
, -es.
.
, , ,

-es.

115
,

,
.


,

. . . word -
. . word, . word - . . wordes.
,


.


-

(. . 113, .).

: -es, -, -, -n.
-es,

-,

. '

,

.

-

116
,


.
. ~
,

, - .

-es
. ,

,
.
, (
)

, .

-es

,

, .
-,
(-
) -es
,
, -es

.
-, :
,
, ,
.
, -

117
, ,
.

, ,

.
,
.


:


, -

.
;

.

-es, ,
,

.

:

. . ..

. men

. manne menne

, -es

118
-es


:
.

,


. . . somebody else's book t
- , the man 1 saw yesterday's son
, . .

~ ,

(postposition).
,

[20].

,

,
:

.fissh /~ care J~:?.ti?A'".Id name af:e9' n v~-e-

(.flsshe )" (n)


. flsshes cares names mannes


. ftsshes (caren) cares (namen) names men
(.fisshes)
. (ftsshene) (carene) cares (namene) names mennes
flsshes
* .

119
4.


(s, s, pret)
,
,
, , .

.

:

sum , reni3 -, an .

an
.
: .
an . <)n
, - . a(n)
.

.

.

,
.
(
, ),
,

.

120

the
that,
.
, ,
,
,

. ,
,
.




, ,

- .

,
,
. ,

,

11.

1. 8

121

,
,

. ,

[21].


65. ,
,
.


,
,

. ,

,
,

. , ,

(Present Perfect)
.

, -,

-- -

65

, ,
., .

122


.
,

- ,

,
,
(
Present, Past
Future).

-
[21 ].

.


,
,
. ,

sculan
willan ,
, ,
.
shullen willen

.

123

.
, 1 shall go ,
,

, .
,
shall will
,


sholde wolde (. .
shullen willen),



,

.


,

,

. ,

,
,

. ,
,

124
- from,
thurgh, of . ,


,

2. . .





. ,
, ,
,
, .


.
,

, ,


.

( ).

125
. .

....

. ( );

, .

: . . ride
- rode - ridden,
, ite -
it - it(ten),

(. . 190).

.
,
.
(
)
...

,
2-
.
-ed( ) 66
, , .-

66 - ede
, ,
, .

126
.
, 1-
,

[22].

,

. ,


,

.


.
3-

.
(
) -(e)s,


-() 67
-(e)s
,

-().

67 -(e)s [23].
-()]:>
-]:> < .-. *-ti.

127
-(e)s

,
,
,

,
, 3- .
-( ), ,
. -(e)s
,

,
. .
, he hath , he speaketh
, he knoweth .,
"" .
,
.

.

.
-(e)s,
-( )n,
-n
,
- < . -.
-(e)s, 3-
-(e)s,
;
.

128
-(e)n,

. : 1)

-on,

; . . sculon , maon ,
cunnon , .; 2)

-en; . . helpen, inden (. .)


hulpen , bunden
(. .); 3)

; . . cwredon , sredon ,
brohton .

,
, ,

.

,
--
68

68 -e(n)
, ,
-(e)s ,
, -(e)s, ,

129

-e(n) .

.

.

-(e)n,
- - (< . 3-)
-,
-n .

,

-n,
- -n.

: ,
,
,
-,

. ,
,
. . . bere(n)
, . II bor(e)n, . y-
bore .

, -n

) ; .

130
.-. . gefa - . 11 gefinn
(..), gefin (..). ,

3-,
.


(
).

-(e)nde: .
. sonde , wrltende , sinende
, maciende .

:

-and(),
- -ende, - -inde.
-and(e)
69 ,

-ende, -inde , ,
2- ; . . maciende
> . (.) macinde 70

-inde -inge, -

69 . m. lesande, . 1 lesa .
70 2- ,

., ,
, , -i-,
2-
: . .

maciende > . (.) makende.


(--),
-ind(e),

131
. , ,

-ing(e),
-ing.

.
, -inge
-inde. -inge
,

-inde
-inge .

( i) .
, ( -inde
-inge), ,
,

-d- -g- (. dyind


dying). ,

, -nd -ng
, -n 71
-

2- .
: . macian
. maki, -
. make(n).
71 -
- .
: . l'm speakin'
[aim spi:kin], .. [n] [IJ].

132
,

72

.

,


- -

.
,

.
,


, :

) . he lay on dyinge . " .


, ", .
.


.
,
:

) he lay dyinde . " .


",
- (doule predicate).

72 . . 1 can't go ,

[ai ka:IJou].

133

: ,

.
:

- .

iii
. on,
,
, : on > .
,
: he lay dyinge.
,

~ -,
(. . awriten
writen . arise
, - rise ., awake
wake , .

,

, ,
iii
,

, iii -
.
-inge (, dyinge)
, -inde
-inge
.
,

134
,

.
,
, ,
. -inge,
-ing.
,

, ,

, :

) he herde foweles singinge "


"
) he herde foweles singinde "
".

:
foweles
(Posses-
sive Case) ,
foweles -
(Common Case) .

. .
,


- (Gerund)
(Continuous).

135
,

, ,
,

, ,

, .
,

,
, ,
.
,

, .

, ,

(. . 192).

-
.
,
to
,

- -

. . . wrltan to
wrltenne , > . wrlten.


, to
,

136
. ,

,
,

- at,

ado < at do: . much ado about nothing


.

I



,
.

. XIV
,



n
,
,

.
.

, ,

140
- ,
.

(gentry) -
.

(franklins).
, ,
,

. 73

.

.
-
, . ,

..

( 1340-1400),
,
;
.
(1320-1384),
; , ,

. , .

.
, .

.
;
-

73
.

141
, ,
,
, ,
.

.
,
,
.

(East Midland),
.


.

,

. XIV ,

. ., ,
(1326-1412): perfore it is pat Mercii,
pat men of myddel Engelond... understondep
bettre side langages, norperne and souperne, pan
norperne and souperne understondep eiper oper
( ,
... -
, -
j14

74 ; .
VII XVII .- ., 1953.- . 62.

142


, ,
, .


-
, , ,
., ,
.
,
,

. ,
,
.
, ,

,
,
.

, , ,

, .
"
" ,

,
.

,
-

143
.
, ,
, i



.
,
-
XIV . ,
,
.

, ;

.
,

. , , -

au;
,
.
chaunce , daunce , chaumber .
. aun,
aum.

144
- chance, dance, chamer,
,
.
. ., , .
daunt [d~:nt] ", , haunch
[h~:nt.\1 , ( ),
haunt [h~:nt] , .

,
. ., , aunt [a:nt] ,
-,

75

-
, ,

- .


,
, ,
,
,
76

75
[a:nt] [::>:nt], -
.
haunt, [h::>:nt]
[ha:nt].
76 , XVII XVIII
.

,

145
"" . ,

1516 .
, 1551
"",
. ,

,
,
. ,

,
-, .
,

. ,

.

,

, ,

.

:
, ,
, 77 -
77 ., , XIII
,
.
, , ,
"Ormulum"
(. . 48).

146
,
"", ,
.


. 14 76
(1422-
1491)
. , 1441
- (
), 35 . 1468-
1471
"Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye"
1475 .

"Game and Playe of the Chesse".
,
. -,
,
,
, 1476

.
, ,

.


;
,
.

,

147
, .

.
""
("Eneydos")
,

, , ,

, , ,

"curyous termes" "olde and homely termes"


( -,
.) 78 , ,
, .
.
.
,

.
, .

"Polychronicon".
,
"rude and old englyssh, that is, to
wete, certayn wordes which in these days
neither usyd ne understandyn" (
, ,

) 79
,
.

78 .: . . ... - . 83.
79 . - . 60.

148
(- )
" ".
(
),
, ,

,
-,
, ,
, . ,

, ,
,
.
-,
"neither usyd
ne understandyn",

.
XVI ,
,
.

,

"
" ("inkhorn terms"),
.
.
. ,
,

.
.

149
-

, .

, ,
.
, ,
,

. .

( . . 207 .).

.

,
.
, XVI,
XVII ,
.
:


.
, ,
: book, , boock, , bocke,
boke ..,
book.
.
XVII
,

,

. ( XI
.)

150
.
.
-
. , XIV
,
,
.
(lnglis). ,
.,
( 1316-1395) "". XV
.
, .
,

XIV-XVI .

. .
XVII , ,

(1603 ),
. .
.. .

,

(1 759-1 796).
,
.

..


.
-

151
, , ,
.
,


i
-

.
XVIII
(Cornish), -
, :;
,
.
XVI-XVII iU
,


,

[24].
XVII ,
,
.
CIIIA ,
: 1)
( ); 2)
; 3) --
( "") .

-- -

152
,
-
,
,
.

-
,

,
.
II

1.

,

,
.


. . . sone
[sun~] > son [sn]; . loven [luv~n]
> love [lv]; . dayes [dai~s] > . days
[deiz]; . lokede [lk~d~] > . looked
[lukt] .

.
,

154
,
, horses , bushes
.,

[1z],
,


, -
.


, 3-

washes ,
dresses , catches , teaches
.,
,
wanted , hated , loaded ,
needed . . ,
,

[1z] [1d],
.

-.
-,
,

.
, ,
, ,
,
. , . -

155
book, booke, boke . .
-
,

-s , , -s .
.
house (< . hus), goose (< .
3s), mouse (< . mus)80
-, .

,

.. (. .
64). -
,
, . . .
stone < . stoon < . stan; bone <
. boon < . ban; wise < . wis; mouse
< . mous < . mus; mice < .
mys81 (The
Great Vowel Shift, . ) -
,
- .

80 - ,
, s [s],

, s
[z],
, use (. us)
use (. usen), house (. hous) house
(. housen) ..
s, .
81 , , s
, :g
.

156
11.
1.


,

"
" (The Great Vowel Shift).

. , , ,
.
XV XVII-XVIII .

.
,
.
, -,
,

.
,
[i:] [u:]
,
,

.

82 :

82 ,
.. .
, .
,
. nature [na'tyr].

,
[iu] - [na'tiur].

157
i

* # .

,
,
83 :

: u- uw'-"u '-" au

1
~

ii

83
: ,
-

.
, -
.

158
,

,

,

: , re,
~ , ~ ,
~' , ,
~' i:.
: . Q> Q ; . Q> .


- I .
I
()
j w. , , ,

,
ij < I uw < ii [25].

. ,
,
:
: ij > ~1, , ,
: - ~~ > 84 ,
I

ai au,
i u.
84 ai au XVI ,
.

159

,
, ,
. . ~
i:,
i: i: <~.
i
,
i: < . ~ i,
ij
.

XV , XVI-XVII
, (
},
: , ~ < . ~
XVII
i, ~ XV 85
~ <
. < . Q
ei ou.
,
(. . 158)

:

i: :

1 ou
au

85 XVI ~<~ i < ~


.

160

- i: u: 86
: ei, ai, ou, au.

:

) . > . ~ > ei, .: take(n) >


. take [teik]; . name > . name
[neim]; . make(n) > . make [meik];
) .~> . ~ > i:, . . se > . s~ >
. sea [s1:]; . l~de(n) > . l~d > .
lead [li:d]; . sp~ke(n) > . sp~k >
. speak [spi:k];
) . ~ > . i:, .: . s~ > . see
[si:]; . m~te(n) > . meet [mi:t];
. b~(n) > . [i:];
) . i > . ij > : > ai, .: . child
> . child [tJaild]; . kind
> . kind [kaind]; . write(n) >
. write [rait]; . time > . time
[taim];
) . Q > . Q > ou, .: . stQn >
. stone [stoun]; . gQ(n) > . go
[gou]; . bQt > . boat [bout];
) . Q > . u:, . . f<)d > .
food [fu:d]; . m<)n > . moon [mu:n];
. d<)n > . do [du:];
) . ii > . uw > ~u > au, .: . hous
[hiis] > . house [haus]; . how [hii] >

86 .
, ...
.

161
. how [hau]; . noun [nun]
> . noun [naun].
,


.
,

.


:
,

,
(.
. 209 .).
" "
,
,
:
,
. . it [b1t]
, ite [t] ,met [met] ,
mete [mi:t] , hop [h:Jp] , hope
[houp] , [krep] , [keip]
. .
,

.
, ,
[:], , [1];
k - [ka], [kel]; h[ache]>[e1tJ]; []>[u]; []

162
> [i:]; [~] > [si:]; [v~] > [vi:]; (] > [i:]; (i] > (1] 87 .
,
, ,

88 .

2.
XV
r: er > ar.
, er

.
,
,

. . . far fer >


> . far [fa:]; . ferme > . farm >
. farm [fa:m]; . herte > . hart >
. heart [ha:t]; . werre > . war >
. war [w:J:] 89

87 u [ii].
[] ,
, [u:],
[ju:], .
[ii] ou, ow (. .
42),
[au].
88 ,
, ,
,
: . f [ef], n [en], m
[em], 1 [el] .. [1:], d [d1:], j [d3e1]
. .

89
. . clerk [kla:k] , sergeant [sa:d3~t]
, Derby [da:i], Berkley [:
kli], Berkshire [a:kJi~] .

163
er > ar, .
. XV-XVI ,
,
( spelling
pronunciation),
.; , ,

,
er > ar.
""
er, :;): (. .
171). . university [juni'v:}:siti] ,
convert [ken'v:}:t] , perfect ['p:}:fikt]
8, certainly ['se:tnl1] .
, ar
.
, ar
90 ,

ar > er,
er, ,
convert
depart ,
convert [k:}n'va:t].
,
convertere, er

[k:}n 've:t].
,
, -

90 . ['sa:tnli] ['s~:tnli]; ['sa:


v~nt] ['s~:v~nt] , ['va:siti]
[juni'v~:siti] .

164
. re. . . that [ret] ;
back [brek] , land [lrend] , camp [kremp]
, thank [8re1Jk] , shall Urel]
. .
re
>
re,
. ... re.
-
, > re,
,

re
,

. re
>.


> re,

.
wa,

[::>].
XV - XVI
. .
. . watch [w::>tJ] , what [w::>t] ,
quality [kw::>liti] , water [w::>t:}] 8 91
l
, l.

91
n: g, k,
IJ, n n. . wagon
[wreg\)n] , wax [wreks] , twang [twreiJ]
.

165

.
1

1 > au1, 1 > ou1.
1: ,
, ,
,
1 ,

u 92
au < + 1 ,
au (. . 167),
[~:]. . . cha1k . > .
chau1k [tJ~:1k] > . [tJ~:k]; . ta1k
> . tau1k [t~:1k] > . [t~:k] 93 ; . all
> . aull > . [~:1].
. fall , tall -, call
, hall , ball .
, 1
, m, f, v, au
[:]. . . ca1m [ka:m] -
, pa1m [pa:m] , calf [ka:f] -,
ha1f [ha:f] 94

92 . ,
.

93 1 k (. . 180).
94 -
u -
:
au ,
.

166

ou < o+l ,

. . . folk [fouk] ,
bolt [boult] , holt [hoult] , bowl
[boul] -, < . bolle.

.
95 :

. .

ei
ai } > re1 > ei

iu (eu) > ju:


ou > ou
au > :):

: . wey > . way [wei]; .


day > . day [dei]; . new > .
new [nju:]; . soul [soul]; . autor > .
author [':):~]; . autumn > . autumn
[':):t~m]; . law > . law [1:):]; . raw
> . raw [r:):]; . auction >
. auction [:):kJn].
, ,
,
, -

95 oi,
boil , toil
, point , poison . .,
.

167
,


.
, , rei,
. ei ai,
ei, ,
,
3 , ,
XVI 3 <
. ei 96

ou,
,
, ,
, XVI Q < . Q,

- ,

Q ( )
ou.
,
:

.
~}
1
> rei > . 3 > ei
(XVI )

. ou > . Q > ou
(XVI )

96 3
V.

168
, XVI
,
,
3 , Q (
) r,
-
.
.
r
(. , . 170) 97 ,

,
r
"",
+ ~ < r.

( )
, ,
r,

. ., , . flr >
. [fair] > . fire [fai~], . chair
> . [tJ~r] > . chair
[tJe~], [~]
, ,
r :
. . care > . [k~r] >
. care [ke~ ]; . fare >
. [f~r] > . fare [fe~]
. . . tail [ei] < . [ai]

97
, i u,
.

169
tale : [ei] < . [] . pair
[~] < . [a(r)] pare [~] < .
[a(r)], . fair [~] < . [a.1(r)]
fare [~]< . [a(r)].

ai, , ei,
, [ei] [~] r ,
, ,
-
re. .
. pain [pein] , day [dei] , vein [vein]
, , they [oei] , take [teik] .
[ Q]
[ou] ( ou,
ow] Q , [ou] [~~], [~:] r: .
. soul [soul] , grow [grou] , bone
[boun] :, horse [h~:s] , more [m~:]
, ore [~:].
XVI
r,
.
, r.
r ,
-

, ,
.

, ,
,
r
. , ,
: r > ~r > ~.

170
r ,
:;:),
,

: ir, er, ur > [:;:):(r)]. . . ird


[b:;:):d] , her [h:;:):] , heard [h:;:):d] (<
. herd), fur [f:;:):] .
:;:) < r
. , r
, r
(. . 169).
. . flr > [f:;:)Ir] > [fai:;:)(r)]; .
houre > . [:;:)ur] > [au:;:)(r)] . .
r
,
er. (. . 164),
XV er > ar.

r

[:]. . ,
. fer > . (XV ) far > (XVI )
frer > (XVII ) fre:;:)(r) > (XVIII ) [fa:].
(
, er > ar)
er < ar. -
r er

[:;:):]. . perfect
, certainly ., her
, herd , heard .
XVII
> [],
- (. . 42). . .
cuppe , > . cup [k]; . up ,

171
> . [], . sone > . son
[sn]; . love(n) > . love [lv] .
> [] .
,
.
, ,
,
,
,
. ,
,
.
.

, ,

t [t] , pll [l] , fll


[fl] , bll [l] , bsh [J] ,
psh [J] . . ,
, t [t] (
[b~t]), plse [pls] ,
> []
98

3. .

:
) "3 > d 8.

98 ,

.

172
,
.
3 > 1:

99. . . > . head [hed];
h 3d
. l3d > . lead [led]; . br3d >
. bread [bred]; . d 3d . > . dead
[ded]; . d3p > . death [de8]; . br3p
> . breath [bre8].

, , , ,
,
.
,
, -ing
: . leading [11:-diiJ],
breeding [bri:-diiJ].

lead, breed .

,

: . . . [li:d] -
. . [led], . . [ri:d] - . .
[red], . . [bri:d] - . . [bred] .


,

99 red < . read


, ,
red
read [red].

173
,

, . ,

, .
) u
(< . (.)) > .
. u
k, d
t. u,
. Q
, ( <u)
. .
. book 1t, took . . take
, look , forsook . .
forsake , cook .,
foot , good , stood . .
stand ..
,
.

,
u> ,
> ,
. . .
flood [fld] , lood [ld] , other
[::>] , brother [r::>] , mother
[m::>] . .
u>
u , good flood, stood
lood ., , , ,
> u
. ,
.
, -

174
>
XVII , < : .
good, book, footl 00
XVII ,
> , <
.

:

. XV XVI XVII .
book> [bu:k]> [bu:k]> [bu:k]> [buk]
flood> [flu:d] [flud]> [fld] [fld]

) XVIII-XIX
- re,

:.
.


re > re > : r'
,

- r. .
. hard [ha:d] , part [pa:t] , bar
[:] , car [ka:]
[hrerd], [prert], [rer], [crer].
re > re > :

s, f, 8, t
( st, ft). ., , . past
100 XVIII good, book
, [gu:d], [u:k].

175
, last , fast , after
, path , bath : .

101

+
: ns, mp, nt. ,
,

:

example [ig'za:mpl] , glance [gla:ns] ,


dance [da:ns] , chance [tJa:ns] ,
aunt [a:nt] , answer [a:ns~] 102

111.


.

, XIV -

101 ,
[reft~]. [prest]
. . ,
.
102
[ig'zrempl],
['rens~] . . [ig'za:mpl], ['a:ns~] . .
.

176
XV ,
,
"
".
s, 8, f,
tJ
z, , v d3.
s > z is
, his , was ,
.

: ,
yes, it is [iz],
, .

.
[-Is],
-es,
,
.
[1z]:boxes ['b:)ksiz]
,hrss ['h:):siz] , dayes[' dei~z]
. ,


, horses,
boxes, fishes . (. , . 154).


[z].
[z] -

177
,

: [z] > [s]


.

[ -s/
-z/-iz] : .
books [buks] t, pens [penz] , horses
['h~:siz] 103
8 >
wi th
[wio] , the [~],
3 . . . they - them, 2 . . .
thou - thee, 2 .
. . the - thine,
. . this, that, there
., then .
f > v of
[~v] 104 , ,
-if
: . active , passive ,
expensive , expressive .

.

tJ > d3; .: knowledge < .
knowleche ; partridge < . partriche :
:; cartridge < .-. cartouche .

103 3-

-e(s) [-s/ -z/ -iz].


104 . off, ,
, , .

.

178

: . Norwich ['n~r1d3], Greenwich
['gr1d3], Harwich ['ha:r1d3].

, ,


' 105
' ,

,
. . . night [nix't]
> . [nijt] > [nait]; . right [rix't]
> . [rijt] > [rait]; . bright [brix't]
" > . [brijt] > [brait]; . light [lix't]
> . [lijt] > [lait] .

, ,


f:. . . brought [br~:t] ,
thought [8~:t] , taught [t~:t] ,
daughter ['d~:t~] , , laugh
[la:f] , enough [i'nf] , rough
[rf] - .

: , , ,
,
u,
. . brought (< .
brohte), taught (< . tahte) . . -

105
gh (. . 32).

179

f 106 ,
, ', .

,
:
XVI-XVII daughter
- softer ,
[d:):fta], . laughter
[la:fta] .
XVII
l lk, lm, lv, l
u (. . 166). . . talk
> . taulk [t:):k], . chalk
[tJ:):k] . walk [w:):k] , folk [fouk] ,
calm [ka:m] . palm [pa:m] , half
[ha:f] . calf [ka:f] , .. halves
[ha:vz], calves [ka:vz].
XVII - XVIII
w, k, g
wr-, kn-, gn-; .: write
[rait] , wrong [r:)IJ] , know [nou]
, knee [ni:] , knight [nait] ,
gnat [nret] , gnaw [n:):] .
XVII-XVIII
j,

:
sj > J, zj > 3, tj > tJ, dj > d3. . . passion
106
: ,
.

180
[preJn] , visn [vn] , question
[kwestJn] , soldier ['soulde] 101

-
[3].
XVIII
: , India
, hideous , suit ,
, during
['inda), ['hidas], [Ju:t], ['du:riiJ].
,

. .
['d1], ['hidies], [sju:t], [dju:riiJ]
.. , ,
: . sure
[Jua] , sugar ['Juga] ,
: . actual
- ['rektjual], ['rektJual], mutual
- ['mju:tjual], ['mju:tJual], virtue
- ['va:tju:], ['va:tJu:] .

107 nation , dictation ,


demonstration ., -tion

,
[siun],
[Jn].
III

1.

,
, ,
,
,
.


.


:
,
,
,
- ,
.

.
-

182
.


- (. . 110).

,

,
~ +

,
.

. lack 'tale , lack


'stone .., 'lackboard
; 'red 'breast , 'redbreast
.,
[26].

108
-

108 ,

(. . smal smale, yong yonge),



.

183
-

,
- . . . the yonge sunne
() . the young sun.

more most.


.
, wonderfuller, more
wonderful more wonderfuller
. , ,
,

,

, -

. . . more
wonderful,
most wonderful, longer , longest
happier , happiest
.


2- . . ., thou
(. .
thee)
thy (thine)
.
,

184
thou
you
, .

-
.
, ,

:
you.
,

:
you r
- ,
, ,
,

,
109
,
, ,
(thou-you), -
-

109
2- . .
., , ,
2- . . . ...
. . . thee,

. you,
.. thou,
:

. thou
. thee~you

185
t,
: you, ,
thou. you
2- ,
.

XVI t
its.
t,

his,

t.
,
-

, he-it

-,
,


t t

. his
t

of it, it, , ,
its,
t t

[27].

.

: . . this - . . thise,
thes(e) . . that - . . th Q (<.
) . t
. thQ

186

-s,

110. ,
: . . this, that -
.. these, those.

11.


.


.
:

,
. ..
3ewitan , , . lian ,
, . hatan , ii,
. bodan ,
, . helpan , .
steorfan , . ceorfan , .
110
. . those .. . pas
. , ,
,

, pas
.. this , that
. ,
.

s those [ouz].

187
creopan .,

111

.

: . -ute: distribute
, contribute , -ite:
unite , -ate: demonstrate
, create , concentrate
., .;
-ish: finish , perish ,
. . .

.
, ring
, < . hrin3an . . 1 ., wear
, < . werian - . . 1 .,

.
, ,
, . ring
,

. i +
+ : . drink , sing ,
swing (), spring .

. ,
: ring .
. sing ,
help , carve
: . helpen - halp - holpen, .
kerven - carf - corven.

188

.
wear,
,

bear .


.
,

112

:

. 1 2 3 4

. 1
\/ 2 3

:
: 1 -
; 2 -
; 3 -
; 4 - .

112

: . . . . side - .. sidon,
. . . wrat - .. writon.

189

,

: was - were.
, ,

,
.

. . .
. write - wrote - written, drive
- drove - driven; sing - sag -
sung; drink - drak - drunk .,


: . . writan - wrat - wrlton - wrlten;
sln3an - san3 - sun3on - sun3en.
, .
,

.
.

, . ite - it - it(ten);
slide - slid - slid; win 88 -
w - won; fling - flg - flung
,

, ,

190

: . . bitan - bat - ton - blten;
slidan - slad - slldon - sllden; winnan
wann - wunnon - wunnen; flin3an - flan3 -
flun3on - flun3en.

. ,
, :

. write - wrote - written, ite - it -


it(en), drink - drank - drunk,
cling - clng - clung.
,

-nd (. . 67),
: . find
found - found, wind - wound -
wound; ind - bound - bound.


.
. wri ten -
writen, drunken - drunken, iten - iten
. ,
(

), -

191

.
,

, .
. want - wanted - wanted, look

-
looked - looked ( < . lcian -
lcode - lcod), love , loved - loved,
: seek
, sought - sought, teach
taught - taught, keep - kept -
kept.

,

, .
, , , . beran
, - brer - breron - boren; sittan
- sret - sreton - seten.

,

,
. .,
, . bear - bore - born, tear
- tore - torn, steal - stole -
stolen,
. . .
. . brer, trer, strel, . . .
. . breron, treron, strelon.
bore, tore, stole,

192
,


: beren - brer -
bore(n) - born.

,

,

,
,

,


.


. XVI-XVII
, 1 have took
. 1 have taken 1 taken
1 took.

,
, ,
.


,
:
(Gerund)

193
(Continuons),
do .
1. .
(. . 133 .),
,

, , ,

,

.

- ,
,


, . . he looked at
the writings on the wall
( );
careful writing this dictation
, (); he
likes writing letters (
).

,
,

;
.
2.
.

.

194
.
. he wres feohtende, . "
", he wres sprecende . " "
..

.

,
. ..
.
.
, ,
[28].

- he was fighting . "
"
: he was on fighting .
" 8 ".

.

,
: on > ,
-,
.
:

, ,
.
,

he was fighting,
,

195


113

:
,

, , - ,



,
,
.

,
,
:
. . . writan ewritan ,
sinan asinan .

, ,
,
114
113
+ Present Participle; .
, is amusing she is amusing her
guests ( ) she is
very amusing ( ).
114 .
, : - ,

, , ., - ,
, .

196
-
.

,

, ,


: lndefinite
Continuons ,

[29].
3.
do.
,
do. do
: ,

, , 1 know
not 1 do not know
. XVIII
1 know not . ,
,
,
115
, do

,
. , do

115 ., ,
: 1 shot an arrow into the air,/
lt fell to earth, 1 knew not where.

197
., ,
do
.
,

do
do,

: 1 like not it
1 do not like it ,
not
-

, .,

--

: ne ne
.
.
.,
,


,
, ..
1 like not it 1
do not like it ,
not

.
do
.., -

198
. ,

, 116

: . like you it?
? do you like it? .

,
.

. do.
, like you it?

.
do you like it .
.:

do
, ,

(
), , -
. (
,

).

do -

116 .
: it isn't fresh " " it is not fresh
" ",
,
, .

199
: 1 like it 1 do like it

.
do
,
- .

..


do ,
(
, , .),
,
. ,


.
[30].

111.


. ,

. ,

.
.
.


..

200
- -
.
,
,

,
;

-.


,
.


.
,

, -

. ,

-
- , ,

,
-

. -

201

: . . him puhte
. -

,
...
,
- it: . it
seemed to him .


,
, .

,
.
.

. .,
, .: t
.
. .
:


.,

. . She gave the book


The book was given to the
, The
was given book .
...
. .

, .

202
- ,

.

,
,
,

(
)
.

, :


Him was given book -.

:
- -

- .
The
was given book:
(the ),
(
)
- ,

, -

, ( book)
.
,
(

),

203
: Him was
given book was given book.


,
.
,
:
,


-

.
-
,


,
,

117

.
,

:
118 . 1 saw John 1 looked
117 .
118
,

204
at John , I gave
John book ,
,
, .

, ,

, ,
(
) ,
.
.


,
(, , ,
)

.
- ,

, , .

( ).
,
,

(. 108).
~

.
,

205
,

-.


, , -
.

. ,

: Ne
mette herer nan 3ebun land
119

-
. . : ... that no drope ne fille upon
hire brest ...
12.

,
,
.
., .

, -

,
121
119 . . . - . 26.
120 . - . 68.
121 ,
.

206
,
,
.
,
,
; . . hyra ar is mrest on prem
afole Finnas him yldap
,
122

: . . Da Isaac
ealdode... clypode he Esau, his yldran sunu.
... 8,
123 ,
,
.
: who
, which , when , where .

,
.



.

.
r

;

.

122 .. .- . 27.
123 . - . 34.

207
,


,
,

.

,
,
,

.

,

, -
.


Future in the Past,
,
,

() ,
,

[31].


.
IV


<D ,
XV XVIII-XIX

.
,

,
.
<D
,
, ,

, -
.
XVII

.
, -

209

. ,

:

.


,
.. u > ,
r

, k, g n
w r,

f,
.
..
..

-


.
, "
".
.
island ['ail~nd] < . iland,
s
insula .

.

, ..
,

210

.


,
. , ,


-

- ("" ""
), r
( " "),
nd, ld, mb,
.. Cp.cake [keik] , care [ke~] ;
it [b1t] , ite [ba~t] ; tub [t]
, tube [tju:b] ; met [met] ,
mete [mi:t] . , kind
, find , mind , child ,
wild , mild , climb .

. , s
[s] [z] ., , use [ju:s]
use [ju:z] ; house [haus] house
[hauz] , ; this [ois]
his [h1z] .
th,
[8] [], ., , thick [81k]
, , thin [8] , , think
[8111k] , thumb [8m] , this
[o1s] , that [oret] ; than [oren] ; .
: author [' :>:8~] , brother ['r~] ,
father ['fa:o~] . f

211
[f] often [~fn] , if [1f] ,
after ['a:ft~] , , [v] -
of [~v] [32].


"" .
- -,

(. . 155).
gh daughter [d~:t~] ,
light [lait] , night [nait] , brought [br~:t]
, caught [k~:t] .; ""
mb comb [koum]
,climb [klaim] , thumb [8m]
, bomb [b~m] .,
doubt [daut] , debt [det] .

,
,


: . igger , redder ,
sitting , stopping ,
stopped [33].


- ,
, 124
124
,
,
,
: . . , ii, ii; . , s; . z,
~. 6 . .

212

h: sh, th, ch,
ph, wh. :
) h philosophy
, philology , phisics
, architect , chemistry .,

,

(. . 46).
.
) h,
wh, th, ch, sh, .: what , this , short
, teach .


:
) , ,
, meet , feet , moon ,
spoon ;

) : meat , leaf
, soul , out , .

,

. . meet [mi:t] , meat [mi:t]
[mi:] , soul [soul] , soap [soup]
go [gou] .
[au],
.

-

213
,
,


. ., , , ,

[~] [~],
[i:], ai (),
ei () ,
[ei], ou (ow)
, [ou]

.


, ,

,
(. but
[t] , put [put] .), ,
-
(. book [buk] put [put] ,
[u] u).
V




, .
,
(. . 145), ,

.


.
.
. langage ,
lingua
['lreiJgwid3],
- language.
equal [1:kw:;)l]
. . egal, .
equalis .

. adventure -

215
. aventure,
adventure -d-
. adventure < .-. aventure.

: .
,

, advance [~d'va:ns]
() < . avancer; advantage [~d'va:nt1d3]
< . avantage,

ad-.
s
. island < .
iland ,
. insula .
,


XV -XVII -
, , ,

,
,
, , ,
. ., , . violin
, opera , aria , duet , finale
, solo , studio , fresco ,
macaroni , gondola ,
umbrella , volcano .


216
. ,
,

. ., , . armada
, banana ,bravado , cargo
, , canoe , chocolate ,
cigar , cork -, fandango (
), maize , negro (. ""),
tobacco , tomato .
XVI-XVII


,

,
,
,
.. ., , boyar ,
Cossack , muzhik , voivoda ,
tsar , altyn , roule , copeck
, verst , poud , telega , samovar
, vodka , kvass .
,
,

: ,
, ,
. ""
"" ,
,
,
. . ., ,
- : moccasin

217
, squaw , toboggan ,
wigwam .
, , boomerang
, kangaroo .,
, zebra ,
chimpanzee . . .
: brahman , calico ,
cashemere , bungalo , jungle
, rajah , rupee .;
bamboo , cookatoo ,
gong , orangoutang . .
XVIII-XIX
,
-
- .

,

.
,
,

,

, .


,
, .

: telephone , telegraph
, telescope , microscope
.,
: telephone = tle
phon , ~graph= ~ grapho , ~
gramma = ~ , ~ scope= ~ scopeo

218
, microscope = micros
scopeo , .



.


. , ,


.



. ,
,



.
,
,
, - . .,
, , : re-read
, re-tell ,re-new
(.) re-

; readale , eatale

219
?J ., (.)
- l .
-er < . -ere < . -
arius .

,
,

. , ,
-ess,
,
(. actress ,
mistress , goddes , lioness
, tigress . .),
-in (. . 3ydin
), -ster ( sprinster
, ,
spinner ).


,

.


, ,

,
(, )
: ., , . father .
paternal (.) , fatherly; .
mouth . oral , sun ,
solar , sunny
:
sunny day , the solar system

220
.
: see
vision , . .
,

, ,

. ,


, .


,
. ,
,
.
., , motion [mouJn],
, , -tion,
, , ,
demonstration , celebration
, creation .,
,
.
present
presence ,

,
125

125 ,
,
[t] - [s], use [ju:s]
use [ju:z] ,
[s] [z].

221

.

.

, ,


: . . ' rlsan ,
on '3innan , 3 ' : .


,
. , ,
se'soun

'sesoun > . 'season ,


.
, ,

, .
, ,
-

. on'innan (. be'gin), be'cuman


(. ') .,

:

. . pre 'sent , de 'fend


, of'fend .
,
,
.

222


,

, ,
,

.
, ,
, ,

. . organi'zation ,
moili 'zation , demon 'stration
, cele 'ration .

,
[E~:ganai 'zeiJn],
[E~ilai'zeiJn] ..

:, . . West-s
nor-manh, steor'-or'd, hor's-hwrei.

:
,
,
.

223

1. IX .

- , ;
872 . .
:

. (" ")

.
2. " "

(

).
.
, .-. -


.
3. " " ,
, ,
(Danelaw)
, ,
. . .
,
(, , )
,
, , ..

"-" .
,

,
(. . 22).
4.

.: .- . .
. - ., 1955. - . 22 .

.

5.
,


-
( ).

(, , ,
)
(
),


.

6.
,


(. . 143).

225
7. . .:
. .

. 11 . ,
. -. . - . 2. - 1951.
, ..
, ,


() (
. .) .
, ..,
, '

.
.

(
) ,
(.. , , ),

. , ,
.


,
(. . 128
. . . .),

. ,
,

, (
, )
-

226
,
(.
~ 113 -es
.. ). ,

, ,

. . , -
.

8. ,

I,

(. . 77).
.
9. ,

(.
. 77). ,
, i
, (
, ij uw),
(.: Trnka . Phonemic Aspect
of the Great Vowel Shift 11 Melanges de
linguistique et de philologie Fernand Mosse in
memoriam.- Paris, 1959.- . 440-443.
10. , . .
,

,

. ,
(),

227
,
. .
,

(.: . .
. - ., 1991).
11. . . ,


. ,
, : " 7
~

(. . 21 .
. - .. .),

: , -
" ( . . ". . - . 171).
12.

mpte
mod , . ,
,

( ).
: "
,

, ,

" ( . . ". . -
. 17), . . mete () = mod ().
13. ,
,

228
better ( ),
, Peter (
)
. ,
. . ,
():
,
- (
.:
. .
. - ., 1976. - . 66
.).
14.

.
:
(,
)
(better , it ::, pit ),
(, ,
) (Peter, ),
(peach :).
,

.
,

, ,
(.: . . .
. - . 77-87).
15. ,

229
,
.

16.
dai , sale ,
i , ,
j w
; , ai

.

growan, . . .
i

.
. .
"
" ( , 1946. -
N!! 2.- . 81-90).

.
17.
(
) ,
- .
. 1 . .
( -
), . .
: sonne priste, the
sterre light, lady grace.
-es . . . 1
. . ..

230
18. -, ,
. . .
lore .
, , fatnesse , ,
huntinge , , ,
maide , , .
miden, ..
-
governeresse ,

curtaisie , .
, regne of Femenie
_
. . (
regne - . .).
19. (. 186) . .
, those
.. .

,
this -
these, that - those
(. these
give us rest, and those give us energy
, - ). ,

(. . 7).
20.
. .: . .
. - ., 1959. - . 124 .
21.
. . .:
. - . 62-99.
.: . . -

231
-
11 -
. - . 2.
.- ., 1977. - . 5-127.
22. -

-

, ,
1 3 .
, , get
- got - got (
) meet - met - met (
1- , . . 69 .
.). , ,

. . . 11
: .
(keep
- kept - kept)
(kiss
- kissed [t] - kissed [t]).
kisst.
23. -(e)s
3- . . . 2- . .
. ( -(e)st). "

(. .-. gefr - 2- 3- .
gefa ). , ,
-( )s 3 .
.

232
24. -
(Eire),
1937-1949 .
25. ,
,
i [ij] u [uw] (.
. 9).
'> j ix't (. . 179 . .);
night (iX' > ij)
nine (I > ij)
.

26.

, ,

.

; . word
and phrasal stress
, word
, word(- )stress, word(-)
; . .
: .: . .
. - ., 1956. - . 114-134.
2 7. it

,

28.
.: .-

233
. . -
// -
. - . 2.
. - ., 1977. - . 88-99.
29.
.: . .
. - . 316
.

30.

. .: . .
.- . 89 .
31. Future in
the Past .: .
. . . -
. 335 .
32.



.
, /f/ /v/
: . .
. ferry .,
offer , safe
very , over , save .
/8/ //
, //

(. . 178 . .), /8/


ether /8/ , ethic /8/

234
(. heathen joj , heather joj
). , /z/

zeal , zero ,
z.
33.

(. . 13)
.



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- ~
. .

30.11.10.
6084/16. .
. . .13,72. .
1000 . N!! - 010-11

~.109147, , -14,
., 9 -505.

000 ~ ~, 119234, , / 587.


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