Thorley
N THIS INTRODUCTORY TEXTBOOK, the
basic concepts of atomic and nuclear
MAI JUN lo
MAI NOV 4 1
MA MAR 22
539 L?7at
6543100
Littlefield
Atomic and Nuclear
Physics
D DDD1 QE1SI.47 A
Hansas city
, lW/e
m Kansas city, missouri
a
ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR
PHYSICS
An Introduction
T. A. LITTLEFIELD
and
N. THORLEY
Senior Lecturers, Department of Physics
University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Copyright 1963
units.
The
quantitative work in the book is consolidated by numerous prob
lems, some of which are worked out in detail. Although many of the
problems amount to little more than numerical substitutions, experience
has shown that they give the student confidence and provide useful ideas
about orders of magnitude.
Sources of information are acknowledged where such material is pre
sented. We have to thank the Senate of the University of Durham for
permission to include problems which have appeared as examination
questions. To our respective wives and also to Miss Jean Hunter and Mrs.
Sheila Price, we have great pleasure in expressing our gratitude for the
care and efficiency with which the manuscript has been typed. To the
?< 65^3100
VI ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
publishers, and especially to Messrs. Horwood and Carpenter, \ve wish to
express our thanks and appreciation for their patience, encouragement
and kindness. In spite of all this help and a great deal of care on our part,
it is almost inevitable that certain errors remain and we shall be
grateful
if these are brought to our notice.
T. A. L.
N. T.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
1.
2.
Kinetic Theory
The Electron
........ 1
20
.....
. . .
6. Quantum Theory 75
7. Spectra 91
.....
. . .
Appendices
Bibliography . . . . . . . .427
Index 42 (
)
Chapter 1
Kinetic Theory
unites with another in more than one proportion, these different propor
tions bear a simple ratio to one another. These were interpreted by Dalton
in 1803 to mean that compounds consist of molecules. These molecules
are composed of atoms of various elements in definite proportions. There
seems to be some doubt which came first, the theory or the experimental
results, but there can be no doubt that one inspired and stimulated the
other.Soon afterwards, in 1808, GayLussac showed experimentally that
simple ratios existed between the volumes of reacting gases. In 1811
Avogadro combined Dalton's atomic theory with GayLussac's observa
tions and suggested that equal volumes of gases in the same conditions of
pressure and temperature contain equal numbers of molecules. From this
it follows that, since 2016 g of hydrogen at s.t.p. (0C and 76 cm of
periodic table was not apparent until the development of our ideas of
atomic structure in the present century.
As these ideas were taking shape in chemistry certain rather abstract
ideas in physics were beginning to emerge. In particular, experimental
evidence began to accumulate which sho\ved first that heat was a form of
energy, and later that light, electricity, magnetism and sound were also
forms of energy. Physics appeared to be reduced to a study of the inter
actions of these various forms of energy with matter. It also became clear
that in all natural processes energy is converted from one form into another
and is never created or destroyed. This is the law of the conservation of
energy; apparent exceptions to the law have often been found but these
were almost invariably due to a failure to take all the factors of a situation
into consideration. Another conservation law concerning momentum,
r
,
applies to both linear and angular momentum, and the study of atomic
physics provides many elegant illustrations of this law.
Kinetic theory based upon the two hypotheses that matter is composed
is
of molecules and atoms, and that heat is a form of energy. On the atomic
scale heat is manifest as the kinetic energy of the molecules in their
random motion. As early as 1738, and well before the precise formulation
of the atomic theory by Dalton, Bernoulli calculated the pressure of a gas
from the mechanical properties of molecules striking a boundary. The
development of the atomic theory in chemistry was matched by a cor
responding refinement of the kinetic theory, especially by Clausius and
Clerk Maxwell.
Microscope
Rubber
suction bulb
Incident
light
very closely to the true conditions. These are that the diameter of a mole
cule is small compared with the distance travelled between two successive
collisions; that the velocities of the molecules are so large that many
encounters occur in a short time interval; and that the molecules are
4 ATOMIC AND NUCLKAR PHYSICS.' AN INTRODUCTION
separated by distances so great that their mutual attractions and repulsions
may be neglected. This last assumption implies that the molecules can
have no potential energy and that all the energy of the gas (i.e. heat) must
appear in the form of kinetic energy. The molecules are also assumed to be
perfectly elastic so that no energy is lost when a collision takes place.
Although all molecules in a gas are assumed to have equal mass, not all,
even at a uniform temperature, have the same velocity. There is a velocity
simplification can also be made by assuming that all these molecules have
the same velocity instead of the distribution described above. This is
known as the 'six stream method' of treatment and provides results
similar in form to those of more rigorous treatments.
Unit
'area
second the molecules travelling towards the right will fall upon this area.
all
per unit volume. The number which will actually fall upon the unit area
of wall will be nv/6. If each molecule of mass m and momentum mv is
reflected without loss of momentum, the momentum change for each
molecule on impact is 2mv since momentum must be treated as a vector.
Therefore, the total momentum change for all the molecules in one second
will be 2mv.nv/6 = mnv^l3. This represents the force acting upon the
unit area and is therefore the pressure exerted by the gas on the wall of
its container, i.e.
where p is the
density, or mass of material in unit volume.
The velocity v
in this equation is not the average velocity given by
v 
Hi
m dv.
6 ATOMIC AND NUCLKAU PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
Returning now to the pressure equation, this nuiy be written as
. .. ,/W ,
(IMv
1
)
of the molecules can occur, and J/l/^ 2 is also constant. This is
It has been deduced using only the principles of mechanics and certain
3 x 224 x 10~ 3
giving v
= 1840 m/s.
Molecular velocities of some common gases are given in Table 1.1.
TABLE 1.1
Molecular Velocities of Some Gases at s.t.p.
pI
gas constant for a mole. Thus we have the wellknown law, pV=RT, for
the behaviour of an ideal gas, and substitution of appropriate data gives a
value of R equal to 198 calories per mole.
Taking equal volumes of two different gases at the same temperature
and pressure we may write
Therefore n n^
ent gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of
molecules.
2d
O
Fig. 1.5 Mean free path.
7rd?vn y
n being the number of molecules in unit volume. This represents
the number of collisions it will make in a distance v. The mean distance
between two collisions, or themean free path, L, is given by
/
2
vl(rrd vn) ll(7rd"n). More rigorous
2
analysis gives L^=l/(v 27r^ n). It
will be seen that the mean free path is affected by both the size of the
molecule and the density of the gas.
gradient has been established as shown (Fig. 1.6). Taking the shaded
/Unit
area
area as unity and using the six streams method of treatment, we see that
a mass of gas equal to pv/6 passes across this area in each direction
per
second. The molecules from above have an average temperature of
KINETIC THEORY 9
9\Ld9/dx, so that the heat passing downwards per second through the
area is (0 + Ld0/dx)C v pv/6, where Cv is the specific heat of the gas at
constant volume. In like manner the amount of heat passing upwards per
second through the same area by the motion of molecules from the layer

at (9LdO/dx) is (9 Ld9/dx)C v pv/6. The net heat passing downwards
per second is therefore equal to the difference, which is
dO _ V dQ
JJnit
area
u is very much smaller than the actual velocity v of the individual mole
cules and amounts only to a drift in the direction of flow. shall have We
pv/6 molecules per second passing upwards and downwards through a
selected unit area as shown. The average drift momentum in the direction
of flow for molecules passing downwards through the unit area is
(n+ L du/dx) pv/6', and for those passing upwards it is (uL du/dx) pv/6.
The net momentum change per second associated with the unit area and
in the direction of flow is ^pvLdu/dx. From Newton's second law of
motion this must represent the force acting upon unit area, so that
F = ^pvLdu/dx. Since viscosity is defined by the??
=
equation ~F j}Adu\dx
and A = l in the case discussed, comparison of these equations gives
For our purpose the ratio y CplC v is important because, as we shall see,
it is closely connected with the
atomicity of a gas that is, the number of
atoms in each molecule of the gas. Thus the atomicities of hydrogen,
carbon dioxide and ammonia are two, three and four respectively.
We shall now calculate y in terms of the atomic and molecular energies
of a gas. Imagine unit mass of gas enclosed in a cylinder by a movable
80 z = 80 1 +p8v. From the atomic point of view this heat must be re
garded as energy supplied to the atoms and molecules of the gas. Suppose
the translational energy of the molecules is increased by SE, and the energy
of the atoms within the molecules is increased by 8e, then 8O l = 8E+ Se.
The ratio of specific heats now becomes
SE+Se
It has already been shown that pV^^Mv 2
and that the total transla
tional energy of the molecules is E=lMv*. We may therefore write
from which
and
$RST+8e
i.io Atomicity
This
If for the present
as helium, neon,
is
rare gases, as
we
argon and krypton,
Q and ..
y 
limit our considerations to
5
=  = 167
3
In order
to predict the ratio of specific heats for diatomic gases a further
it will be realised that only five are essential, the sixth being calculated
from this equation. We
say therefore that a diatomic molecule has five
degrees of freedom, and that we must associate total kinetic energy equal
to fjRT with each grammolecule. This simply means that 8E ^R8T
and 8e = %R8T so that the ratio of specific heats becomes
7
=  = 14
5
TABLE 1.2
1. 1 1. Molecular Heats
Conspicuous success has been achieved by the kinetic theory in pre
dicting the molecular heats of gases and even solids. The molecular heat
is the heat mole by one deg C.
required to raise the temperature of one
A very similar calculation enables these to be obtained for both monatomic
KINETIC THEORY 13
and diatomic gases, As a monatomic gas has three degrees of freedom, its
total energy is
%RT. Recalling that R = l98 calories per mole, the mole
cular heat becomes
#
=  x 198 =297 cal/deg C. This is the same as the
experimental value of 297 cal/deg C for argon. With a diatomic gas having
five degrees of freedom, E =
%RT, and the molecular heat is f x 198 = 495
cal/deg C. The experimental value for hydrogen
is 484 cal/deg C, and
again agreement is
remarkably good. even more surprising to find
It is
that this argument can be extended to solids, in which the molecules are
*'*'**.
A
\/
i
A
Fig. 1.10 Mutual attraction of molecules.
where it is
permissible to use in the correction terms. Com
pV=RT
paring this with the equation determined from experiment, it will be seen
that A^RT, B = ba/RT and C = ablR*T 2 It will be realized that at a
.
Detailed treatment is outside the scope of this book, but the formula
indicates how a force of attraction at moderate distances turns to a force
of repulsion as the distance r between the molecules is decreased.
377 3x21x105
^(32^224 x 10 4 ) x 046 x 10 5
= 95xlO 6
cm.
l6 ATOMIC AND NUCLKAR PHYSIOS: AN INTRODUCTION
Confirmation of this is obtained from thermal conductivity measurements
on oxygen gas. The thermal conductivity K
056 x 10 4 cal 'cm s deg C,
and the specific heat for one gram CV = 0156 cal/g deg C, so that the
mean free path is
3 AT 3x056x1 1) 4
/ rr
4
pvC (324224 x 10 )046 x 10* \ 0156
These show that the mean free path may be taken on average
calculations
cm. A value for d^n may now be obtained using the average
as 13 x 10~ 5
of the above two values, so that
L= 13 x !()
10 5
.. = 25x10* cm 2 .
7T. 1 'J
where N
is Avogadro's number.
In order to determine N
and d separately, a further
relationship be
tween them is required. Such a relation is provided
by the molecular
volume in the solid or liquid state. The value will
depend upon the
closeness with which the molecules are
packed together, but it will suffice
to indicate the order of
magnitude involved. If we assume that each mole
cule occupies a unit cube of side d then the volume of a mole is
given by
d3 N As the specific gravity of liquid oxygen is 114, a mole of
.
liquid
oxygen will occupy 28 cm and assuming the molecules are all
:i
,
touching
we have
= 2 cm
Supporting evidence for this is available from the value of the constant b in
Van der Waals
5
TV,,
= 15 cm 3 .
KINETIC THEORY 1J
This reasonably good confirmation of the first value, so that when a
is
mean value is adopted we have the second equation rfW 22. Comparing
this with rfW 56 x 10 s obtained earlier, we can calculate the molecular
diameter rf = 4x ID"" 8 cm and Avogadro's number N = 3S x 10 23 mole
cules/mole. These are simply indications of the magnitudes of d and N .
Other methods based upon Brown ian motion, surface tension and latent
and d.
heat give similar values for N ()
1.14 Summary
In this chapter we have seen how the atomic and molecular hypotheses
have led to the kinetic theory of gases, which in turn explains a wide
range of phenomena, especially in the field of heat. In particular, it has
shown that heat itself is a manifestation of translational motion of mole
cules. In the final section, we see how estimates of molecular sizes and
thenumber of atoms and molecules in a given volume can be made from
measurements of physical quantities.
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.)
pv = A + Bp\Cp 2
Evaluate the.constants A B and C in terms of the
y
constants of Van der Waals' equation. Find also the temperature for
which the gas most closely obeys Boyle's law.
(A=RT B = ba/RTj C = ab/R*T*
y
and TB = ^/Rb)
1.5 mean free path and thermal conductivity and establish a
Define
relationship between these quantities for a gas. The mean free path for
l8 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
oxygen 10~ 7 m. Calculate the effective diameter of the oxygen
at s.t.p. is
molecule and the number of impacts per second. (35 x 10~ 10 m, 44 x 10)
1.6 Dulong and Petit's law states that the product of atomic weight
and specific heat of an element is constant and equal to about 6*0. Show
to what extent this can be justified using kinetic theory, explaining care
fully the assumptions you make.
1.7 To what temperature would argon have to be raised so that the
molecules would have same root mean square velocity as nitrogen mole
cules at 0C? Argon is monatomic and its atomic weight is 40. (117C)
1.8 Derive an expression for viscosity in terms of mean free path, and
show that for a given gas the viscosity is directly proportional to the
square root of the absolute temperature.
1.9 Establish a formula for thermal conductivity in terms of mean free
path and show that for a given gas the thermal conductivity is directly
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
1.2 At 0C and 76 cm of mercury pressure 4 g of helium occupy
224 1.
Converting these data to m.k.s. units, the velocity at is 0C
given by
3..0'76xl36xlQ3x981
~
4x I0 3 ~224x 10~ 3
= 1300m/s.
Remembering that
^50
/
50= 1300 v 082= HTOjn/s.
1.11 The Crookes dark space will just reach the anode when the mean
free path becomes equal to the separation of the electrodes. We have
therefore to calculate the pressure mean
corresponding to a free path of
KINETIC THEORY 19
25 cm in air. At the given pressure the number of molecules per cubic
metre n is given by
1
025=
at normal pressure /z = 6*02x 10 23 for 224 litres and in one cubic metre
23
n
,602 xlQ
~224xlO 3
The required pressure is therefore
224 xlO~ 3
6
47 x 10~ atmospheres
= 47 x 10~ 6 x 760 mm
of mercury
= 36 x 10~ 3 mm of mercury.
Chapter 2
The Electron
Cathode
Anode^ so;
solution
solution at the anode. Various chemical actions take place at the electrodes
in the electrolytic cell, according to the nature of the electrolyte and the
materials employed as electrodes. These reactions are always due to
oxidation or reduction of the electrode material and the electrolyte.
Faraday discovered the two laws governing the amount of material
deposited during electrolysis. The first law states that the mass m of any
substance liberated from the solution is proportional to the quantity of
electricity O coulombs which has passed through the solution. This may
be expressed as m = zO = z Ct where s is a constant called the electro
chemical equivalent, measured in g/ coulomb, C is the current passed, in
amperes, and t is the time for which the current flows in seconds. Faraday's
THE ELECTRON 21
second law states that the mass of a substance liberated by a given quantity
of electricity is proportional to the chemical equivalent E of the substance,
The combined laws can be written as m = EO/F where F is another con
stant, known as the Faraday constant, such that z = EjF. When m = E t
In the case of silver, for which =10788, and s = 0001 1180, we get
jF = 96560 coulombs/gramequivalent. The best numerical value for F is
96 522, but 96 500 is good enough for most practical purposes. Within the
limits of experimental error Faraday's constant is the same for all ions,
suggesting that each monovalent ion in a solution carries the same charge,
since the number of molecules (and therefore ions) in one mole is the
same for all substances. Divalent and trivalent ions carry two and three
charges respectively. This suggested to Helmholtz that electricity had an
5
'atomic* structure, and the name 'electron for this unit of electric charge
was first used by JohnstonStoney in 1880. No evidence was available at
that time to indicate whether the 'electron* had a positive or a negative
charge. If e is the charge of an electron or ion and N
(Avogadro's number)
is the number of atoms in a mole, the total charge associated with a mole,
The Cu ++ ions are attracted to the cathode and, on giving up their positive
If the electrode is made of material which does not combine with the
22 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
sulphate radical (e.g. a platinum electrode) then oxygen will be liberated
instead according to the equation
discharge. These are indicated and labelled in Fig. 2.2. As the pressure
7
Crookes
Faraday
dark space
dark space
PU ^^ W//X&
Charcoal
WM] nitrogen
fallsfurther the striations spread out and move along the tube, disappear
ing at the anode. Eventually, at a pressure of about 10~
3
of mercury, mm
the Crookes dark space (Fig. 2.2) extends the whole length of the tube
leaving only a slight glow on the cathode which is known as the cathode
glow.
The mechanism of the discharge is complex, and in order to
get a
qualitative appreciation of the process, some knowledge of atomic struc
ture must be anticipated. Some ions are always present in the
gas in the
tube due to radioactivity, cosmic rays, etc. We now know that such ions
consist of negative electrons and positive gaseous ions. Electrons, being
THE ELECTRON 23
much lighter than positive ions, accelerate quickly to the anode, leaving
an excess of the less mobile positive ions in the vicinity of the cathode.
This concentration of positive ions causes a rapid fall of potential at the
cathode. As the accelerated positive ions strike the cathode more electrons
are liberated. These are accelerated in the cathode fall of potential, and
each time one encounters a gas molecule much of its energy is transferred
to the molecule. The gas molecule is then said to be excited, and on
returning to its normal unexcited state loses energy by radiation which
is seen as the negative glow. The spectrum of this radiation is characteris
tic of the gas in the tube. The length of the Crookes dark space is depen
dent on the mean free path of the electron. After passing through the
negative glow the electron is retarded so that its energy is no longer suffi
cient to excite the gas molecules, thus giving rise to the Faraday dark
space. By the time it has traversed the Faraday dark space the electron has
again acquired sufficient energy to excite the gas molecules at the begin
ning of the positive column.
The striations in the positive column can be attributed to the delaying
action of the ionizing process, making it necessary for the electrons to
travel a further distance before they again acquire enough energy to
excite the gas molecules. This is why the spacing of the striations and the
lengths of the Crookes and Faraday dark spaces increase as the pressure
fallsand the mean free path becomes longer. This state of affairs continues
until the pressure is so low that an electron can travel the whole length of
the tube without an encounter, which is equivalent to saying that the mean
free path is just greater than the separation of the electrodes, and the
Crookes dark space fills the whole tube. At this stage a small concentration
of positive ions maintains the potential gradient near the cathode. This
provides the electrons with most of their energy, after which they travel
in straight lines normal to the cathode and remaining electric fields in the
path of the cathode rays. The shadow of the Maltese cross shows in the
fluorescence. Crookes also devised a very beautiful experiment in which a
small paddlewheel with mica vanes ran along glass rails inside a discharge
tube. When the cathode rays impinged upon the upper vanes only, the
24 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
wheel rotated, and reversal of the direction of the cathode rays reversed
the direction of rotation of the paddle wheel. This shows that cathode
rays exert a mechanical force, and so have momentum. They also carry
energy which can be converted into heat by directing them on to a thin
platinum foil which quickly becomes red or even white hot. Cathode rays
are also deflected by electric and magnetic fields in a way which clearly
indicates that they carry a negative charge. What is perhaps most impor
tant of all is that these cathode rays are independent of the material used
for the electrodes and the gas filling the discharge tube. They appear to
be a common constituent of all matter. They are also able to blacken a
2.4 Thomson's Method for Measuring Charge per Unit Mass (e\m)
On reviewing the properties of cathode rays in 1897, J. J. Thomson
proposed the rather startling hypothesis that cathode rays were streams of
negatively charged particles produced at the cathode itself and moving
with high velocity. He devised an experiment by which the ratio of charge
to mass of such particles could be determined. Fig. 2.3 shows a vacuum
tube in which cathode rays streaming from the cathode C fall upon the
anode A. In A there is a small hole so that a pencil of cathode rays passes
on to Bcontaining a similar small hole. The narrow pencil of cathode
rays can be deflected in the vertical plane by an electric field between the
parallel plates, as shown. It can also be deflected in the same plane by a
magnetic perpendicular to the paper. The point at which the cathode
field
given by = E/B, the ratio of the electric and magnetic fields. The velo
v
cities were found to be very high, up to 10 7 m/sec,
depending on the
potential difference F across the tube, since Ve
= \rtw*.
In the electric field alone the particle suffers deflection due to the
acceleration it receives perpendicular to
its direction of motion.
Using
Newton's second Ee = my = 2my/t 2 where y is the acceleration
law,
along the j^axis, m the mass of the particle, y the vertical displacement
when it leaves the plates and t the time it takes to traverse the electric
field. Therefore e/m = 2y/Et 2 = 2y v 2 /El 2 where / is the distance travelled
,
in the electric field. Substitution for the velocity gives e/m = 2yE/l 2 2 B .
Bev = m
r
m
can pass through all three slits to C
and D. Equal potential differences in
phase are applied between A and jF and also between C and D by the
oscillator 0, the
frequency of which is controlled by an oscillating quartz
crystal. C a grid and
is is a D
Faraday cylinder connected through a
galvanometer G
to the oscillator O. When is at a A
potential + with V
respect to F, the electrons leave A with kinetic energy given by l~mv 2 = Ve.
These electrons arrive at C with the same kinetic
energy. If the period of
oscillation T is equal to the time taken for the electron to travel
around the
circular arc from A
to C, the electron will
experience a retarding potential
between C and D
such that will be just unable to reach
D, and therefore
no current will be recorded by the
galvanometer G. This will also happen
whenever the time of transit of the electron is
equal to nT, where n is an
integer. Thus the electron velocity v is given by v = 9r/nT=
6ri>ln where v
is the
frequency of the oscillator and 8 is the angular distance travelled
by the electron. The experiment consists in adjusting the value of the
THE ELECTRON 37
magnetic field B until no current is recorded by the galvanometer G, in
which case the velocity is given by the expressions
Qrv e
v= =r B
n m
from which we obtain :
e Ov
_
m nB'
2.6 Charge on the Electron
Ithas already been shown that the
Faraday constant F is given by
F=N e where is N
Avogadro's number and e is the electronic charge.
Early estimates of Avogadro's number from observations of Brownian
movement enabled values of the electronic charge to be found. Using
recent values for these constants we obtain e = = 96522 ~ 6025 x F+ N
10 23 = 1602 x 10 19 coulombs.
Direct measurements of e, first attempted by Thomson and his collabo
rators, gave values of the same order. Their methods were refined and
developed by Millikan in 1917, who not only proved that each droplet in
integral number of electronic
his experiment carried a charge which was an
charges, but also determined the electronic charge with much greater
precision. This in fact was the first direct experimental proof of the
atomic nature of electric charge.
Millikan's apparatus consisted of two circular brass plates 22 cm in
diameter and 16 cm apart forming an air condenser (Fig. 2.5). The upper
n nvn L'. 
n
11 1 umination 1 1 '
Xrays
plate had a minute hole at the centre through which oil drops, forme.d by a
spray in an upper chamber, could pass from time to time. The oil drops
were illuminated from the side by a carefully collimated beam of light.
This light showed up the oil drops as bright specks against a dark back
ground. The drops were charged by friction or Xray ionization of the air
as they were formed in the spray. They normally fell under the action of
gravity, but could be made to rise again by applying an electric field in a
suitable direction. The electric field is calculated from the potential
28 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
difference (F = 5000 volts) and the separation of the plates (d=l6 cm).
Thus 2
=7/d=SOOO/(l6x 10~ ) volts/m. From observations of the rate
of rise and fall and without the electric field, the electric
of the drop with
charge on an oil
drop was found.
When a drop of radius a (Fig. 2.6) falls under the action of gravity
alone, its weight is ^7ra*pg where p is the density of the oil and g is the
acceleration due to gravity. The upthrust due to the
displaced air is, by
Archimedes' principle, ^a^p g, p being the air density. The retarding
3 3
3 TTa /> g  na /> g
f
VTN
w I
^
enfyavxi
t
xq
Suppose now that under the action of an electric field the drop moves X
upwards with a constant velocity v x Again the resultant force is zero,
.
f7ra
3
(p

Po )g + 67T7]av x = Xq (2.2)
where q is the charge on the drop. From equations and we see
(2.1) (2.2)
that
and therefore
given by
m = e~ e/m
= 1602 xlO 19 ^ 1759 xlO 11
9106 xlO~ 31 kg.
This number only became significant when compared with the mass M
of a single hydrogen atom, which was obtained
by dividing the atomic
weight of hydrogen by Avogadro's number. have We
M= 1008 x 10~ 3
^6025 x 10 23
= 1673 xlO~ 27
kg
M and m we M = l673x!0~ 27
= 1838.
Comparing the masses get
m 9106 x 10~ 31
Thus we see that the electron is a particle having a mass of just a little
more than one twothousandth of that of hydrogen, the lightest known
19
atom, and carrying a negative charge of electricity equal to 1602 x 10~
coulombs.
During the course of these experiments Millikan observed that the
velocity vx of the drop altered abruptly from time to time. This occurred
whenever the drop collided with an ion which changed the number of elec
trons on the drop. It was most significant that for a given drop the velocity
changed by the same amount dv x each time, or by simple multiples of
this amount. As the electronic charge was given by e = 67rr)aAv x IX, this
provided conclusive experimental evidence that the charge on the drop
always changed by l602x 10~ 19 coulombs or simple multiples of this
amount. This clearly indicated that 1602 x 10~ 19 coulombs was the
smallest unit of negative electricity and might well be regarded as the
fundamental charge of electricity, one such charge being carried by each
electron.
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.}
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
^mv = 50QO
2
2.4 Kinetic energy of electron x 16 x 10~ 19 joules
16 x 10~ 19
v
Bev = m
r
Be 2xlO~ 2 l6x!0 19
= l25xlO 2 mor 125 cm.
6nrja
2
677182 x 10 5 276 x 10 6
/1Q 10~ 2 \
19 2
l6xlO 5000M5xlO 78~/
=2 (nearly).
Chapter 3
Natural Radioactivity
3.1 Introduction
Whilst investigating the relationship between Xrays (Chapter 6) and
fluorescence in 1896, Becquerel accidentally found that a photographic
plate was blackened when a uranium compound was placed near
it.
Magnetic field
(into paper)
Radioactive
salt
Lead block
was the time taken by the electron to pass through the electric and mag
netic fields, we see that
2 m
I Bev 1 Be.
and y= 2 m i
~2 ~m
l
I
being the distance travelled by the electron in the electric and magnetic
fields.
34 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
Eliminating t we get
y^ ]^
ry
/'
J
=a constant
e
__2y
2
E 1
Thus the /3rays, which were recorded upon the photographic plate at P,
will lie in a parabola, those with the highest velocity coming nearest to the
force became Bev sin <f> in a direction perpendicular to the plane containing
36 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
B and v. Detailed calculation showed that the electron follows a helical
=
path and this became circular only when # 90. In this case
e v 1
m r B sin 6
=1
~r'B 2
Fig. 3.3 shows how the deflection of the electrons is zero when = and
180 and maximum when 6= 90. Reversal of the electric and magnetic
fields leads to the symmetrical pattern shown upon the photographic film.
The pattern near = and 180 is missing as this would correspond to
infinite value for the electron velocity. Deflections for the intermediate
values of 9 enable e/m to be calculated for a wide range of velocities.
With this equipment Bucherer showed that the relativity formula for m
was obeyed up to 68% of the velocity of light. At
for electron velocities
this velocity the mass increased by 37%. Whilst Bucherer's experiment
did not cover the range of conditions examined by Kaufmann, the pre
cision was higher, so that the work provided a more rigorous test of the
relativity formula.
The rays then passed through a narrow slit S to the photographic plate P
(SP=5Q cm), wrapped in aluminium foil which protected the plate from
light but allowed the arays to pass through and be recorded on the plate.
With no electric or magnetic field between the plates YZ, the arays
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY 37
passed straight along the tube and were limited by the slit S, so that a
sharp line was recorded at O on the photographic plate. When a magnetic
field B was applied perpendicular to the paper in the
of flux density
space between Y and Z, only arays which leave R inclined at a small angle
to RS were able to pass through the slit S and on to the photographic
was given by Bev, and was always perpendicular to the motion. The
therefore moved in an arc of radius r 1? and had an acceleration
aparticle
second law of motion, BEv = Mv /r l
2 2
equal to v .
jrL Applying Newton's ,
E _:&_ ri
M~B2"7f~'
The radii of the paths can be found from the deflections of the beam.
When B was small, sin 6 = 8 = \l\r = OD/L so that r = ZL/Z>Z>'.
In the actual
38 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
experiment three lines were obtained in the place of each of and D' D
when either the electric or magnetic fields are applied. These arose from
the presence of aparticles having three specific velocities arising from the
disintegration of radon, radium A and radium C. The present accepted
value for E\M for aparticles is 482 x 10 7 coulombs/kilogram.
particle
axially into a metal tube T, at the other end of which there was a mica
window M enabling a gas at a predetermined pressure, usually about 10
cm of mercury, to be enclosed in the tube. A potential difference was
applied between T and W such that it was just below the point of dis
charge. When
an aparticle entered the tube it produced local ionization
which caused and was recorded upon the string galvano
a short discharge
meter G. The value of the resistance R was adjusted so that the charge on
W discharged quickly in a nonoscillatory manner, enabling aparticles to
be recorded in quick succession. The deflections of the string galvano
meter were recorded photographically at the rate of 600 to 900 per minute
upon a rapidly moving film. This enabled the total number of aparticles
emitted by one gram of radium in one second to be determined. It was
found to be 370 x 10 10 per second.
Crookes had already shown that, when aparticles strike a screen coated
with zinc sulphide, the energy of the particle was transformed into visible
light. By viewing the screen with a microscope the arrival of each aparticle
was observed as a scintillation. This method was used by Regener to
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY 39
determine the number of aparticles emitted by a gram of polonium in one
second.
This experiment was followed by another in which the total charge
given up in a known time was found. A small known amount of radium
C' in equilibrium with radium C was placed in a small container and
covered with a piece of thin aluminium foil, which absorbed atoms from
which the aparticles were emitted and prevented them from escaping, due
to their velocity of recoil. The aparticles fell upon the collector plate C
(Fig. 3.6) which was connected to a sensitive electrometer. The area of the
rum was identified as that of helium, so that the conclusions drawn from
earlier measurements were confirmed.
throughout the volume of the atom. This was the Thomson 'currant bun'
atom.
Very important contributions to our knowledge of atomic structure
came from investigations of the scattering of aparticles in thin metallic
films by Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden. The aparticles were much
more massive than the electrons employed by Lenard. Deflection of the
aparticles only occurred when they encountered charged particles of com
parable mass, and they were unaffected by any electrons within the atom.
A careful experimental study of the scattering of aparticles by Geiger
and Marsden provided information about the distribution of mass and
charge within the atom and in 1911 led to Rutherford's nuclear model of
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY 4!
the atom. In this he supposed that most of the mass of the atom is con
centrated in a nucleus at its centre which also carries the
positive charge,
the diameter being about 1Q 14 metre. This is surrounded an electron
by
cloud extending out beyond 10^ 10 metre and which makes the whole atom
electrically neutral. Some details of the evidence upon which Rutherford's
nuclear atom is based will now be given.
In the experiment by Geiger and Marsden, aparticles from a source
S (Fig. 3.8) were restricted to a narrow pencil by the hole H in the
screen and fell upon a piece of metal foil F. The scattered aparticles were
has passed out of the effective range of the nuclear coulomb force. The
aparticle has thus been deflected through an angle <. All this takes place
on a scale much too small for direct observation and only the initial and
final directions of the aparticle are observable.
ZMFcos UiU Lf
=
^
Jo
Fcos9.dt (3.2)
,2 I
ZeE ZeE
lMV*p sin = .cos d.d9= 2 cos 
<f>
477^0 4776Q 2
rr_9\
C0t ^ = i
2 b
where b =
q
=~
O 77 nt. cot 2
4 2
(fi
+ Acj) is
given by
Aq Aq Aq
Aa 2Trr'
2
sin <j>.A(f> .
</>
<
TcT ToT 2
2
Q nt / 2ZeE \ ,
<
C SeC
^) 2
* This treatment is
given in preference to the more usual one because it does
not require a knowledge of the geometry of the hyperbola.
44 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
This is Rutherford's scattering formula and inspection shows that the
number of aparticles per unit area dq/da scattered in a given direction <f>
is
proportional to
2 2
(4) the reciprocal of (MF ) ,
i.e. [K.E.]*
square law is valid for distances very much less than the diameter of an
atom, which we have seen is of the order of 10~ 10 metre. The closest
approach will be made by an aparticle approaching headon to the nucleus,
so that p = (Fig. 3.9). If d is the distance of closest approach, the potential
energy will then be ZeEj^n^^d which may be set equal to the initial kinetic
energy of the aparticle \MV* before it enters the electric field of the
nucleus. Thus we have
The aparticles for radium C have a velocity of 21 x 10 7 m/s so that for
gold (Z = 79) we may write
i 0122 x 10
in 27 x 21
A 7 x 10~ 14 =
ini4
79xl6xlO 19 x32xlO 19
i x 67
1
9xl0 9
2x79xl6x32xlO 38 xl0 9
for which d=
67x2l 2 xl0 14 xlO 27
= 28 xlO 14 metre.
Support for this figure is obtained from the data, already quoted, that
only one aparticle in 20,000 is deflected through more than 90 by a gold
film 000004 cm thick of density 193 x 10 3 kg/m 3 Substitution in the .
equation qlQ
= 7Tp 2 nt enables a value for p to be found. Using m.k.s.
units, one mole of gold occupies (197 x 10~ 3 ) f (193 x 10 3 ) = 10~ 5 cubic
metre, and this we know contains 6 x 10 atoms. Thus n for 1 cubic metre
23
...
2= 7 X lQ28
.. =
p 26 xlO
14
metre.
This value must represent an upper limit for the diameter of the nucleus
in so far aswe can attach precise meanings to such quantities. For hydrogen
it was found that the inverse
square law no longer holds for distances as
small as 3 x 10~ 15 metre and Rutherford estimated the nuclear diameter for
light atoms to be about 5 x 10~
15
metre. In the first chapter we saw that
the diameter of an atom is about 4 x 10" 10 metre so that the nucleus is
5 15
only about 10~ of the atomic diameter and occupies only 10~ of the
volume of an atom. Its density must be very high indeed 10 15 times as
great as the densities of the elements we normally measure in the labora
tory and amounting to many tons per cubic inch. Such densities are
46 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
encountered in some stars where atoms are stripped of their electrons and
the nuclei packed closely together.
Referring again to Rutherford's scattering formula we see that for a
given experiment all the quantities are known except Z, the number of
charges upon the nucleus. Chadwick repeated and refined the scattering
experiments of Geiger and Marsden and obtained values of Z for copper,
silver and platinum. These were respectively 293, 463, 774 and agreed
well with the accepted 'atomic numbers' of 29, 47 and 78 which are based
upon the numerical order in which these elements appear in the periodic
table. It follows that we have to identify 'atomic number' with Z, the
number of charges upon the nucleus. It is also clear that Z rather than the
atomic weight should be the criterion in deciding the order of elements in
the periodic table.
a particles lonization
Neutrons Protons
chamber
Fig. 3.11 Discovery of the neutron.
as the Compton effect, which will be described later. The energy of the
incident radiation required to produce protons with the observed energies,
was as high as 55 Mev which was greatly in excess of that normally
emitted by radioactive substances.
Being dissatisfied with the yray explanation, Chadwick repeated these
experiments and later in collaboration with Feather, he replaced the
paraffin block by a small chamber containing gaseous nitrogen. He
measured the range of protons from the paraffin block and compared it
with the range of the nitrogen nuclei in the second series of experiments.
In effect he measured the velocities of the protons and the nitrogen nuclei.
Chadwick then revived the idea, first suggested by Rutherford in 1920, of a
particle having no charge, but of mass comparable with the proton the
neutron. The difficulties, experienced by the earlier workers in accounting
for the energy of the protons, disappeared when it was assumed that the
unknown socalled 'yradiation' was composed of neutrons. The problem
now became one of simple impact using the classical laws of the conserva
tion ofmomentum and energy. Restricting our considerations to direct
or
f
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.)
9
velocity of each particle is l*52x 10 cm/s and is at right angles to the
direction of the magnetic field. Determine the force on each particle.
n
(146xlO newton)
3.2 Calculate in terms of the rest mass m^ the mass of an electron
moving with a velocity of c/4, c/2 and 3^/4 where c is the velocity of light.
(103 m
116 , Q 151 Q)
m ,
m
3.3 In a Bucherer type experiment the plates are 1 apart and have mm
a potential difference of 10,000 volts. magnetic field of A
flux density
2
20 weber/m is
applied parallel to the plane of the plates. Calculate the
velocity of electrons which are able to escape from between the plates in
direction inclined at 30 to the magnetic field. (10 7 m/s)
3.4* In a Bainbridge mass spectograph singly ionized atoms of neon
20 pass into the deflection chamber with a velocity of 10 5 m/s. If they
are deflected by a magnetic field of flux density 008 weber/m 2 calculate ,
the radius of their path and where neon 22 ions would fall if they had the
same initial velocity. (r=26 cm, Ne 22 at 52 cm beyond Ne 20)
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY 49
SOLUTION TO PROBLEM
3.4 For an ion of neon 20 moving in a magnetic field B we can write
mv 20. 10 3 10 5
Be 6xl0 23
008 l6x!0 19
= 026 metre.
In this case roc m and the radius of the path followed by neon 22 is
given by
r2o 20
22
r M 2QxO26
= 0286 metre.
The neon 22 ions would therefore fall 52 cm beyond the neon 20 ions.
Chapter 4
4.1 Introduction
We have seen how the atom consists of a very small massive nucleus
which contains most of the mass of the atom and carries a positive charge
equal to Ze where Z is the atomic number and e the proton charge.
Moreover a and /3particles have been identified as helium nuclei and
electrons respectively. The aparticles, emitted by an atom, can only come
from the nucleus and the nucleus must therefore lose two positive charges
and some mass equal to that of the helium nucleus. Thus, if Z and A are
respectively the atomic number and atomic weight of the original atom,
the emission of an aparticle gives rise to the following changes
Z >Z2
and A >A*t
The change of Z
implies that a new element has been created. In the case
of radium for which Z=8S and ^4=226, a new element, the gas radon,
having Z = 86 and ^4 = 222 is produced.
Z >Z+1
A remains unchanged, but again we have a new element.
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Time days
of the whole was largely due to the thorium X. However, when they were
separated chemically the parent thorium had little activity, while the
thorium X had a lot. With time the inactive thorium increased its activity
due to formation of new thorium X, while the precipitated thorium X lost
its activity by natural decay to thorium emanation which was itself a
Thus,  = XA
dt
(ve sign because loss occurs) where
A is a measure
dt
or
52 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
where A7o = number of atoms at any chosen =
N= number of unchanged atoms at time t
disintegration rate.
6 8 10 12 14 16
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
At is AN, the lifetime of the AN decaying atoms is t and the total lifetime
of all the N Q atoms is simply
XtNtf xt dt
N
dt
rteu ev V
= A
L^ XH
to fall from N=N Q to JV= as shown in Fig. 4.3. Thus in time 7\ one
half of the parent atoms have decayed to daughter atoms, so that for the
halflife 7\, we have
_
T ~
A A
Therefore 2^ = 0693 T.
we get
or lnl\t = m NQAt.
Counting over known intervals t
gives the corresponding Nt values and
In Nt can then be plotted against t as in Fig. 4.4. The slope of this curve
(^\ /
\dt ) \dt '
parent daughter
..
(XN) parent = (XN) daughter for equilibrium.
RADIOACTIVE SERIES AND ISOTOPES 55
If we
are dealing with a long series of disintegrations in a family,
secular equilibrium is set up, so long as each member remains present,
and A^Ag so that N I remains substantially constant. We have therefore
In (N/N )Xt
3
4
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 13
240
9
236 45 xlO Y
675s
ux, *&::$<> un
232
228
224
220
216
212
208
42 m in
200 80
1 1
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97
Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Em Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk
Atomic number Z
The
discovery of these three naturally occurring radioactive families was
very largely the result of the work of Soddy in 1910.
RADIOACTIVE SERIES AND ISOTOPES 57
In these diagrams an aparticle emission
given by a diagonal arrow
is
and a /3particle by a horizontal arrow. After the discovery of nuclear fission
and the production of the element neptunium (93) it has been found that
244
240
236
AcU
3
>*7!3>cl0
232
UY Pa
o^
2565 H
228
Ac Ac
224
S 220
E 'Ac Em
J*3
216 x Mode of
decay
212
AcB ^VlTAcC'
361 mm ^r X^2I6 mn
2l6min
208
AcC" c
\ Pb (stable)
479mm
204
1 1 1 1 !
dUU 1 1 1 1 1
80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 9! 92 93 94 95 96 97
Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Em Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk
Atomic number Z
Fig. 4.6 The Actinium series (A=4w+3).
4.7 Isotopes
Examination and comparison of the three radioactive series found in
nature shows that the same element can have different atomic weights,
each of which is almost exactly integral. The name isotope was suggested
58 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
for these by Soddy. For example the last and stable element in the
uranium, actinium and thorium series is lead but the atomic weights differ
and are respectively 206, 207 and 208, It will be apparent that the frac
tional atomic weights measured in chemistry arise from various mixtures
of isotopes.
244
240
236
232
< 228
JQ
224
g 220
o
"E
2, 216 Mode of
decay
0!6s
212 _ Th B
1067 H
6048
208 \Th C" e^i^^h D
Pb (stable)
3'l min
204
200 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 I ! 1 I I I I
80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97
Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Em Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk
Atomic number Z
investigated, the discharge tube being not unlike that which had already
been used in his e[m determination for the electron. The polarity of the
electrodes of the main discharge tube were reversed and a fine hole, rather
less than a millimetre in diameter, through the cathode provided a fine
RADIOACTIVE SERIES AND ISOTOPES 59
pencil of positive ions instead of electrons. These were subjected to electric
and magnetic fields which were parallel (Fig. 4.9). The mechanical forces
upon the ions were therefore perpendicular to each other. The wide range
of velocity of the ions compelled him to arrange the electric and magnetic
244
I I
/I32Y
240
^462 Y
236 5
22x!0 Y
27 4 D
5
i62x!0 Y
>Th
228
7340Y
Ra
224 148 D
3
C
220
to
o 48 min
E At
216 Mode of
.o
<
o
47 mi
n^
Bi^^Cjftpo
O'OISs decay
212
M2xlO s s
'
x
Bi( stable)
208 / Pb \
22 mm 332 H
204
200
80 8! 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97
Hg TL Pb Bi Po At Em Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk
Atomic number Z
2YM'~M
k being a constant and L being the distance travelled by the ion in the
magnetic and electric fields which were respectively B and Y. Since E
BEv
Photographic
plate
. M
moving in a circular
path of radius R, we see that B'Ev = Mv 2
/R from which M=B'ER/v = kR
when the velocity v is the same for all ions and k is a constant. Isotopes,
which have the same charge E but differing mass M
will follow paths of
different radius and impinge at various points along the photographic
elements, the later and more refined work of Aston, Bainbridge, Dempster
and Nier revealed further very interesting and far reaching results. It was
6z ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
shown that all known isotopes have nearly integral mass when oxygen of
atomic weight 16 was taken as the standard. When the atomic weights of
isotopes were determined very carefully, it was found that they were not
quite whole numbers. By modern mass spectrometry it is found that the
mass numbers of the isotopes of neon are actually 19998769, 21004299,
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.}
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEM
4.4 The disintegration constant A for thorium is given by
0693
A=
N
~TT
0693
1 4 x!0 10 x 365x24x3600
Rearranging N=N Q e~
Xt we
get
loge No loge N
X
9
In the present case N 
9 10
log, NQ  log e NQ log e
A
00453x23
seconds
0693^(1 4 x 10 10 x 365 x 24 x 3600)
00453x23
"0693414 xlO 10
= 21 xlO 9
years.
Chapter 5
5 . i Theories of Light
Light travels from the sun to the earth, a distance of over 90 000 000
miles, through space containing very little material. When absorbed by a
surface it is converted into heat, a form of energy. Energy must therefore
have arrived from the sun across this immense distance. In fact almost all
the energy known to man has been derived from the sun either now or in
past ages. Thus the sun's energy, which millions of years ago was respon
sible for the growth of luxurious vegetation, is now available to us in the
form of coal. To account for this transfer of energy over such a large
distance we must know something of the nature of light. Energy can pass
from one place to another in two ways. The kinetic energy of a moving
body which obeys the laws of mechanics is the essential feature of the
corpuscular theory as advocated by Newton at the close of the seventeenth
century on the basis of the experimental evidence known to him at that
time. On the other hand, energy can also pass from one place to another
by a wave motion. This was the basis of the wave theory of light supported
by Hooke and Huygens. Sound was then known to be a wave motion and
the fact that one could hear but was unable to see around corners proved
to be a serious obstacle to the acceptance of the wave theory of light for
over a hundred years even though it was known that light deviated very
slightly from its straight line path on passing close to the edge of an
obstacle.
A satisfactory explanation of rectilinear propagation in terms of wave
motion was finally given by Fresnel following the discovery of interference
by Young in 1802. In the nineteenth century, investigations of interference
and later diffraction and polarization phenomena all received satisfactory
explanation by the wave theory, which quickly superseded the corpuscular
theory of the previous century. A corpuscular theory has again emerged
in the twentieth century in which photons are used to explain
photo
electricity and the Compton effect (see Chapter 6).
5.2 Interference
Young's experiment consisted of placing two pinholes S 19 S2 (Fig. 5.1)
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM 65
at some distance from
a single pinhole S. A
series of bright and dark
bands were then observed upon a screen placed at P
arising from the
interferencebetween light passing through S 1 and S 2 respectively.
Young's fringes can be readily observed by placing two parallel slits
iSj, S2 (Fig. 5.2) in front of the eye and viewing a single slit S some
distance away, when the actual fringes are formed upon the retina of the
observer's eye.
Two wave trains can pass through one another without suffering any
change. Once they have parted they pursue their respective paths as
ifno encounter had occurred. Since the waves are independent we must
suppose that the displacement of the medium at any point is the
algebraic sum of the separate displacements due to each wave. This is a
necessary condition so that for two waves of equal amplitude there will be
regions of little or no displacement, and also those having up to double
the normal amplitude. Such regions correspond to the bright and dark
observed in Young's experiment. To observe them another
lines or 'fringes'
condition must also be satisfied. A definite phase relationship must be
maintained between the two wave trains. Since a source emits light in
flashes lasting about 10~ 8 seconds, and there is no phase relationship be
tween the flashes of even a single source, the above condition can only be
66 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
by deriving the two wave trains from the same source. Phase
satisfied
changes in. one wave train are therefore always accompanied by cor
responding phase changes in the other. We say that the wave trains are
coherent.
Returning now to Young's experiment we must imagine two wave
systems emerging from S 1 and S% respectively. The crests of such waves
are drawn with continuous lines (Fig. 5.1). In regions where the crests
trough and where such a trough coincides with the crest of the other wave
system there is little or no displacement, giving darkness. It will be
observed that these occur in areas between the bright fringes already
marked. The illumination at a given point P can be predicted by counting
the number of waves m in the path difference S^PS^P. Brightness
occurs when the waves are in phase or in step so that S 2 P SiPmX,
X being the wavelength. Darkness occurs when S 2 P~ S l P=(m + ^)X, so
that the waves are exactly out of step. Calculations along these lines
enabled Young to make the first estimates of the wavelength of light.
5.3 Diffraction
The wave theory of light must also be used to explain the phenomenon
of diffraction. A
simple description of diffraction at a narrow slit is given
as it will be required later. If a series of plane waves corresponding to a
beam of light fall upon an aperture, edges of the wave fronts
parallel
beyond the aperture become curved as shown in Fig. 5.3. As the slit is
made narrower the effect becomes more marked and the beam spreads out.
Water waves in a ripple tank can be used to demonstrate this phenomenon
which is known as diffraction. To understand diffraction we must first
describe Huygens' principle. Any one crest of the waves shown between
S and Su S% in Fig. 5.1 can be regarded as the locus of points having the
same phase. This is also true of each trough between the crests and for all
intermediate stages between these two extremes. A line joining all points
of similar phase is known as a wavefront. Huygens' principle enables the
position of such a wave front to be calculated after a given interval of
time t. To do this we
suppose each point P^PgPg (Fig. 5.3) in the wave
5
front to be a source of so called 'secondary wavelets and the wavelets
,
from each of these points lie on circles of radius ct c being the velocity of
9
light. The envelope E to these numerous circles constitutes the new wave
front. In simple picture of wave propagation we see how the wavelets
this
wavefront AC
can now be divided into two halves, and DC, such that AD
for each point a ly # 2 in the lower half there is a corresponding point
# 2 in the upper half. The disturbances from these points will have a
'
a^,
path difference of exactly A/2 and will cancel on being brought to a focus
by a lens or a mirror. The net effect for the whole wavefront, proceeding
in a direction 6and having a path difference of A across it, is zero displace
ment of the medium, corresponding to zero intensity of the light beam.
The angle 6 is therefore given by sin 9 = X/a. It is instructive to examine
the values taken by 6 as the width of the aperture is reduced below 100 A
and we must remember that even a slit 100 A wide is only 5 x 10~ 5 metre
for green light (wavelength 5 x 10~ 7 m).
a 100A 10A 5A 2A 1A
057 575 115 30 90
5.4 Spectra
The nineteenth century also saw a great development in our knowledge
of spectra. In 1672 Newton had already shown that the white light from
the sun is a mixture of all colours which are revealed when a narrow pencil
68 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
of sunlight is passed through a triangular glass prism. The colours extend
from red through the various rainbow colours to violet. In 1800 Herschel
showed, by placing a thermometer beyond the red, that there was a heating
effect due to radiation, which we now call infrared. In the
following year
Ritter discovered the ultraviolet
by showing that silver chloride was
blackened even when placed beyond the violet end of the spectrum. This
was, of course, before photography as we know it
today was developed.
required of such a medium. At about the same time Faraday used the
concept of electrical tubes of force, which he visualized as strains in a
surrounding medium to account for the attraction and repulsion of electric
charges. It was Maxwell, in 1864, who linked the electrical medium and
the luminiferous ether in his electromagnetic theory of light, to be brilli
antly supported by the experimental work of Hertz twentyfour years
later.
477*
and EQ sin 277 (ctx)l\
from which
d*Ht _
~W~
= E sin 2n(ctx)/X
d*Ev 1
and
dfi dx 2
space. We have just seen that these are differential equations representing
representing electric and magnetic waves travelling along the x axis with
a velocity given by
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM JI
The values for (JL Q and 6 in the m.k.s. system of units are given by
jjiQ
= 4iT/lQ 7
newton coulomb" second 2 2
Substitution gives
Thus we see that c not only has a numerical value equal to the velocity of
light in free space, but also has units (metres per second) which correspond
to velocity. The derivation of the velocity of light from constants deter
mined solely by electrical means, represents a remarkable triumph for the
electromagnetic theory of light. It also suggested that it should be possible
to generate similar waves of different wavelength by purely electrical
means, and that these too would have the same velocity in free space.
Electric field
presence of the waves was detected by sparks which passed between the
balls when the potential in the loop circuit became sufficiently high. That
Frequency Wavelength
cycles/second metres
4
10 ,
Long
10*
Medium I0
2
Radio Short
waves
Micro
10"
Infra  red
Visible
10"
icr Ultraviolet
icr
Xrays
10
rays
the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other can be
seen from a consideration of the lines of force near the spark gap. When
the upper plate carries a positive charge and the lower one a negative
charge, the electric field may be represented by lines of electric force
passing from the upper to the lower plate. When the current flows there
will alsobe a magnetic field represented by lines of magnetic force in
about the path of the electric current. Thus we see how the electric
circles
and magnetic fields are at right angles.
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM 73
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.)
(3 cm)
74 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
5.8 A parallel beam of light of wavelength 5461 A from a mercury arc
falls normally upon two fine slits 05 mm apart. Calculate the linear
separation of interference fringes observed at a distance of 2 m beyond the
slits. (218 mm)
5.9 Ten fringes are observed in a distance of 32 mm at 50 cm from a
double illuminated by a parallel beam of monochromatic light. Calcu
slit
late the wavelength of the light used, if the slits are separated by a distance
of 10 mm. (64 x 10 5 cm)
5.10* Calculate the size of the pinhole of a pinhole camera which will
SOLUTION TO PROBLEM
5.10 Without diffraction a point object such as a star would give rise
to a patch of light on the screen equal in diameter a to the pinhole.
Diffraction will cause an angular spread of the light all around the above
patch equal to X/a. If d is the distance of the screen from the pinhole the
linear spread of the light around the original patch is d.X/a. The total
width D
of the light patch is therefore
D
a
The minimum value of D is given by
2
da a
from which a = \/2Xd.
Chapter 6
Quantum Theory
6.1 The Continuous Spectrum
The quantum theory arose in the first instanceout of attempts to explain
the distribution of energy in the continuous spectrum of an incandescent
body. As a piece of metal is heated to incandescence it first becomes red
at about 850K. Later, as the temperature rises further, it becomes yellow
and then white at about 3000K, when all the visible spectrum is being
radiated. Experimental investigation of the energy distribution for various
temperatures, yields curves of the form shown in Fig. 6.1. It is at once
apparent that as the temperature rises, not only does the energy increase,
but the wavelength of maximum energy A max moves to the region of
shorter wavelength. Analysis of the curves shows that Amax T= constant.
This formula can be derived using the thermodynamical reasoning of
classical physics and is known as Wien's Displacement Law. Wien also
showed that the form of the curve could be represented empirically by
a formula E^ = C 1 X~ 5 exp  C 2 /AT where C 1} C 2 are constants. This
formula is in very close agreement with experiment for small values of T
in the visible spectrum corresponding to temperatures up to 2000K,
but diverges for larger values of XT.
When Rayleigh and Jeans attempted to derive a formula of this type
using the concepts of classical physics, especially the law of equipartition
of energy, described in Chapter 1, they obtained E^ = S7rkX~ 5 (XT) where
N
k(=R/NQ ) is Boltzmann's constant, where R and Q are respectively the
gas constant for one mole, and Avogadro's number. Although this gave
agreement for very large values of XT it failed to give curves resembling
those found experimentally. Even more serious, it predicted that the total
radiation from a body of finite temperature should be infinite, since as
A^0, E>oo. Thus classical physics was unable to explain the facts of
temperature radiation.
2000K
12345
Wavelength in microns (I0~
6
metre)
energy to radiate a really large quantum of energy hv. Thus we can see
in a general way how raising the temperature of a body must lead to shift
of the radiation maximum towards the region of higher frequency (i.e.
shorter wavelength).
charge was carried by electrons which were able to escape from the surface,
whereas there was no corresponding mechanism for the positive charge.
In 1899 from measurements of elm for the carriers of the negative charge,
Lenard established that they were electrons. Ultraviolet light entered
through the quartz window (Fig. 6.2) and fell upon the clean metal
surface at A. The electrons which escaped from A were accelerated to E
by a large potential difference V, so that they acquired a velocity v given
by Ve = \mv* where e was the electronic charge and m was the electronic
mass. In E there was a small hole, so that a pencil of electrons continued
to the electrode D. Auniform magnetic field B, perpendicular to the plane
of the paper (Fig. 6.2) deflected the electron beam on to a second electrode
C, the velocity or magnetic field being adjusted so that the beam just
78 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
reached C. From the geometry of the apparatus, the radius R of the path
of the electron was known, and was given by the equation Bev = mv 2 /R.
From these equations elm = 2V/B 2R 2 and v = 2V/BR.
In this experiment the initial velocity with which the electrons escaped
from the metal was ignored. It was, in fact, small compared with the
velocity acquired by the electron in the electric field between A and E.
Earth
Magnetic
Pump B field out
of paper
Incident
light
Lenard investigated the velocity with which the electrons were ejected
from A by making A positive with respect to E which was maintained at
earth potential. He measured the potential VQ required to return all the
=
escaping electrons to the metal A, so that VQ e ^mv^ where V Q was the
maximum velocity with which electrons escaped from the metal.
These experiments led Lenard to a most important discovery. The
velocity v and therefore the maximum energy of the escaping electron
did not depend upon the intensity (i.e. energy) of the incident beam of
light, asmight well have been supposed from classical physics and the
electromagnetic theory of light. The velocity of the electron appeared to
be determined solely by the frequency of the light so that velocity in
creased with frequency and the nature of the metal surface illuminated.
The intensity only affected the number of escaping electrons as indicated
by the current across the tube, and not the energy of the electrons.
Pump
Light from
hv=: W+^mv* and it can be seen how the energy of the electron increases
with the frequency of the incident light.
Millikan used the alkali metals lithium, sodium and potassium which
display the photoelectric effect very strongly with visible light as well as
with ultraviolet. He was thus able to test the above relationship over a
much wider range of conditions than in earlier work. Reliable results
were only possible when clean metal surfaces were available and Millikan,
by the ingenious design of his apparatus, was able to cut clean surfaces
in a vacuum.
Light from a mercury source passed through a spectrometer in which
the telescope eyepiece was replaced by a second slit so that the instrument
became a monochromator enabling light of a selected frequency to enter
the vacuum chamber through the quartz window (Fig. 6.3). Quartz
components were used when observations on wavelengths less than
3000 A 15
(more than 10 cycles per second) were required. The light then
fell upon a freshly prepared metal surface. The metals were mounted
upon a drum R and were prepared by cutting a thin section with the knife
N. Rotation through 180 about R enabled the surface to be placed in a
position to receive the light. Electrons were collected upon the cylinder C
and detected by a sensitive electroscope. The metal surface was given a
positive potential with respect to the cylinder C. This potential was
adjusted until electrons were just prevented from escaping from the metal
surface. Thus the maximum velocity v with which electrons of charge e
ing this with Einstein's photoelectric equation the work function was
given by W=hv Q The gradient of the straight line was equal to Planck's
.
CVJ
Threshold
^o Frequency v
constant h and the method provided one of the most reliable methods of
determining this basic constant. The value obtained for h was 658 x 10~ 34
34
joule sec and confirmed Planck's estimate of 653 x 10~ from the distri
bution of energy in the continuous spectrum of a black body.
100,000 volts are frequently used between cathode and target in crystal
lographic Xray units.
Apart from their great power of penetration, it was found that Xrays
blackened photographic plates, thus enabling Xray photographs to be
taken. Xrays were capable of ionizing a gas through which they passed.
High potential
difference
X rays
f
High potential <>I
difference
Xrays
Fig. 6.6 The Coolidge Xray tube.
damage could also take place at a much greater depth as in deep Xray
only be possible if the spacing of the lines were comparable with the wave
length of the radiation. Von Laue suggested that the ordered arrangement
of atoms within a crystal might provide a diffraction
grating of sufficiently
small spacing (10~ 10 m).
S, ZnS
crystal
X_rays_
Laue
pattern
Fig. 6.7 Friedrich and Knipping's experiment.
58 x 10~ 3
= 281xlO 10 m.
16xl0 3 x2x6xl0 23
Thus Xray wavelengths of wavelength about 10~ 10 m may be readily
measured by this method, using Bragg' s formula mX = 2d sin 8.
Na Cl Na
Cl
Na
showed that they were in fact proportional, i.e. Foe v max The energy of an
.
!3[
12 50 kV
9
1
>r 8
5 7
o
i
6
5
I
~ 4
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
where A was the wavelength of the original Xrays and m Q the rest mass of
an electron.
mv
interaction between the photon and the electron may now be treated as a
(6.2)
88 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
where m is the rest mass of the electron. Relativity gives the relation
m\\tf\c*) = m\ (6.3)
cos </>.
(1
 cos
</>)
which becomes
=
A'A (lcos </>) hlm Q c and inserting we get
the numerical values
A'A=0024 A when </>
= 90
independent wavelength and
which
of is
6.10 Summary
see how attempts to explain the distribution of energy in the
Thus we
continuous spectrum from a black body led Planck to the concept of the
quantum of energy or the photon and that emission of radiation takes
place in quanta of energy hv. The connection between energy and fre
quency is
again apparent when we come to study the distribution of
energy in the continuous Xray spectrum. Here the maximum frequency
is determined by the energy of the electrons in an Xray tube showing
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.}
(l08ev)
6.7 Describe how Xray wavelengths may be measured. Derive any
formulae used.
In a Bragg Xray spectrometer using a calcite crystal for which the
grating space is 3 x 10~
10
m, Xrays are reflected when the angle between
the incident and reflected rays is 5 and again when it is 10. Calculate the
mean wavelength of the Xrays. (02616 x 10~ 10 m)
6.8 Describe a method by which Xray wavelengths have been deter
mined. A Coolidge type of Xray tube is operated at 66 kV. Calculate the
short wavelength limit of the Xray spectrum coming from the tube.
10
(01888 xlO m)
6.9* If the minimum wavelength recorded in an Xray spectrum of a
34
50 kV tube is 0247 A, calculate the value of Planck's constant. (656 x 10~
joule sec)
6.10 An eye can just detect green light of wavelength 5 x 10~
7
which m
arrives on the retina at the rate of 2 x 10~ 18
watts. To how many photons
does this correspond? (6*06 x 10 14 )
90 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
6.11 A photon has energy equal to 10
7
ev. Calculate the wavelength to
which this corresponds. (000136 x 10 10 m)
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
6.2 Minimum energy required to eject electrons from a tungsten
surface is
'2300xlO 10
Energy of the incident radiation is
66x 104
A 1800 x 10 10
Kinetic energy of ejected electron in joules is
3xl0 s (L
V 1800 x 10 10
1
\
2300 x 10 10 /
66xlO~ 34 x3xl0 8 
x ( 1800 x 10
I L
1 6 x 10 19 \ 10~ 10 2300 x 10 10
= l48ev.
6.9Maximum energy of electrons in Xray tube= Ve.
Maximum energy of Xrays emitted = hv
z, =
Ve v A
... h =Ve
v C
Spectra
n = 4 n= 5 n=6 n=oo
model of the atom using Coulomb's and Newton's laws from classical
physics. Since the nucleus was so much heavier than the electron it was
reasonable to suppose that an electron of charge  e (Fig. 7.2) moved in a
circle of radius r. By Coulomb's law the force upon the electron was given
2 2
by e being the permittivity of free space. This was set equal to
e /47re r ,
H77
the total energy (kinetic plus potential) was  e 2 /2r4rr Q The energy of .
an electron within an atom was always negative since it has been assumed
that the potential energy reaches zero when the electron has moved to
an infinite distance from the nucleus. Negative energy therefore cor
(1) electrons in atoms occupy certain discrete orbits, whilst the electron
is one of these orbits no energy is radiated
in ;
(2) when an electron jumps from one stable orbit to another of lower
energy, a quantum of radiation is emitted, the frequency of this
radiation is given by Planck's quantum condition, hv = l 2
E E .
= 2 2 =
Eliminating v from the equations mv /r e /r 47T Q and mvr nh/2Tr the
2
=
atomic radius became r 7z /r47T /477 ??ze Substitution gave 0529 x 10~ 10
2 2 2
.
metre for r when n = 1, so that an atom was about 10~ 10 metre in diameter,
agreeing well with kinetic theory estimates. The total energy was
2 **
~~ ~
27T 2 me* / 1
IV= ~ _
l 2= 2 2
/z
(47T ) Vif"
The wave number (= l/A = v/) then became
n n
them as shown in Fig. 7.3. As the radii of the orbits would be proportional
to n 2 this diagram has not been drawn to scale.
,
1

2
Mm
M+m
ri
It thus appears that to allow for the motion of the nucleus we must replace
the mass m of the electron by p, the so called 'reduced mass' where
=
/x=m/(l +m/M) or l/u, l/#z+l/Af. From this it can be seen that the
reduced mass is equal to the electron mass only when the nuclear mass M
is made infinite.
The Rydberg constant then becomes

J\
(1 + m/M) 1+m/M
where R^ the Rydberg constant which has already been calculated for
is
109 740 .
730 ~
720 
e
o
710
700
690
680
109 670
3 5 7 9 II 13 15 17 19 2! 23
Atomic weight
of the mass of the hydrogen atom to the mass of the electron by a purely
optical method. This is in excellent agreement with other methods, such
as the electrical methods described in Chapter 2.
Isotopes we have seen all carry the same nuclear charge, but have
different nuclear masses. This gives rise to different values for the Rydberg
constant and leads to a splitting of the spectrum lines. It was by this
method that Urey, Murphy and Brickwedde discovered deuterium, the
isotope of hydrogen of mass 2. The wavelength separation of the
first
98 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
member of the Balmer series will now be calculated. For the hydrogen and
deuterium series we may write respectively
1 1
=
2 2x1841
^ 1/3682.
At A = 6562 A this gives JA=179A.
This was readily measured with a 21 foot concave grating available to
them. Table 7.1 compares the calculated and observed wavelength differ
ences for the first four members of the Balmer series of hydrogen. The
agreement is seen to be very satisfactory.
TABLE 7.1
assuming a mean wavelength for lines which are double or triple, we have
wavelengths associated with the four series shown in Table 7.2.
TABLE 7.2
o
Principal ^
Sharp
Diffuse
Fundamental *=
01)2(w _ 00 1)
Remembering
s
that there are 10 angstroms in one centimetre, the wave
length is given by
!> 1
R R
Principal 2
(3S) (nPY
Sharp *___
R R
Diffuse
2
(3P) (nDY
R R
Fundamental 2
(3D) (nFY
To have to write down such formulae each time one wishes to refer to
a particular spectrum is laborious, and a shorthand notation has arisen
which contains all the essential information, but not in the strict mathe
matical form given above.
The series then become*
Princip al v = 3S  nP
Sharp i = 3PnS
Diffuse v = ZPnD
Fundamental v = ZDnF
number.
SPECTRA 101
It appears that when the terms are arranged horizontally in the above
order, transitions can only occur between levels in adjacent sets of levels
as shown. This fact may be expressed quantitatively by attaching a number
to each set of levels such as /=0, 1, 2, 3 for the 5, P, D and F levels
respectively. From an examination of the spectra it became clear that / may
1. This is a selection rule, and / is a quantum number.
change only by
Hydrogen
=
levels S(l=0) 3) cm'
2
R/5
2
R/4 2 2
R/(40OI) /R/(40OOI)
3D 10,000
R/3'
/^Fundamental
Seri6S
Diffuse
series 20,000
2
R/2
30,000
140,000
We are in fact dealing with quantum number changes in relation to the struc
ture of the atom. A similar selection rule has already been encountered in
hydrogen in connection with the quantum number n which
can only change
The electronic structure of a rare gas is most stable and compact and
approximates to a spherical distribution of charge. The addition of a pro
ton to the nucleus implies that this stable neon 'atomic' core has attained
a single positive charge. The additional outer electron circulates about this
neon atomic core, and therefore, while it is outside the core, corresponds
closely with the electron of a hydrogen atom. When the electron penetrates
the atomic core it is exposed to a very much greater proportion of the
nuclear charge and its binding energy is correspondingly greater. The
simple Bohr picture of the atom no longer holds, and we must expect
substantial departures from the Balmer formula which are revealed by
much larger quantum defects. When the energy of binding becomes
greater, the energy levels lie lower and the values of the quantum defects
increase. Table 7.3 shows the quantum defects for sodium for the four sets
of levels and reveals two distinct ranges, the values for the S and P levels
TABLE 7.3
being over one hundred times greater than those for the D and F levels.
The two ranges of quantum defects can be attributed to orbits which
penetrate or do not penetrate the central atomic core. Figure 7.8 shows the
=
possible orbits for a sodium atom having n 4. In this case / can have four
values, 0, 1, 2, or 3. Orbits corresponding to 1=3 and 2 giving and D F
levels do not not penetrate the central atomic core so that the structure is
similar to hydrogen and the spectrum agrees closely with the Balmer
SPECTRA 103
formula. The which / = and 1 corresponding to S and P levels
orbits for
penetrate the atomic core and the spectrum shows wide deviations from
the Balmer formula. This picture of the atom is helpful in trying to under
stand how quantum defects arise, but it should not be pursued too far.
n=4
1=0
he
A
17
x 10 34 ) x (2998 x 10 8 )
and therefore ~ (6625
19
49x(l602xlO )
25 1
5 10 15 20 25 30
Grid potential in volts
TABLE 7.4
Moseley s Work
J
7.10
Moseley found that the structure or pattern of lines in a given series
was similar for most of the elements he
examined, but the lines showed a
steady decrease in wavelength as the atomic number increased. At the
time when Moseley carried out this work, the fundamental
significance of
SPECTRA 107
atomic number had not been realized. Mendeleev, having
arranged the
elements in order of their atomic weights, found that certain pairs had to
be reversed in order to preserve the of chemical and
periodicity physical
properties. The numerical order in which they were then placed was known
!0
Wavelength in A (I0" metre)
as the atomic number. In all, four pairs of elements were reversed in this
way, A and K, Co and Ni, Te and I, and Th and Pa. Moseley found that,
on plotting ^/v\R against atomic number Z for a particular member of
each pattern, he obtained a straight line which did not quite pass through
108 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
the origin. It appeared that the Xray spectrum of each element was
characterized by its atomic number, and therefore suggested it had more
physical significance than just its order in the periodic table. now know We
of course that it is the number
of positive units of electricity carried by the
atomic nucleus, as revealed by Rutherford's aparticle scattering experi
ments.
/ R
80
60
40
20
75 85 87
J
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Atomic number Z
written as v K =R(Z~\Y
\
y2 /j which is very similar to the Balmer
I
This indicates that the L a line arises from an electron transition from
= 3 to n = 2. Moreover many more electrons now lie between the excited
72 r
lonization
N :
qn=4
M. Tn = 3
o n = 2
n=4
*H
Fig. 7.13 Xray energy levels.
electron and the nucleus so that the average value of the effective nuclear
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.)
respectively 137 and 0*88. Neglect the slight variation of the Rydberg
constant with the mass of the nucleus. (4097 A, 2422 A)
7.2 A
series in the spectrum of a gas is given below. It is observed that
the series limit and some of the wavelengths are almost identical with those
of the Balmer series of hydrogen. Identify the spectrum, account for the
extra lines, and also for the small wavelength differences.
656019 656280
541160
485940 486138
454166
433874 434051
419990
410010 410178
l/n^^R^^ \
v=#Z 2 
(Ionized helium, for which (l/f Small
ABC
variations arise from variation of with mass of nucleus.)
7.3* The wave numbers in cm" 1 obtained from the spectogram of
lithium are classified into three series as follows :
limits for the Balmer series of hydrogen and for once ionized helium are
7.5 Describe the atomic spectrum of hydrogen. Explain how Bohr was
SPECTRA III
ground state to the first excited state; (b) ionize the atom.
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
7.3 Since B and C have a common series limit they must be based upon
the same energy level. They are probably the Sharp and Diffuse series
but we cannot on this evidence alone distinguish between them. By sub
traction we can now find the other energy levels and they are listed below.
112 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
Lines drawn between the various figures indicate the given series A, B
andC
A' Y
2528 B ,43087
3039
7007 6857
12,551 12,198
28,582
The principal quantum number n is given by the formula
R
109737
= =
43486
109737
= = 196
28582
109737
= = 300.
12198
The terms under Z being free from quantum defect must be D terms.
Those under X have the largest defect and are therefore S terms while
those under Ymust be P terms. This is confirmed by the fact that the S
terms of an alkali element lie lowest. The three spectral series A, and B C
are therefore Principal, Sharp and Diffuse respectively.
1 3646x10"
1}
~R\~ 4x10"
Z 1=302
Z=3l which corresponds to gallium.
Chapter 8
TABLE 8.1
285303
>2 '
Q
4y
497861
514909 19,4155 35,04017 20,0803
454522 21,9950 ,~
>1/ Z9 '
259383 A7/ 449772
38,54154.>11 '^ 22,2271.^ 179
L/ *
454167 21,0122 559393 38,540 07 449427 22,2443
cm" 1 and is equal to the separations of doublets in the other two series.
Hydrogen S P D
levels levels levels levels
1=0 "1=1
n = 4
n = l
Thinking now in terms of the energy level diagram for sodium and
remembering that both the Sharp and Diffuse series involve the 3P term,
it is reasonable to suppose that this term consists of two levels with a
1
separation of 172 cm" This explains the constant wavenumber separa
.
tion of the lines in both the Sharp and the Diffuse series. The Principal
series is based upon the 35 term which must be single in order to make
the separation of the yellow lines 3P^35 equal to 172 cm. 1 To explain .
hydrogen atom to explain their results for more complex atoms, especially
the atoms of the alkali metals. This required a second quantum number /,
the orbital quantum number, which controls the angular momentum of an
electron about the nucleus. In 1925, in order to explain the fine structure
of spectrum lines, Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit found it necessary to assume
that each electron had an additional angular momentum equal to A/27r.
This angular momentum is often referred to as the spin of the electron,
but the picture of an electron spinning about its axis must not be taken
lh/277
Owing magnetic dipoie o5 the electron will set either parallel or
to the ,
TABLE 8.2
Transition A v
30,100 3321
6P ID 6973 14,337  
554
indicating that the magnetic interaction between the electron and the
nucleus is much greater, since, the electron, even in the state, is pene D
trating the atomic core. For the deepest of these the value is 98 cm" 1 but
it rapidly closes up as we proceed to
higher levels.
Consider only the 6P5D transition. Both levels are split as shown
(Fig. 8.3) and three transitions indicated by solid lines are observed.
No transition corresponding to the broken line is observed. This indicates
thatsome new quantum condition exists. A consideration of the inner
quantum numbers (j) associated with each level shows that this structure
is consistent with a selection rule J/ = 1, and Al=l. This rule has
been confirmed by a wealth of similar experimental evidence.
FINE STRUCTURE AND ELECTRON SPIN 117
2
6 D
the detailed motion of electrons became too complex. The empirical rules,
used with the vector model to explain characteristics of the behaviour of
the atom, were later substantiated by quantum and wave mechanics. In
fact the vector model provides us with a convenient way of remembering
and using the results of quantum mechanics. It is somewhat similar to the
use of Huygens' principle instead of the equations of the electromagnetic
theory of light, in the solution of optical diffraction problems. When using
the vector model it is important to remember that in the more refined
quantum mechanical treatment, the angular momenta /A/2?r, shj27r, jhj27r
are replaced by V^Tj/^, V^TT)"A/27r,
yj\j~+T)hj27r.
Remembering that the magnetic field B arising from the orbital motion
of the electron is parallel to ZA/27T, the magnetic dipole aS) and its associ
ated angular momentum sh/27r must orientate either parallel or anti
parallel to it. Thus / and $ behave as vectors and may be depicted shown in
Fig. 8.4. We
have already seen how levels corresponding to /=0, 1, 2, 3
may be denoted by the letters S, P, D, F. When such levels are double as
in the case of elements in Group I they are written with a superscript
2 2 2 2
two as P, >, F. The actual levels are identified by attaching a sub
S,
script giving the value of the inner quantum number j associated with each
level. In the case of sodium the levels would become 5 1/2 ,
2 2 z
Piy 2 Pz/^ ,
2
Z)3/2 ,
2
D 5/2 ,
etc.
Il8 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
5= 1
S=l 5= 1
J=0
L=l L= l
=
li l
=l
5 = 1 S=
L2
3
D,
so that they are all parallel giving 5=if 1riHf or with one reversed
120 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
giving S=i + Ji = J as shown in Fig. 8.8. When, as in this case, the
total spin quantum number S half integral, the inner quantum numbers
is
/ to which it gives rise are also half integral. If for example these S values
occur in a D term for which L = 2, the total inner quantum number /
can in the first case with S= take values J = L + S = 2 + f (vectorially)
= !, f, f and \ or in the second case with =
S , J=2 + (vectorially) == f
and f The terms are therefore quartets
.
4
D 7/2 ,
4
D 5/2 ,
4
Z)
3/2
,
4
Z>
1/2 ,
and
doublets
5/2
2
D
3/2
2
D
should also be noted that the multiplicity, which
,
. It
is the number of levels into which each term
splits is given by (2S+1).
5, = 5
This is no
energy state. longer true with Xrays, which show absorption
edges rather than absorption lines.
The Xray absorption spectrum of a metal may be examined by passing
a narrow beam of Xrays through the metal in the form of a foil. The
spectrum of the incident Xrays should be continuous and the Xrays,
after passing through the metal foil, are analysed with a Bragg Xray
spectrometer. Readings with and without the absorber in position at each
Q.
O
Wavelength
2345 in A(ICT
10
metre)
05
10
Wavelength in A (I0~ metre)
M
,
explaining the three L levels observed. The shell for which n = 3 has
/ = 0, lor 2.
This leads to five; levels as follows:; = + , = li,/=2.
j
Figure 8.11 shows the various Xray levels associated with the K, L,
shells and indicates how the various
M
series of lines arise. In
Xray particu
lar it will be seen that the K series are all doublets due to the operation
of the selection rules
4jf
= 1 Al= 1. The L and
or 0, and also series M
are only developed for the atoms and have a much more complex
larger
structure. In contrast with
optical spectra it is interesting to note that all
atoms give similar type of Xray
spectra, and the extent to which these are
developed is determined by the size of the atom. Xray spectra are there
fore much simpler than
optical spectra.
scope of this book but it is important to realize that the nucleus has a spin
which results from the spins of its component particles and is important
in its bearing upon the structure of the nucleus.
We have seen how the splitting of the fine structure energy levels
depends upon the magnetic dipole moment associated with an electron,
and in the next chapter we shall see that it is given by the formula
h \L$
2n 2m
where ju e and,
m
are respectively the permeability of free space, the elec
tronic charge and the electronic mass. Hyperfine structure arises from the
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.}
8.1 Explain why the energy levels of elements in the first group of the
periodic table are double, while those in the second group can be either
single or triple.
For magnesium the wavenumbers v in m 1 of the Principal (35  mP)
and Sharp (3PmS) series of triplets are given by:
v = 2,047,000 n?P
v = 3,976,000 m*S
v = 3, 980,000 m*S
^ = 3,982,000 m*S
Calculate the three wavelengths of the first member of the Sharp triplet
series. (5168 A, 5172 A, 5184 A)
The following series (cm 1 ) were observed in the spectrum of
8.2*
caesium. Draw an energy level diagram to scale
(approximate) showing
FINE STRUCTURE AND ELECTRON SPIN 125
EC
how these series arise and identifying the levels involved. Assume the
deepest term lies at 31,400 cm 1 .
A
2768 6805 11,181
2866 7359 11,736
3322 12,588 21,771
10,860 13,142 21,952
10,903 15,182 25,716
11,414 15,736 25,797
14,320 16,571 27,644
14,341 17,126 27,689
14,874
(B is
Sharp. C is
Principal. A is Diffuse series.)
Interpret the results of Moseley's work on Xray spectra in terms
8.3
of the Bohr theory of the atom. Explain the importance of these results in
relation to the periodic table of the elements.
If the K
absorption limit of uranium is 0107 x 10"
10
m, find the
minimum potential difference required across an Xray tube to excite the
^series. (116,000 volts)
8.4 If the K 015 x 10" 10 m, find the
absorption limit of platinum is
Using the vector model, determine the possible values of the total
8.5
=
angular momentum of an /electron. (j 5/2 and 7/2)
8.6 Use the vector model of the atom to determine possible values of
the total angular momentum for a sodium atom, when the principal
quantum number n = 3. Draw an energy level diagram and indicate the
transitions you would expect to occur. ( 2 5 2 2
^i/o, "P^ ^s/oj ^5/2)
,
1/2
SOLUTION TO PROBLEM
8.2 Since the separation between each pair of lines in the B series is
constant and equal to 554 cmr 1 we can suppose that these are all based
upon an energy level which is double. The other levels involved must each
be single. B
must therefore correspond to the Sharp series. With the C
series the separation begins with 554 cm 1 but rapidly decreases as we
proceed down the column. This can best be interpreted by supposing
that the lines are based upon a single energy level and that only the upper
levels are split, the splitting getting smaller as we go to higher levels.
Since the lower level is single it is an S level and the series is the Principal
series.
126 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
A members of each triplet
consists of three sets of triplets, the outer
have the same separations, 554 cm. 1 while the first two members become
,
closer as we proceed down the column. These lines arise from transitions
between two split levels, the lower one being the same as for B and the
upper levels get closer as we go to higher terms. The number of lines
observed is limited to three by the j selection rule.
Chapter 9
Magnetic Effects
which in the ground state had zero orbital momentum. The entire magnetic
moment of the atom could then be attributed to the spin of one of its
electrons. Atoms of hydrogen, lithium, sodium, potassium, copper, silver
and gold w ere used.
r
ences equal but oppoite forces when placed in a uniform magnetic field.
The resultant force is therefore zero and the atom is not displaced. How
ever, when placed in a nonuniform field such an atom experiences a
resultant force proportional to the gradient of the field. Suppose a magnetic
dipole XY
(Fig. 9.1) of length Bx and pole strength m is placed in a non
uniform magnetic field of strength H at X and H + (dH/dx)Sx at Y. The
resultant force is m(dH/dx)Sx = MdH/dx where MmSx is the magnetic
moment of the magnetic dipole XY.
emerged. Two slits S^ S 2 (Fig. 9.2) limited the stream to a very fine pencil,
which was then allowed to pass between the poles of a magnet. The pole
pieces were shaped so that a very large magneticfield gradient dHjdx
128 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
was obtained. The whole apparatus was evacuated to a pressure sufficiently
low to enable a silver atom to traverse the whole length without a collision.
The mean free path was therefore greater than the length of the apparatus.
Initially the magnetic moments of the silver
atoms were orientated in
random shown in
fashion as Fig. 9.3. On entering the magnetic field the
magnetic moments became orientated parallel and antiparallel to the
Sx
mH
Oven
Random
\A\^\tt
Orientation Space
quantisation
= 2mA
277
p = mr
*
Therefore
where Ais the area of the circular orbit, and T is the time taken by the
electron to complete one circuit of its orbit. The circulation of the electron
in this way is equivalent to an electric current i=e\T where e is the elec
tronic charge. If /x is the permeability of free space, the magnetic dipole
moment a is given by
130 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
oAl
pTi
where 07 is the magnetic dipole moment arising from the orbital motion
of the electron. It might be expected that the magnetic dipole moment of
an electron would be obtained from the angular momentum in an analog
ous way so that os =
i/&/27r(^ e/27w). A study of the Zeeman effect shows
that this not true and that the magnetic dipole moment of an electron is
is
bered, however, that in the above analysis we have assumed the charge to
flow in a circular loop. There is no reason to suppose that the charge
should flow around the perimeter of an electron. At present we can only
say that an electron displays a mechanical angular momentum of i/2/2?r
and a magnetic dipole moment equal to
2x*AM.
ZTT 2m
The Bohr magneton JJLB is the natural unit in which to measure magnetic
dipole moment and is given by
h
^B
_ [itf
~Yrr~2^
x 1084) x IP?) x(l 602 xlO 19 )
~
_(6625 X
(477
2^ 31
(2x9108xlO )
= M65xlO 29 weberm.
When placed in a magnetic field of strength H
ampereturns/m the
maximum couple experienced by the dipole is given by {jisH newtonm.
The Bohr magneton is frequently written as \}i\2n(e\2m) in electro
z/fAz/ v 1/HAz/
ively. This became known as the anomalous Zeeman effect, although it was
by far the most common. The explanation which is given in Appendix C,
had to await the development of quantum theory and the concept of
(b) (c)
(a)
electron spin nearly thirty years later. It is sufficient at this stage to realize
that the anomalous Zeeman effect arose because the magnetic dipole
moment of the electron was h j 277(^6 /2m) rather than \h ferr^e [2m).
dt
angle 6 to the vertical under the action of the earth's gravitational field.
^ S (/A/277)
(sin 0)"
_<fy =
W == d(lhl27r)jdt
~dT (/A/2rr) sin
magnetic field and IB is the moment of inertia about the axis parallel to B.
From this we see that AE = \IB(MB + <J*^ (co5a> ) and since the change
in angular velocity to is small compared with either O>B or oj we may write
AE=IBUQU) = IBOJ O Be /2m.
The SternGerlach experiment has shown
that a magnetic dipole in a
magnetic field is subject to space quantization such that it can only set at
1=3
= 2
m = 3
x
certain discrete angles with respect to the direction of the magnetic field.
..
2m
277
ITT) Be/2m
'277) Be/2m
,
= E^El = '
n
 E"n +
Be /2m
K  <) (hfiir) Be /2m
7r)
m
+2
hi
6'D 2
$=0
LL
L=l
5'P,
S=
i/ AX/ z/ Z/+AI/
Fig. 9.9 The simple Zeeman effect.
isthe frequency of the line before the application of the magnetic field B.
Quantum theory limits the values of Ami to il and 0.
magnetic field will be illustrated by the case of the red line of cadmium at
6438 A. For this line the spins of the two electrons are antiparallel so
that the resultant spin zero giving rise to singlet terms. The transition
is
occurs between the states 6 1 D 2 and 5^. For the upper state L = 2 and
mi takes values +2, +1, 0, 1, 2 as shown in Fig. 9.9, while in the
lower state L = 1 and mi takes values +1,0,  1. The spacing of the levels
in wavenumbers is given by the formula
Av = VB v Q = (Aniij27r) Bej2mc
136 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
c being the velocity of light. The spacing is therefore the same for the
upper and lower levels. Transitions occur in accordance with the quantum
conditions as shown. Owing to the equality of spacing all transitions for
which Ami= +1 coincide to give the line at vAv. Similarly those for
= and 1 give rise to the lines at v and v + Av respectively. For
i
identifying the term types of a spectral series since each line in a given
series shows the same characteristic pattern.
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.)
9.1 Describe the nature of the Zeeman effect. Explain how the simple
19 6 2
(103 x 10 newtons, 158 x 10 m/sec )
9.3 Calculate the mechanical force and acceleration of a silver atom
whose magnetic moment is
entirely due to the spin of a single electron.
The magnetic flux density varies at the rate of 10 weber/m 2 per mm.
19 2
(103 x 10
6
newtons, 057 x 10 m/sec )
9.4* The red line of cadmium splits into three components separated
by 12 x 10 s cycles/s when the source is placed in a magnetic field of flux
density 86xlO~ 3 weber/m 2 ,
the light being examined in a direction
MAGNETIC EFFECTS 137
perpendicular to the magnetic field. Calculate the ratio of charge to mass
11
(elm) of the electron. (176 x 10 coulomb/kg)
SOLUTION TO PROBLEM
9.4 The simple Zeeman splitting of a spectral line in terms of frequency
v is given by
Am Be
Av =
.
where A m =1
,
2rr 2m
m B
8
_477xl2xlQ
3
86 xlO
= 1 76 x 10 11 coulomb/kg.
Chapter 10
Pauli's Principle
I K I Co I Sc j
Ti 1 V I Cr j
Mn j
Fe Co I Ni I Cu I Zn I Go I Ge As1 I Se I
I 19 I
20 
21 I
22 
23 I
24 35 26 27 23 29 30 j
3! 32 J 33 I 34 35 36 [
Sr Y Zr Kb Mo Tc Ru Rh PC! AgT
I
38 I
39 I
40 1
41 I
42 I
43 I
14 Us I 46 47 48 I 49 I 50 I
Fig. 10.1 The periodic system (from Encyclo. Britannica vol. 17, p. 518, 1962). t
states that in one and the same atom no two electrons can have the same
set of values for the four quantum numbers n, mi, I and s.
We shall see that a completed shell corresponds in each case to an inert gas
so that the electron structure must be particularly stable. Lithium may
now be formed from helium by increasing the nuclear charge to three and
adding a third electron to make the complete atom electrically neutral.
With the third electron we begin to build the second or L shell for which
;z = 2. The quantum numbers assigned to this electron in accordance with
least energy considerations are w = 2, 7=0, 7ttz = 0, s = i, so that the
2 1
configuration is 1 s 2 s The .next element, beryllium must arise from the
addition of a fourth electron having n = 2, 7=0, mi = Q, s= +, and is
2 2
represented as 1 s 2 s Six further elements from boron to neon are
.
obtained as a further six electrons are added, each having w=2, 7=1, but
differing in that mi can take three values 1 or 0, and with each of these
two s values \ may be associated, making six in all. Thus at neon the L
shell is complete having a total of eight electrons. The electron con
figuration of neon is therefore 1 s
2
2 s 2 2 p Q the p indicating electrons for
,
which 7=1. We see that the complete shell again corresponds to maximum
stability, as shown by the fact that the inert gases do not form stable
PAULl's PRINCIPLE 141
chemical compounds. This process is summarized in Table 10.1. The
addition of another electron to neon yields sodium, but this electron has
to enter the third shell known as the M shell. The quantum numbers are
therefore = 3, 1=0, mi = Q,
configuration s
p = i, and its is 1 s
2
2 s
2
2 6
1
3 s In this fashion eight more electrons are added as we proceed from
.
10.4 Electrovalency
The formation of simple compounds can also be appreciated if the
great stability of the completed shells is kept in mind. Sodium and chlorine
2
are represented electronically as 1 s 2 2 s 2 2p G 3 s 1 and 1 s 2 s 2p 6 3 s 3 p 5
2 2
PROBLEMS
10.1 State and explain the Pauli exclusion principle. Use it to determine
the maximum number of electrons which can occupy the K, L and M
shells in an atom.
Show also how the principle may be used to interpret the interpolated
groups of the periodic table of the elements.
10.2 Show how the Pauli principle limits the number of electrons in
the n th shell to 2/z 2.
= VA = E .~h = me = c2
2
CJL)
h p mv v
For a material particle, therefore, the wave velocity exceeds the velocity
146 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS! AN INTRODUCTION
of light since the particle velocity must be less than c, in accordance with
the relativity theory (see Appendix B). As this wave velocity does not
carry energy and therefore cannot be used to carry a signal or information,
the relativity principle remains valid. The limiting case occurs when
co = =c
fl for a photon.
The wave velocity is an artificial concept as it cannot be determined
experimentally. If one imagines an infinitely extended sine wave, marks
must be attached to it in order to determine its velocity. This is only
possible by superposing another wave which will provide a convenient
the mark moves depends upon both waves and is called the group velocity.
It is well known in sound that, when two tuning forks of almost the same
'
frequency are sounded, 'beats occur due to the superposition of the two
wavetrains as shown in Fig. 11.1. Here we see how the beats arise from
a series of wave groups and the observer hears these as beats when they
reach him When a range of wavelengths are super
in regular succession.
posed only one wave group or pulse is observed. The wave group moves
with a velocity which is less than that of the individual waves of which it is
composed.
=a cos 27?
(vt

xjX) f a cos 2rr
(v't

xjX')
v' x
WAVES AND PARTICLES 147
When vmv f
The second part cos 2rr (vtx/X) represents the original wave travelling
with a velocity vX. The first part controls the amplitude of this wave, and
Av
corresponds to a wave group moving with velocity = 'A f \ =
2 \2A/
h h h '(I/
dv mnc 2
B
mv
= mQc
.
p I B
assumed that  =  =
T i ,
It is also
X h h h '(1 2
K
d
rp,
Therefore
r (0
The group velocity can be written
, <G)
Single
nickel
crystal
through 54 volts it was found that the most pronounced reflection occurred
at an angle of 50 to the incident electron beam. Remembering that the
kinetic energy of the electrons is given by ^mv 2 =Ve and that the wave
66 x 10 34
A= l67xlO 10 m.
x54xl6xlO 19 x9lxlO 31
This wavelength is in the Xray range. Xrays had
already provided
information about the spacing of the atomic planes in the nickel crystal,
and it is therefore a simple matter to use the Bragg formula to calculate the
wavelength of the scattered electrons. As the angle of scattering is 50,
the angles of incidence and reflection must each be 25. This implies
that the reflecting planes in the crystal are inclined at 25 to the top surface
of the crystal, as shown in Fig. 11.3. The distance d between the reflecting
crystal planes is d=215 sin 25 = 0915 A. Using the Bragg formula
WAVES AND PARTICLES 149
mX = 2dsin =
get A 2 x 0915 sin 65 = 167 A. Agreement between the
9 we
measured and the predicted wavelength is therefore established.
25
02I5AO*
Fig. 11.3 Reflection of electrons from crystal
planes in a crystal of nickel.
Anode
Metal
foil
\
Cathode Photographic
rays plate
and passed through thin metallic foil, as shown in Fig. 11.4. The metal
consisted of microscopic crystals arranged in random fashion so that
many
some were always at the proper angles to give reflection in accordance with
the Bragg formula. Copper, aluminium, gold, platinum, lead and iron
foils were used and the
rings were recorded upon a photographic plate as
shown. Knowing the wavelength of the electrons from the potential
difference across the tube, the size of the crystal unit cell was calculated
from the ring diameters. The sizes of the crystal unit cell obtained by
Xrays and by electron diffraction were in close agreement. In the case of
gold, for example, the Xray value was 406 A and the electron diffraction
value was 408 A.
150 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS! AN INTRODUCTION
1 1. 6The Electron Microscope
The waves of very small wavelength associated with an electron soon
found a very important application in the form of the electron microscope.
The resolving power of an optical microscope is limited by the wavelength
of visible light used. Some improvement is achieved by using ultraviolet
light,but this can hardly exceed a factor of two. The wavelength associ
ated with an electron is governed by its momentum and potential differ
ences up to 100,000 volts are readily available. The wavelength associated
with an electron accelerated through a potential difference V was shown
above to be given by
h
=4xlO 12 m.
The electron wavelength, therefore, is very much shorter (10 5 times) than
the shortest visible light in the violet at 4 x 10~ 7 m. Moreover, the velocity
of an electron can be changed by electric and magnetic fields, in much the
same way as the velocity of a light wave on passing from one medium to
another. These two facts are used in the construction of an electron micro
scope in which electrons controlled by magnetic coils replace light waves
and optical lenses. Electrons of very short wavelengths having passed
through a transparent object, proceed to form an image upon a photo
graphic plate or a fluorescent screen. It might at first sight be supposed
that a resolving power increase of 10 5 should be available in this way.
particle when accelerated in an electron gun at 60,000 volts, and also when
interacting with the silver bromide of the photographic plate. Between
these two events it displays the properties of a wave, and is diffracted
by the crystals of the metallic foil through which the electrons pass.
Our conceptual difficulties in accepting the waveparticle dualism arise
because our ideas of waves and particles are based upon largescale observa
tions of largescale phenomena and experiments. When such ideas are
used for atomic phenomena they are on much the same sort of footing as
=
h/p
p= mv
of the subsidiary maxima at each side. Referring now to the vector dia
ing power we can increase the aperture a of the microscope, but in so doing
Ap is also increased. Decreasing the wavelength A would also increase the
resolving power, but a correspondingly larger amount of momentum
would be transferred to the particle from the photon due to a larger
Compton effect. Similar relationships exist for the momenta along each
of the cartesian axes, so that we have
W, W? W3
using the language of the wave theory, and the other the language of
particle theory. From this it is apparent that these are complementary
views of the same basic phenomena and that A* is proportional to R,
where R is the number of photons passing through unit area in unit time,
the area being perpendicular to the direction of flow.
The relationship between A\ and R is best appreciated from a con
sideration of a simple diffraction experiment. Suppose plane waves
W I9 Wt>, W
s normally upon
(Fig. 11.7) fall a surface S in which there is a
small hole O. Behind this placed a photographic plate P. The photons
is
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.)
11.1 Explain howde Broglie was able to extend the wave theory to
include material particles. Describe how this has been confirmed experi
mentallv.
WAVES AND PARTICLES 155
Calculate the wavelength associated with an electron after it has been
accelerated from rest by a potential diiference of 10 6 volts. 12
(122 x 10~ m)
11.2 Electrons from a heated filament are accelerated
by a potential
difference of 10,000 volts and then passed through a thin sheet of metal
planes is 04 x 10~
for which the spacing of the atomic 10
m. Calculate the
angle of deviation of the firstorder diffraction pattern. (17 16')
11.3 Calculate the wavelength associated with a proton after it has been
accelerated by a potential difference of 1000 volts. (09 x 10~ 12 m)
11.4* 10 kV electrons are passed through a thin film of a metal for
which the atomic spacing 11
is 55 x 10" m. What is the angle of deviation
of the firstorder diffraction maximum? (12 44')
11.5 An 7
aparticle has energy equal to 10 eV. Calculate the wavelength
to which this corresponds. (42 x 10~ 15 m)
11.6 Calculate the length of the wave associated with a body of mass
one gram moving with a velocity of 2 m/s. (33 x 10~ 31 m)
11.7 Electrons from a heated filament are accelerated by a potential
difference of 30 kV and passed through a thin sheet of aluminium. Assum
10
ing the separation of the atomic planes to be 403 x 1Q m, calculate the
angle of deviation of the firstorder diffraction pattern. (</> = 20 = 62 min
of arc)
SOLUTION TO PROBLEM
11.4 Velocity of electrons is =
given by Ve ^mv'
2
.
Wavelength of electrons is A =
V2 x 10 4 x 16 x 10
19
x 91 x 10 31
0122 xlO 10 m.
Applying Bragg's formula for diffraction at the atomic planes we have
mX = 2 d sin 6
sin 0=
=6 22'
Wave Mechanics
12. i Some Preliminaries
Some insight into the possibilities of the wave mechanical approach to
atomic structure obtained by considering the Bohr quantum condi
is
bility wave provided the radius of the orbit is large compared with the
wavelength. If it is supposed that each circular orbit must contain an
integral number of waves as shown in Fig. 12.1, it becomes clear that only
orbits of certain radii are possible. Expressed quantitatively this means
that n\~2rrr where r is the radius of the circle and n is an integer. Remem
bering that X hlmv it follows that mvr = nh/2iT. This is just the Bohr
condition for a stationary orbit (see Chapter 7) which appeared so arbitrary
on the old quantum theory, but now comes quite logically from wave
mechanics.
This simple case is analogous to the vibrations of a stretched
string.
If the string unlimited in length then a vibration can take any form
is
and any wavelength. When, however, the string is stretched between two
fixed points, only certain modes of vibration are possible as shown in
N N N N
systems associated with an electron within the atom. These nodal surfaces
can be either plane, spherical or conical. We have already seen how the
fixed ends of the string and the edge of the plate restrict their modes of
vibration because certain boundary conditions have been imposed. A free
electron can take any energy and therefore any wavelength but when it is
attached to an atom the attraction of the nucleus imposes boundary con
ditions so that only certain modes of vibration are possible, corresponding
to certain allowed or discrete energy states.
158 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
d*E __
I d*E
~dx*~~cz'~di*
where E is some disturbance in the medium (in this case an electric field)
at a time t and at a distance x from the
origin. Extending this to the three
dimensional case, the differential equation for wave motion becomes
both time and place. Since we are only interested in the amplitude of the
wave at various places we may eliminate the time by writing sin 2nvt *$
where $ is the amplitude and v the frequency of the wave. Differentiation
with respect to time gives
= 047r
2
v
2
. .
 =  sin
2rrvt,
2 2
where i/t
is now the amplitude of the wave and is no longer dependent
upon time.
In the previous chapter w^e saw that the wave velocity = \v = hv\mv. <j>
The total energy E of a particle is the sum of its potential energy V and its
z=
kinetic energy \mv^. Thus ^mv E V and therefore mv = \/2m(E V)
and a* becomes hvl\/2m(E  F). Substitution in the wave equation gives
which iswave equation for an electron having both kinetic energy and
the
potential energy, and is frequently known as the Schroedinger equation.
In an atom the electron is no longer free but moves in the electric field
of the nucleus and has potential energy V equal to Ze 2 /V477e where r
is the distance of the electron of  e from the nucleus of
charge charge
H Ze and e is the permittivity of free space required by m.k.s. units. In
integer.
To solve the wave equation we must first change from cartesian coordin
ates (Xj y, z) to polar coordinates (r, 0, <f>) obtaining
c 2 ip 2 ctfj
1 c 2 ijj cot 6 cifj
1
"> o "' ~^ o  /i 9 o <
n *
o
2
c6 2 r2
">
cr r cr r cd r 2 sin 2
d*R 2 dR Syr
2
;
dr r dr h2
(12.2)
aU sin V
> = (12.3)
by a weak magnetic field, so weak that it will not disturb the electron con
To ensure that @ and $ are single valued, the solutions of the second
and third equations require that / and mi be integers and that mi must lie
between +/ and  /. When these values are introduced into the first
equation it is found that only certain energy values are possible. These are
given by
l6o ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
where n is the principal quantum number first introduced in Chapter 7.
This is the same equation as that obtained with the Bohr model of the
atom which required the postulation of stationary states. The important
difference is that arbitary assumptions, such as those made by Bohr, have
not been required to derive this formula when the wave mechanical model
of the atom is used.
12.3 The
Probability Approach
We have already seen how the probability of finding an electron at a
de Broglie
given point is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the
40
246
r m A (!0
HO
m)
n=3
r in A r
468
in A (ICf
10
m)
2 2
wave. In a volume Sv this becomes ifj
Sv (more precisely \\jj\
8v or
ifji[;*$v
where the complex conjugate of iff). Moreover, since one is
ifj*
is
energy states of the atom, the curves shown in Fig. 12.3 are obtained.
The maximum of the curve for n =
l occurs at the same distance as the
for which this occurs. Solution of equation (12.2) shows that (I mi) other
nodal surfaces occur which are defined by constant values of 6. Reference
to Fig. 12.4 (a) and (b) will show these correspond to cones with their axis
of symmetry coincident with the z axis. The third equations leads to
mi nodal surfaces having constant values of and inspection of Fig. 12.4
<f>
(i)
number of nodal spheres nI1 ^
(ii)
number of nodal cones /  m\ \, \ n 1.
(iii)
number of nodal planes mi ]
\
(n
 1). Moreover it will be appreciated that PT also falls to zero when r
may reasonably associate circular orbits with the higher values of the /,
the orbital quantum number. When 7=0, there is a much greater chance
of finding an electron near the nucleus, and this gives rise to the largest
departures from the simple Bohr formula. On the wavemechanical model
this corresponds to a spherical mode of vibration, and on Bohr's orbit
model to an orbit of the highest eccentricity and penetration of the central
atomic core.
We have already seen that when the z axis is specified by a weak mag
netic field, the magnetic quantum number mi is equal to the number of
nodal planes passing through the nucleus and containing the z axis.
Examples of this are shown in Fig. 12.5 in which 7=3 for both Fig. 12.5 (a)
and 12.5 (d) but mi = l and 2 respectively. In Figs. 12.5 (b) and 12.5 (c)
where 7=2, mi is again equal to 1 and 2 respectively. From the way in
which mi has been defined it is clear that it can only take integral values
up to and including 7. Rigorous analysis leads to the result that mi can
 7 including zero.
actually take all integral values ranging from 7 to f
r r
n= I
1=0
are related to the shape of the electron density distributions within the
atom for various states of excitation. In keeping with the collective view
of electron distribution we must replace probability Pr of Fig. 12.3 by
electron density D and so obtain Fig. 12.6 for an atom with n = l. This
distribution is thesame for all radii and is therefore spherically symmetri
cal about the nucleus at O. If the electron density falls to half of its maxi
mum value at points A and A' the locus of all such points will lie on the
surface of a sphere with its centre at O. This sphere provides us with a
Fig. 12.7.
WAVE MECHANICS 165
For 72 = 2 and
/=0, another sphere of rather larger radius is obtained.
When, however, n = 2 and /= 1, so that mi= 1, 0, there are three possible
electron distributions corresponding to three degenerate states. The
distributions are roughly dumbbell shaped with their axes
lying along
each of the three axes x, y, z. These are shown as perspective
drawings in
the upper half of Fig. 12.8. Under each of these diagrams, a view
looking
downwards along the z axis has been drawn. This reveals the nodal planes
mi = 0.
When = 3, can have values 0, 1, 2. For 7=0 the distribution is again
7z /
for which there are three electron distributions similar to those just
described when n = 2 and shown in Fig. 12.8. Five degenerate states are
possible when 1=2, corresponding to the magnetic quantum numbers
mi= 2, 1, 0. These can most readily be visualized as two dumbbell
distributions with their axes at right angles, orientated in various ways with
1 66 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
respect to the #, y, z axes (Fig. 12.9). For mi= 2, the dumbbells lie in
the xy plane. In one case (mi= 42) the axes of each of the dumbbells lie
along an axis, and in the other case (mi= 2) they are simply rotated
through 45 in the xy plane. Plan views of these are given in Fig. 12.10
looking along the % axis and showing that two nodal planes exist in each
case corresponding to mi= 2. When we come to consider mi= 1, the
same picture of two dumbbells at right angles is needed, but Fig. 12.9
shows how they now lie in the yz plane for mi = f 1 and the xz plane for
wz= 1. Plan views shown in Fig. 12.10 looking along the z axis show
only a single dumbbell distribution for mi= 1, since the other one lies
nodal plane lies in the xy plane, so that there are still two nodal planes
through the nucleus thereby making 1=2.
The fifth possibility is given by TTZJ = 0, in which the electron distribution
consists of a single dumbbell with its axis along the z axis and a small ring
or collar lying in the xy plane around the narrowest part of the dumbbell
(Fig. 12.9). The plan view (Fig. 12.10) shows that no nodal planes pass
through the origin and contain the z axis. In fact no nodal planes pass
WAVE MECHANICS 16
through the nucleus at all. This is in keeping with the magnetic state
7727
= 0. Two conical nodal surfaces, shown with broken lines (Fig. 12.9)
same energy and frequency for all three possible changes. An interesting
feature of the above model is that an energy change giving rise to photon
emission is always accompanied by a change in the shape of the charge
1 68 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
x rrv=0

5P
PROBLEM
12.1 Define the quantum numbers / and mi in terms of the nodal
,
(3) ferromagnetic materials in which the long axis sets parallel to the lines
of force of a weak magnetic field.
These three are shown diagramatically in Fig. 13.1.
The magnetic B weber/m 2
flux density in a magnetic material is related
to the field strength H ampereturns/m by the equation
The
intensity of magnetization / in a body is defined as Q where I=^ KH
K a constant called the volume susceptibility of
is
magnetization. The
degree of magnetization in a body can also be expressed as its mass sus
ceptibility x m = IlfjL pHper gram, where p = density, or as its gram atomic
susceptibility XA Xm x atomic weight.
For any material the flux density B is
given by B=^H \I, so that
or fjL Q H(fjL r l) = I and K=^ r ~l. The susceptibility is
TABLE 13.1
assuming that the orbital electrons provide the molecular currents just dis
cussed. One can then calculate the gram atomic diamagnetic susceptibility
XA in terms of the electron properties of the atom, for both dia and para
magnetism. It was Langevin in 1905 who first considered that an electron
travelling in a circular orbit might give rise to a current and therefore to a
magnetic moment. Following the argument of Chapter 9, the atomic dipole
moment due to a single electron is given by a = J/z ver, antiparallel to /, and
when an external field of flux density B is applied to the atom an induced
electromotive force is generated causing the atom to rotate about the axis
B \m
sion gives a magnetic moment opposite to the direction of and hence a B
diamagnetic effect, as indicated by the minus sign. For the gram atomic
susceptibility XA we then have
where N
Q is Avogadro's number.
In an atom containing more than one electron the orbits will be spatially
THE ATOMIC THEORY OF MAGNETISM 173
oriented at random with respect to the field direction and with this cor
rection the expression for the gram atomic susceptibility is found to be
6m
or, numerically, XA= 355 x 10 9 2> 2 m.k.s. units where 2r 2 is the mean
To Ferromagnetics
T FeCoNi
10
1 lo
:
GO"
icr
3
c
:io
'
i
o
l0
10 20 30 40 50 60 7o ou ^^ >uu
square of each orbital radius summed for all the electronic orbits of the
atom. It is assumed here that the orbits are not necessarily circular.
From this argument it can be seen that %A depends only on atomic
dimensions and is independent of temperature. An average value of
Zr* is 10 20
2
m
so that the gram atomic susceptibility is of the order of
,
10
10~ m.k.s. units for diamagnetic substances.
A similar equation for XA can also be derived using the methods of
wave mechanics and the calculated and observed susceptibilities are then
174 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
reasonably close, so confirming the theory that diamagnetism is an atomic
phenomenon. Fig. 13.2 shows (graphically) some collected values of the
atomic susceptibilities of the elements.
i) . .
factor given by
g=
1
1 + 
j(/+
2/U+l)
 PA j
[Appendix C]
or G^UO 2m p6
v
since p 6' = i
eh
where JJLB
= ^ehl^rrm is then the natural unit of atomic dipole moment,
THE ATOMIC THEORY OF MAGNETISM 175
called the Bohr magneton. 29
Its numerical value is 1165 x 10~ weber/m,
giving
602 x 10 23 x * 2 x;(j + 1) x (1165 x 10~ 29 ) 2
at 
27C
3 x 1 38 x 10~ 23 x 300 x 4rr x 10~ 7
UJ
62 64 66
Atomic number
9
Experimentally we can put x4=/> exp x 523 x 10~ m.k.s. units, where
2
magneton number which can be used for comparison with the theoretical
depends much more on the electron spin angular momentum, the orbital
momentum being ineffective. Hence if 7=0 we have j = s and we can
replace/ by s throughout, so that
= 2, g 2j(j + l) = 4s(s jr 1), and_p becomes
\/4s.(s + l).
This alternative calculated value of p is in better agreement
TABLE 13.2
with the observed values, as shown in Fig. 13.4, and by comparing the
last two columns of Table 13.3 we see that the spin contribution gives a
values depend on the value of the applied field, as is evident in the hystere
sis loops for ferromagnetics obtainable when the field is varied cyclically.
IS 19 20 2' 22 23 24 25 26
Number of electrons
curve =
Dotted calculated using p g 7j(jH)
Fig. 13.4 Effective magnetic moments of the iron group ions at room
temperature.
I
I
o
3
P
1
THE ATOMIC THEORY OF MAGNETISM Ijg
the specimen as a whole. The domain, or molecular, field m was taken H
to be proportional to the intensity of magnetization / so that m H =NI
H H
and e n = + NI where N
is the molecular field constant and e $ is the H
effective field of the permanent magnet.
This leads to a fair description of the experimental results when quan
tum theory is applied to the electrons (see Bozorth, Ferromagnetism y
Ch. 10, p.429 onwards). Exact comparison shows that the net magnetic
effect due to a mixture of spin and orbital electron angular momenta
is
with contributions from both inner and outer electron shells. In the case
of the three elements Fe, Co, and Ni the electron 'core* is common, with
the electron configuration
1 s
2
,
2s 2 2p*, 3 s2 3p
Q
2
Fe dQ 4
3 s or 8 'electrons per atom'
Co 3 d 7 4 s
2
or 9 'electrons per atom'
5
2
Ni 3 d 8 4 s or 10 'electrons per atom
Rare
Earth
group
Ferromagnetic
Interatomic distance
Diameter of 3d shell
Paramagneticy
I 15
CD
c 'Mn
en
a
MnO
80
30
(a) (b)
(a)
6
i0 v
A Moiar
M
heat
C.G.S.
Cals
70 per
mole
10
60
Temperature K
spins on these sites which give ferrites their peculiar properties, see
Fig. 13.7 (d).
xxx
xxx
\
xxx
xxx
(a)
Paramagnetism
xxx Ferromagnetism
(b)
XXX
/ XB
y x X
/B ^
I B
X s
X
A
X
(0 (d)
Anti  ferromagnetism Ferrimagnetism
Negative interactions between equal Negative interactions between unequal
moments. Antiparalle! spin vectors moments. Antiparallel spin vectors
on two sites. on two sites.
13.7 Summary
The explanation of the diamagnetism or paramagnetism of a substance
depends on the quantum energy states and on the electron spins of the ion
concerned. Agreement between wave mechanical predictions and experi
mental results is quite good in most cases. Ferromagnetism, antiferro
magnetism and ferrimagnetism depend on crystal structures as well as on
spin direction considerations. Paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, antiferro
magnetism and ferrimagnetism are all the result of the interaction of
electron spin vectors at the various lattice sites. Paramagnetism is given
by weak random interaction, ferromagnetism by strongly coupled parallel
Fig. 13.7. Some applications of magnetic effects to solid state physics have
been mentioned.
184 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.)
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
13.3 From Table 10.1, p. 142 we find that the helium ground state is
^oi.e. 7=0.
Substituting n
= l and 7 = for this state we get
tf 5 3 #o
r = o (
=

^^ 2 ..fl
Z2
=
2 x (Q.53rxlO*
Z2
Now x^~ 355 x 10 <J
JO' m.k.s. units to be compared with the given
value #_!= 242 x 1Q 11 m.k.s. units
0682 x l(j2u =
~ A (
^ j
" inserting r
2
from (1) above
0682
^, 2x0281
gZ = fr682
. .
'
*
and Z=091.
given by
Pi =Q ~2\/6 since s 2
= 2x245
= 490 Bohr magnetons
Thus p^ =
l
are the 
/>z=0
= 490 Bohr magnetons] possibilities.
126 xlO 7 = 2
ex P x 523 xlO 9
giving ^2 exp=
__ xl0
1
o/
2
of the energy of the atom. The nucleus contains only two types of element
ary particle, the proton and the neutron, so that in all there are only three
fundamental atomic particles, as shown in Table 14.1. It is true that further
particles may be ejected from the nuclear assembly but they do not exist
independently within the nucleus.
TABLE 14.1
within the nucleus which exist nowhere else in nature, otherwise we should
have found them long ago. Alternatively, Coulomb's law breaks down
within the nucleus. At present, as far as we have progressed in this book,
we are not able to differentiate between these two possibilities.
Atoms are built up, step by step, by adding neutrons, protons and
electrons to the simplest atom of all hydrogen. This atom is unique in
that it is the only atom with less than three particles, and consists of one
different nuclei we must use a special name for them. Each of these atoms
is i.e. every atom X is a nuclide. From Table 14.2 we
called a nuclide,
see thatsome nuclides have the same atomic number, Z. These nuclides
form isotopes of the same element. Isotopes, then, of the same chemical
THE STRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEUS 189
TABLE 14.2
element have different masses. In the Table 14.2 the beryllium isotopes
are:
There are also nuclides having the same atomic mass but with different
atomic numbers corresponding therefore to different elements. These are
called isobars, and examples are :
IQO ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
H I
He where A=3
<;He,
<>
Li where A=6
where A = 7.
Isobaric nuclides can be formed by /3~ emission as in the case of tritium :
TABLE 14.3
This table shows that the stable nuclides with an even number of
protons and an even number of neutrons (eveneven nuclides) far out
number the stable nuclides with an odd number of both protons and
neutrons (oddodd nuclides). The
significance of this will be apparent
after further discussion on
radioactivity, but at this stage it can be said
that the nuclear attractive forces referred to earlier in this section must be
much stronger for the eveneven nuclides than for the oddodd nuclides.
THE STRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEUS 191
It is apparent from Fig. 14.1 (a) that the number of protons only twice
exceeds the number of neutrons and that the number of stable isotopes
per element is not constant. For instance, tin, for which Z=50, has ten
stable isotopes ranging from atomic mass 112 to atomic 124, whereas
nearby caesium, for which Z=55, has only one stable isotope of mass 133.
10 20 30 40 50 60 BO 90 !00
Atomic number 2
Fig. 14.1 (a) NZ plot of stable nuclides. (b) Possible nuclear transitions.
192 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
in nuclear physics and must
Clearly these features are of great significance
be accounted for in any theory of nuclear structure.
TABLE 14.4
Xuclide M A JM
1G O = 16 000000 a.m.u.
The units of this table are atomic mass units. This unit is 1 a.m.u. =
1*66 x 1Q~ 27 kg, or, more explicitly it is
^ x 3/ 1G O kg. Note the accuracy
THE STRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEUS 193
with which possible to measure
it is M
with modern mass spectrometer
and nuclear reaction methods. It is this order of accuracy which makes us
particular about choosing
16
O
as our standard instead of the chemical
method of using the natural mixture of oxygen isotopes. Oxygen has three
16 17 18
principa isotopes,
j
O, O, 0, with abundance ratios of about 490 1 :
for 16 : 18 and about 2400 : 1 for 16 : 17. The chemical scale of atomic
weights is based on atmospheric oxygen with all its isotopes. These have
masses and abundances as follows:
= 16000000 99759 o
170 = 17004534 0037%
1S O = 18004855 0004%
If \ve add these together in the proper proportions the atomic weight of
M 12
C = 12000000 a.m.u.
This new scale supersedes the 16 scale and was accepted by the Inter
national Union of Pure and Applied Physics which met in Ottawa in 1960.
The reason for this change is that the conversion factor of 1002783
from the 16 O chemical to the physical scale assumes there is no terrestrial
variation in the abundance ratios of the oxygen isotopes. This is now known
to be incorrect. Furthermore, carbon has only two stable isotopes as
against three for oxygen, and also modern mass spectrometry deals largely
with hydrocarbon compounds and 1
M
!! can therefore be determined very
accurately in terms of
12
M
C. The absolute value of the atomic mass unit
kg and the conversion factor is Jf O scale 1003179
27 1G
is still 166 x 10
M 12
C scale.
Although \ve see from Table 14.4 that mass differences AM are very
small, that they are very accurate and as we shall see later they
we know
have an important bearing on the origin of the energy of the atom. Aston
suggested the name 'packing fraction' / for the ratio AM[A. Since we
have put M=ArAM, we have M=A
(lrf) where /can be positive or
negative. The packing fraction curve for the elements is shown in Fig.
194 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
14.2. This curve is
nearly smooth, but the deviations from it are quite
definite and must, therefore, be explicable on any theory of the nucleus.
Notice that/=0 for 1G O
as expected, and that there is a
very broad
minimum. Regarding packing fraction curve for the moment as a
this
nuclear potential energy curve, we would
expect that the elements in the
minimum to be the most stable.
2x(AfH +A/n ).
Working with atomic mass units, a.m.u., we have
MH =JH = 1008145
and Jtfn = 1008986
so that M ==Jn
HA 2x2017131
"
= 4034262
i.e. the total mass of all the constituents of the helium atom is 4034262.
From Table 14.4 we measured mass of f He is 4003873 less
see that the
than the mass of the nucleons by about 003 a.m.u/This is rather odd
let us try another
example. Take Argon 40, since this has a negative
packing fraction, see Fig. 14.2.
This is
*gA so that the full mass is
200
Fig. 14.2 Packing fraction / taken from the most abundant stable isotope of each
element.
joules per kilogram is the energy equivalent of mass. Thus, our mass
defect AM
ZA appears as an equivalent amount of energy AE on forming
a nucleus. It is the energy released, due to the decrease of mass, when
We have seen that the packing fraction /is given by/=  where A
J~L
is the integral mass number or the total number of nucleons, and M is the
exact atomic mass which we have just written as M ZA .
r ,
Thus  1
=lr/.
then given by
 B Z / Z
Z
Taking the average value of r as 045 we get
B=  000038 0008986  f
= 00086/,
so that the minimum value of / corresponds to a maximum value of B.
Note that since / rarely exceeds 1CH a.m.u. the value of B is roughly
constant. Taking an average value of /as 4 :< 10~ 4 a.m.u., we find that
5 = 00090 a.m.u. about, or approximately 84 MeV for most nuclei
(1 a.m. u. =931 MeV). The reason for this fairly constant value of S is
that it is made up largely of the neutron mass excess (Mn l) as is seen
THE STRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEUS IQ7
in the above expression for 5. This is really a consequence of the fact that
all nuclear forces are short range forces.
Thus, if we plot E against A
we get the packing fraction curve roughly
inverted about the A This is shown in Fig. 14.3, in which we see
axis.
that the curve has a fiat top at about 87 MeY., i.e. the addition of a single
nucleon to any nucleus in this region of A increases the binding energy
by roughly the same amount.
5 6
1 00

5
r,ass A
This curve gives an idea of the general stability of nuclides. The broad
maximum in the middle represents maximum stability, from about
.4 = 50 to about .4 = 100, and the tendency in any nuclear changes is for
the resulting nucleus to lie on this portion of the curve. Thus, the fusion
of light elements tends to produce a single particle nearer the maximum
in Fig. 14.3 and so release energy, while the splitting (fission) of a heavy
element gives two (or more) lighter particles nearer the maximum, again
releasing energy. We shall look at these phenomena in greater detail later.
2
uranium U there are 146 neutrons and 92 protons, a ratio of about 3
jj
: 2.
We
can think of the nucleus as a small confined region into which we
are forcing nucleons to produce heavier atoms. These nucleons have then
an associated binding energy and adjust themselves as far as possible to
give a nucleus of minimum potential energy. However, as the number of
nucleons increases, there is a tendency for the Coulomb repulsion effect
to cause instability so that the nucleus emits particles spontaneously.
These need not be nucleons, as we shall see, nor does it follow that all
such energetic nuclei emit a particle at the same instant of time. The
remaining nucleus differ from the parent, whereas the remaining drop of
liquid is simply a smaller edition of its parent.
numerical values, is
l66xlO 27 /9xl0 1G
MeV
16x10"
933 7 MeV
.. 1 a.m.u. = 9337 MeV and using more accurate values of m, e and c,
we find 1 a.m.u. =931141 MeV. Hence a mass defect of a.m.u. in a AM
nuclear assembly corresponds to a release of energy given by 931141 x AM
MeV. We
shall use 931 as the conversion factor in this book.
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.}
14.1 From the table of isotopes at the end of the book draw diagrams
showing :
(i)
the distribution of the number of stable isotopes per element
with Z.
and (ii)
the distribution of the number of stable nuclides against A  Z.
List the values at which maxima occur and refer to Chapter 19 for an
explanation.
14.2 Draw a suitable histogram of the distribution of stable isotopes in
ing energy per nucleon'. Why is this approximately constant for all but
the lightest elements?
14.7 Three successive Krypton isotopes are:
f{Kr
= 849396, jKr
= 859382, JKr = 869413.
200 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
By calculating the binding energy of the last neutron in each case decide
which isotope is likely to be unstable to neutrons, given
= 639499
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
14.3 Take as an example the carbon isotopes
10
C and 14 C.
If either is a
S~ emitter we have
These reactions are always possible if the mass of the final nuclide is
Since 10
C = 10020240 N= 1
?
14
C = 14007687 "N = 14007520
10
B = 10016119 14 B = ?
we deduce 10
C is a /?+ emitter and 14
C a /? emitter.
14.9 It is sufficient in calculations of this kind to take
M = 10090
n
MH = 10081
Hence for gJ 4 Ni
o
N = 36 and Z  28
THE STRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEUS 2OI
NM + ZMH = 36x1 0090 + 28 x
a 1 008 1
= 363240 + 282268
= 645508
4 AT 645508 63 9481
=06027 a.m.u.
BE =5611 MeV and B = 877 MeV.
nuclei increases rapidly after calcium, as shown in Table 15.1 for nuclides
TABLE 15.1
protons are added. These extra neutrons provide the extra binding energy
necessary to overcome the increasing Coulomb repulsion energy of the
protons. It is unlikely, therefore, that the properties of a nucleus with a
low n : p ratio would be the same as those with a high ratio, and so we
n p the nucleus tends to be unstable,
find that for very large values of :
Radioactivity was discovered at the end of the last century and it was
PROPERTIES AND USES OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY 203
soon found that the radiation emitted consisted of three distinct
types.
These were named a, /? and yrays for simplicity, and were found to be
charged helium nuclei, fast electrons and electromagnetic radiation of
very short wavelength similar to Xrays, respectively.
The general properties of a, /? and yrays have been discussed in
Chapter 4.
io
2
Ra F gPo
08 Range in air at 760 mm
and !5C
a
o 06
_
<D C4
Fig. 15.1
1234 Distance from source
about 38 cm, and the ionization along the path of the particles increases
to a maximum before suddenly decreasing to zero. This was first shown by
W. H. Bragg and a typical example of one of his ionization curves for
2
Po is shown in Fig. 15.1.
As the velocity of the ions is reduced by multiple collisions with the
electrons of the gas molecules the ionization efficiency increases until an
range i.e. a sharply defined ionization path length. This is best shown
,
15.1. The
Bragg curve, Fig. 'range' is found by extrapolating the straight
part of the curve to zero ionization, as shown.
Alpha particles are very easily absorbed. A sheet of newspaper will cut
off most of them and a postcard will often absorb them
completely. Thus
from the safety point of view, clothing is sufficient to absorb
aparticles and
it is the internal hazard which is
dangerous, as explained in Appendix D.
If we examine the range of the common natural aemitters
? together
PROPERTIES AND USES OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY 2O5
with their respective halflives, it is apparent that there is a rough recip
rocal relation between them. Table 15.2 shows these quantities in detail
and it is important to notice the tremendous range of halflife TJ, ranging
from 14 x 10 10 years for 2 ^Th which is therefore almost a stable isotope,
to 30 x 10~ 7 sec for 2 gPo which is almost a nonexistent isotope. Since
TABLE 15.2
these nuclides have the shortest and longest aparticle ranges respectively
these figures suggest a reciprocal relation of the form :
= constant
0693
.e. = > where A = (p. 54) and A is a constant.
30
212
84 Po
oThC'
R cm
X sec'
ThC...fBi
20
O
CO
10
log R
Fig. 15.3 GeigerNuttall Rule for the Thorium series.
where both E v and E$ are variable, as shown in Fig. 15.4. The neutrino
is neutral and has negligible rest mass but, as in the case of the energy
of a photon, its energy can still be very large. It has a spin quantum
number s = like the electron.

As the proton remains inside the nucleus the mass number remains un
altered.
electrons.
These three factors can be combined into one single absorption co
efficient JJL
in the exponential law of absorption
0)
"o
c
13
O
We have loge
j=p
x f
me) = 3 7 x 10
7
1 millicurie (1 dis/sec
1 microcurie (1 /xc)
= 37 x 10 4 dis/sec
More useful units are :
6086
40
20
Tl ground state
m
N== Avogadro's number x
= 1 63 xlO 13
^ curies.
Errors are largely due to the difficulty of measuring A with great accuracy.
In the older leaduranium method rocks with inclusions of these two
elements, as for example from the mineral pitchblende, will contain the
nuclides 2 U, 2 j*U, 2 fPb, 2 ^Pb and 2 ?Pb. The isotope 2 Pb is
omitted because it can only be formed in the thorium radioactive series and
rocks are chosen with no thorium present. Of the three lead isotopes present
2
only one, viz. gfPb, is nonradiogenic since it has no place in any of the
four radioactive decay series. If we assume that all primeval leads have the
same isotopic composition, any presentday 2 2 Pb and 2 82^k may ke
partly radiogenic and partly primeval, whereas the 2 gPb isotope cannot
be radiogenic and must be original lead. Thus for rocks containing no
detectable 2 fPb all the lead must be in the form of the radiogenic 2 gPb
and 2 ggPb isotopes.
Consider now the formation of 2 ?Pb and 2 j^Pb in a lead sample con
tained in a rock. For the 3 U> 2 ofPb decay by applying s
T
N N
= (e^  1) t
we have, for the presentday quantities of 2 gPb (N 206 ) and 2 j*U (A 238 ),
JV 206 = A^ 238 (e Alt  1) where t is the age of the rock since its mineralization
and A! is the appropriate decay constant. Similarly for the ^ijU > 2 Pb
decay we have
T
where A/ 23S and JV235 are presentday quantities of the uranium isotopes
Thus
214 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
where 7\
238 = 45 x 10 9 years =' 
giving A l3 =487 x 10~
18
s 1
Ai
693
and Ti***
= 713 x 10 8 years
= \A
=
giving A 2 308 x 10'
17
s 1 .
meter then t can be found. This, of course, is the age of the rock since it
was formed and the uranium began to decay to stability within the rock.
It is only correct if all the lead is radiogenic, i.e. it is true for rocks con
2
taining pockets of uraniumlead minerals but no gfPb by analysis on the
mass spectrometer.
In order to measure the age of the Earth itself it is necessary to measure
lead ores such as the galenas, which have ceased to be radioactive. Here
the argument is that at tQ years ago when the ore was first formed in
the Earth's crust, i.e. tQ is equal to the 'age' of the Earth, the isotopic
2
composition of all leads was the same and that the gfPb isotope content
has remained constant ever since. Thus if the total *%%Pb content as meas
ured today on a lead sample in terms of 2 gfPb is a this will be made up of
an original nonradiogenic portion x (unknown) and a radiogenic portion
N^Q (unknown), or
N 206
= ax.
2
Since gfPb *s unchanged and is constant for all galenas and it is possible
to measure presentday lead ratios 2 gPb 2 gfPb very accurately on the :
^207 =6 3>
2
where the measurements are again expressed in terms of gfPb.
a x re^ ir ].~\
Therefore  =137*8 ^  as before, where x, y are unknown
primeval isotopic ratios, the same for all similar rocks of the same age and
where T = t Q t
= (total age of rock) (age since fully mineralized)
= decay time of rock.
This equation can then be written
a x ^ito _ g^it
* ~\
1 = 137.8 ,, *(A.A>
A:( _ e Aaj J
PROPERTIES AND USES OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY 2*5
in which the unknowns are
x, y, t Q and t.
This equation assumes that the uranium started to decay tQ years ago and
was completely transformed into radiogenic lead t years ago, since when
the lead ratios have been constant and the quantity of uranium remaining
today is negligible. This is shown in Fig. 15.7 where there is a growth of,
2 2
say, Pb from U for r years after which the ore has a stable com
position.
O
OL a
wxE
*+ o
Radiogenic
206,
82Pb
Formation 
Time back
Time
of crust Time of
present
mineralization
2(
'
2
Fig. 15.7 Growth of radiogenic sPb from i^U.
Alternatively, for all galenas of the same mineral age t, and again
2l6 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
assuming that all primeval leads have the same isotopic composition so
that x 1 = x z = x and y l =y 2 =y we nave
y
e
,
A  tto  e\ T \e
/lzt
[^AI J
t Q if t is known and is common to all the rocks measured.
giving ,
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.)
log T^
= ml log E + B!
and evaluate the constants m l and B v
15.2 Examine the manner in which the constants m and B in the
v*
/
(
e \
)
measuredj = (/
e \
)
rest
/<>
(1 
\m/ V'W \ c
z
1200 3
1000 3
900 3
800 4
700 7
600 32
500 161
400 596
300 1493
200 3370
100 5411
9023
Aluminium
thickness 27 MeV 12 MeV 08 MeV
cm
30 0060 0010 0005
20 0150 0045 0025
15 0240 0095 0065
10 0385 0210 0160
5 0620 0455 0400
100 100 100
Comment on the results obtained. (24 cm, 14*5 cm and 125 cm)
2l8 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
15.6 Using the radioactive decay formula show that the rate of accumu
lation of a daughter nucleus is given by
dt
approximately
15.8 Calculate the disintegration rate per gram of each member of the
uranium series, and the corresponding activities in curies.
15.9* Using the presentday abundances of the two main uranium
isotopes and assuming that the abundance ratio could never have been
greater than unity, estimate the maximum possible age of the Earth's
crust. (6 x 10 9 yr)
2
15.10 The abundances of g?U and
2
gtU in presentday natural
uranium are:
The halflife of
23
2
gU
is well established as 4498 x 10
5
10
years. Calculate
the halflife of fU. (263 x 10 yr)
What further data are required to calculate the halflife of the other
important uranium isotope, viz. 2
^fU, with an abundance of 071%?
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
15.3 Relativity kinetic energy is given by

y'l fc';c
giving
= 0947
or ?; = 292xl0 8 m/s.
mv^
Now Bev =
r
giving B=
(T)
1 _ x
292x108
  for r = 10 cm
l76xlO n 10 1
= 0072weber/m 2 .
Now for 2
U w e have
r
N % ^N^e~ x ^ where A"8 and Ar08 refer to
,
2 3
f
92
U such that A 8 = where T8 is the corresponding halflife.
1 8
0693f
/V
A "' =*
tfoT*~
Similarly
T
AS A Q5
= 0693 tY 1 1
T ~ 1^ "I ,
x 1Afi
hr""T" where T5== /4j
. 10 years
As Acs IT, 7\J ^d r5=,45x 10^ years
^ = 1378 and we assume 5
=
Now
N08=1, the maximum value with ^x
^ t
AT5
9
/. Iog 10 1378=04343 x 693 x tmzx x (118 x 10~ ) where t is in years
9
21392=04343 x 693 x * max x 1 18 x 10~
from which max = 6 x 10 9 years.
From astronomical evidence this is also the probable age of the universe.
Chapter 16
gen, the nitrogen in the air being responsible for the protons. The most
important conclusion from these experiments was that nitrogen gas akcays
produced fast protons when bombarded with particles and so Rutherford
if this be the case we must conclude that the nitrogen atom is
(
wrote . . .
Tap Tap
Low power
Gas under test
microscope
RaC deposit
Slide
screen
Absorbing
foil
Fig. 16.3 Wilson cloud chamber photographs of single aparticle collisions with
(a) a hydrogen atom; (b) a helium atom; (c) an oxygen atom. (Taken from
Radiations from Radioactive Substances by Rutherford, Chadwick, and Ellis,
C.U.P., 1930.)
where both Z and A must balance on both sides of the equation. This
equation can be expressed simply by the notation *N (a, p) B O. It must
l 17
not be considered that this reaction always takes place for all nitrogen
NUCLEAR BOMBARDING EXPERIMENTS 223
atoms bombarded with aparticles. It only takes place when an aparticle
happens by chance to make an almost 'headon' collision with a nitrogen
nucleus, which occurs about once in a million particles. Single aparticle
shown very beautifully by the single forklike tracks in the
collisions are
Blackett cloud chamber photographs of aparticle tracks in Fig. 16.3.
This cloud chamber technique is dealt with more fully in Chapter 17.
In this way Rutherford achieved the first artificial transmutation of one
element into another, viz. nitrogen into oxygen, by occasional aparticle
with nitrogen nuclei, and so laid the foundation of many nuclear
collisions
experiments carried out during the next decade. (See Fig. 17.2 on p. 232.)
When writing down the equation of a nuclear reaction not only must
w e remember
r
to balance both Z and A but also to insert the total kinetic
energy change O of the reaction, thus:
energy of all the particles (incident and final) we can calculate this from
the masses of the particles as follows :
L.H.S. 4
He= 40039 and R.H.S. *H = 10081
14
N = 140075 17
O = 170045
180114 180126
initially at rest.
= 768 MeV from 2 JJ Po
But a
=
EH +E 651 MeV, which the available energy of the re
action.
It is in this reaction that the aparticle is captured by the
now assumed
nitrogen nucleus and forms a new or compound nucleus
of fluorine,
1
F, which emits a
immediately protonand an oxygen nucleus in opposite
directions. the law of conservation of momentum we have,
By applying
with the usual notation, /WH^H^^O^O (assuming the compound nucleus
of fluorine is momentarily at rest)
224 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
<r "! 7
'O T^H 1
'o\
2
1 17 2
_ X _17
H/ ~17 T~T
77 17 17
Thus = Ez=
^?k l8
r
18
H
giving Rjt=z=8R a I from Geiger's Law.
L^^J
j 4012/3
[1s'
with the experimental value worked out above.
Thus, Rutherford's aparticle reaction was shown to be a true transmu
tation and in the 1920's it was followed by the investigation of many more
reactions of the same nature. In some of these, as for example, the
H + 226 MeV
the value of O was positive, and kinetic energy was therefore created by
the disintegration process, and this was often typical of aparticle reactions
with light elements. For heavy elements the energy required for an a
was greater than that available from natural radioactive
particle reaction
substances due to the high potential barrier of the heavier nuclei so that
NUCLEAR BOMBARDING EXPERIMENTS 225
the early researches on the (a, p) reactions were limited to elements for
which the atomic number was less than 20.
JHCpJ^f
8
2He(a) which is
^B[p, a] Be,
and
The accepted value for the mass of the neutron is now 1008986 a.m.u.
so that the masses of the proton and the neutron are nearly the same and,
where A, B, C and D are the reacting nuclei and E x and E 2 are the initial
and final kinetic energies respectively.
Bohr suggested that the collision of the A and B nuclei leads in the
first place to the formation of a compound nucleus AB*. This compound
KP)
or (a, n) reactions are possible.
(P. a)
or (p, n) reactions,
(d, a)
(d, p)
(d, n)
(d, 2n) reactions.
This emphasizes the fact that the products obtained from the disintegra
tion of a compound nucleus are somehow dependent on the physical
conditions of the nucleus at the exact moment of disintegration. All
energetically possible reactions occur in proportions determined by selec
tion rules.
An interesting reaction is
jH + f H>He**;H + JH where
jH + fH>He*H?Hef Jn is an alternative.
Tritium is a ^emitter according to
The j3energy is very low, 0018 MeV, and so the use of JH in counting
228 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
experiments demands very sensitive apparatus, which accounts for the
fact that tritium was not discovered as a reaction product until 1939.
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.)
7
Li = 7018232, 6
Li = 6017034 and ^ 1008986
7
calculate the binding energy of a neutron in the Li nucleus. Express the
result in a.m.u., MeV and joules.
12
(0007788 a.m.u., 73 MeV, 118 x 1Q joules)
16.2 Calculate the binding energy in MeV of beryllium of mass
8007849 if !n = 1008986 and *!! = 1008145. (565 MeV)
16.3 From the reaction
S MeV
calculate the mass of C if
(14007771)
16.4 When lithium is bombarded with protons the following reactions
can occur:
7
Li + JH>Be*^Be+y + 144or 173 MeV
or
MeV
From these data deduce a simple energy level diagram of the nuclide, Be.
16.5 When A1 is bombarded with aparticles, protons, deuterons or
neutrons about twelve different nuclear reactions may occur. Write down
some of these reactions and find which are exoergic and which endoergic.
16.6* In the following deuterium reactions the reaction energy is as
stated :
14
N(d, p)
15
N = 861 MeV
15
N (d, a)
13
C 0=768 MeV
13
C (d, a) B = 516 MeV
UB N O=?
(a, n)
when b is emitted in the same direction as the path of a. Apply this to the
Rutherford l *N (a, p) I78 O reaction and compare your result with the
known value of O.
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
16.1 The binding energy of the neutron in a.m.u. is
\ Camera
\f ^F
A =
cylinder B =
piston
C 
source D =
giass cover plate
droplets. These are large enough to show up the atracks rather like the
vapour trials in the wake of a high flying aircraft which can be measured
for range, and bent in a magnetic field for energy, particle sign and
momentum determinations. Collision processes show up as forked tracks,
as in Fig. 16.3. Much of the early qualitative work on aparticles w as done
r
with the Wilson cloud chamber in the hands of Rutherford's early research
group.
The switching on of the illumination and the photograph takes place
immediately after the expansion before the droplets forming the tracks
have dispersed. In modern physics the events are photographed stereo
graphically since there is no guarantee that the tracks are parallel to the
plane of the chamber. Fig. 17.2 shows stereographic pairs of cloud chamber
photographs showing the ejection of protons from nitrogen by aparticle
bombardment.
In an attempt to use gases at higher pressures, the diffusion cloud
chamber \vas designed in w hich a stationary layer of supersaturated gas
r
through the air which has a low absorption, but if the expansion could be
done in a high density medium much more information would be available.
This has been carried out in the bubble chamber, which uses liquids of
low surface tension. Pressure is applied and the liquid is heated to a temp
erature just less than the boilingpoint at that particular pressure. At the
required signal the pressure is suddenly reduced and the liquid boils.
This boiling takes place initially along ion paths and if the chamber is
photographed at the right moment tracks of bubbles are seen as in the
232 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
ively without further ionization taking place on the way due to collisions
with gas molecules. The time constants are so arranged that the result is a
continuous small current which is then linearly related to the degree of
ionization in the chamber and so to the activity of the source. It is also
Fig. 1 7.3 (b) Proton collisions of Fig. 1 7.3 (a) diagrammatically. The
first proton A x enters the chamber at the top left hand corner of the
picture and collides with the stationary proton B which recoils along
D
B i. This process is repeated at C, and E. (Photograph by permission
of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California.)
ray
Cylindrical chamber
Leakage i
current !
amplifier
^200 volts
Fig. 17.4 Ionization chamber with guard ring. Note that the
leakage current does not pass through the load R.
r ray
20cm
wire is very thin (see Fig. 17.5) and the potential difference fairly large,
the electric field E dV/dr is very high causing the electron velocity to be
correspondingly high. Although the pulse size increases with increasing
applied voltage in the proportional counter region, it is still proportional
to the initial number of ionpairs produced in the gas at constant voltage.
In Fig. 17.5, where the radius of the wire is a and that of the counter is
,
the radial field E at any point distance a from the centre will be E=kja y
where k is a constant, and the expression for the potential difference across
the tube is given by
F=23*lo glo i/*.
For 4 = 001 m and 7=1000 volts we have 1000 = 23 k Iog 10 giving
k in terms of a. We
can therefore work out E, the potential gradient, from
E=kfa for various values of a, the inner wire radius. This is shown in
Table 17.1 (p. 243) in which the increase of field is for the thinner
apparent
wire. Hence the energy Ve imparted
to each electron in this strong field is
sufficient to cause further ionization by collision. As more ions are
pro
duced by multiple collisions a gas amplification of about 10 3 is achieved.
Thus in the proportional region while the
pulse height is still linearly
related to the intensity of the radiation received the
single pulses involved
MEASUREMENT AND DETECTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES 237
are now much larger, being of the order of a few millivolts. The counter
can then be operated with an amplifier having a lower gain than that
required for the ionization chamber.
Continuous
discharge
region
Geiger
Mulier
counter
region
'Proportionali
counter region I
i
I
Applied voltage *
shown in Fig. 17.6. The main regions used for measurement are:
the ionization chamber region A B
(1)
(2) the proportional counter region C D
and (3) the GeigerMuller region E F (see next section).
After the point F the tube becomes a simple discharge tube in which the
current is produced even after the ionization event has ceased. The tube
will only give a measure of ionization intensity if it is used in the region
A B or C D. Like the ionization chamber the proportional counter gives
the radiation energy.
single pulses of height proportional to
Argon or methane are common gases used in proportional counters, at
a
atmosphere or a above.
pressure of about 1 little
238 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
Internal
graphite
coating
(b)
of ions, and there are therefore thousands of times more ions present than
in the proportional counter.
lonization takes place along the whole length of the wire in a Geiger
Muller tube, whereas in the proportional counter it is localised at a single
point by the direction of the ionizing particles. When the gas is ionized the
electrons produced in the cascade are immediately drawn to the positive
central wire and are counted as a single negative pulse. This whole opera
tion takes less than a microsecond. Being very light compared with the
positive ions the electrons have greater mobility and, after the pulse has
been counted the wire is still sheathed by positive ions which take several
hundred microseconds to move away to the outer cathode. During this
time thefield round the wire is too low to give sufficient energy to further
electrons so that the tube remains insensitive until the positive ions have
moved away and allowed the pulse to develop in the external circuit. This
is the deadtime period of the GeigerMuller tube and any ionizing event
MEASUREMENT AND DETECTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES 239
occurring during this time is not recorded. Thus a Geiger counter cannot
resolve events closer than 10 4 per second.
The voltage characteristics of a GeigerMuller tube are shown in
Fig. 17.8. It is to be remembered that the characteristic
pulse of the Geiger
tube is independent of the size or
intensity of the ionizing event as a multi
ple avalanche can be produced by one or many events and also by primary
and secondary electrons. It is seen from this diagram that there is a
Continuous
discharge
Threshold
voltage \
j
Working
I/voltage
voltage *
Applied
Fig. 17.8 GeigerAIuller tube characteristics.
threshold below which the tube does not work. This can be of the order
of a few hundred volts. As the applied potential is increased the counting
begins and rises rapidly to a flat portion of the curve called the plateau.
This is the Geiger tube region for which the count rate is independent of
small changes in potential difference across the tube. Beyond the plateau
the applied electric field is so high that a continuous discharge takes place
in the tube, as shown in Fig. 17.6, and the count rate increases very rapidly.
It does not require any ionizing event for this to happen so that the tube
must not be used in this region.
We have seen that the positive
ions owing to their mobility being lower
than that of the electrons take much longer to reach the cathode. When
they do arrive they liberate secondary electrons from the metal of the
7
cathode which are then drawn inward to start the discharge pattern again.
240 ATOMIC AND NCCLEAR PHYSICS: AX INTRODUCTION
This isan unwanted spurious discharge since the total time of the dis
charge from a single event may then become several milliseconds. To
*
1 A'obs*
1
This equation is valid for rates of counting less than about ~r
per
jLur
circuit an electronic device known as the quench probe unit which injects
into the counting instrument a known value of t (usually 400 so ^5%),
that A" can be obtained directly from any value of Aot> s The actual count .
Total
paralysis
time
230 400
!00
Dead
**" ^ 33j
Recovery
time Time time
,us
Semiconductor counters are now being developed and are the subject
of much research. The barrier region in a silicon np junction (n = nega
tive electron carrier, p = positive hole carrier) is particularly sensitive to
242 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
ionizing particles. If these particles can penetrate to the barrier region
with the correct potential across the junction, the system acts as a solid
ionization chamber. This is a very simple idea which may lead to the repro
duction of many of the classical scattering experiments without having
complicated gaseous counters. These semiconductor counters are useful in
detecting all heavily ionizing radiations such as aparticles, protons, heavy
ions and fission fragments but are no good for yrays as their specific
ionization is too small,
paths of ions as they move through a gas. Hence they cannot be observed
either in a cloud chamber or in a Geiger tube. As all such counting depends
on ionization, use must be made of any ionizing particles produced by a
neutron. For example, if boron is bombarded with neutrons, aparticles
are produced:
and each neutron produces an aparticle. This aparticle in turn will pro
duce an ionization track which can then be used to identify the neutron.
Thus for a counter to detect neutrons it must contain some gas which
ionizes after neutron collision with its molecules. This is possible with
BF 3 gas in which the boron atoms produce the aparticles which in turn
produce ionization which can be detected in the usual manner. Neutron
counting chambers are either ionization or proportional counting arrange
ments.
17.8 Summary
Ionizing radiations can be measured by ionization chamber, proportional
counter and by GeigerMuller tube methods according to the nature of
the investigation. Most simple nucleonic work is done with a Geiger
Muller tube. Neutrons can be counted in specially 'doped' proportional
counter tubes.
For fast counting a scintillation counter is used as the resolution time
is so much less.
Nuclear emulsion plates can be prepared which will record individual
ionization events and neutron collisions if the emulsion contains sensitive
neutron collision atoms such as boron.
TABLE 17.1
Proportional Counter
Wire radius a m
Tube radius =b =001 m
Applied voltage F=1000 volts
a k E=*k'a
from
m F = 23 k logio volts/m x 10~
5
3
10~ 435 435 (435,000 volts/m)
10~ 4 217 21*7
1Q 5 145 145
10~ 6 109 1090
10 7 87 8700
TABLE 17.2
Ionization Potential
Fillings Volts Pressure Used
Ne 217 Various mixtures
Ionizing gas A 157 between 10 and
Kr 140 50 cm Hg
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section^)
17.1 A
sample of uranium, emitting aparticles of energy 418 MeV, is
placed near an ionization chamber. Assuming that only 10 particles per
second enter the chamber calculate the current produced.
1 ion
pair requires energy of 35 eV
Electronic charge = 1*6 x 10~ 19 coulomb. (192 x 10" 13 amp)
17.2* An ionization chamber is connected to an electrometer of capacity
05 jUftF and voltage sensitivity of 4 divisions per volt. A beam of aparticles
causes a deflection of 08 divisions. Calculate the number of ion pairs
required and the energy of the source of the aparticles. Use data of
Question 1. (625 x 10 5 ion pairs, 219 MeV)
17.3 It is required to operate a proportional counter with a maximum
radial field of 10 5 volts/cm. What is the applied voltage required if the
radii of the wire and tube are 0002 cm and 1 cm respectively? (1240 volts)
17.4 If the mean free path of the electrons in a proportional counter of
4
gasmultiplication factor of 1024 is 10~ cm, calculate the distance from
the wire for which this multiplication takes place. (0001 cm)
17.5 If the wire in Question 4 has a radius of 0001 cm and the tube
radius is 1 cm w hat is
r
the field at the radius giving a gas multiplication of
1024 if is 1200 volts? (174 x 10 5 volts/cm)
the applied voltage
17.6 The paralysis time (sometimes simply called the 'dead time') of a
GeigerMuller is 400 fjs. What is the true count rate for measured count
rates of 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 counts per minute? Express each
answer as a percentage counting error and comment on the results.
(10007 1007 10,715 300,000)
: : :
17.7* An
organicquenched GeigerMuller tube operates at 1000 volts
and has a \vire diameter of 02 mm. The radius of the cathode is 2 cm
and the tube has a guaranteed lifetime of 10 9 counts. What is the maximum
radial field and how long will the counter last if it is used on the average
for 30 hours per week at 3000 counts per minute?
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
AO
17.2 Signal voltage AV=~
.
i.e.
08 AQ
4 05 xlO~ 12
JO10 13 coulomb.
This isalso Ne where N is the equivalent number of ionic charges each
of value e= 1 6 x 10~ 19 coulomb.
A r
x e = 10~ 13 coulomb
ID 13
and A~
l6x!0 19
= 625 x 10 5 ion pairs required.
F
If the energy of the aparticles in eV is V then A = 7
since 1 ion pair
requires 35 eV
F=35x625xl0 3 eV
r
P ^219 MeV.
If the lifetime of the tube is A" years the total number of counts recorded
will be
N x 50 x 30 x 60 x 300027 x 10 X counts s
giving N =3 years. 7
Chapter 18
18.1 Introduction
The first bombarding particles to be used in nuclear physics were the
Cambridge school in the 1920's that there was a limit to the transmutations
that could be obtained with these and that if other particles could be used
as missiles the whole range of information would increase, as different
types of nuclear reaction became possible. The only other feasible bomb
arding particles then known were protons, since electrons do not produce
nuclear effects. The first research was directed towards the acceleration of
protons to energies of a few MeV. This culminated in the Cockcroft
Walton accelerator which appeared in 1932, and was the forerunner of the
machines we have today giving energies up to many thousands of MeV.
The design of successful accelerating machines depends not only on
classical physics, electrical engineering, electronics and vacuum tech
Ion
source
Rectifier
x Accelerator
tube
u
Target
Aii voltages refer to
'Screen
which isconducting during the second half cycle, the charge accumulated
on C l is now shared with C 2 and on repeating the first half cycle the con
denser C x is recharged up to F In this (third) half cycle C 2 retains its
.
charge but this is increased by sharing with C l again during the fourth half
cycle. After repeating this procedure
for a few cycles the condenser C 2
becomes charged since it cannot lose charge by current leakage.
fully
Eventually an equilibrium is reached in which there is no current through
either R or R at any time. The potential of O is now equal to the maxi
mum potential of P with respect to O, i.e. a steady potential difference of
248 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
2V appears across C while the instantaneous potential of P with respect
2,
through the rectifiers R 3 and R 4 we can repeat the whole of the above
argument and the potential finally appearing at S is 2VQ with respect to
O and 4VQ with respect to O.
In principle the potential F can be multiplied up to any multiple of
VQ by using the simple voltage doubler in cascade. Cockcroft and Walton
reached a final potential of about 07 MeV in 1932. This is not very high
by modern standards and it is the reason why the early CockcroftWalton
proton reactions were limited to light elements lithium, boron, beryllium,
etc., as already described.
direct collisions are rare events but are those of most interest. Thus the
reaction :
HV terminal
Ion source
'
Screen
with the single Van de Graaff current of about 200 fiA. The tandem Van
de Graaff at Aldermaston is shown in Fig. 18.3.
The Van de Graaff machine can be used to accelerate electrons by
reversing the potential of the spray voltage and using a hot filament for
thermionic electrons instead of the ion chamber.
R.E
potential
C2 where the potential is such that the positive ion is accelerated in the
,
aneous velocity of the ions and /is the frequency of the applied field. Thus
drift tubes of a few centimetres long require oscillating fields with fre
H.F.
Magnet
pole
Magnet
pole
The source S produces electrons which ionize the gas around S and these
ions are then bent in a magnetic field within two hollow conductors,
known as dees', inside a closed vessel containing hydrogen gas at low
*
pressures. The magnetic field passes across the dees perpendicular to the
path of ions. The potential between D l and D 2 must change over just as
the ions are crossing the gap, as was necessary with the linear accelerator.
The magnetic field causes the ions to move in a circular path through I D
and when they get to the gap, D.2 goes negative and the ion is accelerated
across the gap and so on.
mv rBe
Thus, =Bev and v= for an ion mass m, charge e moving in
r m
a circular path of radius r with speed v in a magnetic field of flux density B.
independent of speed and radius, and is thus the same for all particles. The
ion is always in phase once the potentials on the dees are correctly adjusted
so that the energy is increased each time the ion passes a gap. When the
ion has reached the maximum radius, it is led out by a channel some 60"
long curved to follow the path of the ions with the outer plate at a negative
potential to draw the ions away from the magnetic field. They emerge at P.
Fig. 18.6 shows a photograph of the emergent beam from a cyclotron.
DO
velocity at circumference
= (putting r
= R where R is the radius of the
dees)
*
5 2J? 2 e
2
m
2
.*. Ec<R for a given particle.
Thus the size of an cyclotron increases more rapidly than the correspond
ing increase of energy. The maximum energy of a particle from a fixed
frequency cyclotron is MeV, the limit being set by the relativistic
about 20
mass increase as well as mechanical engineering difficulties and expense,
254 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
cyclotrons, working at low velocities, this was accurate enough but for
=
higher speeds relativity changes become important. Thus, if v Q8 c,
z
v
= 064 and yl p'2 = ^/Q36 = 0'6 and m=l66 m 09 where m Q is the
v
rest mass of the particle and /3
= .
c
starting out from the centre are subject to a frequency modulation as they
approach the periphery and so come out in bursts of a few hundred per
sec, each burst lasting about 100 microseconds.
energy of about 50 kV. As the magnetic field builds up during the first
half cycle it induces an e.m.f, inside the doughnut and accelerates the
electrons which are already moving in a circular path, by the action of the
transverse magnetic field. When the field reaches its first positive maximum
it is suddenly stopped and the high energy electrons leave their circular
ACCELERATING MACHINES IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS 255
paths tangentially to strike a target which then emits Xrays. Electrons are
always ejected into the target when the magnetic field has just completed
quarter cycle and reached its maximum value.
its first
As
already explained the velocities acquired are very high and may
approach 098 c. If the circumference of the doughnut is ~ 3 metre, the
x 3 x 10 8
frequency is v/27rr = 098 = 98 x 10 7 cps. If the frequency of the
j
magnetic field is 50 cycles the time taken for the first quarter cycle is
7
1 98 x 10 n
 s and the electrons make
, , ,
 A
=49 x 10 journeys per quarter
Magnet
pole
Particle
in orbit
Doughnut shaped
vacuum chamber
Magnet
pole
cycle. If the average energy acquired is 200 eV per cycle, the total energy
on ejection about 100
is MeV, the mass now being about 200 m Q Energies .
of the order of 100 MeV are currently used in betatrons which give bursts
of Xrays at a repetition rate of one pulse every hundredth of a second.
(Fig. 18.8). In the central gap some soft iron flux bars serve as the central
core of the magnet to start up the machine as a betatron. Part of the interior
of the doughnut is coated with copper or silver to give a resonance cavity G,
which is attached to a high frequency oscillator of a few thousand volts.
When the oscillator is on, the electron is accelerated each time it crosses
applied to G operates at the proper frequency the electrons are all kept in
Electron \ \
Fluxbar
gun \ f
Doughnut
section
Resonance
cavity
Xray
beam (b) Vertical section through AA
(a) Plan
Fig. 18.8 Electronsynchrotron, (a) plan with magnet removed; (b) vertical
section showing annular magnet.
Doughnut
Magnet
Doughnut
Accelerating section
electrodes
(a) Plan
protons and neutrons, and perhaps mesons, can only be solved by using
intense beams of nuclear particles of very high energies as probes. Since
the work of Cockcroft and Walton in 1932 in w^hich the highest potential
achieved was something less than 1 MeV, the quest for higher and higher
potentials has gone on, together with methods of increasing the ion beam
intensity. In this quest the physicists of the U.S.A. have played an out
standing part.
Improvements in the CockcroftWalton system were limited to about
1 MeV by the breakdown resistance of the accelerating tube materials.
The culminating point in the electrostatic generation of energy is in the
tandem Van de Graaff generator working at about 15 MeV.
In order to go beyond the limit of about 10 MeV generated electro
statically, an entirely new method was required. The idea of resonance
acceleration was conceived by Lawrence and Livingston, who made the
firstcyclotron in 1932 giving a proton beam of about 12 MeV. In 1940
the betatron w as designed giving a beam of 23
r
MeV
electrons. The energy
limit of this fixed frequency type of accelerating machine is about 25 MeV
for protons and 300 MeVfor electrons but the linear accelerator is capable
of giving about 50 MeV (protons) and about 1 GeV (electrons).
The next breakthrough was the application of the principle of phase
keeping the changing speed of the particle in phase with the
stability, i.e.
high frequency oscillating potential, giving rise to the synchrotrons for
both positive ions and electrons. The electron synchrotron has given
ACCELERATING MACHINES IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS 259
energies of the order of 350 MeV while the proton synchrotron can give
energies up to about 10 GeV.
Finally, the present designs of super accelerating machines are based
on the principle of the alternating gradient method of magnetic focusing,
which has given up to 33 GeV from the machine at the Brookhaven
National Laboratory.
CI MeV
of
Fig. 18.10 shows diagrammatically the growth of the various types
machines with a very rough linear growth in the logarithm scale. From the
curve it would appear that the limit of the alternating gradient synchrotron
for protons is about 100 GeV, after which another major alteration in
j
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.)
18.1 A
cyclotron with dees of diameter 18 has a magnetic fieldm
of 08 webers/m 2 Calculate the energies to which (a) protons and
.
orbit is given =
instantaneously by $ 2irR*B where R is the radius of the
orbit and B is the instantaneous field strength at the orbit.
State carefully the conditions necessary for this equation to be true.
18.6* In a certain betatron the maximum magnetic field at orbit was
04 webers/m 2 operating at 50 c/s with a stable orbit diameter of 60
,
available? (18 m)
For simplicity put r = c. Is this approximation justified?
ACCELERATING MACHINES IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS 263
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
18.4 Consider, as an example, 1 MeV protons.
From E=c (m 2  m we
) get
m E
Thus =1+.
where E= energy of proton = 1 MeV
and
"
938
93
= 1+0001067
= 1001067.
The rest energy for an electron is 051 MeV so that
m \ _ 1
= 1 + 196
= 296.
Hence 1 MeV electron must be treated relativistically but protons of this
N=  where cu = 2 x frequency
3X108
31 x 10.
87Tx50x30x254xlO 2
Since the electrons must be treated relativistically we have momentum =
E<c, where E is the final energy required.
i.e. mv = Ejc
_ mv o"
But = Bev
R
264 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
or E=BeRc.
_ 04 x 16 x 10 19 x 30 x 254 x 1C)
2
x 3 x 10 8 n/r T7
MeV
l6x!0 13
= 91 MeV.
Thus the average energy per revolution is
91X106 = 294eV.
, XT
31 xlO 3
Now mv = BeR
_ l95x 10~ 26 x3xl0 8
="
r>_ ==
l5xl6xlO 19
585
xlO
325
= 18x10
= 18 m.
Chapter 19
Nuclear Models
19. i Introduction
When our knowledge of nuclear structure is compared with that of
atomic (i.e. electronic) structure it is evident that the experimental physicist
has far outstripped the theoretical physicist. The small size of the nucleus
14
(~10 metre) and the fact that the forces concerned do not appear
elsewhere, make the theoretical approach to nuclear structure more
difficult than the theoretical approach to atomic structure. Moreover there
is no central field of force within the nucleus
corresponding to the central
field of force for the electrons provided by the positive charge of the
nucleus.
There are many isolated facts which will require explanation when we
consider the details of nuclear structure. W hy
r
do nuclei emit aparticles
and ^"particles when they are known to contain only protons and neu
trons? It must be remembered that the ^"particles are not always orbital
electrons but do sometimes come out of the nucleus. Why is the binding
energy per nucleon almost constant, and why are the 4n nuclei particularly
stable as shown in Fig. 14.3? How do we explain the existence of excited
states of nuclei and the GeigerNuttall rule? There are many other well
established facts associated with nucleonic systematics which have yet to
be explained theoretically.
the dimensions of N
v are L~
3
We interpret a as the collision area per
.
Collecting
slit
Coilimated
neutron
beam
Neutron
counter
Elastic scatter
^ Elastic
scatter
upon the type and the energy of the bombarding particle, and is therefore
only constant for the material for a given particle over a narrow energy
range.
Now unit volume of material of density p contains Q p/A nuclei, where N
N is Avogadro's number and A is the atomic weight of the absorber atoms.
Thus
602 xlO 23
We have, therefore, ,ox p
^ cm
1
or, approximately 706 or
(c.g.s. units) 006^
(m.k.s. units) where o is in barns, and A is the atomic mass number.
Although the unit of Z is reciprocal length it is often called the macro
scopic crosssection as it
corresponds to the total collision crosssection
NUCLEAR MODELS 26 7
per unit volume of absorber. From the above relation it can be calculated
easily if the microscopic crosssection is known.
We can now write the absorption equation as /=/ e~ Vi v
(T *
which gives
'
I=I Q e~
^a
fT
by putting vx X
a where N
a is the N number of target atoms
per unit area of absorber.
r
of all the neutrons is xdl. The average path length per neutron is then
J 7o
f
xdl
J J.r\
dl
r
J/f
= (by parts).
Hence A = is the average path length per neutron or the mean free path.
A
metres where cr is in barns.
006(7/5
10
Nuclear
Radii
from
tftotai (fast)'
x!0
15
m
root of A. Thus jR = R^A*, as shown in Fig. 19.2, where the unit used for
crosssection is the barn. Neutron crosssections
vary a great deal with the
energy of the neutron beam as shown in Fig. 19.3. If we express radii in
metres we find jR = (l3 to l4)xlO 15 for neutron crosssections, the
variation of jR depending on the manner of measuring o. The precise
value of R
Q is not important to us but the equation R = R Q A* implies that
the densities of ALL nuclei are constant, since
A A A
m
4OxlO 15 m.
1000
100
EeV
Fig. 19.3 Total neutron crosssection of silver in the low energy region. (Taken
from Nuclear Physics, by I. Kaplan, 1963, Addison Wesley, Reading, Mass.)
^
7
A1 and use 1 a.m.u. = 1 66 x 10~ 27 kg,
we find for the density that
M = l66xlO~ 27 x27 1
.
g
~p ~4
3 45
^(40) x 10~
$
= 10 17 kg/m 3 .
The nucleus is therefore very dense indeed and all nuclei have this
constant value of density. The nuclear physicist uses this fact to describe
the nucleus in terms of a model. We
have seen how the atomic physicist
uses in turn, the Bohr model, the vector model and the wave mechanical
model of the atom to explain the various aspects of the electronic properties
of the atom. In like manner, the nuclear physicist also uses models to try
270 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
to explain the behaviour of the nucleus in the nuclear experiments he
carries out.
Before we discuss particular models of the nucleus it should be men
tioned that there are several other methods of measuring nuclear sizes. An
important method is the scattering of fast electrons by nuclei due to the
Coulomb interaction between the electrons and the positive nuclear
charge, in contrast with the interaction between the neutron and the
nucleus. Thus, unlike neutron scattering experiments, electron experiments
give information about the distribution of positive charge within the
nucleus. 'Electron radii' and 'neutron radii' of nuclei are therefore slightly
different, the former being somewhat less than the latter.
drop of liquid are not so tightly bound as the internal molecules; could
be true of the surface nucleons of a nucleus? Using these ideas it
this also
(1) If there are short range forces of attraction such that the binding
energy per nucleon is constant, and since the density is also con
stant, we would expect this contribution to the binding energy to be
(2) Since the Z protons in the nucleus are positively charged and repel
one another by Coulomb's law they oppose the binding forces by an
electrostatic force of repulsion. Our second factor therefore is a
(3) The third term comes from the liquiddrop model directly. Whereas
the argument developed in (1) for the attractive forces assumes
that all the nucleons are equally attracted in all directions, this
isnot so for the surface nucleons. These are weakly held together
from inside (equivalent to surface tension in the drop) so that the
i.e. ex # 2
ex R*A*= 03*4
where a% the third constant, and the minus sign represents the
is
fact that the first term overestimates the attractive forces of the
surface nucleus.
(4) The fourth term was originally due to Fermi and is a distribution
term inserted to account for the fact that the stability of nuclei
272 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
depends on the neutronproton distribution among the nucleons for
a given Z, A. Fermi developed a formula for the effect of this on
nucleus, and when A = 2Z this term is zero and increases with in
creasing A, see Fig. 14.1 (a).
(5) Finally, to account for the fact that nuclei have various stability
characteristics according to their oddeven nucleon properties,
there is a small empirical correction term 8, which is introduced to
allow for the fact the eveneven nuclei are more stable than oddodd
nuclei (p. 190).That is to say, an eveneven nucleus has a lower
energy than an oddodd nucleus and an evenodd nucleus has an
energy intermediate between them. The form of the term S is
Inserting the five separate constants the binding energy can now be
written as
+S
A~ IJ *
+ 0099660 (Z\AY A~ l  8 a.m.u.
001204
where 8 =  or 0, as defined above.
TABLE 19.1
v'agic r.urrbers
Mg 2'8 50 82 '26
(2) The biggest group of isotones (A constant) and therefore the most
7
stable, is at TV =82.
The next are at A =507
and A =20.
7
Neutron numbers of 20, 50
and 82 therefore indicate particular stability.
(3) Tin, 50 Sn, has ten stable isotopes, more than any other element,
while 20 Ca has six stable isotopes. This indicates that elements with
Z=50 and Z=20 are more than usually stable.
(4) The three main radioactive chains all decay to S2Pb (see Chapter
Z=82 and A = 126
T
and 3
with the most stable isotope of
15) ^Pb is
lead.
20, 50, 82, 126 are peculiarly favoured when changes of nuclear property
with increasing A are studied. There is also much supporting evidence
from fast and slow neutron crosssections, as shown in Fig. 19.4, in which
abrupt changes take place numbers, showing that these nuclei
at these
are particularly stable compared with their immediate neighbours. In
(not unlike some of the evidence for the periodic system of elements).
The magic numbers can be predicted theoretically using the possible
L S and j couplings as in the derivation of atomic energy states.
j
(p. 278) but it is then apparent that the higher magic numbers cannot be
obtained by this simple formula.
The higher magic numbers can, however, be predicted using a model
of the nucleus in which each nucleon has an angular momentum \h\2m
due to spin, and an orbital angular momentum of /A/277. These combine to
give a total angular momentum /=/} (omitting the factor h/27r). Accord
ing to the Pauli principle (2/+ 1) nucleons can have an angular momentum
j in a given nucleus. Making these assumptions, it is possible to proceed
through the elements filling up successive nuclear energy levels with
nucleons and predicting the magic numbers widch correspond to com
pleted energy levels or shells within the nucleus. This is closely analogous
to the way in which the electronic shells of the atom were built up and
related to the periodic system of the elements as described in Chapter 10.
Since the nuclear forces are as yet unknown we cannot calculate the
potential field, butit is reasonable to assume that it is
fairly constant
within the nucleus and changes rapidly near the edges. As a first approach
the energy levels were calculated for an oscillator in a parabolic potential
fieldand we can see from Fig. 19.5 how this leads to the first three magic
numbers 2, 8 and 20. By the time the atom has grown so that the levels
=
corresponding to n 4 become occupied, the potential field has changed
NUCLEAR MODELS
and becomes more nearly rectangular and well shaped. This has the effect
TABLE 19.2
approximation. Thus in the liquid drop the nucleons are treated statistic
ally or collectively, in the shell model the treatment of the nucleons is
individually.
This dual interpretation is due to the fact that each model is right for
the nuclear process it describes. As we shall see later, in nuclear fission
the liquiddrop model gives a good interpretation of the facts, showing
that the fission process is a collective process. On the other hand the
neutron emitters could not be worked out in terms of the
details of single
liquid drop model. Evidently each has its field of usefulness and more
recently attempts have been made to join these two together and form a
model in which both are featured, enabling more nuclear data to be
interpreted.
This is called the Collective Model, due to Aage Bohr and Motteston
(1953). As in the case of the shell model it assumes that the nucleons do
not interact with each other in the first approximation but that they move
in a distorted potential field, compared with the spherically symmetrical
field as used for the shell model, the distortions are due to the collective
motion of the nucleons as associated with the liquiddrop model. The
energy levels are derived as for the shell model but more emphasis is
NUCLEAR MODELS 279
given to the angular momentum of the inner core of neutrons than in the
shell model, and it is this angular momentum which
governs the shape of
the potential well. In general there is a stronger coupling between the
outer and inner nucleons than in the shell model. The collective model
has been successful in explaining many second order effects in nuclear
structure as well as successfully predicting some features of molecular
spectra.
PROBLEMS
(The problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.)
19.1 Use the semiempirical mass formula (p. 273) to calculate the
l 1 *
binding energies per nucleon of N, *>O, and jjF. Account for any differ
ences found. (765, 795 and 780 MeV)
19.2 By calculating the binding energies of the last neutron in the
2 2 2
nuclides ^Pb, ^Pb, and !JPb discuss the use of this as evidence for
the magic numbers 82 and 126.
19.3 A nuclide with .4 = 219 is radioactive. Determine whether
Z=84,
it an aemitter or a /j~~emitter. Repeat for the nuclide (72, 170) and
is
increased.
19.5 What are the main sources of evidence for the existence of nucleons
in discrete shells? Contrast the orbital nature of nucleons with that of
electrons in atoms.
19.6 What is the importance of a study of the socalled 'magic numbers'
in nuclear physics? How far have these features of nuclear systematics been
justified (a) experimentally and (b) theoretically?
SOLUTION TO PROBLEM
19.7 If there are electrons in the nucleus instead of neutrons we must
A 
have protons to give mass A, and (A Z) electrons, so that the net
positive charge in nucleus is A (AZ)
= Z, as required.
A + (AZ)
odd multiple of  ,
as required.
2 277
Case (b) Zeven, then 2A  Z is now even and the spin of A should be
or an even multiple of  ,
i.e. 7=0, 1, 2 .... units which is not found
2 277
for odd A nuclides. Hence electrons and protons cannot be nuclear
particles together.
For the nuclear model containing Z protons and (A Z) neutrons the
total number of particles is always A so that the nuclear spin is always odd
for odd A and even for even^ in terms of  
2 2?r
Chapter 20
Artificial Radioactivity
where m is the rest mass of the electron and c is the velocity of light,
since two electron masses are created. When the positron and another
electron coalesce two gamma photons are formed and this process cor
responds to the annihilation of matter. The energy E needed is equivalent
to two electron masses so that using Ejc 2 =
66 x 10 34 x 3 x 10 s
m
1 63x10 13
x 10 13 m
163
= l24xlO 12 m
= 00124 A
which the wavelength of a hard gamma ray. This wavelength also
is
represents the threshold energy for the creation of a pair from gamrna
Fig. 20.2 Cloud chamber photograph showing pair production. (Taken from
Rochester and Wilson, Cloud Chamber Photographs of the Cosmic Radiation,
Pergaman Press, 1952.)
radiation and the above argument illustrates the conditions required for
the interconversion of matter and radiation.
rays, positrons are also involved
Apart from their production by cosmic
in manynuclear reactions, as the researches of I. Curie and F. Joliot
or induced radioactivity.
(1934) revealed when they discovered artificial
When the neutron was discovered the interpretations of some (a, p) re
actions was reconsidered and possible alternatives put forward, which
included the emission of a positron. The above authors were actually
When the source of aparticles was removed the emission of the protons
and neutrons ceased, as expected, but the emission of positrons from the
isolated aluminium target continued for a long time afterwards. Since JP
does not occur in nature it W as presumed to be
7
unstable, emitting positrons
according to the equation
N4
fgCa^_^ () . . . Observed.
6jji
. . Positron emission
types of electron decay are possible and each mode decays with the same
halflife. The probability of each
decay is given by the branching ratios,
and whether the positrons are impeded by the Coulomb barrier.
FT, =45
hrj
r
Ground state \ \ Ground state V\ PN
\
Stcb:e
(b!
Fig. 20.3 Isomeric decay shows (a) independent decay and (b} genetically related
decay as for ^ Br.
!
79~R
35 r
_L 1
'
o
n> 80
35 ^/v
Br 4
followed by
IgBr^gKr + .J^HZ^
and
followed b
When this same bromide target is bombarded with fast deuterons from
a cyclotron (d, p) reactions take place as follows:
^
and jBr T fH^iH(p)HBr.
Again the same three halflives are observed from the subsequent decay
of the s Br and S2 Br isotopes, showing conclusively that somehow 80 Br
and S2 Br together have three different halflives, implying that one of
them has two separate decay characteristics.
To establish which isotope has the two halflives the bromide target
can be irradiated by gamma rays to give the (y, n) reaction thus :
decay has the same halflife as the ydecay from the metastable state. This
experiment was first carried out in 1935.
ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 289
In all similar cases of two /2~decay periods we find that one isomer exists
in an excited state while the other is in the
ground state. Normally, excited
states exist for only 10~ 12 to lO" 13 s before transition to the
ground state
by yray emission takes place. In some cases, however, the upper energy
state is metastable, and can exist for times
up to several hours so that it
can be regarded as independent of the ground state. This excited state
can therefore be regarded as a separate isomer of the nuclide. If it decays
by ^emission, i.e. with its own characteristic halflife, we have
indepen
dent isomer decay, of \vhich the following are examples :
related. The bromine isotope 80Br is an example of this type in which the
isomeric transition of the yray produces instantaneous electrons by inter
nal conversion. The decay of an isomeric state can then be regarded
This means that the transition probability is low and the lifetime of the
upper statelong enough to make it independent of the ground state.
When the halflives of isomers with odd A
(with odd Z or odd A ) are
7
Odd Z
_ ... Odd N
mi
.11111
i
! Mill I
II
II
II
II
I IIII II
I III I II
I, IIII "l
40 60 80 100 120 140
Number of odd njcleons, Z or N
isotope (as phosphate) is irradiated for about two days when the following
takes place:
_
143 days
This is perhaps more useful since the 32 P can be separated from the 32 S
whereas in the first reaction the two phosphorus isotopes cannot be separ
ated chemically.
ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 2gi
Another common
stable element, sodium, can be used in a radioactive
form. Sodium has only one natural isotope, 23 Na, but a useful
isotope of
mass 24 can be prepared in the reactor by the action of the neutron flux
thus :
followed by
15 hours
The
halflife of this isotope makes it of little use for
long term investiga
Another radioactive sodium isotope of mass 22 is obtainable by
tions.
a?L
26 yrs
followed by
12 S
w hen
r
the short halflife of the fluorine nuclide makes it useless in practice.
An alternative source of j^Na is the (n, a) reaction on aluminium:
possible with a 200 kV Xray set. Moreover, since the source is relatively
small, many welds can be inspected simultaneously by placing them in a
ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 293
circle around a ysource. Medically, the gamma radiation from cobalt60
can be used therapeutically in the treatment of deep cancerous growths
and this method has largely superseded the older radium methods.
Yet another application of this isotope is the gauging of sheet thickness,
where, using the feedback principle, the machinery can be made self
adjusting. It can also be used to control the height of filling in packets of
commerical powders. Low attenuation of the beam corresponds to an
empty packet which can then be rejected automatically.
The subject of radionuclides and their application is now so vast that
the reader must refer to specific books for further information. Millions
of pounds are saved annually all over the world by their use and great
progress has been made in medical diagnosis and treatment. It is probable
that we shall benefit even more in the future by the applications of radio
PROBLEMS
(Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section.}
20. 1 Describe the discovery of the positron in cosmic ray cloud chamber
per ml. of withdrawn blood if the counter had an efficiency of only 10% ;
(a) one hour after injection and (b) twentyeight days after injection?
((a) 53
x 10 3 dis./s; (b) 132 x 10 3 dis./s)
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
20.6The stable isotopes of Fe are 54 Fe, 56 Fe, 57 Fe and 58 Fe. By the
(d, p) reaction the possible products are 55 Fe, 57 Fe, 58 Fe and 59 Fe, of which
57
Fe and 58 Fe are stable. Hence the radionuclide produced is 55 Fe or
59
Fe.
Theonly stable isotope of Co is
59
Co which gives 59 Fe by the (n, p)
reaction. Thus the radionuclide produced is 59 Fe which can be seen from
the tables to have a halflife of fortysix days.
Disintegrations counted
_J_ :
~To
= 1 32 xlps dis./s.
Chapter 21
Neutron Physics
2 1. 1 Introduction
We have already discussed the neutron as a nucleon and also as a bom
barding particle. Generally speaking the source of a beam of neutrons must
be an (a, n) reaction so that it is possible to have present in the beam other
particles together with y radiation from the a source. A very common neut
ron source is the Ra/Be reaction
'^(from Ra)
Since both neutrons and yrays can penetrate deeply, such a source of
neutrons must be carefully handled and shielded. Other sources are
based on polonium or plutonium as aemitters using beryllium as the
target atom as above. For experiments requiring a high neutron flux
density, reactor neutrons are used.
Nowadays a very common neutron source is the
2
H
(d, n) He reaction
3
energies from very low to very high values. The mass of the neutron
was
first determined by Chadwick's early method (p. 47). The photo
disintegration of deuterium, later used by Chadwick, provided
another
method of measuring the mass of the neutron. This reaction is
296 ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS: AN INTRODUCTION
where the energy of the yray is known from the radioactive source.
Now the masses of ailthe particles except
Jn were known in this equation,
the only unknowns being the energies of the proton and neutron. The
proton energy was measured by an ionization method and found to be
almost 1 05 MeV. Assuming that the proton and neutrons are
ejected with
equal energy the total kinetic energy is 21 MeV = 00023 a.m.u. By
balancing the equation in the usual way Chadwick and Goldhaber then
calculated
The most precise determination of the mass of the neutron was later
made by Bell and Elliott from the reaction
for which
7
= 2 230 0007 MeV
0002395 a.m.u.
Thus
MnfHJH + y
= 20147401 008145 f 0002395
= 1008990 a.m.u.
The present accepted value is Afn = 1008986 a.m.u. on the 16
O scale.
Sn^H(p)+_.;*(j3) + v (neutrino).
This decay is accompanied by an
energy of reaction of about 078 MeV
as measured in the proton and /3~ray spectrometer, so that the mass differ
ence (M n  M p ) should appear as the decay energy of the reaction.
0000841 a.m.u.
showing that the mass difference of the particles is indeed the decay energy
of the neutron.
Neutron Energies
Since neutrons are neutral it is
possible to use them at almost any energy
in nuclear reactions. are arbitrarily classified as follows:
They
NEUTRON PHYSICS 297
Thermal (Reactors only) =0025 eV
Slow E^l eV1 keV
Intermediate E=\ keV  05 MeV
Fast =05 MeV upwards.
The boundaries of this classification are by no means well defined so
that the ranges are not fixed. It is important to remember that all energies
can be used in some nuclear reaction or other.
Neutrons as Waves
Earlier in this book, in Chapter 11, we discussed the wave nature of the
electron and mentioned that the argument could equally well be applied
to any free particle, the de Broglie wavelength being given by
A*.
mv
This is true for any particle having momentum equal to mv.
For electrons, m = 9l x 10~ 31 kg
<?= 1 6 xlO 19 coulomb
and h = 66 x 10~ 34 joule s
66
9
TTT X 10~
(29 x V)
A= becomes
66 xlO 34 
metres
(2 x Ex 27
16 x 10 19 x 166 x 10~ )
r\ OO/C
0*0008 eV, so that neutron energies above this will be diffracted and
neutrons of energy lower than this will be transmitted. The beam emerging
from the graphite column is therefore deprived of all those energies which
correspond to reflections of neutrons from sets of planes within the crystal.
These energies are mostly the higher energies of the distribution and the
emergent neutrons have energies ~ 0001 eV, well below the average
energy thermal neutrons. These neutrons are therefore called 'cold
neutrons', and are important for the investigation of the crosssection
properties of various reactor materials.
Neutron diffraction is now a tool for research as important as Xray
diffraction and electron diffraction. It has helped considerably in the
i*Ni5n^fC + JH(p)
or, less probable,
n^p~f e~
32 S is 32P.
assuming that the mass of equal to that of
[
32
S = 31982 :
32
P = 31984.]
The energy available will be 078 MeV which is equivalent to (3/ n 3/p ),
and O + "^max = 078 MeV. If the maximum energy of the ^spectrum
of any ^emitter is less than 078 MeV (as in tritium decay) the reaction
with r =5568
4 years and ^
= 0158 MeV.
There is a trace of C14 in the atmosphere due to cosmic neutron
bombardment of N14, thus
when the plant dies and no longer takes in CO 2 from the atmosphere, the
C14 equilibrium quantity attained during the life of the plant now begins
to decay by ^emission with the halflife of 5568 30 years.
Suppose a sample of this dead matter (wood, charcoal, bookbinding,
peat, rope, etc.) is now measured, say t years later. With the usual notation
or lnN=ln N Q Xt.
G 06931
Since A =
. .
we get
ray intensity over this period has not varied. The C14 method also takes
for granted a constancy of N14 over the same
period. Finally it must be
assumed that there has been no secondary interference during the decay
period and the sample has remained the same since its 'death', except for
the /?~decay mechanism.
PROBLEMS
(
Those problems marked with an asterisk are solved in full at the end of the
section?)
A
E \i rthere is the atomic mass
of the scattering nucleus. Show that this expression can be obtained from
the simple principles of dynamics. Calculate (JJ?) max for a neutron striking
a proton and comment on the result.
X
21.3 The equation for the cosmic production of ^C is
1
Calculate the mass of C from this equation.
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
0286
we have = ^z=r A
x
Voooi
= 9 A which is the minimum wavelength trans
mitted. In the Bragg =
equation X 2d sin the maximum value of sin 6 is 1
so that the minimum value of d corresponding to A = 9 A is 45 A.
21.4 The mass of the neutron is given by
2227
giving a total maximum error of 0000008 a.m.u. Hence the mass of the
neutron is 1008999 0000008 a.m.u.
NEUTRON PHYSICS 303
21.6 Count rate for specimen alone
= (950l)(500l)
= 45ziO2 c.p.m.
.. No. of disintegrations per minute
= 83 7% c.p.m. per 8 g
= 1047% c.p.m. per g.
Using A=A e~ Xt we have
2303 ,o = Ax,
where A Q = 161 03 = 161 2%
A Q 16442% ~^ 9 o
..
logic (l559%) = 0192303x9%=01921 .
Thus
2303 Iogi ^ 0>
)x( 5568 i o)
0693
x (019 + 21%) x (5568 H%)
" 2303
0693
= 3500 720 years
Age of 'find'  3500 720 years.
22.1 Introduction
When the neutron and its properties were discovered in 1932, the
(2) The elements thorium (90) and protactinium (91) could also be
fissioned with fast neutrons.
(3) In all cases very large disintegration energies were released, equal
to about ten times the order of energies
previously experienced.
(4) In all cases fast neutrons were emitted.
(5) Fission fragments were all radioactive and decayed to stable nuclides
by a series of /3~ emissions.
(6) The atomic weights of the fission products ranged from about 70
to 160, although, of course, one parent uranium nucleus could only
produce two fragments. These were all eventually identified by
radiochemical methods so proving that intermediate elements were
produced by the fission process.
10,000
b f
001 01 I0 \0
Energy in eV
06
05
04
in 03
barns
02 Threshold
ol
~
I 2 3 4 5
Energy in MeV
2 2<
Fig. 22.1 Energy crosssection curves of iU and 2U.
explanation was eventually given by Bohr and Wheeler using the liquid
drop model (Chapter 19). They obtained a semi quantitative expression
for the neutron energy required to initiate fission in a given nucleus, which
238
agreed well with the experimental value in the case of U.
Assuming the drop is held in its spherical state by forces of an internal
molecular origin any disturbance of this state will require an external force,
which distorts the sphere into an ellipsoid. If the force is large enough the
ellipsoid narrows into a 'dumbbell' shape and finally breaks at the neck
NUCLEAR FISSION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS
307
intotwo major portions with some additional small drops, as in Plateau's
spherule when liquid drops break away from a tap under gravity. This
process is best understood diagrammatically in Fig. 22.2.
When a nucleus undergoes fission, the incident neutron combines with
it to form a compound nucleus which is highly energetic. Its extra energy
is partly the kinetic energy of the neutron but largely the added binding
Spherical
compound
nucleus
B D
reached, and as each 'half is now positively charged, the final fission into
descends' to the state of lowest potential energy and the fragments separ
'
ate. When the mass of the compound nucleus is greater than the masses
of the total fission fragments, fission is possible and the mass difference is
Barrier energy Eb
Fission energy Ef
where A is the atomic mass of the compound nucleus and Z is its atomic
number. This formula can be checked experimentally, for when .4=236,
Z=92 for 2 *U fission we have
a
002x92x91
236 1 ' 3
whereas E c:
2391/3
002 x 92 x 91
= 089x3851
6206
= 34282698
= 73 MeV for compound nucleus 239.
(a) for
235
U fission the binding energy of the added neutron = 68 MeV
(b) for
238
U fission the binding energy of the added neutron = 5 9 MeV.
In the case of the 235 U fission the binding energy of the neutron supplies
68 MeV of the 69 MeV
Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.
Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.
Отменить можно в любой момент.