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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2014)

Analytical Approach to Study Effect of Shear Wall on Flat Slab & Two Way Slab

Sumit Pawah 1 , Vivek Tiwari 2 , Madhavi Prajapati 3

1 Asst. Professor, 3 M.E. Student, CED, AIT Ujjain M.P., India

2 Asst. Professor CE-AMD, SGSITS, Indore M.P., India

AbstractSlab directly supported on column termed as flat slab. The present objective of this work is to compare behavior of flat slab with old traditional two way slab along with effect of shear walls on their performance. The parametric studies comprise of maximum lateral displacement, storey drift and axial forces generated in the column. For these case studies we have created models for two way slabs with shear wall and flat slab with shear wall, for each plan size of 16X24 m and 15X25 m, analyzed with Staad Pro. 2006 for seismic zones III, IV and V with varying height 21m, 27 m , 33 m and 39 m. This investigation also told us about seismic behavior of heavy slab without end restrained. For stabilization of variable parameter shear wall are provided at corner from bottom to top for calculation. Results is comprises of study of 36 models, for each plan size, 18 models are analyzed for varying seismic zone.

KeywordsAxial Forces, Flat Slab, Lateral Displacement, Seismic Zones, Shear Wall, Two way slab, Storey Drift.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Infrastructure development is aimed to utilize the available resources to their optimum levels, may the resources be in terms of economy or in terms of space. When the space criterion comes into picture, the utility of maximum space and aesthetics is the main concern of present day architects and designers. The slab that satisfies architectural demand for better illumination, requires simple formwork that can be removed faster (than other slabs ) and guarantees open vision while making optimum use of the available space leads to an admired concept in field of structural engineering i.e reinforced concrete flat slab. Thus flat slabs give an economical alternative in utilizing the internal space to maximum extent. Flat slab is provided in malls, theatres and other structures where large beam free spaces are required. But today shear walls are compulsory for flat slab construction when earthquake resistance is considered. Flat slab structures in areas of low seismicity (Zone I& II) can be designed to resist both vertical and lateral loads as permitted by code IS 1893 Part1:2002. However for areas of high seismicity (Zone III, IV & V) code does not permit flat slab construction without any lateral load resisting system.

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This undesirable behavior is mainly due to the absence of deep beams and/or shear walls in the flat slab system which generally gives rise to excessive lateral deformations. Hence, it becomes more important to give further attention to the study of this structurally appealing system, yet controversial in terms of its seismic efficiency, reliability and vulnerability. However, flat slabs are susceptible to significant reductions in stiffness as a consequence of slab cracking that can arise from construction loads, service gravity loads, temperature and shrinkage effects, and lateral loads . Hence in regions of high seismic risk, flat slab construction should only be used as the vertical load carrying system in structures braced by frames or shear walls, which are responsible for the lateral capacity of the structure

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

S. Bhat et.al [1] comparative study on the earthquake behavior of buildings with and without shear wall using STAAD PRO. S.D.Bothara et.al [2] studies about comparative effect of earthquake on flat slab & Grid floor system consisting of beam spaced at regular intervals in perpendicular directions, monolithic with slab. A. B. Climent [3] investigates the effective width of reinforced concrete flat slab structures subjected to seismic loading on the basis of dynamic shaking table tests. The study is focused on the behavior of corner slab column connections with structural steel I- or channel-shaped sections (shear heads) as shear punching reinforcement. To this end, a 1/2 scale test model consisting of a flat slab supported on four box-type steel columns was subjected to several seismic simulations of increasing intensity. It is found from the test results that the effective width tends to increase with the intensity of the seismic simulation, and this increase is limited by the degradation of adherence between reinforcing steel and concrete induced by the strain reversals caused by the earthquake. Also, significant differences are found between the effective width obtained from the tests and the values predicted by formula proposed in the literature.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2014)

These differences are attributed to the stiffening effect provided by the steel profiles that constitute the punching shear reinforcement. P. P. Chandurkar et.al [4] focuses on to determine the solution for shear wall location in multi-storey building. Effectiveness of shear wall has been studied with the help

of four different models. Model one is bare frame structural system and other three models are dual type structural system. An earthquake load is applied to a building of ten stories located in zone II, zone III, zone IV and zone V. Parameters like Lateral displacement, story drift and total cost required for ground floor are calculated in both the cases replacing column with shear wall.

M. A. Eebrik [5]{a} discussed about Flat-slab RC

buildings exhibit several advantages over conventional moment-resisting frames. However the structural effectiveness of flat-slab construction is hindered by its alleged inferior performance under earthquake loading. This is a possible reason for the observation that no fragility analysis has been undertaken for this widely-used structural system. This study focuses on the derivation of fragility curves using medium-rise flat-slab buildings with masonry infill walls. The developed curves were compared with those in the literature, derived for moment-resisting RC frames. This study also concluded that earthquake losses for flat-slab structures are in the same range as for moment-resisting frames for low limit states, and considerably different at high damage levels. M. A. Eebrik [6]{b} focuses on the study of earthquake records compatible with the design spectrum selected to represent the variability in ground motion. Inelastic response-history analysis was used to analyze the random sample of structures subjected to the suite of records scaled in terms of displacement spectral ordinates, whilst monitoring four performance limit states. The fragility curves developed from this study were compared with the fragility curves derived for moment-resisting RC frames. The study concluded that earthquake losses for flat-slab structures are in the same range as for moment-resisting

frames.

M. A. Eebrik [7] discussed about loss estimation

analysis of flat-slab structures, a reinforced concrete structural form that exhibits behavior and response patterns distinct from conventional moment frames. The fragility information obtained for flat-slab structures presented in a companion paper is implemented into software HAZUS. The latter program includes many existing structural types, but does not deal with flat-slab structures.

After implementation, the earthquake losses in flat-slab buildings are predicted in comparison with the existing structural types in software HAZUS by using different

scenario earthquakes for a selected study region. The prediction results are consistent with the seismic response characteristics of the compared structural types.

J. C. Ezeh et.al [8] studied on the stability analysis of

orthotropic reinforced concrete shear wall panel with all edges simply supported by the application of Ritz method. The study was carried out through a theoretical formulation based on applying polynomial series deflection function in

Ritz method. The polynomial series as used here was truncated at the fifth term, which satisfied all the boundary conditions of the panel and resulted to a particular shape function for simply supported edges (SSSS) panel. Orthotropic parameter ratios of flexural plate rigidities in x, y and x-y directions to flexural plate rigidity in x direction are 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1 respectively. The critical buckling load obtained herein based on this orthotropic.

E. S. Finzel et al[9] The timing of initiation of flat-slab

subduction beneath southern Alaska and the upper plate record of this process are not well understood. We explore the record of flat-slab subduction in southern Alaska by integrating stratigraphic, provenance, geochronologic, and thermo chronologic data from the region directly above and around the perimeter of ongoing flat-slab subduction. U. Gupta et.al [10] studies about flat slab building structures which are more significantly flexible than traditional concrete frame/wall or frame structures, thus becoming more vulnerable to seismic loading. Therefore, the characteristics of the seismic behavior of flat slab buildings suggest that additional measures for guiding the conception and design of these structures in seismic regions are needed. To improve the performance of building having flat slabs under seismic loading, provision of part shear walls is proposed in the present work. The object of the this work is to compare the behavior of multi-storey buildings having flat slabs with drops to the two way slabs with beams and to study the effect of part shear walls on the

performance of these two types of buildings under seismic forces. This work provides a good source of information on the parameters lateral displacement and storey drift.

S. W. Han et.al [11] told about the effective beam width

model (EBWM) used for predicting lateral drifts and slab moments under lateral loads. They also studies on slab stiffness with respect to crack formation. This studies developed equations for calculating slab stiffness reduction factor by conducting nonlinear regression analysis using stiffness reduction factors.

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V. R. Harne [12] in this paper, therefore, main focus is

to determine the solution for shear wall location in multistory building. A RCC building of six storey placed in NAGPUR subjected to earthquake loading in zone-II is considered. An earthquake load is calculated by seismic coefficient method using IS 1893 (PARTI):2002. These analyses were performed using STAAD Pro. A study has

been carried out to determine the strength of RC shear wall of a multistoried building by changing shear wall location. Three different cases of shear wall position for a 6 storey building have been analyzed. Incorporation of shear wall has become inevitable in multi-storey building to resist lateral forces.

E. Humphreys[13] studies about flat subduction of the

Farallon plate beneath western USA during the Laramide orogeny was caused by the combined effects of oceanic plateau subduction and unusually great suction in the mantle wedge, the latter being a result of rapid slab sinking during the Sevier-Laramide orogeny. Once in contact with basal North America, the slab cooled and hydrated the lithosphere. Upon removal, asthenospheric contact with lithosphere resulted Magmatic production that was especially intense where the basal lithosphere was fertile (in what now is the Basin and Range), and the heated

lithosphere was weakened. This made the base of western USA lithosphere convectively unstable and small-scale convection has affected many areas. With slab sinking and the unloading of the continent, the North America elevated into a broad plateau, and the weak portion gravitationally collapsed. With development of a transform plate boundary the western part of the weak zone is partly entrained with the Pacific plate and deformation is dominated by shear.

J. M. Babaso[14] studies about the Performance of

Steel Plate Shear Wall during Past Earthquakes events and

also study the testing on steel plate and also the different case study of SPSW system.

R. K. Makode et.al [15] discussed about the flat slab

buildings in which slab is directly rested on columns, have been adopted in many buildings constructed recently due to the advantage of reduced floor to floor heights to meet the economical and architectural demands. V. C. MANEA et.al [16] shows recent seismic and magnetotelluric experiments, aimed at better characterizing the shape and state of the sub ducting slab and continental crust beneath Central Mexico, exposed significant differences with conclusions of previous studies. A new slab geometry is revealed in which the sub ducting Cocas slab is perfectly flat.

Y. Mirzaei et.al [17] studies about the column failure

due to an explosion can propagate in the structure through punching shear failure at the location of the neighboring

columns, leading to progressive collapse. An analytical model is developed to be used in a finite element model of flat plate/slab structures to estimate the initiation of punching shear failure as well as post-punching shear response using ABAQUS.

M. A. Musmar[18] The present work adopts nonlinear

finite element analysis using solid65 element. The analysis comprises both material and geometric nonlinearities. Solid65 element models the nonlinear response of concrete material based on a constitutive model for the triaxial behavior of concrete after Williams and Warnke. Five shear wall models with different opening sizes are analyzed. A sixth model of a solid shear wall is also presented to compare the analysis results. The paper studies the effect of the size of the openings on the behavior of the reinforced concrete shear walls. The study indicates that openings of small dimensions yield minor effects on the response of shear walls with respect to both normal stresses along the base level of shear walls and maximum drift. Cantilever behavior similar to that of a solid shear wall takes place and analogous to that of coupled shear walls. On the other

hand, when openings are large enough, shear walls behave as connected shear walls, exhibiting frame action behavior. S. K. Mohammed et.al[19] studies about A comparison of structural behavior in terms of strength, stiffness and

damping characteristics is done by arranging shear walls at different locations/configurations in the structural framing system. The elastic (response spectrum analysis) as well as in-elastic (nonlinear static pushover analysis) analyses are carried out for the evaluation of seismic performance. The results of the study indicate that the provision of shear walls symmetrically in the outermost moment resisting frames of the building and preferably interconnected in mutually perpendicular directions forming a core will lead to better seismic performance.

K. S. Patil et.al [20] study about optimum design of

reinforced concrete flat slab with drop panel according to the Indian code (IS 456-2000) is presented. The objective function is the total cost of the structure including the cost of slab and columns. The cost of each structural element covers that of material and labour for reinforcement, concrete and formwork. The structure is modelled and analyzed using the direct design method. The optimization process is done for different grade of concrete and steel. The comparative results for different grade of concrete and steel is presented in tabulated form.

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Optimization for reinforced concrete flat slab buildings

is illustrated and the results of the optimum and

conventional design procedures are compared. The model

is analyzed and design by using MATLAB software.

Optimization is formulated is in nonlinear programming

problem (NLPP) by using sequential unconstrained minimization technique (SUMT).

K. S. Patil et al [21] Sequential unconstrained minimization technique (SUMT) is used for the solution of

a comprehensive minimum cost design problem

formulation. The formulation, based on Indian codes of practice (IS 456-2000), Solutions to the nonlinear programming problem are obtained with an appropriate computer program, This is used for solving a wide range of

typical flat slab designs with varying span-to-depth ratios,

live and dead loads, different grades of concrete and steel.

A related sensitivity study enables the comparison of

optimal and standard solutions. The different conditions of flat slabs are analyzed and design by using MATLAB software.

K. M. Pathan et.al [22] It has been observed that the

shear wall, if not used for full height of the structure, are

also have same effectiveness in resisting the lateral loads. Here, an attempt is made to work out the height of Shear walls which will be just sufficient in resisting the lateral

loads as good as the shear walls having full height equal to

the height of the structure itself.

H. Rahangdale et.al [23] Study of G+5 Storey building

in Zone IV is presented with some preliminary

investigation which is analyzed by changing various

position of shear wall with different shapes for determine parameter like axial load and moments. This analysis is done by using Standard package STADD-pro.

V. K. Rahman1 et.al [24] The aim of this work is to

design R.C.C. as well as pre-stressed concrete flat slabs for various spans and then compare the results. Programming

in MS EXCEL is done to design both types of flat slabs.

The idea is to reach a definite conclusion regarding the superiority of the two techniques over one another. Results

reveal that a R.C.C. flat slab is cheaper than pre-stressed concrete flat slab for smaller spans but vice versa is true for larger spans.

S. RAO et.al [25] presents the punching shear strength

of high performance concrete (HPC) two way slabs under

simply supported edge condition. Three number of HPC slabs and three numbers of normal concrete slabs as control specimens were cast and tested. All the slabs were tested under a central patch load, the results showed that the HPC slabs posses higher energy absorption, better performance, higher punching shear strengths than the control specimens.

247

Ramos, et.al [26] studies about the punching failure mechanism results from the superposition of shear and flexural stresses near the column, and is associated with the formation of a pyramidal plug of concrete which punches through the slab. It is a local and brittle failure mechanism. The present work reports the experimental analysis of reduced scale pre-stressed flat slab models under punching. K. S. Sable et.al [27] focuses on tall commercial buildings are primarily a response to the demand by business activities to be as close to each other, and to the city centre as possible, thereby putting intense pressure on the available land space. Structures with a large degree of indeterminacy is superior to one with less indeterminacy, because of more members are monolithically connected to each other and if yielding takes place in any one of them, then a redistribution of forces takes place. Therefore it is necessary to analyze seismic behavior of building for different heights to see what changes are going to occur if the height of conventional building and flat slab building changes. Bhunia et.al [28]In this paper, therefore, main focus is to determine the solution for shear wall location in multi- storey building based on its both elastic and elasto-plastic behaviours. An earthquake load is calculated and applied to a building of fifteen stories located in zone IV. Elastic and elasto-plastic analyses were performed using both STAAD Pro 2004 and SAP V 10.0.5 (2000) software packages. Shear forces, bending moment and story drift were computed in both the cases and location of shear wall was established based upon the above computations. J. Sabouri et.al[29] this paper is to develop energy dissipation along with the wall height. Such shear walls concerning the architectural design limitations are lower than the normal shear walls. In this research, the above- mentioned shear walls have been examined under the same conditions and a comparative study has been carried out concerning some parameters such as strength, stiffness, lateral displacement, cracking development and steel weight. Moreover, shear walls have been compared through considering the ratio of strength to steel weight and their ductility and the results revealed that slit and coupled shear walls showed more favorable performance. S. J. Sardar et.al [30] study of 25 storeys building in zone V is presented with some investigation which is analyzed by changing various location of shear wall for determining parameters like storey drift, storey shear and displacement is done by using standard package ETAB. Creation of 3D building model for both linear static and linear dynamic method of analysis and influence of concrete core wall provided at the center of the building.

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T. Srikanth et.al [31] study their response under seismic

conditions and to evaluate seismic retrofit schemes. Two- dimensional nonlinear push-over analysis is carried out on

a typical flat slab building. The building considered is

designed only for gravity loads and wind loads. Comparison with similar conventional beam-column frames shows that the flat slab buildings have low lateral

stiffness, low drift capacity and have hardly any ductility, while the over strength is of similar order.

A. A. Sathawane et al [32]The aim of the project is to

determine the most economical slab between flat slab with

drop, Flat slab without drop and grid slab. The proposed construction site is Nexus point apposite to Vidhan Bhavan and beside NMC office, Nagpur. The total length of slab is 31.38 m and width is 27.22 m. total area of slab is 854.16 sqm. It is designed by using M35 Grade concrete and Fe415 steel. Analysis of the flat slab and grid slab has been done both manually by IS 456-2000 and by using software also. Flat slab and Grid slab has been analyzed by STAAD PRO. Rates have been taken according to N.M.C. C.S.R It is observed that the FLAT slab with drop is more economical than Flat slab without drop and Grid slabs.

S. Satpute et.al [33] The scope of the present work was

to study seismic responses of the ten storey RC shear wall

building with and without opening. Developed mathematical modeling and analyzed the reinforced concrete shear wall building by using different nonlinear methods (time history and pushover method). These methods differ in respect to accuracy, simplicity, transparency and clarity of theoretical background. Non- linear static procedures were developed with the aim of overcoming the insufficiency and limitations of linear methods, whilst at the same time maintaining a relatively simple application. All procedures incorporate performance-based concepts paying more attention to damage control. Analysis is carried out by using standard package SAP2000. The comparison of these models for different parameters like displacement, storey drift and base shear has been presented by RC shear wall building

with and without opening.

P. V. Sumanth Chowdary et.al [34]we are study the

solution for shear wall location and type of shear wall in seismic prone areas. The effectiveness of RCC shear wall building is studied with help of four different models. Model one is bare frame system and remaining three types are different shear wall buildings. An earthquake load is applied to 8 storey building located in different zones. The performance of building is evaluated in terms of lateral displacements of each storey. The analysis is done by using structural finite element analysis (SAP2000) software.

A. Soltani et al[35]studies about numerical implementation of three different modeling techniques of RC shear walls into the OpenSEES software. These models

contain fiber section model, flexure-shear interaction model and cyclic softened membrane model (CSMM). The models are evaluated by the numerical simulation of a test case study reported in the literature.

V. K. Tilva et.al [36] studies about to avail a cost

comparison between flat slab panel with drop and without

drop in four storey lateral load resisting building for analyzing punching effect due to lateral loads. On the basis of permissible punching shear criteria according to IS 456, economical thickness of flat slab with drop and without drop are selected and cost comparison is done by using S.O.R. (Schedule Of Rates 2008-09).

S. R. Thorat et.al [37] studies the dynamic behavior of

reinforced concrete frame with and without shear wall and

concrete braced frame. The purpose of this study is to

compare the seismic response of above structural systems. Axial forces and moments in members and floor displacements will be compared.

N. V. Ramana et al[38] experimental study about High

Performance (HPC) Concrete in punching shear. Two way slabs are cast and tested to know the behavior of HPC slabs

in punching shear. In addition to this control slab specimens (RCC) are prepared with conventional concrete and compared the strength results with HPC slabs. In this paper experimental work procedure and analysis presented

in detail. The experimental result shows that, the HPC slab specimens exhibit good strength results than the RCC slab specimens

M. Varma et.al [39] Present paper gives a method

designated as Equivalent Load Method, in which equivalent load is calculated using Grashoff-Rankine formulae, and is considered to be acting on the slab. The deflection calculated using equivalent load method is found to be closer to experimental values. The negative deflection has been tackled in literature by applying a factor of 0.7 to cracking moment (M r ). The deflection thus calculated again

differs considerably with the experimental values. In the paper, with the method, a procedure has been proposed in which instead of the factor 0.7 being applied to Mcr; cracking moment of inertia is proposed to be used in place of effective moment of inertia. The deflection thus calculated has been found to be comparable with experimental results. Experimental data obtained and data available in literature have been used to validate the procedure. Experimental work has been carried out for two end conditions i.e. fixed supported and simply supported two-way RC slab.

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Six separate specimens were casted for both end condition of different thickness, sizes and for different loads. Widianto et.al[40] Experimental research on 2/3-scale slab-column connections was conducted to quantify the effects of earthquake-damage and low reinforcement ratios on the punching shear strength, and to study the efficiency of various rehabilitation techniques

III. ANALYTICAL RESULT

various rehabilitation techniques III. A NALYTICAL R ESULT Figure.1 Shows Performance of Flat Slab V/S Two

Figure.1 Shows Performance of Flat Slab V/S Two Way Slab using Shear Wall for Plan 16 m X 24 m for Zone III.

Way Slab using Shear Wall for Plan 16 m X 24 m for Zone III. Figure.2

Figure.2 Shows Performance of Flat Slab V/S Two Way Slab using Shear Wall for Plan 16 m X 24 m for Zone IV.

Way Slab using Shear Wall for Plan 16 m X 24 m for Zone IV. Figure.3

Figure.3 Shows Performance of Flat Slab V/S Two Way Slab using Shear Wall for Plan 16 m X 24 m for Zone V.

Way Slab using Shear Wall for Plan 16 m X 24 m for Zone V .

Figure.4 Shows Performance of Flat Slab V/S Two Way Slab using Shear Wall for Plan 15 m X 25 m for Zone III.

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9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2014) Figure.5 Shows Performance of Flat Slab V/S

Figure.5 Shows Performance of Flat Slab V/S Two Way Slab using Shear Wall for Plan 15 m X 25 m for Zone IV.

Way Slab using Shear Wall for Plan 15 m X 25 m for Zone IV. Figure.6

Figure.6 Shows Performance of Flat Slab V/S Two Way Slab using Shear Wall for Plan 15 m X 25 m for Zone V.

Table 1. Effect of Shear Wall on Performance of Flat Slab & Two Way Slab.

Zone

16m X 24 m

15 m X 25 m

Without

With

Without

With

SW

SW

SW

SW

III

5mm-

4mm-

8mm-

7mm-

7mm

6mm

20mm

16mm

IV

7mm-

6mm-

12mm-

10mm-

11mm

9mm

30mm

24mm

V

11mm-

9mm-

19mm-

16mm-

16mm

14mm

45mm

36mm

IV.

CONCLUSION

1. Provision of part shear walls in zone V is not enough to keep maximum displacements within permissible limits, whether it is a beam slab framed structure or framed structure with flat slabs with drop. 2. Replacement of beam slab arrangement by flat slabs with drop results in increase in column reinforcement, however, presence of shear walls compensates the increment resulted, but in larger plans only in all the zones. In case of larger plans increase in column reinforcement is 0.6 to 1 % without shear walls and 0.2 to 0.6 % with shear walls, hence presence of shear walls has significant contribution to column reinforcement in case of larger plans. In shorter plans such increment is 0.4 to 0.7 % without shear walls and 0.3 to 0.7 % with shear walls, hence presence of shear walls has no significant contribution in shorter plans.

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3. From lateral displacement view point, in shorter plans master slave approach may be adopted but in larger plans realistic analysis considering slabs at various floor levels should be carried out. Though time elapsed in analysis increases, however, it is of tune of 5-10 minutes only. 4. From column design view point, with shear walls master slave approach may be used, however, without shear walls realistic approach should be adopted.

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