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,
, 1964 ,
1968 1964-65
.
- ,
, . .



,
1966-67 ,
,
,
')
1979
1972 .
- . 1973
,
,

, .
,
,
: Semamic Primitives (1972). Ungua mentalis (1990), Semantics: Primes and Uni
versels ( 1996). Understandmg Cultures through their keys words (1997). Emotions across
lainguagcs and Cultures ivcrsily and Universels ( )
81.031
26
<*


CEU
' Ik
-
Translation Project*
(OSI - Budapest)
. * (OSIAF - Moskow)



()
97-04-16423


26 / .
. . . . . . . .:
, 1999. I-XII, 780 ., 1 .
ISBN 5-7859-0032-7

,


. -
*,
. ,
, ,
,
.
81.031

Except the Publishing House (fax: 095 246-20-20, E-maiJ: lrc@koshelev.msk.su), only
the Danish bookseller firm G*E*C GAD (fax: 45 86 20 9102, E-mail: slavic@gad.dk)
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ISBN 5-7859-0032-7

, 1999
. . , . . .
785785 900325 , 1999
. . . ., 1999
A. . . . .
*, 1996
B. . . , 1995

................................................................................................ vii

I. :
1. .............................................................................................. 3
14.
: ................................... 44
.................................................................................................... 76

II.
? (:
?)............................ 91
........................................................................................... 131

............................. 134
............................................................................................. 168

- ............................. 171
............................................................................................ 221
:
- . . . . 224
............................................................................................. 257

III.

1. .................................................................................................. 263
2.
: ........................ 306
3. ,
: , ,
............................................................. 434
Aumepamyfm............................................................................................... 484

IV.
-
:
..................... 503
.......................................................................................... 524
:
- ,
.............................................. 526
Aumepamyfm........................................................................................ 545
A n g st......................................................................................................... 547
......................................................................................... 607
........................................................................ 611
Aumefmmypa......................................................................................... 647

.
-
:
........................................... 653
.......................................................................................... 679
:

................................................................... 682
........................................................................................... 727
:
........................................... 730
........................................................................................... 771

................................................ 775
................................................................. 777

, ,

()
:

.

,
, , ,
.
,
1972 . Semantic Primitives,
,
.
,
; ,
,
.
,

.

,
,
. , ,
, ,
.
.
. -
viii

,
,
, ,
(
) , .

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,
, : ,
( ,
) .
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), , ,
,
,
,
.

. , (1994),
.

.

- ,
, ,
, ,

(semantic primitive).
,
.
,
.
,



( ,

, . .).

-

- * ------

.
(,
, libertas liberty),
, , want
,
(. 1994).
, , -,

(
, ), -,

(, , ,
),
.
, , ,
,
,
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,
, ,

.
, , ,
, ...
( 1994).
:
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,
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, ,

,
, ,
.
, ,
, 2 3
: ,
.
.

^ 1996 . ,
14 , Semantic Primitives
13 1977 ., 37 1993 .,
55. 14 10
, 9 ( , ,
, , ,
)
.
, 37 ,
,
Goddard and Wierzbicka 1994:
, , , , ; ,
, ; , , (),
/; , , ,
; ; ,
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. ,
sem antic prim itive, 1972 .

. -

primitive.
,
, , ,
- , ,
. .
.
(semantic primitives),
(conceptual primitives),
.

cultural script,
.
- (.
1990; 1996).
,
scenario, , ,
. ,
.

,
, (
),
. ,
,
; ,
, .
, -
, .
. . ,
. . ,
. . . . . ,
, Angst . . ,
14 ( )
: . . , 4
( ) 2
. . .

. ., . .

. . //
. 1994._ 4.
Goddard ., Wierzbicka A. (eds). Semantics and Lexical Universals: Theory and Empi
rical Findings. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1994.
. - (
. . )/ / . ., 1990.
. ( . .
)/ / . . . . ., 1996.

:

1.

.
,
. ,
,
( ,
. .) ,
.
,
. ,
, (

), , ,
.
, ,
,

( ),
.

XX :
.
( -
)

,
. ,
, ,
, .

, , ; -
-
1. ,
The Linguistics Wars (H arris 1993: 278),
:
: []
, , ;

; (
, ) ;
.
,
,
( , ). ,
(Matthews 1943: 114) ,
()
, (1943:
114). ,
, (
) , .
, ,
,
, , ,
,
, . , ,
,
, ,
,
(Matthews 1993: 115).
, , , .
,
,

. , ,
(. versus . )

:
', (, ,
), , oats

1 , (15 1941: 59),


, , ,
" .
, a wheat ' ?
, ,
(Bloomfield 1933/1935:266)2.
, -
, ,
( , Hymes & Fought
1975: 1009); Language
:
, .
,
, , ... ,
, ,
.
,
, .
.
, -,
.
, , ,
, salt ' '
(N aC l);
,
, love hate ,
, ,
...
, ,
,
.
, ,
- . , ,
3 (Bloom field 1933/1935: 139 40).

2 , ,
oats ,
( , , , dogs dog), ,
, dogs.
, oats,
13 [ Semantics-. Primes and Universals], (. Wierzbic-
ka 1988.)
3 T o , NaCl \
salt, ,
, -
, ,
, , ,
, - .
(Hymes and Fought 1975: 1010),

, ...


... ,
... .
50- 60-
( ) ,
(mind)
.

: ,
('mind')
(Bruner 1990: 1).
(mind) :
, ,
. , ,
,
,
,
, (. 2). ,
,
(.1); ,
,

, . , ,
,
(. 1). , .
, ,
, . .
, , -

.
(. 4).

. . 1J 12.
( love hate) . 5 [ Semantics: Primes and UmversaLs}.
(mind),
(. 6).
,
,
, , ,
, (. 8).

,
, ' -
(. 137), ,
' * (meaning-free)
(. 20).
, ,
, ,
(
)

,
,
?
: ,
,
. ., ( -
)
(Sacks 1993: 48).
:
,
XIX
, ,
(intelligence) ,
, ,
.
, ,
, Spiritus movens
,
.
, ,
( ) -
. , ...
,

: (R. A. H ar
ris 1993: 99).
(Harris 1993: 252), ,

, ,
, .
, , ,
, (mind),

, .
(Edelman 1992: 243):

[ ].
, , ,
. ,
, .
.
, ,
, .
. ...
,
.
,
, . ,
,
, .

.
(Bruner 1990: 1), ,
[] ,
,
, ...

. .
, ,

, .

, ,
. -
(H arris 1993)
- (greening of
linguistics),
, , . .
, , ,
, ,
. ,
, ,


.

.
.
, , ,
, ...
(Chomsky
1955: 141). , :
(R. A. Harris
1993: 139). ,
,
: ? ,
, , ''
. ,
- ,
(Matthews 1993: 245).
,
,
,
.
, (
- )
, ,

. , ,

. ( \
),
, , ,
, . ., (Chiercia and
McComieU-Ginet 1990: 11), (cognitive sig
nificance), (inform ational sig n ific a n
ce); . (B ru n e r 1990: 4)
.
(
), - (th e m o d e l th e o
retic intension o f a w ord)
, ,
(Dowty 1978: 379). , -

, ,
,

, , ,
,
,
(376).
, (mind),
(meaning),
,
,
. , , ,
.
,
,
:

('vague
ness'). [-]
.
(Bruner 1990: 65).
,

, , , (
, ,
, )
-
(Bloomfield 1933/1935: 140).
,
.
2. ( )

,
.


.
(Bloomfield 1933/1935: 27)

,
,
?

: ,
, ,
(
). ,

, , , ad hoc,
.
, ,

(
),

, ,
.
,
,
, ,
( ).
.
, ,
,
(French and Nelson 1985), if ('
) : if
:
i f ,
(. 38).
. ,
if, , ,
, -
( ).
, ,
.
, '
(definiendum),
(definiens) (, , ).
,
( ),
; indefinibilia,
,
()
. , if ()
implication ()
,
(Aristotle 1937: 141):
, ,
[ , ] .
, ,
, ... ,
, ,
.

, , ,
, ,
.
, , :
, , ,

:
, ,
... , ,
... ,
,
. , , ,
, .
.


. ,
, -
.
, ,
,
;
.
- ,
implication,
if, , .
,
,
, ,
.
,

: ,
; - , , ,
,
( (Pascal 1667/1954: 589):
),
.

( ,
, to demand [ '']
request firmly [ ' ], a to request [
'] 'to dem and gently [ '
]; . Wierzbicka 1987: 4).
, ,

. , , ,
, ,
. :

.

. '' ?
. . ,
, - ,
, , .
Semantic Primitives (Wierzbicka 1972: 3),

[primitive
terms]. , :
,
; , ,
, ,
... ,
,
- .
, -
(Goodman 1951: 57).
,
, ,
. ,
,
, .
.
:
, ,
. , -
, ,
, ; , , ,
, ,
(Leibniz 1903/1961. 430; ).

,
( )
.
(
- ), ,
, , ,
. ,
,
XVII , , ,
. , ;
... , , ,
,
, . , ,
, , , ,
, ,
, , ,
, (D escartes 1701/1931: 324).
, , ,

. ,
,
, .

.
, :
, , ;
, ,
; ,
,
; , , ,
(Pascal 1667/1954: 580).
:
,
, ... ,
-
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
. , ,
...
, , . ,
, ,
, \;
, ,
, . ,
, ;
,
, ,
(Arnauld 1662/1964: 867; ).
, ,

(. C hom sky 1966),
( )
. (.
,
: C hom sky 1991.)
, -
,
,
1965 .
XVIJ ,
,
, ,
, .
( ,
) -
.
(Leibniz
1903/1961: 4350) ,

(,
, . Leibniz 1903).
, ,
:
, ,

. ,
- ,
(Martin 1964: 25).
,
, .
,
. ,
, ( )
, - (
) ,
(. 2*).
, ,
,
.

3.

, ,
,

Semantics: Primes and Universals., .


, ,

(match) , ,
,
.
, , someone, something
'w ant, ,
(
) .
,
,
, ,
, , ,
,
.

.
,
, , ,
, ,

,

. ,
, , ,
, ,

, .
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
. , ,
Semantic and Lexical Universals (Goddard
and Wierzbicka 1994b) ,
,
,

. , , : , -
- , ,
, , , (
), , ,
(), (
), , - ( ),
, ,
.


, , -
, ,
, , ,
.
(
', ' , , ,
)
( ).
, (Lyons 1977:
3312) , , ,
,
,
,
, .
, ,

, .

, : ,
, ,
, ,
, ;
, ( )

. .
,
,
,
, . ,
,
, ,
, -
, , , nirvana, brahman,
a tm a n karm a (. Bolle 1979: 21958).
, ,
, , , ,
. ,
, m alheur
,
,


affliction [, ] (Weil 1972: 63).
,
m alheur,
( ) - . ,
,
(.,
, Wierzbicka 1991b, 1992). ,
, m a lheur ,
. ,
( ,
), ,
.


. ( ) ,
, .
, ,
.
() ( ,
, )
.
, big small
, small
little

,
(+DIM) (''+ DIM).
(. 8.7) sm all ,
, , -
,
(a perfect match) (
).
, ( )

oo/ai tiisai, , big small
, wami good bad
(. Onishi 1994).
,

.
tertmm compamtionis, .


.
,

.
,
,
,


.

4.


,

(
) ().
( 1976:101)

,
( )
. ,

,
,
, r tabula
rasa, ,
.
,
,
,
...
, , (
), , (
, ) (Bowerman 1976: 11213).
(Macnamara 1972: 5):
... ,
( , ,
'', ', '1 )

. ,
,

.

(Bowerman 1976) ,
,
.
,
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
, ,
,

, (102).

, ,
, ,
60- 70- ,
(.,
, R. A. Harris 1993).
,
- . , -
2
(., , Wierzbicka 1967, , 1972,
1976b),

-
.

, ,
-
(Slobin 1985),
(1163).
,
. ,
, , , ,
.
(basic, notions),


( ).

...
, ,
(Sapir 1949: 93).
, , - ( Basic
Child Grammar ' ),
(Bowerman 1985: 1284) : , BCG-
,
, ,
tabula rasa,
, . ,

. ,
,
,
,
,
, ,
. (Bowerman 1985: 1284).
, ,

, ,

,
. (
), ,
,
, ,

,
.
,
(. 7*).

,
, ,
: ...
, '
.
, ,

. ,

,
(Bruner 1990: 72).
,
,
, ,
(, , 'chase ['], 'per
suade ['], 'murder ['] 'table ['] ,
, bureaucrat ['] 'carburettor [])
.
, : , ,
( )
.
, ; ,
(Chomsky 1991b: 29).
, , ,
, ,
,

Semantics: Primes and Unwersals. . .


, ,
(Chomsky 1987: 33).
, ,
, 'bureaucrat'
, 'table 'boomerang' ['], 'persuade [',
] 'kow-tow, ,
, ('person) ('thing), ' (d o )
' ('happen), ' ('where) ('when) '
('good') '' ('bad).
.
, ,
,
, ( ; . 7)
:
,
,
.
, (Chomsky
1987: 21); ,
(
) , ,
- ( ).

.
( ),
, .

, .

5.
, ,
: , . ,
- ,
,
. , -,
, ,
.
,
, : -
, ,
,
.
, want '
,
, I want to do this ( ).
, ,
,


1 ,
.
, I want to do this
,
.
, ,
, , , , ,
, , , , ,
, -

. , ,
,
,
I want to do this I want you to do this [ ,
].
, I want
to do this, ,
.
, :
I want to do this = ,
I, (1 .) want, this
do I
want, to do this,
I want to do this.
,
.
,
. ,
: -
- (I . . ., , .), want (
I )

do this.

,
.
,

,
.
- ,
, lingua mentalis,
1980 .

,
(., , Slobin 1985: 1189; Bow erm an 1976:
139). (lingua
mentalis) ,
,
. , ,

(., , -
day 1975; Donaldson 1978).
.
, '
-, , ' (, juice!), '
, - , , , '
(, allgone), ' -, ' - (
, yukky) . .
,
, , ,
,
, .
,
(, ,
' , - ' , ).
(Edelman 1992: 239) :

, , -
... , , .

, , ,
,
(243), (
(Donaldson
1978)), (makes sense of)
, . ,
(245).
,
, .
, , ,
,
, , , ,
. . (., , Wierzbicka 1993, 1994g, 1995b.) ,
, , ' ,
? (mak
ing sense),
, ,
' , ?
(Slobin 1985: 1243),

(discover) ,
.
, ,
(
),

. ,
,
-
.
, , ,
,
, -,

'1. ,4

4 , ,
. , ,
,
, ,
I want to do something, I know this, Where are you? I
cant move, (. e. ).

( ),
', ', ', ,
.

, ,
,
,
,
.
(Sacks 1993: 48): ... ,
,
, ...
.
.

6. ()
,


.
,
tertium comparatwm, .

,
-
.
,

( ) (., , Lutz 1985).

-


, . ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, , ,
. ,

- ,

().

, (ad hoc)
(
), ,
,
. ,
, . .
,
,
. ,
,
I want to do this.
, ,
. ,
, ,
(H um boldt 190336, v. 4: 21). ,


( Katz and Fodor 1964),
.
-
(. Zolkovskij 1964).
,


, , . ,



.
,
, -
, ,
(
- , ad infinitum) ,
, .
(Agud 1980: 457) Hystariay
teora de los casos [ ], ninguna lengua formal
puede ser, en ltima instancia, ms precisaque el lenguaje natural que es
su ltima metalenguaje, . e.
, ,
5.


. ( ,
, Wierzbicka 1992, 1994h.) , ,
,
( liget
fago song ),
, anger, passion, energy [ ',
, ], love, sadness, compassion [ '
', ', ''] justified anger [' ],

. , , fago
, ,
anger, love, sadness ( ).

( anger, shame [ '],
depression, emotion, mind self [ '])
(culture-free*)

5 . Harre & Gillet (1994: 278):


,

.
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
,
(Harre and Gillet 1994: 278).
( , )
(., , Rosaldo 1980, Lutz 1988,
Kondo 1990; . Wierzbicka 1993b).

,
.

7.

, .


.

,
.
,
,
, .
,
, .
,
. (
, ,
, .)

.
;
.
, ,
, ,
,
, . ,
,
, , /
(. \Vierzbicka 1991, 8*);
,

Semantics: Primes and Universal. , .


, maly, fudus lah (. Goddard 1994, forth
coming ).

.
.

8.
,
(Goddard and Wierzbicka
1994b), (Wierzbicka 1994b: 445):
.
, .
, ,
.
,

. (
. (Goddard 1994; Goddard and Wierz
bicka 1994)

8.1.
,

.

.
. ,
want (') ,
:
(A) 1 want you to do something (' , ).
(B) This house wants painting ( ).
()
.
,


( ) -
.
(gram m atical frames).
, , (.
G o d d ard 1994b) ,
,
kulini, , (
)
,
. ,
,
, :
,
. (
. 6*; G o d d a rd 1994, 1991.)

8.2.
, ( )
( ) ,
.
,
.
. I ,
(
E G O , ).
; ,
hie, haec, hoc (T H IS ),

.

. ,
SOMEONE ALL everyone
everybody, ALL SOMETHING everything.
-one -body ,
someone, SOMEONE, a -thing
, something, SOMETHING.

Semantics: Primes and Universals. , .


(
, 1992 . ). .,
, :
(A) I am doing it now ' .
(B) I did it before now (earlier) ' () .
(C) I will do it after now (later) ().
am doing it now, did will do [ ,
, do ],
,
, now , before now
after now ', , (. ),
- |
DO.
- j
, - I
. , j
, (
) (Chappell 1994: 138), j
I

Chu-shT hou, wo shdo-le xie shenme.


-PFV CL |
' , , ,
: !
After it happened, I said something
, HAPPEN, - !
, : after j
happened HAPPEN, happen. !

8.3. |
I
\
,
. like this,
, ,
,
: . j
. ]
1 did it like-this.

, ( ),

. ,
,
.

8.4.
( 3)
,
. , ()-
:
(A) X .
(B) X Y.
(C) X () Y.
, - - -
- -. ,
-.
,
,
(
),
.

8.5.
, , :
simples, priora,
,
. , -
, + , -
'', ,
. ,

, -
, , ,
;

; : , -

.
, , ,
, '' ,
. , ,
. , .

, ,
. , , o tout se tient,
( ) .
, -
, , , ' .
, ,
.

. , , ,
, ,
.
, , ,
,
.
, .
, :
This fish is like that other fish, but it is not the same fish.
' , .
one and the
same [ ],
, , :
(A) These shoes belong to one pair ['
]
(B) These shoes belong to the same pair ['
[ ] ].
, ,
,
. , :
1 have one son and two daughters [' ],
' ,
:
They at the same time [' [ ] ],
' .

,
(. G oddard and Wierzbicka 1994),
,
(., , , asleep ''
awake dead alive ).

8.6.

,
. ,
, ' '
:
,
.

.
,
, ,
, ; ,
,
, ,
, . , ,
,

- .
,
( , , (1) ,
(2) (1) want, (2) say),

, .
( . Wierzbicka 1994.)

8.7.

,
(feel) - (
:

, - ). ,
, ,
, ,
(Paw ley 1994),

( ). ,
'
' ( ) ( tjuni
, . G o d d a rd 1994b), ,
//
rasa ( ; D iirie e t al. 1994)
,
(

1992 .). , ,
sensu stricto.

8.8.
, - ,
/
. , , ,
,
/ .
,

(
). , ,
:
You did something bad ' .
I know when it happened ' , .
I want to see this ' .
These people didnt say anything about this '
.
If you do this, I will do the same ' ,
.
This person cant move ' .

,
-
( ) -
, .
(
)
,
. ,
, ,
:
I have two sons and one daughter ' ,
, '

(
).
(
), (
)
(. Goddard and
Wierzbicka 1994b).
-
; -

(Johnston 1985: 996).

9. ,

,
60- , :
,
,
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, .
:
1) ;
2)
;
3)
(
);
4) ,

;
5)
;
6) : ,
, .

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.
1.
, ,
().
, ,
1973 . Semantic Primitives.
.

(
, )
.
,
(. Wierzbicka 1989b).
1986 ,

,
(. Goddard 1986, 1988b).

, , .


,
,
,
.

. ,
(
, 'good [] 'want [] the same [' ]
'other [']),
( ,
, , ,
).
,
. , I, Y O U S O M E O N E
,
( -).

,
,
( I som eone) (. .
).
2. , ,
.

,
, ( ., , C h a p p e ll 1983, 1 9 8 6 ,b),
(A m ek a 1986, 1987, 1990, 1991), (T ra v is 1992, H a s a d a 1994),
( G o d d a r d 1 994b), -
(B u g e n h a g e n 1990) (G o d d a r d
1990, 1 9 9 2 ,b) . Sem an
tic and Lexical Universals (G o d d a rd a n d W ierzbicka 1994b), .
A p r io r i ,

(

). , , .
,
.

3.

,
( , M cC aw ley 1983). ,
, :
,
- ,
. ,
, L exical U n iv e rsa ls a n d U n iv e rsa ls o l
G ra m m a r (W ierzb ick a 1991c).
, 1994 . ( -
),
.
4.
.
,

. , ,
(Wierzbicka 1987)
200 ;
, , (.,
, Wierzbicka 1990, 1993, 1994),
100 ,
.

( )
,
. , ,
,
,
.
5. , ,
,
,
, , ,
, ,
(. 8, G o d d ard 1994; G o d d ard an d W ierzbicka
1994b).
1992 . ,
.
6.
;
(, , G o d d ard 1990, 1991; T ravis 1992; H a sa d a
1994; A m eka 1990; W ierzbicka 1985, 1987a),
( , A m eka 1990; C h ap p ell 1986,b, 1991; W ierzbicka
1988) ( , A m eka 1987; G o d d a rd 1986b; H a rk in s
1986; W ierzbicka 1991a; W ilkins 1986). ,

, ,
( , A m eka 1987; G o d d a rd 1992b, fo rth c o m in g ; -
kins 1994; Wierzbicka 1991a, 1992a; Wilkins 1992).
,
,

,
(, Wierzbicka 1993, 1994, d, ,
forthcoming ; Goddard 1992b, forthcoming b; Goddard and Wierzbicka
forthcoming).
, EGM (
) ,
.
,
,
,

,
,

. . .
.
14

:

1.
. ,
,
, ,
,
( ) .
(swallow) (lark) ()
,
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;

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(
). ,

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1.

, ,

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.

1 ,
,
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.
.
,
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. (. 1992: 43 4.)

,
,
,
:
,

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.
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.
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(Lyons 1977, II: 847).

,
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.

2.


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.
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?

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,
, ).
, , ; ,
, , ,

, .
, , ( )
, Go away! '
() !, Give that book! '() , Keep the door
closed '() Be quiet '() [.
() ()].
, .

: ' ,
.
,
:
(1) : ,
: - .
,

, Sleep well! ' ! (. ()
!), Have a nice day! ' ! (. '()
!) Have a good trip! ' ! (. '()
!),
: , .

,
? - , ,

; , ,

, .
.

, , ,
. ,
, ,
. :
(2) Chodz tutaj!
:1:5
' !
(3) Daj mi t ksi^zk!
:1:50 MneiDAT 3Ty:ACG:SG:fem :ACC:SG:FEM
' !
() ,
, , ' ,
'; .
-, - , *Spij obrze '
, *Mie/ przyjemny dziei! ' ! *Miej dobrq
podrz ' !,
------
-. ,

,
. ,
, (
) :
(4) Bdz spokojny.
' (. . ).
(5) B^dz pewny ze...
' , ...
(6) Bijdz zadowolony ze tak sie skonczyio.
' , .
(7) Bqdz dobry mysli.
' (. ' ).
, ,
, :
(8) , .
, spokojny pewny
, ,
,
,
. , ,
, niezadowolony '' zy
' ', :
(9) *B^dz niezadowolona...
' , ...
(10) *B^dz na niego zla.
' ,

( ):
(11) N ie b ^ d niezadowolona!
' !
(12) Nie b^dz na m nie zla!
' !
(13) Nie b tjd sm utna!
' !
,

.
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:
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,
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1988). (1988),
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-
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), ,
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.
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3.
( ),
tertium comparatioms ( ).

, ,
, .
,
: ...
.
,
'
. ... ,
. ,

(Croft 1990: 11).
(Greenberg 1966b: 74)
:
,
;
:
. ,

; , , (
) .
, ,
, ,
.
,
, ,

(Keenan and Connie 1977).
, ,

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:
.

.
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... (Croft 1990: 13).
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,
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,
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(Wierzbicka 1988), -
15 .
.
(Seiler 1986: 13),

. tertium comparationis,
, ;
.
,

, , ,
tertium comparationis,

. (. 2 3**; . Wierzbicka 1988.)

4.
()
. , -
(Givon 1990: 628) \ ,
:
, , ,
(); (Faltz 1985: 6) ,
,
, - -
.
, ,
Mary washed herself ' (. )
defended herself ' (. ),
,
.
, , ,
( , ),
. , ,
:

* Semantics: Primes and Universats., .


'* Semantics: Primes and Universats., .
3
(14) (a) Ewa zabila Adama.
' .
(b) Ewa zabila si?.
REFL
' .
(15) (a) Ewa skaleczyia Adama.
' .
(b) Ewa skaleczyia si?.
REFL
' .
(16) (a) Ewa umya Adama.
' .
(b) Ewa umyla si?.
REFL
' .
() ,
() (. ), >
, , , - |.
, () ]|
.

(, J
); J
- |
^:
(17) Harry covered his wife and himself with a blanket.
' .
:
(18)*Henryk przykryl si? i zon? kocem.
' REFL :: :INSTR.
,
- 2

2 , ,
, ,
. ,

. ( ., , Wierzbicka 1988: 18 19;
Hopper and Thompson 1980.)
, ,
.
,
si?
, (., ., Rappaport,
forthcoming). ,
,
. -
, (,
,

).
,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
,

. (
. Wierzbicka 1988.) ,
, ,
(19) (20):
(19) Ewa zabila Adama.
' .
(20) Ewa zabila go.
' ,
, go
, ,
5 , go.
, go
,
, ,
, si$ . :
(21) Zobaczyl Adama samego/pijanego.
:380 :; :,/:
' /.
(22) Zobaczyl go samego/pijanego.
:3sc. : :/:
'O hi eroj /,.
*
(23) *Zobaczyl si^ samego/pijanego.
. REFL :/:.
,
si$,
(zaimek zwrotny; ., , Szober 1966: 100),
, (
Geniusiene 1987: 245).
() ,
, ,
, , ,
,
3.
, , ,

, ,
.

,
, .
,
,
,

. (, ,
80- 90-
. ,


.)
, , ,
,
(., , Kwapisz 1978; Saloni 1976),
, , -
. ,
, ,
:

3
(. 81.| 1977). ,
.
(24) Kochaj bliniego jak siebie samego
:11> . . .
' .
(25) nienawidzi samego siebie
: :
' '.
( ,
, ), , siebie (
), -
.
, samego (samej, sa-
mych . .; , ' ; samego '
), . (,
, ,
.)
,
,
( );
(26) Ewa okryla su kocevi.
' .
(27) *Ewa okryla siebie saviq kocern.
' .
(28) ??wd okryla siebie kocem.
' .
(29) Ewa skaleczyla si$.
' ( ).
() ?Ewa skaleczyla sarnq siebie.
' .
(31) -Ewa skaleczyla siebie.
' .
,
,
,
( ), ;
(32) 'Ewa okryla satnq siebie, a nte okryla Adama.
' , .
(33) Ewa sama su; okryla, a Adama nie okryla.
' , '.
(34) *Ewa okryta si samq, a nie okryb Adama.
' , .
( (34),
sam;
.)

-
(Rappaport 1988)
siebte si

, jego '
() go ' (). , , ,

,
. (, ,
)
, , a si (,
, ) ,
(
). , siebte
,

.
siebte (
) siebie
, ,
siebie ,
, . :
(35) Adam zastriehi swojq I samego siebie.
'
, :
(36) *Adam utopii swojq I samego siebie.
.
, ,
- , ,
- :
- ,
, , ,
;
, , .
,
,
, ,
, , ,
,
. ,
,
(37) Adam hates HIMSELF.
' ,
,
:
(38) Adam hates himself.
' ,
. (
5.)
stq siebie,
, si.q siebie

siq, siebie; ,
, go jego ('),
.
, ,
, -
,
, ,
,
^.
, ,
, ,
,
, . ,
(Dixon 1980: 433) -4

4 , -
, , . -
,
.
: -

NP S
/ 5.
,
?
,

, ,
( )
, .
.
, (Dixon 1972: 90) ,
,
, -,
, -
, (. Marantz 1984: 152,
5; Geniusiene 1987: 355).
, ,

,
:
(39) (R)
-
.
, , :
(40) Harry killed him self by kutting his wrists.
' , ,
,
(
) - ( , ).
,
,
. , , -

5 ,
. , , :
(Marantz 1984: 152). (
, , , .)
, ,
, .
. ,
,
(41) killed himself: he cut his wrists on Thursday and he died on Friday.
' :
,
:
(42) * killed himself on Friday by cutting his wrists on Thursday.
' , .
(43) * cutting his wrists on Thursday, he eventually killed himself on
Friday.
,
.

, . ( . Wierzbicka
1975, 1980b.)
, R

, :

, .
R
, , ,
, .
, :
,
,
R (, ,
).
(
, ; .
2), , R.

( )
, ,
, ,
( R) .
(
.)
,
,
, :
(
) ? (, (Dixon 1977: 280)
: ,
, ,
; . Mosel 1991.)
, ,
,
= 6.
.

. ,
, ,
,
,
. (. 2 3*.)
( )
, ,
. (
. 5.)
, ,
, ,
, :
, R,
,
, . , -

6 . (Kibrik 1991: 69),


:
-
... '
'', ,
, '' '',
. ,

.
* Semantics: Primes and Universal.., nepee.
Harry committed suicide '
, ,
,
, . ,
Harry saw himself in the mirror '
,
( , ) ,
, ,
.
(44) NP + SELF
, ,
, , Harry saw himself in the mirror,
.
,
(45) NP SI
, :
(46) Henryk zobaczyl si w lustrze.
' ,
.
(44 45) ,
- ,
, R.
,
, ,
,
,
. ,
() (
, ), :
(47) Henryk polozyl si.
' : REFL.
(48) Harry lay down.
' .
, (
) ; ,
, ,
, - , -,
, :
(49) H arry hates himself.
' .
(50) *Henrik nienawidzi si?.
' REFL.
, (44) (45)
,
R,
( () () ):
(51) () Henryk powesil si?.
() H arry hanged himself.
' .
(52) () Henryk ogolil si?.
() H arry shaved himself.
' .
,
: ,
,
; , , ,
,
.
, ,
,


,
,
. ,

,
. ,
$(1
(1 ( -.)
'/; '
5<1 / .
, :
( ,
); -
( : ).
,

;
,
.
, ,
( ,
,
). , -

,
, ,
, ,
.
, , ,
, ^ :
(53) Adam covered himself with a blanket.
' .
(54) Adam cut himself (on purpose).
' (),
,
, :
(55) Adam burned himself (accidently).
' ().

,
, ?
(., ,
Dixon 1976a,b, 1977: 280).
, ,
,

,
, (RV,
57),
( R, 56):
(56) (R)
-

(57) (RV)
-

( ).
R
,

, ,
, , ,

: .
,
(58) Juan se mat.
' REFL
, , ,
. ,

(59) Jan zabil si.
' REFL
, .

:
(60) John injured/burned/cut himself.
' //.
, , ( )

,
R, ,
RV.
,

. (., , , Hopper and Thomp
son 1980,1982; Plank 1984; Tsunoda 1981.)
, , , ,
-, . ,
, -, (Mosel, forthcoming).

5.

,
(. Hooper and Thompson 1980; Verhaar 1990),
.
,
,
, , (Givn 1990: 565)
. (. Slobin 1982.) ,

.

.
:
() :
, ,
, , , ,
.
(1) :
, ,
, , ,
, .
() :
( ), ( ),
( ) ---
. , ,
,
(Givn 1990: 565).

(. Wierzbicka 1988):
(61) () -
-
-
( ).
,
,

( , -
).
,
(Hooper and Thompson
1980; Moravcsik 1978; Tsunoda 1981; . Wierzbicka 1988).
,
(Wierzbicka 1981),
, ,
.
, ,

(
). (Wierzbicka 1981: 578),
,
( NOM),

.
,

,

. , ,
(. Hooper and Thompson 1980),
,
( ), (
, ).
(Givon 1990: 630):
- -.

,
,
. , :
, , -
. -
, . ...
, '', '', , ,
, ' . ., -

(1990: 630).

,


, break , chop , build ' open
. , ,
,
:
, , , ,
. .
, , ,
,
.
, ,
,

. ,
, ,
. , ,
(,
) , , , -
( . Wierzbicka 1981).
,
( ),
. , (
, , ,
).
,
-- -
-- (Haiinan 1995),
7. ,

7 ,
,
=
, , .
, ,
, . ,
R
( ) .
,
,
. ( -
, , ,
, -,
- . eating
[ eat '] feeding oneself [ feed oneself '
].)
, , , ,
, (, , ,
), ,
, , , ,
, ,
, , . .
,

: , ( versus
), (
) ()
.
, ,
, :
(62) washed/shaved/dressed.
' //.

:
(63) washed/shaved/dressed himself.
' // .
, , ,
,
, .
,
, (64 65), ,
(64 65):
(64) (a) She washed herself with special care.
' .
(b) She washed with special care.
' .
(65) (a) She dressed herself slowly, paying attention to every detail.
' ,
.
(b) She dressed slowly, paying attention to every detail.
,
.
, washed dressed,
,
,
,
. ( ,
(Faltz 1985: 7), The cat washed himself ' ,
The cat washed ' .)
:
(66) Mary hid.
' .
(67) Mary hid herself.
' .
(68) Mary was hiding in the shed.
' , .
(69) *Mary was hiding herself in the shed.
' , .
, 67 68 , 69 (
) , ,
(, )
, :

.
,
,
, :
,
,
. (. Langacker 1987.)
,

, .
,
, .
72 :

, , , (
) ,
,

,
.
,
.
, , ,
:
(70) covered/defended/protected/shot himself and his child.
' /// .
(71) * hid himself and his child.
' .
(72) * warmed himself and his child.
' .
(73) * seated himself and his child.
' .
(74) * stretched himself and his child on the grass.
' .
(75) * threw himself and his child on to the glass.
' .

,
:
,
, ,
. covered himself and his
child with a blanket '

,
, .
, ,
.
.
(
) ,
, , , , .
-
,
, (H aim an 1985, 1995: 224).
,
(5b) I expect m yself to win.
' , (. '
).
(6b) I got myself up.
' (. ' )...
( ), :
,

, (5) (6)
, , ,
...
,
(7) () 1 (dont) like myself.
* () .
(b) restrained himself with difficulty.
' ,
... ,
... ,
.
, ...
,
. ,

.
, , :
(76) hid him self.
' .
(77) stretch e d h im self on th e grass.
' ,
- , ,
, ( ,
) , ,
( , , restrained himself with
difficulty I don't like myself).
,


, .

(
), (
) (
), ,
. , , -
,
(himself),
(se), (-):
(78) hid himself [ ].
(79) Il sest cach ( ).
(80) ( ).
, ,
81,
, 82 83:
(81) covered himself with a blanket.
(82) II s'est envelopp dans une couverture.
(83) .
, 81
( covered himself and his child '
) .
-,
( )
( -

):
,
, . (
. Wierzbicka 1988, 5 6.)

6.
,
( - ) 1 (.
1992: 12930). ,
:
,
,
, ,
.
(Faltz 1985: 1).
,
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
, tertium comparationis
.
, ,
, ,
,
. ,
, , .
,
,
,
(, Harris 1946, 1951;
Fries 1952),
,
. .
,
. ( )

. , -
,
. ,
,
.

; ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
, -
, ,

. ,
, . ,


. ,

,
.

. . . . (1988). .
(1988), 335.
(1964). .
. 8. 316.
(1964b). .
. 8: 67103.
(1977). , ii.
: .
) (1977). , iii
: .
(1992).
. : . [. Kibrik,
Aleksandr]
. (1988). .
(1988), 923.
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Wierzbicka Anna (1995a). Kisses, Handshakes, Bows: The Semantics of Nonverbal
Communication. Semiotica. 103/34: 20752.
Wienbicka Anna (1995b). Emotion and Facial Expression: A Semantic Perspective.
Culture and Psychology. 1/2.227258.
Wienbicka Anna (forthcoming a). Contrastive Sociolinguistics and the Theory of
'Cultural Scripts': Chinese versus English. In Mariis Hellinger and Ulrich Ammon
(eds.). Contrastive Sociolinguistics, Contributions to the Sociology of Language. Gen.
ed. Joshua A. Fishman. The Hague: Mouton.
Wienbicka Anna (forthcoming b). What did Jesus Mean? The Lords Prayer Translat
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Wienbicka Anna (forthcoming c). Japanese Cultural Scripts: Cultural Psychology and
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Wienbicka Anna (forthcoming d). The Universality of Taxonomic Categorization and
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Wienbicka Anna (forthcoming e). Understanding Cultures through their Key Words.
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Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
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John Benjamins. 499534,

?*
(
?)

1.

? ,
',
'. ,

, .
,
- ,
-
.
.
(|55 1924: 74) ,
(...)

, .
, , ,
: ,
, , , , ,
, ,
, ,
. ,

: -, - ,
- () ...

* (Whats in a noun?)
Whats in a name? ( ? , / ,
. ). . . -:
? , , / /
!. .
'' '
' , , ,
,
(Jespersen 1924: 75):
{...) ,
, ;
, .
, ,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
;
, . ,
, ;
-
, :
(- bluebell ,
) (- blackberry ,
), ,
.
, ,
.
(N),
(ADJ). :
: :
male (ADJ) (N)
female (ADJ) (N).
, ,
, . :
round ' / circle ''
stupid '' / fool ''
holy ' (.) / saint ' (.)
It is round ' . / *It is a round.
It is a circle ' . / *It is circle.
He is stupid ' . / *He is a stupid.
He is a fool ' . / *He is fool.
He is holy ' (.). / *He is a holy.
He is a saint ' (.). / *He is saint.
, , ,
(, -
) ,
, .
:
grow n-up ' / child
sick ' / cripple '
blind ', deaf / hunchback '
She is grown-up ' 1. / *She is child.
She is sick ' . / *She is cripple.
She is a cripple ' . / *She is a sick.
,
,
.
: , ,
.

. ,
, ,
.

.
,

, :
,
, ,
,
,
,
( 1977, 2: 447).
, (.
Wierzbicka 1979). , ,
.
,
man ' red
stone ' red ,
cripple sick '
round ' circle ' .
, . , man
stone ' , beauty ', , ,
', cripple circle.
,
, ' ,
. ,
' ,
,
. '
, , -
, , ,
,
,
, ,
, .
, :
, ,
- ,
, ,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
, , ,
. , ,
black , uhite ', big ', small ',
long new ', ,
.

, .
,
, . .
, ,
.

2. versus
, sick cripple '.
,
sick , a cripple .
, sick blind
deaf , :
is chronically ill ' .
* is chronically blind/deaf' /.
,
, sick.
, sick
, chronically ,
blind deaf. :
She was tem porarily d e a f ,

?She was tem porarily sick ' .


, blind deaf ,
cripple ? , ,
cripple
, , ' '
, , () (
) , ,
. ,
, .
.
, hunchback '
, . ,
, ,
, ,
, cross-eyed ' freckled .

. ,

. ,
'c rip p le {) ,
'hunchback {),
'b lin d 'd e a f {, )
.
' {mekura), '
{tsunbo) ' {oshi) , '
{izari) ' {semushi) . , -
:
Asoko ni mekura (tsunbo, oshi) no hito ga iru.
' (, ) ,
:
*Asoko ni imn (semushi) no hito ga iru..
' () .
(., , , 5.) , ,
' ' :
Asoko mekura (tsunbo, oshi) ga iru.
' (, ),
(mekura hito . .).
, '
,
:
Asoko ni izari (semushi) ga iru.
' ().
, clever
() genius ' ( )
: , rikona '
, tensai ' ' ;
, .
,
; ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
/
/ . , , :
; ,
, .
, ,

.
: I

I am NOT an alcoholic! I simply drink!


' ! !
:
I am not an X! I may be -, but I am not an X!
' -! -, -!
I am not an X! I may do X, but I am not an X!
' -! X, -!
, ,
-, ,
,
, '
X. (. Korzybski 1933 Hayakawa 1974.)
,
. ,
, , , . .
, , ,
, ,
;
,
. ,
. ,
: '
. , ,
,
: ' [
] X, Y, Z.
,
.
, , , , ,
, . ,
, ,
, /-
. , ( ,
) redhead ' (, ' ),
*blackhead ' , *blondhead '
*greyhead ' ( greybeard ' [, ' ]).
, blonde '' (
married a voluptuous blonde ),
*blond (?Jane married a tall blond
' ). ,
, , -
', ('
, :
).
,
.
, blond
, ,
,
:
Michelle is blonde/*black/*brown/*red.
' /*/*/*.
, -, grey '
:
Rosemary is only 35, and she is already grey.
' 35, ,
:
^Rosemary is a grey,
-, ,
,
:
*Maxine is a fat/a tall/a slender '.
, , ,
, ,
, '.
, brunette '
, , '
, ,
. (, , , , . .)
,
' (, - ),
. ,
, ,
,
. , :
Max is fat.
' ,
,
, .
,
, ' ,
. , :
Susie is a fattie.
' ,
,
, ;
,
.
, (bright) six-year-old ['()
], , , , ', .
, :
A (bright) fifty-four-year old asked me that question?
'( ) ?
, 'a n-year-old ['n-]
,
( ) ,
.

.
.
, , -
,
; ,
, , , . .
:
,
, ' (
). , ,
,
, .

3.
,
( )
, ,
. ,
. , man ,
woman ' child '
,
. , ,
man + +
child - + (., ,
Bienvisch 1970), ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
2.
(Putnam 1975), lemon
'- , , ,
. ., ,
, , ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
, - '
, ' lemons '
, , , sweet lemons ' orange
lemons ' .
, , , hu
man , adult , male ' female
' , ,
man , woman ' child '. ,
male female ,
,
, ,
.
, (male female)
,
.
, .
:
In any institution, males will have better-paid jobs than females.
'
, .
, , male
() (. ,
4)3:
??T he male kept shouting and screaming.
.
?T he female begged him to stop, but this had no effect on him.
' ,
.
youth '
, , , youth '-
'- (
youth). ,
,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, . .
, ,
. I! -
, , , .1 1, I

. . I
(. Wierzbicka 1985),
, jar '', bottle '
, bicycle ', skirt '',
( , , ,
. .). , ,
,

, . ( .
I
tiger ', radish jumper '
; . Wierzbicka 1985.) 4
i-.
, ,
-
. -, '
, ,
. -,
,
(
); , , (,
) .
( vs.
; vs. ) , , ,
, , , -, ,
, ,
' (' -!),
,
. , , ,
. , blond
( ),
blonde , , (
+ ), (,
. .). young '
( ), youth
( + ).
'

, , . ,
, ,
, , the blacks '
the Reds , ,
, (,
).
, , ,
, :

.
* .
, -, 4:
mekma hito
'
mekura inu
'
Mekura ga waratta.
' .
*Mekura ga shippo o futa.
' .
, ,

. , ,
, fattie ', fool , cripple , hunchback
teenager , ,
.
,
:
. , ,
, epiec
, ,
czdowiek ' , ,
, . sUpiec
; czlowiek
.

un bijou d'enfant (, ) un monstre
de femme (, ' ),

.
un enfant charmant un enfant bijou un bijou d enfant
une femme horrible un femme monstre un monstre de femme
,
. (. Bally 1920.)
,

(
) . , personne ['
], ,
leper ' slepiec ,
,
(, a mongo/ '
a mongoloid {child) ' ()a child with Downs
syndrome ),
.
,
, ,
( ),
.
, fattie ', fatso ',
fat . Fool '
, stupid '
. liar ,
( , ),
. .
(. Bally 1909.)

4.

, ,
( ),
,
.
,
.
, :
She is a liar/fool/fatso.
' //.
You lair!/fool!/fatso!.
' !/!/!,
:
'The liar/fool/fatso sat down.
'// .
, :
The fool deleted all my files.
' ,
fool
( ); ,
, ,
, (
'' - ).
(. Wierzbicka
1970), ,
,
(
,
). , liar, fool
fatso, , ,
, ,
,
:
You are a liar! ' ! You are a darling! ' !
You fool! ', ! You angel! ', !
:
I m arried to a liar! ' !
You are m arried to a fool! ' !,
, , , ,
, ,
.
, liar fool, ,
:
? liar called here today asking about you.
' , .
? fool proposed to Mary yesterday.
' .
, :
Some fool proposed to Mary yesterday.
' - ,
, -, , ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
,
,
,
. ,

: - , ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
, . (. 1978.)
, ,
, , fool,
fatso liar, , , :

;
,
,
, . ,
, ' ',
,

,
, . . .
( ;
.)
.
(. . )
, .
,
. ,
,
, white '
:
? white sat in the black section of the bus.
' .

the black. ,
black white
; .
black white ,
, illegal ',
(. Hewson 1972):
The illegals tend to take jobs that nobody else would accept.
' ,
.
*The illegal, caught by the police, started to cry.
', , .
,
, ,
, ,
(, , , ; ;
; ; ). , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
,
. , ,
, ,

?

(, ),
,
. ,
,
,
( ).

5.
,
' , ' ',

. , ,
,
. , - :
I can see a square/circle/triangle.
' //,
:
*1 can see a red/blue/big/small/wide/long.
' /////.
, ,
' {), ' () {),
' ', '
' .
, ', shikaku ' sankaku ',
,
. , -, - -,
:
Shikaku {) kaite kudasai.
{).
Draw a square (circle),
:
*Akai {*ookii) kaite kudasai.
* {*6).
*Draw a red (*big).
, , ,
( ) ,
: big '
' ( ), red '
' , circle ' '
(. Wierzbicka 1971 1972).
, '
,

, ,
, .
,
, . (.,
, Friedrich 1970, Denny 1976, Dixon 1972.)
,
,
. ,

, (
, ),
, ,
(, ).
, ,

,
(. Dixon 1977), , , ', .
,
,
, ,
. (Dixon 1977: 23) :
17 ,

, , :
' 13
20 14
' 19 13
' *14 14
' 15 8
' 15 , ,
' 14 7.


,
.
-,
, ' ',
' '. (Dixon 1977: 56) ,
, ,
,
. , ,

', . -,

' .

, .

,
, :
;
vip.il/ird '*
;

( )
( )
( )
:
toshiyori '
:
' ( )
nydga (1) ' ( ,
).
,

. , ,
, (?)
',
, , ,
' : phu-than (/ '', a t.hd
; , ).
,
(

, . Dixon 1980), ,
, '
( ) ' ,

, , , '
', . (.,
, Donaldson 1980.)
-, ' ( , '
)
, '
. ,

, ', :
:
: enfant
: kodomo.
, ,
, ,
,
(
, ). ,
' ,
. ,
, ,
' .
, , '
, :
:
adults, children
adult persons *child persons
grown-up people *child people
She is grown-up. *She is child.
:
les adultes les enfants
les personnes adultes *les personnes enfants
:
otom kodonw
otona no hito *kodomo no Into
:

* ,
:
die Erwachsene Kinder
die ennachsene Leute *Kmd(er) Leute.
-, ,
,
' ', ',
; , , ,
', , '
' '' ',
. ,
hito ' otoko
hito ' , -,


.
, ,
, '
, hito, otoko hito, ko '
otoko ' ,
,
Aborigiml
person ' Aborigine '.
disabled person ',


'' (
). , ,
'izan
,
izari hito ' , -
cripple people,
,
izan, , ,
'. :
a. Asoko ni izan ga iru.
' .
b. Asoko ni izari no hito ga iru.
' ,
() (.
2), ().
,
'
'
, ,
, ,
(. Barnlund
1975; . Wierzbicka 1985b),
, '
.

6. ?

( ) -
,
(. Bach 1968 McCawley 1970), ,
. ,
, an anthropologist ', - 'an X
who is an anthropologist [X, ].
, (
' )
, , , ,
woman '' - 'an X who is a woman ['X,
], , , -
'an X who is hum an, female and adult ['X,
].
,
,
,
,
, '
. , fool ', liar ',
fattie ', redhead '' hunchback ',
, ,
, woman ', man
', child ', flower bird '.
,
,
, ,
.
:
: ,
,
, ,
. , ,
,

,
, , ,
,
, ,
, ,
. ,
, , -
,
,
. ,
,

,
.
,
, ,
. ,
' ,
.
-,
, .
.

, . ,
,
, . ,
,
' '. '
, -,
. , '

X, ,
' ,
( . \ 1985);
, ' ( ') -
/ . ,
, '
. (. \
1972 1980; . ^^! 1966: 24.)

7.
- , ,
, ? -, ,
, ,
, , , .
, ,
,
,

?
,
,
:

. .
, ,
, ,
. (-, ,
,
; . Bolinger 1967.)

, -
, (

). , :
The rich will never understand the poor.
' ,
(. Hewson 1972).
,
:
Si parva magnis comparare licei...
::: :.::
' ...
,
. (,
, ,
.)
raison d Ktre ?
, ,
. , ,
, .
,
' '
,
,
,
.
:
The main street was wide and lined with trees.
' .
Your dear wife gave me that.
' .
Poor grandma couldnt say a word.
' .
mam ', dear ' poor

, , ,
.
, , ,
.
,
,
, ,
()
, .
,
, .
, animal ', fish ' flower ',
, , ,
, dog ', trout ' rose ', ,
, , spaniel ', poodle
boxer '. ,
,
,
, . (. Rosch 1978.)
, ,
,
.
'' '
, , ,
, ,
,
. , child-
bride ' (. -) - (
), ,
,
.
,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
( , ,
),
;
,
, . '
,
, .
, , ,
,
, diiewica-bohater '()-
(),
Smierc pulkownika:
Litwinkn, dziewica-bohater,
wodz powstancow, Eviilija Plater.
' , -,
, .
,
, .
' ,
: nltus, altior, altissimus ', ,
celer, celerior, celernmus ', ,
. ,
, .
(Donaldson 1980: 70),
:
. , ,
,
, ,
. , -
, ,
[] : , .
, ,
'
'. , *miri-miri ,
' , gi:dja-gi:djan '
, .

. , ,
, , (boys)
() ( , ' )
(), .
, young '
, ,
, boy '
, ?
,
. ,
boy ,
,
,
. ,
, hero ' saint ,
' ,
:
X is a greater hero/saint than Y.
'X /, Y.
'Xis a g reater boy than Y.
X , Y.
, .

, , ,
, ,
.
; ' ,
,
,
.
, ,
, ,
''
, . , ,
, ,
(
, ),
. ,
, .
, , ,
, ,
,
.
,
. ( ?
, .) ,
,
', -
. , :
a. Her red cheeks emanated youth and good health.
' .
b. Her cheeks were red.
' ,
( )
red ' ,
, ,
( )

.
,
,
, , ' . ,
(. Bally 1920):
a. Rosa rubra est.
' .
b. Rosa ruhet.
' ,
rubra ,
ruhet .
:
a. .
b. ().
-,
,
. , :
The gap between A and widened more than that between C and D.
' , D,
:
The gap between A and is wider than that between C and D.
, D,
, ,
,
, ,
,
, .
,
,
;
,
,
,
.
,

;
(1) -/- []
(2) []
(3) : [].
(1) ,
(2) ; (3)
.
:
(1) ,
: []
(2) ,
, ,
: [ ]
(3) ,
: [( ) ].
, :
T he old man knew he was going far out, and he left the smell of the
land behind and rowed out into the clean early morning smell of the ocean.
' (. ' ) ,
;
(, , 1952: 13),
man ''
; old

,
; knew he was going far mit ',
,
.

8.
,
, ,
.
,

. :
John is an American/an Australian.
' /
:
John is American/Australian.
' /,

Irish ' English '? (.
Bolinger 1967.)
Jo h n is Irish/English.
/ (. /).
, ,
, hisliman '' Englishman
'', , * *Australianman.
, , Ger
man Russian ,
, :
Alexander is Gennan/Russian.
' / (. /).
, : ,
'
, Irish, English, German Russian, '
, American Australian.
, Pole
' (.) Polish ' (.). , :
Adam is Polish.
' (. ),
-,

, .
Polish ,
, ' .
, , :
Adam is a Pole.
'
.
( ).
. , - :
I am an Australian, and I am a Pole.
' , .
, ,
,
5.
, ,

, , '
.
, - ,
,
,
(, ).
, American, Australian Canadian
',
, Irish, English, German Russian? ,
' ,
' . ,
, American Pole
,
,
.
, :
is Spanish / Portuguese / Dutch / Chinese / Japanese.
' / / / / (.
/ / / / ),
:
? is Brazilian / Argentinian / Indonesian / Rhodesian / Zimbabwean.
/ / / /
(. / / / /
).
, ,
,
, ,
(
) , -
. , , ,
, ,
, -
, .
, ,
, ,
' '.
',
'. ,
, , ,
'* '.
, American, Australian Brazilian,

,
. , '
('American way of lile), '

('American culture), ' ('American cities) '


(American cigarettes') ,
(
)
, , .
' ('American forks), '
('American chairs) ' ('Ame
rican leaves), ,
.
, , (Irish), (Po
lish), (Greek) (Chinese) ,
. , , ' ('Irish),
' ('Polish), ' ('Greek) ' ('Chinese)
, , ,
,
, '.
,
, , American Australian,
, English Irish, :
,
, ;
, .

9.
,
, ,

( ' ),

XX . (., , Bolinger 1977, Dixon 1977,
Garca 1975, Haiman 1985 Wierzbicka 1980b.)
,
.
, ' ,

. ,
*.

-
,
: ,

(., , Hale 1983)?
' (
', ')
, , ,
, ,
, ,
,
,
; ,
, ,
good ', bad ', big small '.
, , ,
( ) .
, ,
, maliki ( ')
wita ( '),
, dog ' small '.
, maliki , dog,
wita , small,
(. Wierzbicka 1985). ,
makt unta
dog small, .
, , '
(. Putnam 1975), ' (cp. Lyons 1981)
' (cp. Rosch 1978),
, ,
- ()
.
,
, ,
. , ,

' .
. ,
' , dog radish ',
, ' , jumper
fug ,
, , small, good
black ' .

.
,
(dogs) (Jugs), ,
(big), (small) (black)

. , ,
maliki ,
dog, unta
,
small. ,
-
,
-
, . (
. A ustin 1981, B avin a n d S h o p e n 1983,
D ixon 1980, G o d d a rd 1983, W ilkins 1984 S im p so n , in p re ss.)
Kaytej ( , ,
)
' ' , ,
, akely, - ,
' , ,
amarle, - , ' ,
' . , ,
, , , Kaytej
, arelfie ' arntwenge
, ,
.

,
, ,
,
,
- ,
,
. ,

, ,
. '
(Tesniere 1959), ' (Bally 1922) '
(Kurytowicz 1936), ,
,
, ,

( ).

. ,
, ,
, (cp. Hewson
1972). , -,
,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
' (., , Dixon 1977, Schcht
er 1985, Langacker 1987), '
, ,

.

RADISH
,
,
.


,
, ,

,
,



,

,
,


, , ,

,
- ,

,
, , , ,


,

T IG E R


,
:
HABITAT

, ,
, ,


, , ,


,



,
,

,
,


[ , ,
, , , -
]

JU M P E R ( ) '
, ,

,
:

, ,




- ,
,


,
, , , ,
,
,

,

- ,

, , .

1 grown-ups '' ( )
.
grown-up . adult ' '
,
.
,
. Wierzbicka (1985)
,
, ,
,
. ,

, ,
, .
,
.
, ,
. ,
, . ,
, , ,
, . ,

,
(Wierzbicka 1985).
,
, ,
' ' (Ross 1972b). ,
;
, , ,
. , , '
' .
3
, - .
(Mustanoja I960; 643) ,
" (
, ), ,
" , the poor , the young
''. ( , Hewson 1972.)
, , ,
, . ,
( ) , . is
real male ' , isa real ' '.
,
.
4
mekura . mekura
,
, .
9 .
(Levi 1982: 58):
Pavel Jurevic Levinski teneva molto al suo patronmico, e meno al suo cognomo
troppo rivelatore: lu era un russo ebreo, non un ebreo russo.
' ,
,
, (. ,
).
6 1967 .,
, . -
, , , ,
. ,
(, , , ) ,
, .
, , .


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1. 1

,

()
. ,
, ,
, ,

, , , (., ,
Sasse 1993; Broschart 1997).
(Hockett 1958: 221)
:
,
,
.


. (...)

,
.
.

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), . , ,
(Schchter 1985: 7) ,

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:
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).
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,
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laugh '; ( )
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.
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.


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Cacee , ,
() ,
,
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, () (. 653),
,
(, . 655), ,
(, . 656),
.
:
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,

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. Cacee

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(Dixon 1995: 175): ,
, :

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' (big), ' (little), ' (long)),
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(old)) (' (good), ' (bad))
. ,
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(hand), ' (water), ' (), ' (hill) . .),
. ,
(, ' (go), '
(throw)), (' (cut), ' (burn)),
(' (see), ' (hear)) ('
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(1995: 1756).
,
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, ),
,
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) ,

.
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. ; Wierzbicka 1996.)
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).
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. : G oddard &
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[1996]

: , , (), (), ,
: , ,
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, /
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,
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.
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) (), ;
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' (), , '
(. Suzuki 1978), , ,
'' ( 'rope; . Nida 1947).

,
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: ,

.
, people,
,

(, hito (cp. Onishi
1994), orang (. Goddard 1996), khon (.
Enfield, to appear). - ,
people, ,
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l'homme , ',

'; . Evans 1994).
, '
,


,
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human race
). , ,
:


.

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/. (
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; , ,
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action ?);
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:

.

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.


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(., , Sasse 1993). ,
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, , , , (Schchter 1985: 13),

.

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, ,
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, ,
,

(noun adjuncts) ,
.
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[] ,
,
,
.
Cacee :

,
,
.
:
? ?
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. .
, , (Fries 1952) (Palmer 1978).
, Cacee, -,
,

.
[thing-like] [event-like]
,
-
. , ,


, .
Choviskian revolution ' ,
, , ,
, (. 662).
, ,
, ,
. , ,
Marysina chustka
-Adj. (FEM. NOM. SG.) (FEM. NOM. SG.)
'
Ojcowska kurtka
-Adj. (FEM. NOM. SG.) (FEM. NOM. SG.)

' ,
,
Marys scarf '
Fathers jacket ' . Marysina ojcowska
,
,
,
, -
.

, ?
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> (
).
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, (
), ,
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, (Dixon 1982: 7)
20 , 17 ,
, ,
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20
19, 13,
14 .
,
,
( , ),
,
r
20:20, 20:19.
,
some, other this , , , ,
,
,
( ) ,
.
, some, other this ,
,
.

. ,
big ' small ',
( ) ,
:
all these [big] things, all these [small] things
[ ] , []
this some,
, ,
:
*all these these things
*all these some things
, other
,
. -
, other,
- ,
{else), , other (
), .
6 .

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(, (Curme 1935),
(Schchter 1985: 2) ,
,
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,
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,
). ,

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,
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, :
1. ,
2.
,

, ,
.
, extremely ', exceedingly
unusually
very ', slowly ,
fast ', carefully ' thoughtfully '
like this ',
.
, ( very),
( like this ),
, yesterday , now
', here ' nearby '. ,
, unfortunately ' , probably ' possibly '
, ,
,
.
, -

,
- ,
.
(
)
, Cacee (Sasse 1993),
,
. ,
Cacee (Sasse 1993), , ,
, ,
- . ,
,

, , ,
, ,
,
( Cacee) , ,

(,
)
(, ).
Cacee
: ,


' (. 666). ,
, very extremely.
,

,
,

.


:
,
,
. -
,

:
, .

,
,
. (., , , Harr
1993, Goddard 1995.)
Cacee (Sasse 1993: 669) :
( ) ;
(Wiesemann 1986), (1)
ha 2-, 3-
(2) --
(. 670).

. Cacee , ,
, ' , ' , ,
, .
, : , -
, ( ,
)?
,

, ,
, you ';
. Cacee ,
2- , you
thou ' (. 671), ,
yourself' ; () yourselves ' (
) ,
2- . (
. Wierzbicka 1996; Goddard 1995.)


(
). ,
(,
), ,
,
( ) .
,
- : (
) (.
Wierzbicka 1996), ,
.
,
, ,
,
( ,
).
,
. , (Schchter 1985)
,
,
,
: , ,
', ', '/, , '', '' . .
(. 38).
. -,
, (
). -, ,
. .. -, ,
, ,
, : ,
samha, sammai sambon ('* -
)
, (. Alfonso 1971).
, , , ,
, ,
(
,

).
( - )
, .

, , ,
.

: / /, -
.
:
( )
()
,
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/
(?), /,
, , ,
, (
).
, , ,

,
:
, / /
.


(Schchter 1985: 46) ,
,
, a Cacee (Sasse 1993: 679) :
,
( ),
. , ,
,
. ,
,
, ? , with V , to V
about 'o '
:

Jo h n w ent with
J o h n w rote to '
J o h n th o u g h t about ' .

, , ,
.
,
. ,
,
, , and ' , or
' but. ( , ,
), :
( ,
, ).
,
, :

1. ,
2. ,
.

,
, , ,
, and, or
but ( . Wierzbicka 1996b),
,
. (. Wierzbicka
1996 in press.)
-, ,

. , , ,
,
(
), ,
( ,
).

( )
,
, .
,
. , - ,
, (
),
- ,

.

,
(. G o d d a rd & W ierzbicka,
eds. 1994, W ierzbicka 1996a),

/ , / ,
(
) , .
, ,
,
:
,
/ , /
, ,
.

-
(
/ / ),
(), , ,
.
:
1. . I did this ' .
. I did this W IT H two o th e r people '
.
2. A. You said something ' .
. You said something ABOUT this ' .
, ,
, , ,

( ). , ,
with about , -
,
. ,
,
,
(
, ) (
, ).



. (Schchter 1985: 58)
:
,
,

.
, ,
,
, , , .
:
,
.
, , ,
,
. ,
: ! !,
.
, ! ! ?
, .
, ,
. -
ah, aha, hah, oh, wow . . (. 58).
, , ,
. ,
,
, ( big small
).
,

, .


, .
, ah, oh wow ouch,
,
:
( ,
). ,
, ,
, , ,
(, ah, oh, wow ouch),
(' )
.
, hvmi, pst shh
, .
,
, ( )
, '
. ( . Wierzbicka
1991, Ameka 1990.)


,
, , , -
.
,

, , ,
.
. , (111,
appear),
,
, (. Wierzbicka 1986).
,
, , , ,

: (
), ,
, . , ()
:
,
, ( )
, .

( , ):
1. kluay sli bay
4 / ()
'
2. kluay sii wii
4
'
3. 1 sii khrua
4
'
4. kluay sii ton
4 (--)
'
5. sii
4
'
6. klfiay sii chanit
4
' .

, (, ,
).
:
1. [ ]
:

(. . )

2. []
:


,
,
3. [ ]
:


,
4. [, ]
:



5. []
:

:

6. []
:

, ,

' 2.
, ,
,
.
,
,
,

. , ,
,
, (
), ,
,
, '
.
, ,
(
). (Schachtei 1985: 58)
: ,
( ,
) ,
. ,
, ,
unfortunately
, , unfortunately
, ,
please
.

'
(
),
'
... ( K uno 1973),
:
a. K ore wa hon desu

'( , )
b. Kore wa hon desu ka

' ?
c. John wa baka sa

'( , ) .
, , ka sa,
( )
:
yo , ,
ha
,
sa ,

(, ,
.) -
' , ...

, ,
. ,
,
.
, , ,
Cacee (Sasse 1993: 67), ,
. Cacee
, ,

(. 667), ,

, , ,

.
, ,
; ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
-
;
-
: .
,

,
.
, , bura-bura, fuwa-fuwa puka-
, , - -
( Hayakawa 1985: s
, t , a q ):
1. choochin ga kaze de BURA-BURA yureteiru
s.
BURA-BURA

2. dar notteinai buranko ga kaze de


- s.
BURA-BURA yureteiru

, , BURA-BURA.

3. fuusen ga FUWA-FUWA to sora o tondeiru


s. q. .
.

4. sora ni FUWA-FUWA to kuma ga ikandeiru


q. s.
.

5. booru ga PUKA-PUKA mizu ni uiteiru


s.
, .

6. maruta ga PUKA-PUKA mizu no ue ni uiteiru


s.
, .
,
,
:
- (bura-bura, viahfuwa-juwa, puka-puka)
: .
, bura-bura, fuwa-
fuwa, puka-puka, ,
, , , pea-pera ':
1. kanojo wa PERA-PERA to san- jikan mo hanashita
t. q.
.
2. kare wa kurum a no namae o takusan shitteite sore
t. .
PERA-PERA to itte miseta
o. q.
,
.
3. kare wa eigo ga PERA-PERA da
t. s.
-.
, , , pera-pera
, bura-bura,
- .
-

, .


, ,

.
, , , , ,
,
, -
, .
, ,
(Durie 1985)
,
, , .
,

, ,
, ,

(., , Givn 1984, Sasse 1993).
(' [] ),
() ,
, , ,

(Sasse 1993: 655).

,
, :
, , Cacee (Sasse 1993),
, .
:
- ,
( ,
, ,
), .
,
,
,
,
(Sasse 1993: 655).
,
, , Cacee (Sasse 1993)
:
,

(, , ).
, :
,
. , ,
/ you
, , this cat ' , this bird '
this tree, ' ,
,
, , . .
, you I,
, ,
,
(. Peirce Ref.).
,
, ,


, ,
, this ', ,
. -

( , ,
this cat ' this woman ' this oaktree '
, thisthis this this).
(. Wierzbicka
1986, 1988),
,
, , (), ,
. , ,
.
,
, ,

.

. , ,
, , , Cacee
(Sasse 1993), . ,
, - , ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
,
. ( , ,
,

.)
, ,
-
, ,
(
, , , ,
).
, (
-) , (-) .
,
,
(cp. Sasse 1993: 663), ,
, .
( ),
,
, ,
, :
-, - (), -
.
, -,
-,
- .

: ,
, , ,
, .
,
, ,
. .,
, (
) ,
,
, .
(
) () ,
, ,
:
(
?).
( ,
, ) ,
( ),
,
(,
,
).
, , ()

.
, , ,
,
- ,
. -

,
,
, ,
-
.
, ,
,

(. ^ 1994, 1995),
,
.

1 ,
, ,
, .
,
.
2
. ,
,

, ,
(. Denny 1976).
. Wierzbicka 1985.
. Johnson 1987.

Aikhenvald A. [to appear]. Classifiers.


Alfonso . 1971. Japanese Language Patterns. A Structural Approach. Vol. 1. Tokyo:
Sophia University L. L.
Ameka Felix. K. 1992. Interjections: The universal yet neglected part of speech: in
troduction//Journal of Pragmatics. 18(2/3). P. 101 118.
Berlin Brml is? Paul Kay. 1969. Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution.
Berkeley: University of California Press.
Broschart Juergen. 1997. Why Tongan does it differently? Categorical distinctions in
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-

1. 1


( )
:
,
,
,
,
.
, ,
,
, ,
. , ,
,
,
,

, ?
,
, ,


, .

,
(. , Wierzhicka 1991,
1992, 1996, 1997; Goddard, in press; Goddard (ed.) 1997; Goddard and
Wierzhicka (eds.) 1994).
.
, (
) : -
,
regressus ad infinitum . -
( ),
.

, .
,

.

, ,
.
, , ,


.
, .
(,
, ), ,
. ,
,
. ,
, (),
( , nicht, - som (.
Bugenhagen 1994: 96) . .).
,
, ,
, , . ,
[ ] ,
(. Goddard and Wierzbicka (eds.) 1994;
Wierzbicka 1996):


(1996)

Substantives: I, YOU, SOMEONE(PERSON), SOMETHING(THING),


PEOPLE, BODY
Determiners: THIS, THE SAME, OTHER
Quantifiers: ONE, TWO, SOME, MANY/MUCH, ALL
Attributes: GOOD, BAD, BIG, SMALL
Mental predicates: THINK, KNOW, WANT, FEEL, SEE, HEAR
Speech: SAY, WORD, TRUE
Actions, events, movements: DO, HAPPEN, MOVE
Existence and possession: THERE IS, HAVE
Life and death: LIVE, DIE
Logical concepts: NOT, MAYBE, CAN, BECAUSE, IF, IF...WOULD
Time: WHEN(TIME), NOW, AFTER, BEFORE, A LONG TIME,
A SHORT TIME, FOR SOME TIME
Space: WHERE(PLACE), HERE, ABOVE, BELOW, FAR, NEAR; SIDE,
INSIDE
Intensifier, Augmenter: VERY, MORE
Taxonomy, partonomy: KIND OF, PART OF
Similarity: LIKE
[: , , (), (), ,
: , ,
: , , /, /-
, /
: , , ,
: , , ,
, ,
: , ,
, , : , /-
,
: (),
: ,
: , , , /-
, ,
: (), , , , ,
,
: (), , /, /,
, , ,
, : ,
, : /,
: /]
, ,

( ). ,
, ,
. ,
, -
, , ,
, , , , , ,
, / , ,

, :


,

,
, , ,
. ,
,
,
, -
-, - -,


, .


.
, fate , ,
freedom , (. Wierzbicka
1992, 1997).
, ,
,
.
,
,
,
. ,
all these people do this
, ,
,
,
(, 'all these people = ' ).
, , ,
: ,
.
, ,
, , -
. ,
,
,
, . ,
,
, ,
(. Wierzbicka, to appear).

,
- :
- - .
,
( , )
( ,
).
- - ,
-
- .
(),
, ,
: ,
.

( ),

. ,
,
, (
).

2.

,
, ; , ,
.
.
, , - -
- ,
, - -
, ,
.
.
:
,

,

.
,
.
,
,
, ,

.

, ,
.
, , , , ,

.

, vs.
, vs. ,
vs. , vs. ,
vs. vs.
(., , 1974 1985, Talmy 1976, Givon 1975,
Kachru 1976, Ruwet 1976, Shibalani 1973 1976, 1969, Song
1996). ,
,
, ,
, ,
, , (Connie 1985: 334)

, - -,
:
A. Taroo ga Ziroo ik-ase-ta
SUB DO -CAUS-PAST
B. Taroo ga Ziroo ni [/O] ik-ase-ta
' .
: ()
(
, ); ()

(, , , ,
) (. Shibatani 1973: 334 1990: 309).
, -,
- /-.
, (Kitagawa 1974: 50)
, - let '
, make '
, :
urna turete kaeru zikan datta ga, amari yukaisoo ni kakoi no
naka o hasitte iru no de Taroo wa sono mama moo sibaraku urna
hasiraseta.
'The time had come to take the horse back, but, because the horse was
running so joyously in the arena, Taro let (*made) the horse run for a little
while more [ , ,
, ( )
].
,
-.
ni-,
, , . , -,
ni-
- (. Iwamoto 1987):
a. Watashi ikasete kudasai
'Please let me go (dont prevent me from going) [,
( )]
b. Watashi ni ikasete. kudasai
Please let me go (permit me to go) [,
( )].
, ()
(). - .
(Kitagawa 1974), -
. ,
:
X ga Y V-aseta. =>
(a) X
(b) - Y V
(c) Y (V), X .
- , Y
. , (Innoue 1976,
Iwamoto 1987), - ,
. ,

,
:
. (Kitagawa 1974: 43):
ga yasai (*ni) kusaraseta. =>
'Taroo let/caused the vegetables (to) rot [
( )].

X
- V Y- ( )
(V) Y-, X .
- (

), , ,
/,
. :
XgaYni ikaseta.
'X had/let/got Y (to) go [X Y- ( Y-y) ]
(a) X ()
(b) - Y V
(c) Y (V), Y .
m-
:
-, m-, -
, Y ,
. , Y ,
; Y-a,
Y , X . ,
, ,
.
, ,
/ , /
/ ,
( ) ,
,
,
. ,
-
. ,
,
,
. ,
, .
. ,
.
, , Y Y
, .

, ,
, , .
,
,
, ,
,
. , ( ) ,
,
. ,
, ,
, .

lassen (
, ).

,
mike, have, get, cause let, , ,
.
-
- ,
.
.
Ich habe mir Bleistift und neues Papier geben lassen
(Speer 1975: 19).
I have to-me pencil and new paper to-give let/have

'I asked for a pencil and new paper [
].
lassen 'ask for [],
- geben lassen,
( ) ,
. ,
(make) ,
(have), . ,
(get), , , lassen get,
,
getting someone to do something

,
.
, ,
, ,
, ask for request ' ,
- :
Vom Doktor eine Schlaftablette geben lassen (Speer 1975: 44).
from doctor one sleeping tablet to-give let/have/make/get

I asked the doctor for a sleeping tablet (and got one) [
( )] [ ].
, ! ask for request,
, , .
:
Im Anschlu an seinen Monolog drckte Hitler au f den Klingelknopf
und lie Borman kommen (Speer 1975: 101).
'Having completed his monologue Hitler pressed the bell and [thus]
summoned Borman [ ,
( ) ].
ask [or request,
,
swnmon ''; , summon
, .
,
, -
hve-,
lm Jah re 1938 hatte er [Streicher] ihm durch seinen persnlichen Adju
tanten zum G eburtstag demonstrativ einen groen Distelstrau berrei
chen lassen (Speer 1975: 173).
'In 1938, Streicher [a Gauleiter of Nuremberg] had his personal as
sistant deliver to him (Leibei, mayor of Nuremberg) on his birthday,
demonstratively, a large bunch of thistles [B 1938 . (
)
(, )
].

, , (
) lassen, ,
, ,
, ,
, .
,
,
. lassen
:
X lie (let/made/had/asked etc.) Y Z.
(a) X , Y Z
(b ) - X
(c) - Y , X
(d) - Y Z.
,
,
. ,

:
A. Mary had Jo h n return the money ' ,
( )
7 .
B. Mary made John return the money ' .

C. Mary got John return the money '

D. Mary forced John return the money

E. Mary talked John into returning the money '
.
,
, , , ,
, , ,
( ,
-
lassen
).

(, ),

,
, .
make
make, ,
force, D.

3. : HAVE, GET INTO

3.1. h ave
(h avin g som eone d o som eth in g)


make have:
She had the girls clean his bicycle and made Anand pump the tyres
every morning [ , ,
] (Naipaul 1969: 481).
, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, , .
Person [] X had person Y do [] Z. =
(a) X , (c W) Z
(b) - X , Y Z ( W)
(c) - X -
(d) - Y Z
(e) X , X ( -
)
Y : .
have ,
. ,
.
,
, ,
, :
.
,
,
. -
(
, ).
-
:
, .
:
- .
, ,
, () :
\..Y : , '...Y
: .
,
( -
, ),
have. ,
, ,
.
, have
;

, ,
( )
, . ,
, (Talmy 1976: 107),
have :
*1 had ihe squirrel leave its tree ' ,
.
The trainer made / ?had the lion dance '
/ , .
, ,
make, have - '
. ,

-. ,
( ,
). have ; ,
,
. ,

:
, 'Y
: .
, have ,
,
, -
,
. , have
,
: ,
(
'X , ),
. -,
have ,
;
X made Y wait (sit still) 'X Y- ( ).
'Xhad Y wait (sit still).
, have
, ,
:
X made Y eat fish 'X Y- .
? had Y eat fish.
X had Y return fish to the shop 'X , Y
.
have , ,
( ),
. make
, , ,
. .
[She] used to make us kneel on graters for a thing like that []
(Naipaul
1969: 236).
?She used to have us kneel on graters for a thing like that.
, , ,
have :
A he was made to pump the tyres every morning '

. *he was had to pump the tyres every morning.
c make -
( ),
;
have
, .
, have
,
:
I had my shoes mended ' [ ]'.
I had my calculations checked by my assistant '
.
-
make :
*She made her shoes mended (calculations checked).
, c have, ,
I had my shoes mended, ,

, ,
:
X had Z done [to W]. =
(a) X , c W Z
(b) - X , - W Z
(c) - X
(d) - - Z
(e) X , X ( -
)
: .
X , ( ),
- X , - ( ),

( ),
, , .

3.2. get {getting someone to do something)

,
^, :
...Anand got Shama to bring a coloured print of the goddess Lakshmi
from Hanuman House '
* (Naipaul 1969: 383).

(have) (make) -
. (get),
.
get,
,
get, .
get
(, she got the sauce to thicken '
), , , ,
, ,

, ,
, ,
1 2
hJP Human S^t NP Human ( human-like) VERB qg .

* , ,
, ., .
get ,
, ,
, - , . ,

. ,
, have,
,
,
. - ( ),
,

,
: , ,
. (get) ?
, ,
.
, , , ( f).
(get), ,
? , have,
. , (get),
- (, ),
.
get, ,
, :
How did you get the washing mashine to go? I couldnt '
, ?
.
have,
- ,
.
?She had the dog swallow the pill ,?
.
?She had the washing mashine go "
.
,
get (
)
:
Person [] X got person Y to do [] Z.
(a) X , Y Z
(b) X , , Y , Y
(c) X , , Y , Y
(d) - X () Y-y
(e) - Y Z
(f) - Y Z
(g) - X :
,

( ()),
, , ,
,
. ,
getting , ,
- ,
, ,
( ,
, ,
, ,
, ).
getting , ,
,
,

.

3.3. into
(manipulating someone into doing something)
, ,
( make, have get),
into. ,
,
. ,
- (talk someone into doing something),
trick '
, manoeuver ' push
''. ,
encourage '
induce ''. -,
: into ,
(,
) .
into :
Person X Verbedperson Y into doing Z. =
(a) X , Y Z
(b) Y Z
(c) X Y-y: , Z
(d) X , , X , Y
(e) - X
(f) - Y Z
(g) Y , Y
(h) Y , X , Y
(i) Y , X .
into get
, .
: -,
into ,
, get
; -, into
,
,
get ;
-, into
, ( ,
), get
.
, ,
get, into
( ), :
get you to sign this ' ,
*11 talk you into signing this
, get,
, ,
,
, .
get
,
, : I want you to sign
this ', . ,
11 get you to sign this, I want you to sign this,
,
,
, ,
( ,
).

4. m ake
(;m a k in g s o m e th in g h a p p e n o r so m eo n e d o so m e th in g )

4.1.

.
; , ,
:
. ,
make
:

-
, .
,

,
, ,
, ,
, - ,
,
.
make , , :
1. ?
2. ? ? ?
3. ? ? ?
4. -?
5. -?
6. , -
, (, write
', read '), - ,
(, cry ', laugh ')?
7. - ?
8. - ?

: it made me think
that X ' , X, ,
:
NP*Abstract made N P 2 Human VerbThink [ + complement].
:
It made me realize how lucky 1 was ' ,
.
This made me think of Mary ' .
What you said made me think of something my sister said '
, (...).
, ,
:
It (X) made Y think W. =
(a) X
(b) - Y (W)
(c) Y (W), X.
, ,
,
, , ,
( ) :
, .
,
.

,
, ,
, . ,
, (
), (,
it made me think, ).
(
) .
:
1. Person X made person Y fall '- X-a Y .
2. Person X made person Y feel guilty 'X Y-a
.
3. Person X made person Y think about Z 'X Y-a Z-e\
4. Person X made person Y want som ething 'X Y-a
-.
5. Person X made person Y cry (laugfi) 'X Y-a (
).
6. Person X made person Y apologize 'X Y-a '.
1
- - .
2 ( ,
)
, . 3

, . 4

, , - .
5 ,
, , ,
( , -,
- ). , 6
,
(
).
, .

4.2. m a k e-h a p p en
(m ak in g so m eth in g h a p p en to som eone)

c make ,
You made me fall over! '- !. ,
, -, ,
, :
X
- (Z) Y
Z Y, X .
, , ,
,
:

3. A. You bastard, you made me lose my job! ', -


!
. ? so grateful to you, you made me get a job! ,?
, - !
4. . made her lose her temper '- .
. ? made her recover her composure ,?-
.
5. A. You made me get worse '- .
. ?You made me get better ,?- .

,
, .
: ,
. , , made
her get a job '- , ,
- . :
, ,
,
, .
,
make-happen: ^
() ,
, 2) , (
) . ,
(,
, , ), ,
(
).
, ,
make something happen,
, . ,
( ) ,

. , , ,
,
, .
, You made me fall!,
:
(a)
(b) -
(c) ,
(d) , .
,
, ,
, , , ,
? , ,
, . ,
, ,
,
.
make-hap-
pen (to) ,
.
, : She made it happen -
: happen, happen someone.
She made him happy ' , , ,
happy
, ,
make+Verb. , She made me see (realize)...
' ()..., -
,
, (,
), , , .
, :
A. Eat youv spinach spinach will make you grow big and strong!
!
B. ?She made him grow big and strong by giving him spinach every day
,? ,
.
mike, (
),
,
, (
, ),
, , ,
.
, ( ) ,
make (- X
Y) , ,
, ( ),
:
Person X made Z happen to person Y. =
(a) X
(b) - (Z) Y-om
(c) Z Y-, X .

4.3. make-feel (making someone feel something)


, , ,
, .
, -: You made me feel a lot better
, , , ,
,
.
-
, - . ,
making something HAPPEN to someone making
someone FEEL something, .
,
,
.
, ,
,
,
/ .
( make feel),
,
:
' She made him feel needed
.
made her feel guilty ' .
made her feel proud of her background
.
made her feel ashamed of her background '
.
, (
) (
):
X
- Y (Z)
Y (Z), X .
,
, ,
() (),
make feJ ( )
:
A. made me feel miserable/happy '
/.
B. ? made me feel cold/hot '?
/.
, ,
, . ,
:
You make me fee1special ' .
makes me feel stupid ' .
You make me feel sick '- (. . ).
:
- .
,
.
,
,
: , making som eone feel som ething -
making them think something.
, make feel,
The whisky m ade me feel sick '
, .
, , .
make feel:
N P^um an m ade NP2HuiIi;,n V erbFct.| [C om plem ent]
Person X made person Yfeel something (Z). =
(a) X
(b) - Y
(c) - Y (Z)
(d) Y (Z), X .

, , make-feel
, , -,
.
:
1. ...she pictured to herself (...) how she would gather about her other
little children, and make their eyes bright and eager with many a strange ta
le... ' , ...
...
2. The Queens argument was that if something wasnt done about it in
less than no time, shed have everybody executed, all round. (It was this
last remark that had made the whole party look so grave and anxious)
' , ,
, . (

.).
,
- , , ,

( ,
). ,

, , ,
- (-
,
).

4.4. m ake-think (m aking someone think something)

make-feel make-
think,
, :
You made me realize that Z ' () , Z.
made her forget her troubles ' .
She made him think of other matters (other people) '
( ).
made me see that I was on the wrong path '
, .
,
.
, Z:
, ,
. . :
Person X made person Y think something (Z). =
(a) X
(b) - Y
(c) Y (Z), X .
,
make-think
, (, it m ade me think of
other matters vs. she made me think of other matters).

/.

4.5. make-want (making someone want something)


, -
- , -
. , : You m ade m e w ant to try again
' () !.
,
feel think,
,
.
,
, , , make know ' ,
- he m ade me know this '
, , ,
, :
Maria mi ha iatto sapere questo.
' .
(, - let know ;
, make know).
,
want (, Z ,
. Wierzbicka 1996):
Person X made person Y want something (Z). =
(a) X
(b) - Y
(c) - Y Z
(d) Y (Z), X .
, , ,
, make feel,
, , ,
,
, , ,
. , , ,
-
, , , You made me want
to be good ' () .
'Y Z.
, , make-
want , it made
me want to try again ' .

4 .6 . M a k in g so m eo n e cry
( )

() - .
A. John made Mary cry ' .
B. Mary made Jo h n laugh ' .
,
,
. ,
, :
Person X made person Y cry/laugh. =
(a) X
(b) - Y
(c) - Y
(d) - Y (Z)
(e) Y Z , Y
(f) Y , X .
, ,
, :
I make her cry by saying: Dont ask about the attic fan: do it
the way you want it. With the implication, of course, that I w ont be here
' , :
, , . ,
, .
, ,
, , ( ),
- ,
, -
, , ,
-, . ,
, because
' , :
A. X made Y cry by saying Z ' Z, X Y- .
B. X said Z; because of this, Y cried 'X Z; - Y .
A -
, Y : , Y-a
- (
), Y ,
-. .
, ,
make-cry,
, ,

, :
John made sneeze by putting smelling sait u nder her nose
, .
, , ,
.
make-sneeze
make-happen,
.
, , , ( )
-, , -, :
Al! she did was cry ' , .
?11 she did was ,? , .
, making somebody sneeze
making somebody fall. mak
ing somebody cry ,
, ( ),
, . ,
sneeze ' ,
cry laugh ' -.
-, ,
,
.
, -,
(
) , -, make-cry
,
, , ()

,
( make-cry).

4.7. M a k i n g s o m e o n e d o s o m e th in g ( m a k e )
1. When we were small Mai used to make us kneel on graters for a thing
like that ' ,
(Naipaul 1969: 236).
2. ... (...) made her learn the quotations hanging on the wails, and
made her sit still while he unsuccessfully tried to sketch her. She was
dispirited and submissive '... (...) ,
, ,
. (Naipaul 1969: 222).
3. Granny is making me eat fish. I hate it '
. (Naipaul 1969: 186).
, - (made)
- , , - ,
, - .
:
Person X made person do Z. =
(a) X , Y Z
(b) Y
(c) X , , X Y-y, Y
(d) - X () Y-y
() - Y :
(i) - Y Z
(g) Y Z ( ), Y .
, ,
(
),
, , ,
,
.
, , ( ):
was tired; she made him rest. He was hungry; she gave him food.
He had nowhere to go: she welcomed him ' ;
. ; .
; (Naipaul 1969: 484).
, ,
, .
, , ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
. -,
( , ): ,
, , , .
,
, - (
) . ,
() - , (,
) , ()
- , .
() - ,
- - :
?She made me apologize by pointing out that Harry had already done so
,? , , .
?She made me wash the dishes by complaining about her headache
,? , .
,
? , ,
?
,
('Y , ),
(
), ,
. , -, ,
, ,
, :
wife made me go to the doctor. I was planning to go anyway, but I
kept putting it off, so she rang and made an appointment for me
. ,
, .
Y Z
.
, ,
: ,
, , ,
- : ,
, , ,
: .
(Y
Z, X ),
, .
,
, (Y ,
Y : ),
, ,
, .
,
,
( X made Y apologize 'X
Y-a ), ,
( X made Y cry 'X Y-a ).
, John made cry '
, , ,
- , . ,
, made John apologize '
, , ,
, ( ,
, - ).
(
, - ),

, . . ' .

4.8 . M ake
Mutatis m utandis, , ,
,
make , , The rain
made him go inside ' .
,
() ,
( - ).
Something (X) made person Y do Z. =
(a) Y
(b ) (X) (, )
(c) - Y : -
(d) - Y Z ( )
(e) Y Z ( ), X .
: The arrival of the
police m ade m e ru n for my life '
, . ,
(). . -
: ; . ,
, .
, (makes)
- , ,
, ( ,
, ,
, ). ,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
:
T h e b u sh fires in V ictoria m ade them w ork all n ig h t e d itin g th e footage
'
.
,
, :
The bush lives in Victoria kepi them working all night '
.
()
() , ,
. , -

, :
A. The d eath o f his father m ade him reassess his plans
(think , realize , re-evaluate, decide , etc.)

, , ,
. .
B. ?T he d eath o f his father m ade him resign from his job '
.
,
( 4.1) make-think
, (makes) -
( . .). ,
make-do
: ,
, , (makes) - -
, ( )
( ,
). :
A. resigned from his jo b because his lath er died ' ,

B. ?T h e d ea th o f his fath er m ade him resign from his jo b '

-
, ,
, .
, make-
do .
, , (makes)
, - , -
, , -
, :
Rupert Murdoch was annoyed. Not with expansion of (...) Not with de
velopment of (...) What made him reach for the phone at around midday
Sydney time on September 5 were four paragraphs on page 2 of The Daily
Telegraphs business Section... (The Australian Magazine. December
1415,1996, p. 11) ' .
(...). (...). 5
. 2
.
, -
:
- ,
. 'Y :
- ;
,
, , ,
- ' - . ,
, , ,
: , - , ,
, , ,
(- ).
, ,
,
make :
, : ' ( ' -
). : make
'
,
, ,
' - , ,
.
() , ,
- ,
, :
...a sharp hiss made her draw back in a hurry: a large pigeon had flown
into her face '... :
.
...a little sharp bark just over her head made her look up in a great
hurry '...
( ).
, , ,
, .
, , ,
, ,
: - () .

4.9. M ake vs. fo rc e


make, ,
force ' .
, , making som eone apologize forc
ing someone to apologize?
, make force ,
,
. , forcing ,
, ,
force ,
make, ,
('Y
) make .
, , force
, faire:
Person X forced person Y to do Z (, to apologize ''). =
(a) X , Y Z
(b) X , Y
(c) X , , X Y-y
Y-y Z
(d) - X Y-y
(e) - Y-y Z
() - Y Z
(g) Y Z, X Y-y
(h) Y Z, Y :
,
force ( ),
:
A. The rain made Mary go inside '
.
B. The rain forced Mary go inside '
.
Mutatis mutandis, ,
. , ,
, : ,
:
. , ,
, ,
, ,
: . ,
, ,
, ,
, ' ,
' .

4.10. ,

, ( )
-,
, making-
som ething-happen-to-som eone: ,
m ade me fall over ' - , It m ade me fall
over ' - , it ,
, ,
- ,
. ,
,
( 1),
( 2):
1. T h e box falling off the shelf hit my head and m ade m e fall off the
lad d er '
.
2. T h e sudden drop o f the sugar level in h er blood m ad e h e r faint '
.

- (
) - , . -,
,
(). ,
:
Something (X) made Z happen to person Y. =
(a) (X) Y
(b) - (Z)
(c) Z Y-
X.
,
(, You made fall '-
), ,
( )
. ,
, ,
. ,
(made) , ,
( , trip
over ', ,
, ). ,
, ,
; , ,
;
.

. ,
, , ,
.

4.11. I f I do something, it will make me VERB ADJ


' ,
, make-happen
-
,
, Spinach will make you grow big and strong '
,
, ,
.

, ()
,
. :
1. I do hope itll make me glow large again, for really Im quite tired of
being such a tiny little thing ', ,
.
2. ...if it makes me gl ow larger, I can reach the key; and if it makes me
glow smaller, 1 can creep under the door: so either way I ll get into the
garden, and I dont care which happens! ...
, , ,
: , , !.
, ,
- ,
.
, make-happen

? , :

?
, ,
;
, , It made
me fall? , . ,

, ( ;
),
It made me lall
, ,
, , .

, make-happen,
:
(a) (X) ( ? Y?)
(b) - (Z) Y
(c) Z Y-, X.
, , ,
()
,
- , ,
. ' -
Y',
. , '
Y ', ,
, It m ade m e fall.
,
,
'
It m ade m e fall Y
.
,
:
, .
,
( ) :
(a) Y X (, )
(b) - (Z)
(c) Z Y-, Y .
(X), , ,
, ,
,
, ),

, do-happen
:
,
. ,
, , :
A. Spinach will m ake you grow big and strong! '

B. ?Spinach will m ake you grow! ,? .
,
grow taller ' grow
smaller ' , grow ' .
, -, ,
,
do-happen ,
: Spinach will m ake you big and strong! ' -
!

:
NP Non-human IMde NP Human ADJ.
( ):
1. They looked so good, that it made Alice quite hungry to look at them
' ,
[. ..., ,
].
2. Maybe its always pepper that makes people hot-tempered (...), and
vinegar that makes them sourand camomile that makes them bitter
andbarley sugar and such things that make children sweet-tempered
', (...),
, [. ]...
... .
, ,
, ( 1) (
2), . , 2
, ,
.
, -, ,
make grow big and strong
make big and strong :
NP Non-human made NP Human (VERB) ADJ,
, -, ,
, ( ) . ,

, -, (d):
Something (X) made person Y be like this [ADJ], =
(a) Y X
(b) - (Z)
(c) Z Y-, Y
(d) Y [].

4.12.

,
, (
Chappell 1978):
A. The storm made all the flowers fall '- .
B. The wind made the door blow open '- .
C. The tremor made the tower collapse '-
.
,
:
NP Non-human made NP Non-human VERBHappen.
,
.
,
,
:
(a) (X)
(b) - (Z)
- (Y)
(c) Z Y-, X.
,

. , :
A. The wind made the door blow open '- .
B. The wind made the door blow shut '- .
,
, , -, ,
,
make , , ,
.
,
. :
?
, ,
, : -
- , ,
, ; -
, (
).
. ,
,
8 .
: The recent rains have made everything bloom
- .
,
,
, , , ,
:
.
:
Something (X) made something (Z) happen to a place. =
(a) (X)
(b) - (Z)
- (Y)
(c) Z Y-,
X
(d) , , ,
.
,
,
, - -
, -
( The recent
rains have made everything bloom).
,

(' ,
, , ).
-,
, , , ,
.
, - ,
.

4.13.
making something happen to various things

(break) ,
(make it break); (open),
, ,
(make it open):
1. A. John opened the door ' '.
. John made the library door open by standing in front of it and
thus activating the photo-mechanism '
, ,
.
? ?
, ,
: ,
, -
, ,
- :
X Y
- Y-om
- Y Z.
make ( ) ,
, .
( ,
(makes) , )
( , (makes)
, ). ,
-
, ,
, . :
Person X made Z happen to thing Y {, open '', go off '
').
(a) X
(b) - (Z) Y
(c) Z Y-, X
(d) X Y-om
(e) - , Z Y-om.

, , -
- , - (
), ,
.
:
?John made the dish break (by placing it on a hotplate) ,?
( ).
,
, ; ,
, ,
, ,
, .
, viake
, :
,
, ,
(made) .

,
,
(make it open), , ,
,
, .

5. :

,
,

:
,
. . ,
,
, ,
,
. , , ,
,
, , ,
(, ,
, ).

.
, , ,
( ). (Evans
1986) , -
, .
, ,
,
: , have,
get, let . .
,
, ,
, .
,

, ,
,
,
(Bally 1920).
,
: ,
, ,
,
. , ,
,
, , ,
, , ,
,
, , ,
, .
(. Wierzbicka 1988, 1992, 1995)
, ,
,
,
, (
,
), ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
.
,
,
, -, ,
-,
.
( ) .
,
, Syntax: An International Handbook of Contemporary Research,
(Saeb0 1993: 935-6) :
I. The band caused Max to leave the concert '
(. . ,
, ).
2. The guard forced Max to leave the concert '
.

,
:
,
force , force
(the hand!guard ), . . ()

.
,
,
,
(. . 219).

, , ,
,
. (. 936):
(iii) [ () () () <-
( ()) ()]
(iv) X [ () () ()
( ()) () ()()]
,
cause force , force
(the band/guard )?
2,
, , ,
- . -
- ? 1,
? ,
2 the guard ,
,
( )?

,
, , ,
. ,
,
, :
3. A. The guard caused Max to die ' .
. ?The guard forced Max to die ,?
.
4. A. The noise caused the chrystal chandelier to shatter '
.
. ?The noise forced the chrystal chandelier to shatter 1?
.

, ,


.
, to ,
toforce, to make, to get, to let . .,
(,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, . .).
, ,
,
.
, -
.
, ( )
(Goddard (ed.) 1997). ,
(Goddard (ed.) 1997),
,
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
; ,
, ,
.
. , ,
,

,
.
,
, -

. , ,
,
,

. ,
,
, . ,
, ,
,
, .

1 ,

. ,

.

. . (.). 1969. . :
.
Bally Charles. 1920. Impressionisme et grammaire. In: Mlanges 1920:261279.
Brodkey Harold. 1996. This Wild Darkness: the Story of My Death. ,\llen and Unwin.
Bugenhagen Robert D. 1994. The exponents of semantic primitives in Mangap-Mbula.
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Chappell Hilary M. 1978. Semantics of some causatives in Chinese and English. B. A.
honours thesis, Australian National University.
Comrie Bernard. 1974. Causatives in universal grammar. Philological Society. Trans
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Comrie Bernard. 1985. Causative verb formation and other verb-deriving morpholo
gy. In: Tim Shopen, (ed.). 1985. Language typology and syntactic description. Vol. 8:
309348, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Evans Nicholas. 1986. The unimportance of CAUSE in KayardiJd. Language in Abo
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Giv&n T. 975. Cause and control: on the semantics of interpersonal manipula
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Goddard Cliff and Anna Wie.rzhicka (eds.). 1994. Semantic and lexical universals: theo
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:
-





, , ,
, ,
,
, !
.
, ,
, .
,
,

. , ,
-

, .



,
. ,
.
,
.
,
,
. , . , -
. ,
, () .
( )
.

:


, ,
.
(), , . .
( ) ,
adagio adagio '-, ,
adagio, adagio, .1
, ,
,
, , ,
, adagio adagio, adagino adagino ( -in----
)2.

very ('). ,
, ,
:
bella bella very beautiful (' )
duro duro very hard (' )
zitto zitto very quiet(ly) (' /)
adagio adagio very slowly (' )
in fretta in fretta very hurriedly (' ).

, very
. , neri neri ('-), ,
very black (' ).
:
Due occhi, neri neri anchessi, si fissavano tallora in viso alle persone, con
uninvestigazione sup erb a (Manzoni 1972: 235).
' , - ,
, .
(
):
Sometimes she would fix two very dark eyes on anothers face with a
piercing look of haughty investigation... (Bohn 1914: 154).
pair of eyes black, too would sometimes fasten on peoples
faces with an air of haughty curiosity... (Colqhoun 1968: 116).
very,
('') dark (');
neri neri jet ( ).
,
,

, :
(1) ...se no, iascio le mie scuse me ne vo diritto diritto a casa mia (Man-
zoni 1972: 578).
'... , - .
... if not, Ill leave my excuses and go straight off back home (Colqhoun
1968:323).
(2) Di grazia, (...) un po di luogo, un pochino; appena appena da poter
passare (Manzoni 1972: 344).
', (...) , ; - (,
-.) .
...Please, gentlemen, (...) a little room, just a very littlejust enough to
let us pass (Colqhoun 1968: 183).
(3) Si rimaneva li in ginocchio, ancora per qualche momento, quasi quasi
gli chiedevo scusa io, che mabbia ammazzato il ifatello (Manzoni 1972: 119).
,
(, - ) ,
.
If hed stayed on his knees a moment longer, I d almost have got to the
point of asking his forgiveness myself, for having killed my brother for me
(Colqhoun 1968: 52).
(4) ,..e che mi faccia la carita di venir da noi poverette suhito subito
(Manzoni 1972: 119).
\.. , ,
- (, -).
...and would he do us poor folk the kindness of coming to us straight
away... (Colqhoun 1968: 52).
, ,
,
very moho. ,
bella bella 'very beautiful (' ) leggera
leggera 'very light ( ), ,
, . .
. , ,
subito subito, quasi quasi, appena appena diritto diritto
, very at once (
), very almost ( ), 'very barely ('very just) (
), 'very straight ( ) (Til go straight home '
). , ,
(
).
(raddoppia-
mento) '* (lintensificazio-
). , (Lepschy and Lepschy 1984: 103)
: 'L'intensificazione. di un aggettivo si puo ottenere, oltre che com
binndolo con un avverbio, anche attraverso la ripetione: una stanza molto pic-
cola piccola piccola [The intensification of an adjective can also be achiev-
ed, in addition to combining it with an adverb, by rptition: a very small
room, or 'small small / ' ,
:
-].
, ,
, molto.
molto subito ' , molto piccola '
, subito subito, piccola piccola.
, ,
,
, .
,
,
, , - (
,
, . .).
, , 3
, bella bella subito subito
,
(-
, , very),
, .
,
, ,
.
,
,
.


(Wierzbicka 1986) ,
- (tag-questions) (
, )
:
(5) Mary is Irish, isnt she? (' , ?)
. X (Mary is Irish)
. ,
. , ,
. , ,
. , , .

, , -
,
.
, , ,
, .
,
,
, . ,
,
(
,

-
; . Wierzbicka 1972, 1980).
,
, :
salvo
sensu, salva elegantia salva naturalit orationis (. e.
, , ).


:
(. Hymes
1962). .
,
.
. ,
.
,
;
,
, ,
.
, , ,
,
. , - :
Come in, come in! (', !)
Run, rabbit, run! (', , !)
-:
kaere, kaere! (', !)
- :
Parla, parla! (', !)
Scappa, scappa! (, !).
, ,
(clausal repetition)*,
, -

* , clause,
, . . ,
. ,
() , .

. (. . ) ,
., .
(,
),
. , :
All right. All right. ('. .)
Mary] ] ('! !),
, ,
:
All right, ail light. (', .)
Mary, . (', .).
, -

, .
, ,
-
( )
, ,
. , ,
:
(6) Bene, bene, pavleremo! (Manzoni 1972: 131).
(', , !)
Very well, well have o u r talk! (Colqhoun 1968: 39).
(' , !)
(7) Parla, parla! (Manzoni 1972: 160).
(', !)
Go on, speak out! (Colqhoun 1968).
(', !)
(8) Vedr, vedr! (Manzoni 1972: 287).
(' , !)
'H e ll see h e ll ju st see (C olqhoun 1968: 148).
(' , )
(9) Era indietro, indietro (Manzoni 1972: 134).
( , )
'B ehind-hand, very m uch b e h in d -h an d (C olqhoun 1968: 60).
(' , )
(10) Ma senta, ma senta! (Manzoni 1972: 90).
( , !)
'B u t listen, do listen! (C olqhoun 1968: 36).
(' , !)
(11) ascolti, ascolti, ascolti! (Manzoni 1972: 34).
(' , , !)
'Listen, listen! (Colqhoun 1968: 61).
(', !).
,
, ,
(
, , ); ,
-, ,

, .
,


. , ,
,
,
(
).
,
, :
presto, presto presto presto
',
adagio, adagio adagio adagio
', .

,
,
(directive),
. ,
:
Corne in, in! (', !)
Stop it, stop it! (', !)
Wait, wait! (', !)
Look, look! (', !)
Quickly, quickly! (', !),
, ,
: , .
:
Look after yourself, look after yourself! (' , !)
Write to us, write to us! ( , !)
, :
Do write to us! (' !)
You must write to us! (' !)
Dont forget to write to us! ('He !),

Write, write! (', !)
: '
.
, , ,
,
. , all right
('')
; all right, all right (', ) ,
('
; , ; ,
).

,
, .
(' , X),
- (' ,
X ). ,
In prigione, in prigione! (Manzoni 1972: 374)
(' , !)
In una grotta, in una grotta, lontano da costoro (Manzoni 1972: 353)
(' , , )
, ;
,
,
:
prison, yes, to prison! (Colqhoun 1968: 184).
(' , , !)
A cave, a cave for me! Far from all this rabble! (Colqhoun 1968: 188).
(', ! !).
,
.

, ,
( ); :
(12) Ben arrivato, ben arrivato.
'Welcome, welcome.
(' , .)
(13) Ben trovati.
'Well met.
(' .)
(14) Avete fatto buon viaggio?
'Have you had a good journey?
(' ?)
(15) Bonissimo; e voi altri, come state?
'Excellent. And how are you all?
('. ?)
(16) Bene, bene (Manzoni 1972: 407).
'Fine, fine (Colqhoun 1968: 223).
(', ).
, '
, ', ,

' ?
,
. X!,
,
, ; X, X!,
, , (
)4. , - :
Thank you ',
;
, , ,
.
;
Thank you, thank you , ,
, ,
. ,
( , ,
.) , ,
, , ,
;
, 5.
,
(, ' ,
),
, , :
, , ,
.
, :
(17) Welcome, welcome! ' , !
. : (. . ,
)
. ,
. ,
,
. ,
(18) Thank you, thank you. ', .
. :
. ,
. ,
,
. ,
(19) Come in, come in
. : ,
. ,

. ,
, ( ,
?)
. , .
, ' ,
, .

.


, adagio, adagio ',
, , adagio
adagio?

, , molto ?
. ,
{adagio, adagio adagio adagio)
, .

:
, , ,
- .
, ,
: , .
- neri , ,

; , ;
. subito
subito, , , ,
, -
; , ,
, . '
, , , ,
.
, , , ,
.
'
.
(, ),
(, ' ,
),
(' ,
, ).
, -, .
,
, ,
.
,
molto ',
, molto
, .
, , - molto bella ( ) molto
gentile (' ), , , ,
( ), , ,
( ). ,
, , ' X
. *molto quasi ' ,
*piii quasi .
,
, , , .
('XX),
('
X, - , X). ,
proprio
', ( proprio bianca '
-), .
, ,

, leggero adagio ', -
(' , ' ).

. ,
,

. , adagio adagio -
' adagio ' ;
adagio, ,
,
. '
,
.
.
,
, molto ' .
( ),
, Un borghese piccolo piccolo '
- .
,
. , piccolo piccolo
' , '
, .
,
.
(bella bella '--
) (niolto bella ' )
, ,
, . ,
(Lepschy and Lepschy 1984: 103) : Con i nonti
l'intensificazione (o meglio unidentificanone delta qualit autentica) si pud ottenere
anche col raddoppiamente: caffe caffe, caff vero e non surrogato [
, (, ,
) :
, ]6.
, (
), , . ,
() (

), .
. ,
, ,
. , ,
caffe caff ,
piccola pierda, ,
, , , subito subito
' quasi quasi ' .
,

. , , bella
bella, , molto bella ' ,
, , ,
' , .
, ,
(20) a. Venga subito subito
'Come at once at once ( -.)
'. Come straight away. (' .)
". Come at once literally at once. ('
.),
,
, ' ".
, ,
1 6. ,
, '
', bianco ', piccolo '' fisso ',
,
. ,
, neri neri, duro duro,

. ,

, , , duro duro
'-, pesanti pesanti '-.
, ,
,
, fisso
fisso ' .
,
, ,
. , ,
leggera leggera ' , ' .
.
,
. (, -
)
,
( , ?).
, , ' ,
: ? ?
? . , ,
, , ,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
:
(21) neri neri ' .
ricco ricco ' .
. : X ( ; )
. , , , -
, ,
,
. , ,
, -,
,
. ,
(22) , subito subito '-
. : X ( , )
. , , -
, ,
,
. , ,
, -,
,
. ,
(23) Cafif cae '
. : X
. , , -
, ,
,
. , ,
, -,
, 7.
, molto ',
,
(. Wierzbicka 1972: 86):
(24) molto ricco.
'
. : X ()
. , 'X', X,
, X.
('
, ) ,
, ,
m olto very ,
:
Objectively speaking, she is very beautiful. ' ,
.
?ObjectiveIy speaking, she is gorgeous. ' ,
.
Objectively speaking, she is most attractive. ' ,
.
(. , 9.)

(Bolinger 1972: 90) ,


,
, very (') extremely (').
, , (,
, ):
That is very, very interesting. (' , .)
They were quit e, quite willing to accept. (' ,
.)
She's a tiny, tiny baby. (' , .)
It was a big, big bear. (' , .)
He's a w o n d e r f u l, wonderful person. (' ,
.)
I carefully, a r e f I ly put it down. (' ,
.).
,
( ).
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , , :
in, come in. (', ')
Thank you, thank you. (', )
Fine, fine. (', ).

(, , ).
.
,
. , .
, ,
, .
( )
.
-,
, :
(25) a. Thats v e r y , very interesting. (' , .)
b. Thats very interesting; I say: very (is the right word here). ('
, : ( ).)
(26) . I c a r e f u l l y , carefully put it down. (' ,
.)
b. I carefully put it down; mark the word: carefully. ('
; : .)
, , neri neri,
( ,
^ black).
-,
, , - ( very quite),
, .

:
?She was a small, small baby. (' ,
.)8
?Itwas a large, large bear. (' , .)
*?Hes an intelligent, intelligent person. (' , .)
neri neri in fretta in fretta ,
.
-,
, .
-:
?I almost, almost apologized to him. (' ,
.)
?Make just, ju st enough room for us to be able to pass. ('
, , .)
,
,
,
, (
) .


( ).
,
, , .
, ,
, , , ,
,
(., Moravcsik 1978).
-
(., , Hayakawa 1985; Wilkins 1984; .
, ).

, , -
, .


, ,
,

raddoppiamento.
superlativo assoluto .
, devotissimo ',
bianchissimo ' , velocissimo ' .
, superlativo assoluto
.
, (
) , . . ,
superlativo relativo:
comparativo superlativo rebtivo superlativo assoluto
bello piu bello il piu bello bellissimo
(Fochi 1966:
168): quando, per esempio, diciamo che Giulio e generosissimo" (superlativo asso-
luto) non considenamo quanto siano generosi, ni suo confronto, Tizio, e via di-
cendo: osserviamo tale qualita in Lui solo, e ci basta affermare che egli la possiede in
grado molto alto [, , ,
( ), ,
, . .
,
, ).

, ,
(., ,
Focchi 1966: 168; Kaczicski 1964: 106). (
)
. -,
, , molto ', ,
. , , subitissimo,
subito subito '- . -,
.
;
.
, bevanda agrissima '
/ (Fochi 1966: 170)
mela asprissima ' / ,
: , ,
, . ,

,
. , carissimo '
;
.9 , , illustris-
simo, obbligatissimo '' , illustre
illustre obbligato obbligato .
.
,


, ; ,
obbligato obbligato illustre illustre, ,
.
,
:
(27) 5 gentlllssv '
1$ ' '
. : X
. , X, ,

. ,
. , ,
, , ,
,
most kind ' , most generous '
, most helpful ' , most unpleas
ant ' . , ,
.
, - most kind '
, - most white ' most
Jong ' ( ).
, lunghissimo fnanchissimo, .
,
most Adj.
,
(good bad '').
, ,
:
was most helpful. ? is most good-looking.
(' (,? .)
.)
It was most kind of you. ?She is most beautiful.
( (,?
.) .)
She is most attractive. ??She is most healthy.
( (,??
.) .)
I am most grateful. ? was most pleased.
( ''
.) .)
She has a m ost attractive "She has most regular features.
personality. ('??
(' .)
.)
It was most effective. Pit was most elegant.
(' (,?
.) .)
It was a m ost g en erous offer.
('
.)
It was m ost d isappointing.
('
.)
It was m ost frig h ten ing.
(
.)
It was m ost ingenious. ?? is most modest.
(' (,??
.) .)

, ,
most Adj. ,
.
most. ,
, kind , generous ',
helpful ' (. Dixon 1977), 10
,
,
.
, , ,
:

It was most kind of you. John is most kind.


(' - ('
(, ) .)
.)
9.
was most generous (to us, in Mary is most generous.
his dealing with us). ('
(' /.)
, (
).')
was most unpleasant (to us). Max is most unpleasant.
(' ('
.) ,)


, ,
, (Bolinger 1980) the
ergative of ' (it was Adj. of you/him ' . -
/ ),
, .
, , most attractive ('
), , ,

. ,
, , .
, beautiful (', ), attractive
('), good-looking (', ),
: -
, .
, most grateful (' )
, most pleased ('
), -, - , grateful (')

, pleased '
.
,
,
, , .
, : ,
,
. ,
A She is most beautiful. (' (= ) ,)
. gave me a most beautiful necklace. ('
)
, , -, - ,

().
(Quirk et al. 1974: 287), ,
She is most beautiful. (' (= ) .).
, , ,
. most beautiful ('
) , extremely beautiful ('
), , ,
, ,
. , ,
most beautiful ,
. , , most
extremely (', , ). ,

( ).
, ,

. :
Mary is the most attractive girl in her class.
(' ),
,
,
. , :
Mary is most attractive. (' .),

, , ,
(' , ,
), ,
(' - )11.
,
, ,
,
, . -est most X, ,
( ), , a X-issi-
, , ' X, .
,
, -

, . ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, , .
, ,
.
.
, 1 ' '
, ' ,
,
.
, ,
,
12.
:

You are most generous. -


' (. . - , , -
/. , . .).
I am most grateful.
' .
She is most attractive.
'
.
nuovissimo (velocissimo, ,
bianchissimo, etc.). (. . ,
' . .).
(, . .).

:
(28) / .
. : X.
(. , X, X,
13
. ,
". , .
(33) It is most ingenious/unpleasant.
hh. : X.
ii. , X, /,

jj. -
kk. - .



,
. , ,

, ,
, ,
; , ,

(. Wierzbicka 1985b; .
Brown and Levinson 1978).
(understatement)
(. Huebler 1984) , ,
.
,
,
. , - ,
rather horrible ' ,
pretty auiful ' , fairly
enthusiastic '
, ,

(. Wierzbicka 1985b). ,
, abbastanm orribile ' piuttosto oirendo
' , .
,
. -
, ,
,
.
, .
, ,
, ,
. ,
-
(lin
guistic diversification). , ,
,
(., , Abrahams 1970,
1974; Kochman 1972; Mitchell-Kernan 1971, 1972).
,
, (. Wierzbic-
ka 1986).
, -
,

, , .
,
.
, most kind (' ) most inge
nious (' ), (Jespersen 1965
[1931]: 395) .
(Leech 1983: 147)
.
,
.

, ,

.


. , ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
, , ,
duro duro
, , most inge
nious belUssima.

' X, .
, , ,
. ,
, ' ,
', ,
, .

. , , ,
. , ,
,
( ,
). , ,
, , bella bella
, bellissima,
, 'rather pretty (' ). ,
(. Leech 1983: 148):
Shes rather pretty. ' .
Were rather proud of it. ' .
Actually, Im rather good at it. '
,
very pretty (' ), very
proud (' ) very good (' )
(' , pretty,
proud, good). ,
, (' ,
, X -, , X).

.14
, bellissima velocissimo,
, ,
, ('
, X). , ,
, violto very.
, , : ,
.
, bella bella, ',
, , , ' ,
. ( ) -
, rather pretty ('
). , bella bella,
; , rather
pretty, .
i,
, , ,
.
, rather pretty, i,
, ,
.
,
, , ,
,
, (. Jespersen 1965
[1931]: 395; Sapir 1949: 145; Leech 1983: 145; Brown and Levinson 1978:
224). , , ,
,
, -,
,
.
, ,
bellissima bella bella, , ,
, -
. (. Wierzbicka 1985b),
(
, ) ,
, ,
. ,
,

.15 ,
, ,
, , , ,
.
, , ,
,
, , , ,
, ,
, ,
16. ,
; ,
,
( ). ,
,
,
, bella bella. ? ,
,
(Leech 1983: 146) ,
, ?

? .




, .
,
(. Wierzbicka 1985b,
1986): , ,
,
.
- ,
, Spachgeist, * (., ,
Humboldt 19031918; Vossler 1904, 1925; Spitzer 1928).

,
(,
), Volkgeist.

(. Hymes 1961).
--
(, . Pride 1985).
,
-
, .
,
, - ,
,
,
, ,
, -
, ,
,
.
,
-
.

. ,
,
(
) .
, ,

( ), ,
.
,
,
. ,
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
. ,

.
,

.
, ,

, ,
.

1 ,
, . -
,
.
2 (Grandgent 1908: 32) ,
, :
: ,
malum malum (...); bene bene, bonis bonis, fortis fortis, malus malus, . .
3 ,
. Linguistics,
(. Triandaphyllidis
1975: 653).
4 , ,
:
Mary, Mary. What are we going to do with you? (', ,
?).
,
.
:
: Pompidou, Pompidou, how many kids will die for you? (', -
, ?).
: Daisy, Daisy, give me your answer do. (, , .).
: Mary, Mary, quite contrary. How does your garden grow? (, ,
. ?).
5 , thank you, thank you,
. ,
: ', , .
- ,
( ).
6
, brodo brodo , . .
, lana lana ' , . . .
7 ,
, , , caff caff ( ).
8 , :
Its a small, small world. ( , . , ).
, , small, small world ,
small, small baby, ,
-
.
9 , caro, , dear, dear :
I want to meet a dear, dear friend of mine. ,
.
caro .
10 , ,
. ,
This sounds most natural in the sentences...
(' ...)
most natural (' )
, .
11 (Quirk et al. 1974: 287] , most, -,
, ,
, : (...)
She is most unhappy. (' .)
*She is most tall. ('* .).
, ,
. , , ,
,
(
, ).
, , ,
unhappy () sad () unhappy happy ().
She is most unhappy .
?She is most angry. ,? .
*She is most happy. * .
,
,
. , ,
- ; ,
, ;
, , -,
.
12 - , ,
, -est,
. ,
.
deepest sympathy. " .
With best wishes... ' ...
With warmest regards. .. ' (= ) ...
13 , tie ,
, :
: X, .
: X.
14 :
I dont want to boast, but... (' , ...')
I shouldnt be saying this, but... ( , ...).
15 , ,
Hes a wonderful, wonderful person. (' , .)
Hes terribly, terribly sweet. (' , .)
Hes a dear, dear man. (' , .')
Youre too kind. (Youre too, too kind.) (' () )
She gave me the most beautiful ring. ('
.)
, ,
, , . .,. . ,
, ,
. .
16 , ,
(. Melcuk, ).
,
, (, ,
,
, , ;
). , ,
, ,
( -, -, -).
, ,
:
, - ,
! ( 1976: 167).
'But you cant consider me as a child, a little girl, after that silly joke! (Garnett
1974: 186).
, , - ... (
1976: 178).
'I thought he was so learned, such a savant, and all of a sudden he behaved so
warmly ...' (Garnett 1974: 198).
- , , -
. ( 1976: 195).
'She was evidendy ashamed of something, and, as people always do in such cases,
she began immediatelly talking of other thing ... (Garnett 1974: 217).


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T

I
1.

1.

Vocabularies of Public Life (Wuthnow 1992)


: ,
, - ,
.
, , :
, , ,
,
, (2).
.
,
,
, [ ] ,
(2). ,
,
,
, .
,
, ,
. .
,
,
: -, ,
[]
(Sapir 1949: 162); -, ,
(27); , -,
,
(166).

2.

, . -
.
, , . ,
, , , ,
(bigos), (barszcz)
{powidta), ;
,
( ) (mnrmalade),
, ,
(sake). ,
, .

( , )
, , .
,
, -
. , ,
Bruderschaft ', ',
- (Harraps Germon and English dictw-
nary) ( )
' - (
') ((to drink) the pledge of 'brothei hood with someone (subsequently
addressing each other as 'du)). ,
,
/-
(thou) ()

.
, ,
, ,
-
( ) (to exchan
ge triple kiss (as Easter salutation)), , ,
, ,

.
, ,
,
, ,
.

() () , -
,
(Nabokov 1961).
:
The Russian language is able to express by means one pitiless word the idea of a
certain widespread defect for which the other three European languages l happen to
know possess no special term. [
,
] (64).
English words expressing several, although by no means all, aspects oiposhlust [sic]
are for instance: cheap, sham, common, smutty, pink-and-blue, high falutin, in bad
taste [, , ,
cheap, sham, common, smutty, pink-and-blue, high falutin, in
bad taste] (64).
, ,
, , - , ,
,
; -,
, :
All these however suggest merely certain false values for the detection of which no
particular shrewdness is required. In fact, they tend, these words to supply an obvious
classification of values at a given period of human history; but what Russians call
poshlust is beautifully timeless and so cleverly painted all over with protective tints that
its presence (in a book, in a soul, in an institution, in a thousand other places) often
escapes detection [ ,
. ,
, ,
; , ,

, ( , ,
)] (64).
, , (
) , ,

; ,
,
, .
- (Oxford Russian-English
dictionary) ; 1. vulgar, common;
2. commonplace, trivial, trite, banal [1. , ;
2. , , , ], -
, ,
: , , ,
, (), , ,
, .
,
,
,

,
,
, .
(, -
vuJgar person, common person [ ,
], -, ,

, , , .)
,
, ,
(' ) (' ),
,
. : Ever since Russia began to
think, and up to time that her mind went blank under the influence of the
extraordinary regime she has been enduring for these last twenty-five
years, educated, sensitive and free-minded Russians were acutely aware of
the furtive and clammy touch i poshlust' [ ,
, ,
, ,
,
, ] (64)J.

,
,
, ( '
), ( ,
,
); (
, ), ( ,
), (' ,
; . Wierzbicka 1992b)
, , :
.
, , .
( 1986: 91).


,
,

(. Wierzbicka 1992b).
, , ,
,
, ,
.
,

( )
.
.
,
( , ,
),
,
( ),
.
, (Locke 1959
[1690]):

: , ,
. ,

,
. ,
, ,
[sc ] . ,
,
, ; , ,
; versura
corban ;
. ,
, ,
,
... ,
, ,
... , ,

. ,
; ,
, ,
(27).
:
. ,
, ,
, , ,
, .

, , .
(27).

3. , ?
- , ,

, ,
. , miai (
miai), miai ( miai,
). ,
(Ishiguro 1986) , ,
, miai ; ,
, ,
mai ( ).
, miai
,
.
Mutatis mutandis, . ,
, ,

, ,
- -
,
.
, , ,
-
,
,

: , , ,
.
,
,
, , , -,
: , .
miai, ,
.
,

;
. ,
.

,
.

,
, ,
.
.
, ,
, ;
,
'on (. , 3*), .
,
( ), ,
(. H unt 8 Benaji 1988).

, ,
. , ,
, ,
, , ,
, ,
. ,

* Understanding Cultures through their Key Words,


. . .

,
,
,
,
, (Pin
ker 1994) ,
, (
) ,
. (Pinker 1994: 58) :
, ,
,
. , ,
, , ,
, . , ,
,
, , (58).

, ,
,
, , .
, , .

, , 517
, ,
.

. , ,
(57). ,

, (
...) (57), ,
,
. ,
(Whorf 1956) ,
, :
,
.
, ( ) ; ,
,
, , -
. ,
, ,
, .

. , ,
, ;
,
, (213).
, (
). ,
,
, .
,
, (60). ,

. ( , ; ,
[Malotki 1983] , -
.) ,
,
, , [ ]
,
, ,
.
(
), , , ,
, ,
, ,
, (57).
- , ,
,

(cp. Lutz 1990).
.
(Pinker 1994) :
, (freedom)
,
(82). , 3, 'freedom
(,
, libertas '').
,
.

, ,
.
, , , ,
,
( , ) ,
( )
, ,
(. Goddard & Wierzbicka 1994).
, ,
.
(Whorf 1956) ,
. ,

,
:
,
, , , -
, ; ,
;
-
, (86).

,
,
,

.
,
. (
, ,
, , ,
, ).
, ,
.
,
, ,
, , ; ,
, , ,

.
,
,
(Hoffman 1989),
, :
(Lost in translation: A life in a new language),
, :
, ,
, ,
. , , ,
, .
, - .
. ,
, .
, ,
. , , ! ,
. , , ,
, .
, -
,
. , ,
.
- . ,
,
, .
, , . ,
. ,
(204).

, ,
,
, (Sapir
1949), ,
,
- ,
(311) ,
,
,
(165).
, ,
(Pinker 1994: 67). , -
. ,
,
, .

, ,
, .
( II ,
) .
: (sadness) (anger) .
: Sadness anger ,
. -
X, ,
- .
: , ,
, . ! , .
; , , ,

.
: . , , ,
, .
: , ,
,
.
, ,
- ?
: .
,
,
, ,
, :
, -
, .
,
,
, -
..,
, , ,
, , ... ,
.
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
, , ,

.
, ',
,
, '
('m arm alade) , , -
, '
('plum ja m ), ,
, ,
.
, anger ,
rabbia '*. (
rabbia . Wierzbicka 1995; . Wierzbicka, in press b.)
,
, ,
, .

4.

,
,
, ,
(Hymes 1964: 167).
,
,
(Pullum 1991),
. - ,
, ,
, ,
(H e rd e r 1966 [1772]),
, :
[] - , , , -.
, , , (,
), ,
, ,
. ,
, , , , ,
, .
, , ,
, .
.
, ,
. (...) ,
;
(154155).


,
, ,
, .
, (Pinker 1994)
(Pullum 1994); ,
,
.
, , ,
, (64).

:
, .
,
(
Pinker 1994: 65).
-, ,
,
, ,
.
(, , ) , ,
, ,
, . .
( , ).
- , , ,
(Conklin 1957),
. ,
,
. (
, , ),

(D ixon, The Languages of Australia, 1994).

,
- . ...
,
, sand, ''.
,
;
, (103 104).
, -
, ' ' ('spearing')
, *,
, ,
, , ,
- ( ,

') (106).
,
, . ,
,
, dalmha ' , mida ',
, , , , moral
' ', nyurmgu ' ,
, yuyuruijgul ', , ,
gaqga ', , ,
, , ,
(105).

, (
)
.
,
. , ,
, ,
, , ,
,
,
, ,
, -

* ,
. . .

10 .
,
,
. ...
(108).

, -

, - ,
.

5.

, ,
, ,
, .
, , .
, -
,
, ( ),
.
,
.

.
.
,
,
? , ,
(Kucera and Francis 1967)
(Carroll 1971) ( & F et al.) if ,
, 2 461 2 199 1 ,
1 979
, - ,
?
, ( if vs. ) ,
, ,
.
, , ,
homeland 5 ( & F,
et al.), ,
'homeland, 172, .
( 1:30)
,
20% 50%. (,
.)
homeland ,
,
.
, stupid '' et al. 9 ,
& F 25 ; idiot 1 et al. 4 & F;
fool ' 21 et al. 42 & F.
, , .
, ,
:
( & F /C et al.)
fool 43/21 122
stupid 25/9 99
stupidly 2/0,4 34
idiot 4/1 29
(
),
, ,
: ,
, , ,
2.
, , ,

(absolutely, utterly perfectly):
( & F/C et al.)
absolutely 0/12 166
utterly 27/4 365
perfectly 31/27
: terribly awfully
:
( & F/C et al.)
terribly 18/9 70
awfully 10/7 159
horribly 2/1
*
,
80
,

.
, ,
( F) 132 truth,
( et al.) 37, , ,
. , ,
truth, ,
579, , ,
.
, (
), , ,
(, ,
)
-
, how,eland
. , ,
, .
, ,
truth,
, . ,
,
truth, , (79),
, ,

.
, ,
(truth), , ,
, (. Mond
ry & Taylor 1992, 1996)
, :
, ( ,
);
- , ( , );
, (, 1882).

''
, ''
, (
) ( ,
1955 [1982]):
;
, ;
, ;
, ;
, ;
;
, ;
: , ;
, ;
- , !
. ( 1955
[1982]) ,
, , :
( ,
,
):
;
.

, ,
, - -. (
,
),
(. 1955 [1982] 1977 [1862])
:
- () ();
.

( ), ,
, , ,
- , ,
(white lies), . . ,
,
. :
-,
,
.
,
,
, , ..
, , , ,
(., , Pawley & Syder 1983).
-
, .
,
.
,
,
. .
. ,
,
,
.

6.

,
,
, (. Evans-Pritchard 1968
[1940], Williams 1976, Parkin 1982, Moeran 1989).
.
,
. , ,
(Semantics, culture and cognition, Wierzbicka 1992b)
,
, ,
, .
- ,
,
. ,

, . ,
,
, . ,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
- . ,
,
,
.
,
? ,
(
), , ,
, .
, , (
), -
,
. ,
,
,
(. \ 1992): , , , , ,
, , , , ,
. . , ,
,
, , . .
, ,
, , ,
- ,
- .
, ,
,
- .


, ,
,
.
,

, .
, ,

. ,
,
. , ,
,
,
,
.
, ,
,
: , , ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
. . , ,
, , , , ,
, ,
, , ,
- ,
,
( . Wierzbicka 1992b).
,
( ' ), on (
' ) omoiyari ( '-
),
, ,
,
3 (.
Wierzbicka, in press ).

7. ?
,
, ,
.
.

,
. , (Wolf 1994),
,
,

, :
,
,
,
. ,
,
(, Stocking 1968:
213).
, ;
,
(5).
,
:
...
, ,
,
,
.
, ,
- ,
, ,
,
(6).

,
,
,

Volksgeist :
, ,
,
Volksgeist, . ,
, , ,
.
. ...
...

. ().
,
, , -
, .
, Volbgeist

, (,
, ), ,

...
( ).
, .
,
, (Darnell 1994)
, , ,
,
,
, , -,
(Wallerstein 1994) . ,
, ,
.
. ,
, ',
, (5).
,
. ,
.

,
,
. :
, ,
,
(., , Huston & Sebbar 1986, Hoffman
1989, Nabokov 1961, Ishiguro 1986).
, ? .

? ,
?
, .
, ( ,
, ) ,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
, ,
( ),
.
, ,
,
.
, (Wallerstein 1994),

( ) ,
,
(,
, , ):

, (,
, )
. , ,
.

, ,
, ,
(5).


, .
, ,
, ?

, ,

(
Varieties of English Around the World),

,
?
,
, , ,
?
:
( , 30000 ,
, , 29 000 , , 28 000
, . .). , , , ,
,
,
.
( )
, ,
,
, (
).
, -
(, ):
Depuis que les socits humaines existent, elles entretiennent des relations mu
tuelles. Pas plus quon ne peut imaginer les hommes vivant dabord isolment et en
suite seulement formant une socit, on ne peut concevoir une culture qui naurait au
cune relation avec les autres: l'identit nat de la (prise de conscience de la) diffrence
' , ,
. !, ,
,
, :
() ' (Todorov 1986: 20).

, ,

,
, ,
:
Linteraction constante des cultures aboutit la formation de cultures hybrides,
mtises, crolises, et cela tous les chelons: depuis les crivains bilingues, en passant
par les mtropoles cosmopolites, et jusqu'aux Etats pluri-culturels '
, , -
:
(20).

, ,
, ()
.
,

,
,
,
,

.
(
),
,
.
-, ,
[Le croisement des cultures]:
Lethnologie nest pas une spcialit dfinie par un objet particulier, les socits
primitives; cest une manire de penser, celle qui simpose quand lobjet est autre et
exige que nous nous transformons nous-mmes. '
, ,
; , ,
, , '.
,
, , -
, ,
. ,
, (Geertz 1979):
, ,
, ,
, ,

(89).

,
(Wolf 1994),
, ,
, ,
...
... .
,
,
, ,
. (
) ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
,
.

, -
(, ,
) .
,
:
, -
, . ,
-
: friend ,
- mate ' (
),
, :
friend
, 2,
( ,
, , )

,
. ( , boyfriend
girlfriend, ,
,
friend .)
,
, , .
,
, (
). ,
, ,
,
, , ,
4.

,

( ,
).


.
,
, ,
.
-
( , ,
),
(., , Katao-
ka 1991; Darder 1995; Harkins 1994; . Wierzbicka 1991, 2
in press ).

, , .

, ,
, .

8.
(
, , , truth soul),
tertium comparationis, .
,
.

:

,
, ,
( ) .


, ,
:
, ,
, , ,
;
. .. .
,
(430).
(
),

,
, (Leibniz
1981 [1709]: 326).

,
,
, . ,
(Needham 1972)
:
... ,
...
, -
() , ,
; ,
, , ,
,
,
(220).

,

,

, , (
[Pinker 1994: 57]).
,

, , ,
: ,
, ,

.
, ,

, ;
;
, ,
; -

,
.

, ,
(language-and-culture
systems) . , ,
.
, , :
?

, ,
, , , : ?
? , ,
? . .
,
:
, friend
'? ,
, , , ,
, ,
.
,
(. W agatsum a 1977).
, , ,
,
[] , (Pinker 1994: 57).
(
). ,
- ,

.

9. :

, (., ,
Appignanesi and G arratt 1995:76), , ,
XX , , ,
( -
).
, , ,
- ,
, .
, , ,
-
. .
( ), , -
, ( ,
), , -, ,
(. Bruner 1990:
22), , -,
-, , ,
, , , . ,

, , , ;

,
.
, ,
(,
) - ( basic English* [
] basic Japanese [ ]),
,
.

( ),
(, , ) ,
,
:


, .
,
(
),

* Basic ( British] A[merican] Scientific] International] C[ommercial]) English


,
. .
850 .. .
. ,
. ,
(Derrida 1982: 132 139), '
.
, .
, ,
()
( ).
,
,
, ,
( ) ,
,
(D errida 1991: 253)5.
( ),
.
,
ad hoc ,
, ,
, ,
,

.

,
(,
, , , );
,
, ,
,
,
,
.

,
-
(., , Goddard & Wierzbicka 1994 Wierzbicka 1996).
:
, ,
, , , ,
.
9.1.

,
,
(
). ,
(!6-
), (), , ,
. ,
( ),
; ,
,
() .
,
, ,
:
;
( ,
:
) . ,
( , )
.
(
- ), , ,
, , .
,
,
XVII , , ,
. , :
... , , ,

, . , ,
, , , ,
, ,
, , ,
, (324).

9.2.

, ,
, -
,

(match) , ,

.
. ,
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
. , ,
(Goddard & Wierz-
bicka 1994, ), ,
,
,

. ,
- ( ),
( ),
( ), ( ),
: ( ), () (
), ( ),
( ),
: ( ),
( ),
( ) - ( -
), ( )
, , ( ).

9.3.
,
,
.
:
: , , /, /, ,
: , ,
: , , /, /, -
/
>: , , ,
: , , ,
, ,
. , ,
, , : , / -
,
: (),
: ,
: , , , /-
, , ()
: /, , , , , ,

: /, , / , /;
, ; ,
, : ,
, : / ,
: /.
,
; ,
, ( )
. ,
( )
, , , .
,
,
.
, ,
, .
, , ,

( )
.
, ,
. ,
2, , , father ',
mother '', child , ,
; country
', 3 4.
,
, -
, , -
.
, ,
.
, ,
.

9.4.

, ,
: , . ,
- , :
,
. , -,
, :
. :
, ,
.
, ,
, .
, want '
,
, I w ant to do this ( ).
, ,
,


1 ,
.
, I w ant
to do this, ,
.
, :
I want to do this = ,
I, (1 .) want, this
do I
want, to do this,
I want to do this.
,
.
,
.
.
, -
.
,

,
. , ,
- ,
, , 1980 .,
Lingua mentalis. lingua mentalis
()
.

9.5.
,

.

.
. ,
move , , ,
:
A. I couldnt move ' /.
B. Her words moved me ' .
()
.
,


( )
.
(grammatical frames).

9.6.

,
-
. ( )
( ) ,

.

. , I
(
EGO, ).
; , ,
hie, h a e c , h o c , (),

.
,
. ,
e v e r y o n e e v e r y b o d y ,
e v e r y t h i n g . - o n e
-b o d y , s o m e o n e ,
, a - t h i n g , s o m e t h i n g , -
.

. , a m d o i n g , d i d w i l l d o [ ,
, d o '
], ,
, n o w ' ',
before n o w ' a f t e r n o w ' , , (.
),
:
A. I am d o in g it now ' .
B. I did it b efo re now (earlier) ' () .
C. I will d o it afte r now (later) ' ( ).

,
.

9.7.

,
. , ()
:
A. X .
B. X Y.
C. X () Y.
, - - -
- -.
-.
,
, ,
(
),
.

9.8.

,

, .
,
,
, ,

, ,
, (., , C happell 1983, 1986, ),
(. Ameka 1986, 1987, 1990, 1991), (. Travis 1992, Hasa-
da 1994), (G oddard 1994b), -
(. B ugenhagen 1990) -
(. G o d d ard 1990, 1992, ) (. W ilkins 1986; Har
kins 1922).

.
,
,
, English speech act verbs [
] (Wierzbicka 1987)
;
, (.,
, Wierzbicka 1990b, 1992, 1994),
,
(. Ameka 1987, 1990; Goddard 1990, 1991, 1992, in
press; Harkins 1994; Hasada 1994; Kornacki 1995 .).

( )
,
. ,
,
,
.

,
( )
.
( ), .
, ,
; ,
, , .

10.

,
,
,
(\ \ ! 1. 1984: 6 7); ,
,
-,
, ,
(257).
,
,
,

.
,
, , , ,
^ ),
, , , . . ,
( 1995) :

: '' ' ',
'. ... , -
, : ,
'',
'' (173 174).



. , ,


.
,
(., ,
Wierzbicka, in press )
, , 6,
- (. Wierz-
bicka 1991,1992b)
, whinge, bullshit bloody, 5.
,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
; .
, ,
,
{Oxford English dictionary),
: [],
- ,
.
,
, .
, '
(During 1995: 9). ,
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
,
. , ,
,
, . ,
,
, ( )

.
,
,
,
. : ,

,
.
2.
:

1.

,
,
'' ('friend') . ,
(Davis and Todd 1985) :
? : ,
, ,
-
. , ,
,
(21). ,

(, ,
, , ),
,
,
, ,
.
. ''
('friend') -
, ,
-
.
,
friend ' friendship '*, ,
,
,
, -

. , (Blieszner and Adams 1992)
:

,
, . ... ,

, (friends) (Friendship) (28).
, (friends)
.

,
, ,
friend, . , ,
, .
( ),
friend ,
,
, .
(Znaniecki 1965):
, ,
, , ,
, (friendship).
,
- ,
, , , .
, ,
;
(138).
, ,
amicus, friend ( ),
ami, , Freund przyjaciel

, .
, , , f riend
, , ,
,
, .
, , .
,
, ,
, friend friendship ,
, -
. ,
friend, friendship
,
,

. , (Winstead and Derlega 1986)
:
. , ,
, ,
. ... (friendship), , -
, ,
, (2).
,
, ,
(friendship) ,

. ,
, : scientific approach to the study of friend
ship [ ] (65).
friendship,
,
.


- :
?

, ,
:

, (65).



,

, -
, .

(friend
ship) (the friend relationship) (Blieszner and
Adams 1992: 123). ,

friend friendship ,
,

, ,
.
,
,
(Duck 1977):
' , ,
, -,
, . ...
(to make
friends). , , -
(2, 3, 7).
, ? to make friends
-
, ,
(
) ; , , ,
,
,
.
, ,
,

, .


.
,
,
,

.
.
, :
shinyu tomodachi. , shinyu- -1
11 .
' , tomodachi .
, ,
tomodachi, shinyu, ,
() ( -
, ).

. shinyu (
) ( shinyu
, shinyu),
tomodachi .

.
( )
(Atsumi 1980, 1990)
shinyu tomodachi ,
shinyu, tomodachi.
friend.,
,
.
. ,
, .
, doryo, ,
, , .
( ),
( , ), , -
( ), asohinakama (
' ) shigotonakama ( '
). yujin,
tomodachi.
,

friend.

, -
, (
, koledzy przyjaciele mates
).
friend, ,

.
2. f r i e n d
2.1. (friends) ?
Who was that?
Oh, just a friend. Someone I used to know
( ?
, . , -]
(Brookner 1993: 224).

friend
,
.
, ,
( ) ,
. .

dose friend ' , ,
, .
,
friend (Book of quotations)
(Stevenson 1949), dose friend (
,
Spevack 1968), ,
-, 1.
friend ,
, ,
dose friend. -
friend friendship-,
(friends)
(friendship),
{friends),
(friendships), (close friends)
, (friendship).
,
(friends), ,
- .
( ):
One friend in a lifetime is much; two are many; three are hardly possible
; ; 1.

:
*
Choose thy friends like thy books, few but choice ' , ,
, ' ( , 1659).

. - , ,
,
:
One of our long-term survivors, Peter, had lost over forty friends to Aids '
, , , ' (King
1992).
,
(forty friends). ,
(best friends)
. ,
best friends
, . ,
(Dictionary of popular phra
ses) (Rees 1990) : even your
best friends [ ], best friends [
] some of best friends [
].
close friends,
( , )
.
:
A man who had moved sixteen times in twenty-two years of marriage contended he
had at least acquired a few close, lasting friends at every stop ',
, ,
, (Packard
1974. 174).
, ,
(close, lasting friends), -,
, , !
XVIII :
She, that asks
Her dear Ove hundred friends, contemns them all
And hates their coming...
',
,
, ...
, ,
(friends) .
,
.
A man can become a pal for two hours with a stranger he meets on the golf course
with full knowledge that he probably will never see the person again, The trick is the
knack for affability. The new gregarious can be fairly indiscriminate in their selection of
new friends, who become as interchangeable as cars '
, ,
, , , .
.
, -
, (188).
, ,
(friendship) ,
-
. : ...
- (-),
,... ;
1 move to a new area with the feeling I will meet new people and will have many
happy experiences and I usually do. 1join groups right away and get involved '
,
.
(175).
,
, :
One cannot stagnate. You have to adapt, learn to change. There are always new,
interesting people, fascinating places ' .
, . ,
(174).
, ,
(friends). :
The young wife of a new teacher in high-mobile Great-Falls, Montana, said that
though she still did know anyone on her block, We have developed a number of
friends through the bowling alley we play. 1 bowl one afternoon a week with a lot of
real nice girls and we have met several couples at the alley. The alley develops leagues
which any girls can join and you are periodically put on different team with people you
dont know ' -
() , , :
, .

, .
, ,
, 2' (147).

, ,
.
,
(friends) ,
(friendship),
,
. (friendship)
, ,

. :
F riendship is th e w ine o f life; but frie n d sh ip new
Is n either stro n g n o r pure.
' ;
,
( , );
Be courteous to all, but intim ate with few, an d let those few be well tried before you
give them your confidence. T ru e friendship is a p lan t o f slow grow th, and must
un d erg o and withstand the shocks o f adversity before it is en titled to th e appellation
' , ,
, . ,
,
, ' ( ,
, 1783);
Its an overcome sooth for age an ' youth
And it brooks wi denial
T hat the d earest friends are the auldest friends
And the young are ju st on trial.
'
,
,

(. . , Its an overcom e sooth);*

* . . : ^ ~; (...) -
, . , .
Friendship is a slow grower, and never thrives unless ingrafted upon a stock of
known and reciprocal merit ' ,
, (
, , 1747).
-
, eternal friendship
, swearing
vowing :
A sudden thought strikes me let us swear an eternal friendship '

(. X. , );
If I do vow a friendship, perform it
To the last article
' ,
* ( , ).
friendship
steady ' constant ' . :
A friendship that like love is warm;
A love like friendship steady.
', , ,
, , ***
( , How shall I woo);
To be capable of steady friendship and lasting love, are the two greatest proofs, not
only of goodness of heart, but of strength of mind '

, '. ( , )

Friendship is constant in all other things,


Save in the office and affairs of love.
,
***
(, ).

* ,
. : [ .
. . ,] . , .
** . . : , /
( ?)., .
*** . . -: , /
. , .
friendship,
friend
- .
friend faithful friend '
, steadfast friend ' old friend ' .
:
Above our life we love a steadfast friend.
' *
{ , );
Ah, how good it feels
The hand of an old friend!
'Ax,
!
( , );
...There are certain signs to show
Faithful friend from faltering foe
' ,

( , );
As old wood is best to burn, old horse to ride, old books to read, and old wine to
drink, so are old friends always most trusty to use ,
, ,
,
( , ).
,
friend
, .
, ,
. ,

(
'friend', ,
).
, friend
, ,
, .
,
,

* . . : dj/ . , .
'friend
.

2.2. (a friend in need)


,
(friendship), .
,
. :
A friend in need is a friend indeed.

(. )'
( , 1772);
that is thy friend indeed
He will help thee in thy need
', ,

( , );
A friend is never known till a man hath need
' ,
( , , 1541);
A friend is not known but in need
'
( , 1683).

, ( )
, fair weather friend '
, {.
), summer friend ' {. ) false
friend ' . :

Like summer friends,


Flies of estate and sunshine
' ,

( , );
summer-friendship,
Whose flattering leaves, that shadow'd us
In our prosperity, with the least gust drop off,
In the autumn of adversity!
' ,
,
,

!
( , )

,
'friend ' -
. ,
( )
. , , -
, , (friendship)
, ,
.
, , ' ('love) (
'person X loves person Y [' X Y]),
('friendship). (friend)
(beloved) .
, sweet friends '
, lovingfriends ' , dearest friends ' ,
,
(loving ones friends) ( ).
, (-
)
.
'friend . , ,
(friends),
, . ,
, - [,
, -
] (good things),
(fun things), ,
.
:
A.
,
B.
, .
( )
, friends ,
, friends
, ,
(
),
.

2.3. () (bosom friends) vs.


(congenial fellowship friends)
'friend

. friend
bosomfriend *,
bosom buddy ' .
(friend), XIX ;
A friend is a person with whom I may be sincere ' ,
( , );
What is a friend? I will tell you. It is a person with whom you dare to be yourself
? . ,
' ( , ).
(true friend),
, :
A true friend unbosoms freely, advises justly, assists readily, adventures boldly,
takes all patiently, defends courageously, and continues a friend unchangeadly '
, , ,
, ,
( ).
:
Thy friend put in thy bosom: wear his eyes
Still in thy heart, that he may see whats there
' :
, ,
( )
, , ,
. ,
(friends) (
), . , -

bosom ., .
,
,
.

:
:
, ,
, ,
,
, .

2.4. (circle of friends) vs.





friend of mine '
, , ,
friend .

XVI (, Darst
thou resolve to kill a friend of mine '
?*), ,

friend -
(, friend ' ).
-
, ,
(Spevack 1968)
friend of mine (his, Ns . .) ' (, N-)
11 452 friend, , ,
(Piper 1970) .
5 17
friend. 2.5 %
30 % (, ,
).
,
.

. : ? , nejiee.
, ( 1
) SEU (Survey of English Usage)
friend (
honourable friend) 80, 21, 24%,
friend of mine. (
28 honourable friend,
: 18%.)
,
friend, ,

friend of mine. ,
,
friend ( mine friend)
friend of mine :
1 The knave is my honest friend, sir
' ,
( IV, , 5.1.50);
4 For I shall never hold that my friend whose tongue shall ask me for a penny cost
' ,
.* ( IV, , 1.3.90);
7 There is not a man I met but doth salute me
As ifl were their well-acquainted friend
', , ,
***
( , 4.3.2);
12 Youre welcome, my fair guests: that noble lady
Or gentleman that is not freely merry
Is not my friend: this is to confirm my welcome [Drinks]
And to you all, good health
' , :
, ,
: []
, ( VIII, 1.4.37).

* . . : , / [...]
. , .
** . . : , , I ,
. , .
*** . . : ! /
I . , /
()./7/. .
he
is a friend of mine, he is my friend ( ,
I cannot do it to him, he is MY FRIEND);
, he is my son ' he is my brother
. ,
friend
friend of mine boy
friend girlfriend, :
Dolly had a friend. Quite possibly, although it seemed grotesque to me, Dolly was in
love. All became clear when she said, in response to my mothers question as to how she
had managed the journey to our flatalways a hazardous undertaking, as they both
professed to believe My friend drove me over. Actually he owns the firm. You could
say lie was combining business with pleasure. Harry, she added, with deep satisfaction.
Harry Dean. A dear friend ' . ,
, . ,
,
, , , , ,
: . - . ,
,
, . (Brookner 1994: 120).

friend

- , :
After tea my friend Marigold Chance might receive a visit. ...She had been my
friend since we had started school together at the age of four...
. .. ,
, .. . (Brookner 1994: 78).

,
friend, thy friend ' your friend ' ,
, -
, , ,
brother ' son '
.
friend, -,
,
: (1)
( friend Marigold); (2) * (one of

* . ., .
my friends ' ); (3)
( friend); (4)
friend of mine, .
,
:
A. A friend (relative, servant) of mine was married in this church/is buried in this ce
metery (, ) /-
.
B. ? brother of mine was married in this church/is buried in this cemetery '
/ '.
C. ? son of mine was married in this church/is buried in this cemetery
/ .
D. ? husband of mine was married in this church/is buried in this cemetery '
/ '.
, a brother of mine, a son of mine a husband of
mine, , . ,
, , ,
,
.
a friend of mine ,
,
,
, .
, , , (
) ,
.
X of mine (yours, his . .) ' (,
. .) X ,
,
, :
a colleague of mine ' '
a student of mine '
a fan of his *.


one of my Xs ' -,


. ,
( )
:
an oJd paper of mine '
an old photograph of mine ' ',
, , :
?an oJd toy of mine ,?
?an old typewriter of mine ,? '
?an old camera of mine ,? .
-, ,
(,
, , , ),
,
,
. , :
an X of mine =
-
,
-
-.

(Jespersen 1965) , a friend of


mine, , .
... ,
one o f my friends ' .
, , , , ,
he is a h u sb an d o f m ine he is
a son o f mine.
, ( ) that husband of mine '
that son of mine ' ,
. (
), , that husband of
yours ' ,
that, yours,
: Where is that beautiful ring of yours?
' ?. - ,
he is a husband of mine lie is a son of mine
.
,
,
an X of mine (his . .) ,
, , , -, -
: , ,
, . ,
:
is a friend of mine.
? is a son of mine.
?He is a husband of mine.

this X of mine ( that X of mine)


[' X], , - X of mine,
,
' , -.
, this friend, of '
, this
husband of mine ' this son of mine ' .
( - , this son '
[, Was it this son who married an actress? '
?] , a this son of mine .)
, , fnend
, (
), friends
,
, (
circle of friends ' )3.
,
, friend,
friends ( ),
. , 445 friends (
Spevack 1969)
sweet friends ' , good friends ' , gentle
friends ' , loving friends ' , faithful friends
, dearest friends ' , true-hearted friends '
, worthy friends , noble friends '
, precious friends ' , loyal friends '
. . ( false friends
' , hollow-hearted friends '
monstrous friends ' ) ,
(friends)
. -,
,
, Ameri
can friends ' (Brookner 1994: 215), temi-

'1
nist friends ' - (Brookner 1994: 217),
,
(Beven 1971): his English capitalist friends '
-, clrical friends ' -,
the Americans .American friends ' ,
our Christian friends ' - English friends '
-* ( an Irishman may hve... '
...).
,
.
, ,
XX , , ,
,

() . ,
,
,
.

2.5. (making friends)


friends ,
, to make friends*
(, to make
lots of friends ' , to make new friends '
, an opportunity to meet people and make friends
).
to make friends
( -
), -,
to find a friend ' (
).
,
, .
(making friends) -

* friends : ,
(makefriends with j.o.),
^ (. ) -., ,
, , , ' (.
)., rupee.
,
. (
-winning friends [
], How to
win friends and influence people [
] (Carnegie 1982 [1936]).) ,
to make friends ,
, [to make friends],
[to make a friend]. :
I have made eight new friends ' ' ( ,
);
...in the teens it takes longer to make friends (?a friend) than in the grammar school
years '... (')
, (Packard 1974: 237).
( to find ')
, .
:
Faithful friends are hard to find ( -
, ),
A friend may be often found and lost...
( ).
, (
to ), .
friends
(, ), ,
, ,
(to make Mends ). ,

, :
...for those you make friends
And give your hearts to, when they once perceive
The least rub in your fortunes, fall away...
... ,
,
, ...*
( VIII);

*. . : ... , I ,
/ , / ..., .
the poor advanc'd make friends of enemies
', ,
();
Get posts and letters, and make friends with speed
'
( IV, ).
490 f r i e n d s (
), (Spe-
vack 1969) ,
to make friends (
). ,
, , , ,
.
to m a k e frie n d s,
(
w ith ' '),
, ,
.
,
, f i n d i n g a f r i e n d ,
c h o o s in g a f r i e n d ' ( c h o o s in g o n e s f r i e n d s '
). :
Be slow in choosing a friend, slower in changing ' ,
( );
True happiness
Consists not in the multitude of friends.
But in the worth and choice.
'
,
.
( , );
Choose for your friend him who is wise and good, secret and just, ingenious and
honest... ' , , ,
... ( , ).*

* . . : , (
: ). , .
. . : /) . .
.
, ,

() .

( -,
). , ,
,

. , ,
, ;
, (
), ( , ),

. to makefriends
popular '* popularity '',
, ,
, , (. Stewart 1972: 58).

2.6. (true friends) vs.


(close friends)
, ,
true friends []
friends,
[] friends close friends,
(friendship)
, . ,
true friends close friends
, .
,
truefriends true friendship ' *:
have the greatest blessing, a true friend
' ,
( , );
They are rich who have true friends
' ,
( , );
A true friend is a forever friend
'
( , ).
true friend true friendship
friend
friendship ,
, , ,
(prostitution):
I hate the prostitution of the name of frienship to signify modish and worldly
alliances '
' ().
, , ,
friend friendship -
,
- friends. true friend
,
, ,
(friend) -
. ,
(friend) ,
:
Life without a friend is death without a witness
'
( , Jacula prudentum);
The best elixir is a friend
'
( , );
Love is chatter,
Friends are only matter
,

( , );
friend, my bosom said,
Through thee alone the sky is arched,
Through thee the rose is red
', , ,
. ,
!
( , );
A friend may well be reckoned the masterpiece of nature
' *
(, );
A Father's a Treasure; a Brother a Comfort; a Friend is both
' ; ; ,
( ).
, . friendship ( )
, ,
true friendship. :
Friendship is a union of spirit, a marriage of hearts, and the bond thereof virtue
' ,
( , ),
:
Friendship is the gift of gods, and the most precious boon to the man
, (
, , 1855).
, (true friend)
{friend), friend (
) .
, close friend
, friend1,
, ,
- . ,
(friends)
(close friends), (
) ,
friend; , ,
.
,
-
,
. ,
,
close friend, friend (
, friends
).
, (Packard 1974)
- (really close friends),
close friends ,
. ,

, -
. ,
: ,
(
), ?
,
, -, 6,
, ,3. ( -,
, .)
-
, ,
, . ,
,
,
,
, ,
, , ,
.

2.7.
friend
' ( foe ),
. :
Friends are as dangerous as enemies
' , '
( , );
You and I were long friends; you are now my enemy and I am Yours, Benjamin
Franklin ' ; , ,
( );
Do good to thy friend to keep him, to thy enemy to gain him
' , , ,
( , );
will never have true friends who is afraid of making enemies
' ,
( , );
When fails our dearest friend,
There may be refuge with our direct foe
' ,

(. . , );
If I have not a friend, God send me an enemy that I may hear of my faults '
, ,
( , ),
friends enemies
. , ,
(friends), ,
, . ,
, - , ,
(circle of enemies),
(circle of friends).
, ,
, -, ,
.
,
. , ,
.
,
( ):
This person is a friend . =>
,
,

This person is an enemy ' . =>


,
, .
, , (friendj)
friend , ,
( ). enemy
( ),
, ,
:
This person is my friend . ==>
,
,

This person is my enemy ' . =>


,
, .
friend
' , enemy - -
. ,
. , friend enemy -
, friend
,
, ,
enemy .
,
, , .

2.8. (dear friends) vs.


(enjoyable friends)

friend dear friend dearest friend '
. :
Farewell, dear friend, that smile, that harmless wit
No more shall gladden our domestic hearth
', , ,

(. . , );
But Fate ordains the dearest friends must part
' ,
( , ).

dear friend
dearest friend .
, (dear
friends),
dear friend, dearest friend.
, goodfriend ' best friend ' ,
, dear friend
( sweet friend ' ,
).
, (
) friend,
:
friend!
,
friend2
, .
friends
- , friends
. :
So, if I live or die to serve my friend,
'Tis for my love'tis for my friend alone,
And not for any rate that friendship bears
In heaven or on earth
', , ,
,
- ,

( , );
Having some friends whom he loves dearly,must part.
And no lack of foes, whom he laughs at sincerely
' , ,
,
'
( , - ).
, friend
, ,
. '
' ,
.
('
vs. ' ) ,
, ,
(affection) (enjoyment).
,
, (dear)
(dearest) . ,
( )
(friends),
(enjoyment), (pleasure) (fun).

()
() :
friend i
,
friend^
, .
, (Allan 1979),
(friend) ,
, : ,
, ,
, . -,
- (41).
, , , ()
amicitia, ( De amicitia
)

(amicus), . friend\
,
, friend^.

2.9.

friend, (friend \) (friend2),


:
friend |
(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
(d) ' , ,
(e) , ,
(f) ,
(g)
(h) ,
(i) ,
(j)
fr ie n d 2
(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e) ,
(/) ,
(g) .

friend \ ()
,
, () - ,
(d) () -
, (f)
, (g)
, (h) (j) (i)
.
friend2 ()
, () (d)
, f r i e n d ,
() ,
,
( ,
).
(Dictionary
of English language, Johnson 1968 [1755])
friend ( ):
friend one joined to another in mutual benevolence and intimacy
[ ,
].
,
,
friend.
,
(The American Heritage dictionary of the English language)
friend (, )
: (1) person whom one knows,
likes, and trusts [, ,
]; (2) person whom one knows; an
acquaintance [, ; ].
,
( ,
, ),
,
- friend.
(Webster's third) ,
, ,
,

: <<friend, applies to a person one has regarded with liking and a degree
of respect and has known for a Lime in a pleasurable relationship neither
notably intimate nor dependent wholly on business or professionalties
[ friend ,

,
,
].
(New
shorter Oxford English dictionary, 1993)
friend , , be
keep friends (with) ' [ -] (be on good or
intimate terms [with] [ ])
make friends (with) ' [ -] (get on good or intimate
terms with [ ...]).
-
. ,
, ,
.
, friend
,

. close friend
friend (
,
), real friend '
,
( ,
fnend
,
). , (Allan 1979) :
,
, , ,
, . ,
' ('real), '' ('true'), .
, -, ,
. ... ,
, , ,
... ,
, , .
(Sutiles 197U), ,
, ' ''
, ' .
'
(70).
real friend true friend ,
,
. true friend
, , ,
friend. real friend, -,
(,

), close friend, true friend,

. , (Sutiles 1970)

,
(real friends)
, .
, (true friends)
.
, friend
,
,
( Bellah et. al.
1985: 117). .,
,
,
,
(117).
30- XIX ,
,
XIX XX . '

,
(Bellah et. al. 1985: 118).
(Stewart 1972):

;
. ,
; ,
, (49).
,
, ,
. ... ...
.
. ,
, ,
,
(54).

, .
,
, ,
. ,
fnend
,
(friendship),
.
,

,
(making friends) ,
, , ,
. , ,
, , , , ,
friends, ,
,
(. , , mate),
: , , -
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
, .

3.

, , ,
,
friendship ( friendship ,

, ,
).
,
(The Russians) :
[] ,
, ,
, ,
, .
, ;
- ,
. ,
,
.
,
...
,
. ,
, , .
, ,
. -, ,
,
,

. , ,
(108 110).

,

.
,
,
,
. , ,
,
, . ,
....
-
,
.
, ,
. ,
. , , .
, . - .
. .
12.
, , ,

. .
, ,
^ ,
, ,
.

... , .
,
.

, , ,
,
,
, ,
- ,
.
(How the Soviet system works),
, ,
(Bauer, Inkeles and Kluckholm 1956)
:
, ,
,
. ,

,
.
, ,
,
,
,
,

(139).

, (
)
:
,
, .
,
. - , -
.
, ,
, , ,
().

,
, ,
, .
, (1987: 133134),
, 1970- ,
,
,
. , 1970-
1980- , , ,
, ,
(. Shlapentokh 1989: 174 176).

, , ,

, ,
; ,
, -, ,

. (Shlapentokh 1984)
:

,
.

. ...
, ,
(219).



, ;
.
, XX

( 1987: 166, 1981: 207).
- , --
, , .
3.1. f r ie n d



,
. , '
(Conklin 1957), ( )
, ,
(
), ,
(

, . Wierzbicka 1992b, 7).
, , (
/, ), (. )
(. ). ,
, ,
.
- ( , friend
); , , ,
, friend-, ( ))
; ( ) ,
, acquain
tance, - . (
, , -,
, .)
, ,
, ,


.

.
, ,
df/ - close friend (
), girlfriend ( ),
(. ) friend ( ), (.
) close acquaintance-, ( ,
)
-mate ( classmates ' workmates
') fellow ( fellow-
prisoners ' [ ]).
.
, ,
- friend of mine,

, , , ,
, ( )
fry, , (
).
(friends), ,
:
;
( )
.
, ,
, (1983)
(friends) :
, , . ,
, . ... :
, ,
.
... . , . ...
, (11).

, ,
,
friend.
. (
,
znajomy, 4.)4

3-2.
(. )
. .
(1977) 1
817, friend
(Kucera & Fran
cis 1967) 298 ( Carrol et a!. 1971
346). friend
; , , brother
' (125 169). dfrye
, friend',
(155) , friendship (27 8)5.
,
)
; , ,
. ,
, - :
, ,
. nodjyea,
, { .


, ,

, \. (.) (.),
, :
, ,
(
, ).
df/ , *(/ .
, ^
}), ,

, ,
,
:
/.

// /?,

( ,
,
. .)
,
(Dovlatov 1986: 93) (. .)
,
, ,
(. .),
:
, , .
, , .
, , .
?, , .

,
,
( 1994):
.
73- [ ] , ,
.
, , ....
, .
- [ ].
, , ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, , :
, ,
;
, . - .
(Shlapentokh 1989):

. (friends),
, (.,
, Pogrebin, 1986, ... ).
, ,
.
. , ,
, ,
... (170).

,
:

. -
, , ,
, , . .
.... (174);
...
. ,
(174).

, ,
,
, :
,
,
.
, ,
, . - ,
,
(230).

, ,

. ,

,
friend. , -,
.
,
{) (
) (
, )6:
... ,
, , - ,
, ( 1964: 643).

, df/, , ,
[, ,
, :
,
,
, ,

(-) 'real, 'genuine,


{-) . -
, ,
,
.
()
, , ,
, (
) , -
, , . , .
, -, ,
, ,
, :
, ,
(, );
- , ,
, ,
(, ).

, .
,
(), . . :
: , ,
(, ).

, .
,
, ,
, , ,
, .
,
friend '
, ,
: , friend
, ,
.
. ,
, , - dfryz,
, ( ).
, (
- darling sweetheart
), ,
, '
, . //,
( .)
.

,
, : , ]/, ,
, , :
, , (. &
1984: 293, 1978: 147).
,
:
()
(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
(1)
() (
- )
(1) :
() -
() , ,
(1) , ,
( , ,
(k)
(l) - ,

() ,
() ,

() .

, ()
,
, ,
. ()
() ,
( , )
, () ,
. (1) (%)
, (1) () -
, (1)()
, () (1) -
, , , ()
, , ()
.
- (,
& 1984)
:
X Y-a X , X Y, ,
, , ,
, , X Y
( ) ,
- [, ] -
Y- (292).

, ,
,
.
, ,
:
.

, ,
:
- ,
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
, . ,

(),
:
, , -

, , -
.

,
(cp. Bauer, Inke-
les & Kluckholm 1956: 142; Walicki 1980: 100 110; Wierzbicka 1992b:
435440), ,
,
; ,
, .
,
( )
(Shlapentokh 1984: 229),
( )
, :
... .
... , ,
(225);

... ,
, , ,
. (229).

, ' :
'- (
)
',
.

3.3.
- (, 1961, Wheeler
1972), (
) (female) friend ( ( )),
friend, , -, ,
.
, -, ,
, -, ,
, , , -, ,
(friends)
/ (.).

( )
, , ,
,
,
: -,
,
( ) girlfriend (
his girlfriend); -, :
,
( Wheeler 1972 helpmate);
, -, , ,

,
(
). ( ):
,
[ ];
, ,
;
,
,

;
'Pensiveness, her companion
even from cradle days,
the course of rural leisure
with daydreams beautified for her
( , Pushkin 1975: 138).

, ,
, , (
)
. , ,
,
, ,
. ,
., ,

.
( ) (

).
' ,
,
. -
,
.
, (1978)
friend, , compagne (',
-.); (1961) -
j playmate ' (
, ).
()
: , , ,
-,
(,
), (,
). , ,
( ,
),
nodf/ .
,
: , ,
- ( 1940).

,
, ,
. ,

,
,
(.). ,
' , ,

,
7, , :
? ,

.
, ,
nofryzu,
.
, ,


,
, ,
, . ,
,
(
):
:

, - ,
, - ,

, .
,
-,
. , XIX ,
:
, (
, ).
, (
1995 [1882])
:
, .
;
;
( );
.

, , *{-
, ;
, .
( )
;
( , )
, -
. //,
,
( 1994<1: 12):
, ? ? , . .
, , , .
7 .
, , . , . . .
, , ,
, , .
, , ,
.
, ,
(, ).
( )
, (
) ( ).
(
):


,
(] ,

.
'Whenever nurse assembled
for Olga on the spacious lawn,
all her small girl companions,
she did not play at barleybreaks,
dull were to her both ringing laughter
and noise of their giddy diversions (138).

, ,
, .
, , ,
, ,
, ,
( , ).
, ,
.
, , ,
; ,
,, , , .
,
( ).

, , ,

, (
, ).
. , ,
(, , )
, ,
.
: , ,
,
(,
), (,
, ).
, (.)
, - ,
[.
,
. - ,
, .
,
] ( ):
()
(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
()
()
(()
(%) , - ,

() , - ,

) , - ,

(]) ,
(k) :
(l) .

3.4.


:
, ,

'Onegin, a good pal f ] o f mine,
Was born upon the Neva's banks (Pushkin 1975: 96).


, . ,
, :
,
,
, , , (.,
, ^ ), , (.),
.

vs. * nfmnmenu;
family and distant friends '
, family and closefriends
' .
()
:
, , ,
.

,
,
( )
( ). :
, ,
, . ! . (,
);
, : (
, );

- , ,
(, ).

( )
, , ,
,
.

.
( )
, . ,
. ,
:
()
(a) : - :
(b)
(c) ,
(d) ,
(e) ,
() .
,
,
,

. ,
( ), (
[friend]) ,
( [friend]).

, friend (friend2).
, friend
: (friends),
.
friend ; friend
, .

3 .5 .

,
comrade,
. moeaf/
,

comrade. , ,
;
, ,
, , 8.

, , ,
.
,

, , ,
. ,
,

. ,
g () (
).
- ,
,
,
, ,

(
, ,
, , , , 1
1 162;
( & Francis 1967)
comrade, , a brother '
124; Carrol et al. 1971 comrade 7 , a brother 169 ).
, ()
,
:
(
) , , (
) ( ). ,
:

( )
:
1. , -. , ,
. .
2. , -. , , ,
.
3. , -. , ; .

, ,
, ,
, ,
, .

,
, .
(),
,
: , [ -]
, , . . [
] , .
, ,

. fellow ( fellow^prisoners '
, ), \ ,
,
, , , : ,
, , .
j fellow
( fellow-students ', fellow-prisoners)
, , ,
, ( )
,
, -.
: i

( friend ),
fellow- ; - (fellow-prefix) co-,fellow-
, ,
.

: ,
, ,

.
(. Wierzbicka 1992b, . 2).
,
( )
. ,

;
( ) -
,
.
, -
- , , ,
, ,
, . ,
,
, -,
, .
:
[].
(-, );
, ? , (, );
(, ).
:
- .
. . , ,
, (-
1993. 8);
,
! , ... (
1973:211);
[ ] [],
, , ( 1994: 10).
, ,

, ,
( , , ),
,
. ,
,
, ()
.
-
}. (
),
. -, , ,
(, , )',
-,
, .
, *.
* . |,
.
, j
,
. , ,
(,
), . -
, -
friends. ,
, koledzy ( ) koleianki
( ).
friend, przyjaciel ( ) przyjaciotm ( ),
,
.

best friend ' . , ,

, ,
.
. ,
(
koledzy koleianki),
,
( friend).
, (
),
\ ( , ).
( )
,
\, .
, \

. , ,
(
,
);
(,
, ).
. .. ,
. :
? , ! ( 1974: 301).
,
, ,
, :
, ,
, ..., ! ... ,
( 1975: 467).
(, , ,
.)

, ,
( , 1),
,

, ,
.
, ,

( ).
:

- ,
(, );
, ! ...
(, );
.. . , ,
( 1975: 476).
( ).
, ,
, , ,
,
:

, , ,
(- 1993: 177).
, ,
, ,
, - , ,
-:
... - (,
);
. .. -, (, ).


:
() 1
(a) : - :
(b)
(c) ,
(1) ,
() , ,
,
(0 ,
() -
() .

()
, (%)
,
. () , (),
, (!),
-
, . ()
, , (0
, () , ,
() , , ,
.
(.) (.), ,
{ (. .)
;
- ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
- :

(- 1993: 220).
, ( (%)
,
, (. .) ,
, .
,
.
,
:
,
(- 1993: 189).

3.6. 2
, ,
^.
, ,
,
:
[ ]
(, ).
, ,
,
,
,
,

, .
:

:
().
,
,
:
, , !
! ().
, (
, ), 2
:


(-, ).

, 2
: X -
2, X , -
(-); X
, (X ) ('
; , ).

( ,
, '- ). -,
,
2, , ,
: ,
, .
: (. .
) ,
, '(- ) ,
. 2
(.)
('-
). , 2
, .
: ' .

2, ,

:
, , , ,
().

, :

(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
(1) ,
() ,

( - ,

-
()
() ,
0) .
, 2
, , ,
, , . ,
( )
; ,
(' ,
), ('
, ,
, ),
, ,
, ('
),
, .
' ,
( ) ,
(' ),
,
()^). , ,
^, :
2 , .
, 2,
, ,
( ).

3.7.

. -
relatives,
. ,
relatives, ,
, .
, ,
; ,
, .
,
, , ,
dose immediate family '
-: , immediate family '
, ,
,
, .
, relatives
,
, , ,
. relatives
,
, ,
; (
relatives) , , ,
,
. , ,
, , -
.

, (
, ,
, , -,
), , ,
,
. ,
, . ,
( )
,
,
, ,
.
,
- (1978),
( , '
). )
, -
, .
, - (Wheeler 1972)
-
, 'in the family circle, with ones
p e o p le [' , ]:
, ,
,
, . ,
,
( , ).
, ,
, ,
, . ... , ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
? ( 1964: 6062).
'Natashas illness was so serious that, fortunately for her and for her parents all
thought of what had caused it, of her conduct and the breaking off of the engagement,
receded into the background. ...W hat would have become of Sonya and the count and
countess if they had had nothing to do but look at Natasha, weak and fading away if
there had not been those pills to give by the clock, the warm drinks to prepare, the
chicken cutlets, and all the other details ordered by the doctors, which supplied occu
pation and consolation to all of them. T he stricter and more complicated the doctors
orders, the more comfort did those around her fin in carrying them out (Tolstoy
1930 1931:776778).

, ,
: ,
.
,
, .

, , ,
nearest and dearest '
,
, , ,
. -
, ,
,
:
Visiting relatives may be a nuisance '

.
,
, .
, , , ,
,
, ,
.
, , ,
, , .
-,
, .
/5.
,
, :
: ,
,
.
:
,
,
, ,

,

...
, !
'Perhaps you would like
to learn from me now
what kinsfolk means exactly?
Well, heres what kinsfolk are:
we are required to cosset them,
love them, esteem them cordially,
and, following popular custom,
at Christmas time, visit them,
or send them postal greetings,
so that the rest of the year
they will not think about us.
So grant them, God, long life!
(Pushkin 1975: 184),

,
, relatives
,
, ,
, :
, , ,
. ,
; : , ,
, . . ( 1970: 51).

,
,

.
( )
, -
.
, , ( 1994: 11),
,
(
, , ,
):
:
, .
: ... .
: ?
: , .
: . .
. .

, ,
, - ,
; ,
, - .
^/, ,
,
//.
,
]) .
, ,
, , ,
, ^.
, -

, --, -
--, .
,
1955 [1882]:
, ,
9.
,
,
, -
:

,
, .
one's people [] ,
- relatives,
. ,

(
), ones own people
,
ones own,
.
(.
) ; , (Wheeler 1972)
:
1. own (by blood relationship in direct line), 'ones brother (as oppos
ed to cousin, etc.) ' ( ),
(( . .);
2. native, e.g. 'native land', 'mother tongue '
, cmfmia, '-,
3. (as a form of address) (my) dear ( ) () .

,
, ,
- (
1955 [1882])*:

* , ,
( , ).
. .
13 .
, ,
, , ();
,
();
, . , , ().
( ) ,
,
. , ,
, , ,

( , ).

,
, ,
,
, *.

,
,
, .
, { ), ,
{ ), , {
, , , ),
( ), .

, . ,
, , ,

, ,
, .
, (
) ;
{)
(a) :
(b)
(c)
(1) -
() , .

* ,
., .
,
.
, , , -,
( , ). ,
, ,
...
(Bauer, Inkeies & Kluckholm 1956: 110),
, .
, ,
,

,
, 10.

4.
,
friend,
, (
).
pnyjaciel ( -
friend), kolega ( colleague, '
) znajomy (
znac. -
acquaintance '). ,
,
pal, chum buddy ( )
, ,
: friend acquaintance.
acqaintance
. ,
,
, . ,
:
She is an old acquaintance of mine ' ,
:
talked about it with an acquaintance of mine ,?
.
?I had a lunch with two acquaintances ,? .
znajomy ,
. .
przyjacitka, kolezanka majoma,
, ,
, friend,
, . ,
, , przyjaciel przyjacitka,
,
, -
.
,
(Wedel 1986) : , ,
, przyjaciele (
), koledzy ( , )
majorai () (103). : , ,
' ,
'
(112).
, , ,
(
) , (przyjaciel, kolega znajomy),
, ,
( friend), ,
( :
, , , , ). ,

, ,
, . ,

, , ,
,
, .
,
,
.
. (Caroll et al. 1971) friend
226 1 . , colleague6,
acquaintance 5,
( & Francis 1967)298, 32 9.
. (Kurcz 1990) przyjaciel ( przyjacitka)
132, kolega ( koleianka)242, a znajomy ( znajoma) 46.
( ),

. ,
,
friend
, colleague acquaintance ;
, (przyjaciel, kolega znajomy)
, ,
kolega .

4.1. K oledzy (. .) kolezanki (. .)


(Kosciuszko Foundation dictonary 195961)
kolega fellow companion; comrade, (in an institution
etc.) colleague; (among workers) mate; colloquial buddy [;
, ( . .) ; ( ) ;
].
: serdeczny (. ') kolega
chum [] kolega szkolny (. szkola ') classmate
[ ].

, kolega ,
colleague.
colleague ,
, ,
(
) ( ) .
friend, kolega
,
. ,
, ,
,
, przyjaciel.
kolega ,

, ,
, ,
.
, ,
koledzy (. .) kolezanki (. .)
,
, ,
; ,
, ; koledzy ,
. ,
, ,
() ( ).
koledzy
, classmates. ,
, koledzy ,
starszy kolega ( ' kolega', . .
); koledzy
. , ,
;
.

, 'koledzy
''.
, koledzy (),
,
,
,
,
, .
-
, koledzy
. ,
, - towarzysze w
meszcqsau, *koledzy w meszqmu. towarzysz,
,
,
,
, ,
, . koledzy z pracy 'koledzy
, koledzy z wojska 'koledzy , koledzy szkolm 'koledzy '
. ., towarzysze z pracy, z wojska ze szkoly ( ,
).
, ,
, , buddy chum,
, ,
kolega (
holes, kolega,
kolega,
,
buddy).
, chum buddy,
, kolega, ,
, : (
) ,
. ,
,
kolega.
-, buddy ,

( , ), kolega

, - .
chum
,
. ,
buddies churns, ,
: , buddies
buddies, a chums chums. , ,
koledzy ,
,
, .
,
, . ,
kolega , ,
,
. ( )
,
, kolega mhtwi kolega
, ,
11.
, , , kolega
. koledzy ,
,
:
koledzy
,
, , ' (

).
koledzy
,
, (
) ,
: ' .
:
() koledzy
(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(I) ,
(g) ,
(h) ,
(i) .
,
' / ,
, koledzy ,
, ,
. -
, ,
, (
).
: koledzy
( [d], [], [f]);
(i) ,
( koledzy) ,
, , .
,
koledzy z wojska 'koledzy koledzy ze studiw
koledzy ,
.
koledzy
, , ,
(Wedel 1986):
Koledzy ,
. Koledzy ,
. koledzy kolezanki (
koledzy) , ,
. Koledzy ,
. , koledzy kolezanki
; koledzy kolezanki ;
koledzy kolezanki ;
50 koledzy kolezanki ;
18 koledzy (105).

, , ,
koledzy :
koledzy kolezanki , ,
, ,
;
, ,
, oMzy-. Koledzy kolezanki
,
. koledzy przyjaciele ,
zalatwic sprawy [ ],
, . Koledzy
, ,
.
;

50- -
kolezanki ,
, .
, kolezanki, rodowisko.
62- koledzy
, (105 106).

, koledzy koleixmki
. , ,
,
:
,
. , kolezemtwo
( , kolega)
.
, ,
, ,
koledzy kolezzmki (
rodzinn, przyjac.iele znajomi), . ,
, , ,
,
(Davies 1984):

, , . ...
, ,
, . Kultura szlachecka ( )
.
,
\ ...
,
, . ,
,
,
, ;
,
,
; a kultura szlar.hec.ka , , ,

.
pan () ().
.

(331333).

( ).
, ,
, :
, ,
.
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
, , ,
'' ', .
,
, . -
,
,
. ''

(333).
, (
, )
koledzy ( kolezanki).
,

1980 1981 ., , ,
.
,
,
, ,
.
(Davies 1981): ,

, , -,
(724). ,
koledzy,
,
, .
kolega, , ,
colleague . ,

( ) ,
,
, -,
.
colleague (
, , )
, ,
kolega.
:
() colleagues
(a) :
(b)
(c) ,
(d)
()
( ,
(g) -
(h) , .

,
, , koledzy,
. , (d)
colleague, ()
, a (f) (g)
. ,
koledzy (. [d][f]
) (' ),
(' ,
) ,
, .
, colleagues , koledzy:

koledzy, , ,
former colleagues [ ], colleagues.
colleagues '
, koledzy
.
collgue (
collega)

kolega, ,
,
.
,
kolega
( ,
, , ).
(Wedel 1986), 'koledzy
, ,
,
:
,
. ,
, .
( ), -
.

, - .
, ... kokianki
() .
, .
,
(111).


,
(, Panie Profesorze '-
, Doktorze '- , Panie Inzynie.ru '- ,
Mecenasie '- , Naczelniku '- . .; ,,
, Boguslawski 1990),
tytulomania '.
,
.
, Panie Bracie, ,
, , ,
. kolega,
, : ,
-, ,
, , : ,
. , ,

4.2. P r z y ja c ie l ( )
przyjaael ( przyjaciolka)
- ,
. (Hoffman 1989),
-,
, :
, - . ,
, , , ,
. ,
, , , , .
, , ,
, ,
, .
friends [] acquaintan
ces [], ,
friend, ,
. Friend - , ,
, , a acquaintance ,
, ...
, , , (friend), ,
, . , ,
(148).

, ,
przyjaciel (.), przyjacilka (.) przyjain (
); , ,
, friend,
,
.
, przyjaciel , friend,
. ,
( Wedel 1986)
, ,
(friends) :
- (he is my best
friend), ,
. , ,
.
,
.
, .
przyjaele , ,
(104).


,
przyjaciel ( przyjacilka), ,
,
(SJP):
Mialem serdecznego przyjaciela, ktry, jak sqdz^, otwieral przede mnq swojq duszq
na osciez (Swi^tochowski). ' przyjaciel, , ,
;

Przyjazn prawdziwa tylko tarn istniec moze, gdzie pomiqdzy przyjacio)mi [przyjacidl-
mi] istnieje ustawiczne i nieprzerwane porozumenie (Kaczkowski). ' przy-
jazn () , przyjaciele
';
Nie lubila zwierze i nie miala pi zyjaciiki pomi^dzy kolezankami, z ktrymi zila na
stopie pewnej wyniosioci (Reymont). ' ,
pnyjaciika koleianki, ;
Zrb ze mnie swojq powiernic^, przyjacilkq: miej do mnie zaufanie, jak do wlasnej
matki (Sewer). , przyjaciika: ! ,
.

, .
, (Milosz 1972:147)
, :
Stosnuki nasze byly kordialne, ale nie zaslugiwaly na miao przyjazni. ProwadziliS-
my czasem zupelnie szczere rozmowy, organiczone jednak do polityki; inny wymiar,
ktry mnie interesowal, byl Ksaweremu obey. ,
(przyjaz).
, ; ,
, .

,
,
( friend)'.
(! ) p rz y ja c ie l/ przyjacilk/i
(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
(d) , - ,
(e)
(1) , ,
(g) , ,
(h) ,
(i)
(j)
(k) , .

, ,
, , ,

.
, , przyjaciel
{)
. ,
- rodzina ('), ,
; , ,
.
, - ,
, ,
. ,

!, ,
.
, ,
('') ,
(' ) (. . ')
]1.
.
; ,
, ,
(
, ). , ,
/,

. ,
(' ])
(
, ),
.
. 1
.
, , -,

, ,
, ,
12.

, , ,
,
. , , ,

, ,
.
() ,
.
4 .3 . Z n a jo m i ( ' )

Uklonil si? znajomym z daleka, bez zbytniey uprzejmoSci. (1953. SJP)


' znajomi , .
Wyszli razem, bo mial jq odprowadzic do parku, gdzie czekaly na nisj znajome.
(1949, SJP)
' , ,
znajome .
paru godzinach sp?dzonych w tym milym saloniku, gwarzyli juz z sobgjak starzy
znajomi. (1901, SJP)
' , ,-
znajomi.
Wszystkich przyjaciol i znajomych swoich, bez wzgl?du na wiek i plec, zaprosii do
siebie na bankiet, si? z nimi pozegnad. (1779, SJP)
' [przyjaciele] znajomi,
, , .
znajomi ( - ac
quaintances [] znac ')
, . . , .
'
.
( ),
znajomi -
friends, znajomi
- acquaintances. friends
, , , przyjaciel, acquaintance
, znajomi. , friends
,
przyjaciel znajomy, ,
-, .
, ,
,
,
przyjaciele znajomi
przyjaciele friends, a znajomi acquaintances. ,
, ,
friends acquaintances, ,
,
,
, , (my acquaintance ,
, mine acquaintance). ,
, ,
,

: acquaintances,
znajomi.
, ,
friend
acquaintance ( ),
: You understand that I am not their friend. I am
only a holiday acquaintance [ , .
] ( Websters third).
(Wedel 1986)
znajomi acquaintances, :
znajomi (acquaintances).
znajomi . ,
, , .
,
, , ,
.
, ,
(107).
. Rodzinn
bliskn najbhska (' ') daleka dahza
(' ' ), znajomi
dalecy dalsi ( ). ,
bliscy dobrzy (' '').
przyjaele, pnyja-
ciele, bliscy przyjaele ' przyjaele, dale.cy ftzyjaciele ('
przyjane,le')Vi. , znajmd
acquaintances ,
,
: bliscy znajomi dobrzy
znajomi, . , znajomi
friends, acquaintances.
, - dobrzy
znajomi ' znajomi' bliscy znajomi ' znajomi' ,
znajomi acquaintances znajomi
friends: good friends
close friends, good acquaintances close acquaintances.
, przyjadika,
majoma . -
kolezanka, ,
kolezanki, przyjadika, kolezanka
znajoma. ,
, -, , znajomi
,
, kolezanki.
, znajomi,
pnyjaele/przyjacilki koledzy/kolezanki .
majomi
Pan Pani,
. , przyjadele koledzy
ty, znajomi
Pan Pani.
, ,
. ,
,
,
,
, .
, ,
. ,
: Tadziu, Tadek, Tadeusz,
Panie Tadziu, Panie Tadku, Panie Tadeuszu, Panie Profesorze.
, ,
, .
, Tadziu
Panie Panie Tadziu ,
,
.
,
, ,
, -,

,
. . [] : ,
(Baraczak 1990:11).
, , ,
znajomi,
. ,
, ( przyjaciele
rodzma),
(. . znnjomi).
:
() znajomi
(a) : - :
(b)
(c) :
(d)
(e)
(f) ,
(g) ,
(h)

() (),
() (f).
() , znajomi ,
, ,
, (f)

.
,
'acquaintance'
. , -, ,
,
znajomi ; -,
'acquaintance
, znajomi . Znajomi,
acquaintances, ,

.
przyjaciel, znajomy -
,
; , ,
, , ,
. przyjaciel, znajomi
(' ,
); , , ,
( ) ('
, ).
, znajomi

, , '
, :
*Znajomi! *Znajomi!
*Przyjaciele i znajomi!
' !
?* jest m6j znajomy X.
' znajomy X.
znajomi koledzy
przyjaciet
. znajomi -
,
koledzy, ,
,
.

. przyjaael (
przyjaciotka), (
Kurcz 1990) (78 vs. 72), znajonu
(14 vs. 32). (
,
,
.)
, , : , ,
' ,

(1986: 112), znajomi ,
.
,
znajomi , ,
, znajo-
mosci, (
), .
, (
) znajomi (
przyjaciele koledzy).
- znajomi , ,
, (
), . .,

, ,
- .
,
.

4.4. Rodzina (')


rodzina, , ,
, ,
(Wedel 1986: 103), ,

, .
rodzina -
, , , ,
family ':
,
, , ,
, , ,
, .
,
. ,
(Wedel 1986: 99).
najbliisza
rodzina dalsza rodzina ' ,

rodzina family. rodzina
,
.
rodzina rodzina, rodzina

; ,
rodzina. najbliisza rodzina (' rodzina'),
, , ,
.
close friends '
friends ': closefriends
friends, najbliisza rodzina
rodzina. , immediate family
' family,
, , -, ,
,
.
, extended
family ' nuclear family '
, ,
immediate family '
,
(,
, chse friends)-,
family, ,
, ,
.
rodzina
,
, . najblizsza rodzina
,
close friends ;
najblizsza, close ,

. (Wedel 1986), -
dzina ( family) ,
, :
,
.

?- .
, . .
?
, , . .
, , , .
(99).

:
,
. ,
rodzina, ,
,najblizsza rodzina.
, , dabza rodzina '
, extended f amily '-
, a relatives ''. ,
rodzina
,
, relatives
( relatives ,
krewni).
, , ,
(. Berlin & Kay 1969), rodzina family
. family
,
, rodzina

.

(Wanda Chotoniska 1967)
,
, zona (), stiyjek (), ciotki
() dziadek (). :
,
rodzina, .
rodzina family ,
(, ,
),
, , . , family

(, we want to have a family ' (.
)), rodzina
. , rodzina
z ' - .
z dobrej rodnny ' :
, , (boy
friend) - :
? ?...
,
.
... ,
.
, ,
, .
: , , '
, ?

, .
, ,
,
(W edel 1986: 152 153).

rodzina ojcyzna ('


): ,
.
(
)
rodzina
fam ily :
rodzina (-)


, , ,
-
X
-

Xs family
,

, , ,
-
X
- .

4.5.
, rodzina (' '
),
(przyjaciel, kolega znajomy).
, {/rzyjaciel
friend\ (
friend}). znajomy,
( Bekannte),
,
,
friends acquaintances, , , .
1^, (
,
), ,
, , , -
,
14.

5. Mate


, , ,
mate. XIX
, mate
, ,
; ,
, , mate
.
,
. ,
(., , Bell 1973, Kapferer 1988,
Ernst 1990).
(
, Daley 8 Clyde 1995):
And I liked hanging out with my mates. We were the cool cats at school and at
lunch time wed be left alone by the other kids to meet on the back oval to do our own
thing, which was to play sport '
(mates). ,
,
, ;
I wasnt a big television viewer. Id prefer to be outdoors with my mates doing
whatever came naturally, such as swimming at the creek, playing footy and listening to
my music at night, that imitate a couch potato '
. (mates),
, , : ,
, , ;
It has certainly been a huge roller coaster ride, but I reckon Ive been fortunate to
come through it all with a bloke who is a true mate, solid and strong. ...Apart from
being considered one of the games top players, Laurie Daley is also one of the most
popular blokes to have laced on a pair of boots. The fans love him simply because,
despite his success, he was never once put himself above them... hes the peoples
person and gives a lot of himself.
Lozza, youre a champion and 1 take my hat ofF to you15.
', , *, ,
, ,
(mate), . ... ,
,
, - .
, , , ,
... .
, , ;
No bones about it, a strong team spirit can help win games because a side whose
players play for one another is a pretty lough unit to crack. And not only that, 1 find
the will to win for your mates is also a pretty reliable pick-me-up when tiredness sets in
late in a match and your thoughts stray ' ,
, ,
- . , ,
(mates) -
,
;
About the best tribute 1 can oiler Brad Clyde is to say I think of him as a good
mate... he is someone I like to have a mag and beer with, and I am pretty sure thats
how it will always be , ,
, , (mate)...
, ,
, .

,
mateship ( ):
, ,
-, , , ,
,
.
,
**, ,
() ,

*. . , , , ,
. . .
** ,
,
. .
.
(Ward 1966 [1958]),
,
. (
),
, ,
:

, , , . .,
, , ,
.

, , , ,
,
(

,
XIX
, 'mateship:
...
mateship,
.
,
,
(Spence 1909,
TAND; ).

XX
, ,
mateship.
, mate
. ,
male

, . :
Sarah, do you know Susan Parker? 'Capa, ?'
Susan? Shes best mate! '? !
( 1995 .).

, ,
,
(mateship) (Kapferer 1988: 158).
,
, . : ,
, [. , -
] : '
, , , ,
, , (mateship) ,
(1983, Wil
kes 1985 [1978]: 268). ,
( -), 1988 .,

, ...
, ,
(mateship)
(cp. Ernst 1990: 110).
,
,
XX , ,
.
mate
(mateship)
,
(ideological parti pris),
, (Horne 1989: 183)
(
5.5).
, mateship
,
, ,
, .
mateship (
) (bonded (male) comradeship)
;
( 'comrade
[', ] ').
, , ,
'mate comrade ,
'camarade,
, kolega, , ,
, -
' . , ,
-
,
.
Mateship bonded m ale camaraderie ['
] ( ),
,
.
m ateship
, mate ;
,
, 16.
mate,
m ateship,
,
.
River banks were grassy grassy in the bends,
Running through the land where mateship never ends.
'
,
,
(mateship)
(. , 1913);
But nevermore shall I forget, not though I live forever,
The days when we in mateship met along the Moonie River.
' , ,
, (in mateship)
-
(. , *, 1915);

So mateship became the lonely poets watchword, and he made it the watchword of
Australia (mateship) ,
( , . , 1931);

The one compensating aspect of life as then lived was the element of mateship
, ,
(mateship) (, 1935).

:
,
(mateship) , , -

* . , .
( ;
Wilkes 1978);
(mateship)
,
[] .
,
, ,
(Ernst 1990; 110);
,
(mateship) ( ,
, , 11 1995).

5.1. mate
(TAND)
, , ()
mate. ,
, .
TAND 1 : equal partn
er in an enterprise. Also working mate ['
. ]. viate
: to go mates ( ,
TAND, to work as an equal partner [
']). , TAND
: Wanting mate to go
rabbiting [' ].
,
mate, :
These men when they contract to do heavy work, as clearing, fencing, etc., almost
always do it in parties of two, or more, being prompted to this in the first place by the
hardness of the work, which a man cannot face alone, requiring always their assistance
neighbours, or 'mates, or 'partners, as they are severally called, even in the minute
details ' , , ,
. ., ,
, , ,
, '
', '', '', - (1838);
Two generally travel together, who are called mates; they are partners, and divide
all their earnings ' ,
(mates); (1845);
Two working mates occupy the same tent if working together '
, (1859);
A 'mate' was a mateshare and share alike, no matter how bad might be the times
"1 '' ,
(1887);
1 have alluded several times to 'partners, or mates, which was the more popular
term. These partnerships were quite common amongst carriers and diggers in bygone
days. It was simply chums, owning and sharing every-thing in common, and without
any agreement, written or otherwise ' ,
(mates), .
.
,
, - (1921).
, mate
(. . male.\) :
() mate)
(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
(d) .,
(e)
( ,
(g) ,
(h)
(i) ,
(j)
(k) : .
() mates|, (f) ,
, (g) (h)
, a (i) ; () ,
(, , );
(d) ,
; () ,
,
; ()
; () ,
.
, ,
mate- ,
, -
.
, ,
, ,
,

,
(. Ward 1966 [1958]: 109). mate
, , ,
nwiifi-
rfiate,
, ,
.

5.2. M a te 2 : matey mate%i


TAND, mate acquaintance;
person engaged in the same activity ['; ,
]. , mate2
-,
, . TAND
, .
,
. mates

mates ,
; ,
,
(, );
We told him our mates were gone and that we had heard two shots fired '
, (mates)
(1841);
Boasting, among his mates in the bush ' (mates)
(1849);
Kipper Tommy was... acknowledged by his mates to be the crack driver of the
district ... (mates)
(1879);
Covered with large green ants... how they stang! and how my dusky mates laughed!
... !
(mates)! (1911);
14.
The boy had joined his mates in one of the little cemeteries on the Western front
' (mates)
! (1919);

Seventeen of our mates were killed in the mining industry last year '
(mates) ' (1934);

The old soldiers watch him, look around their mates and dont listen '
, (mates)
(1971).

Mates, ,'
, (
TAND), , ( ,
). ,
(
); , mates,
, .
, ,
TAND,
mate
3, viateskip. ,
, ,
TAND, mate3,
, mate2.
()
, mate, (
XIX mate |, . . (<?-);
, (mate$,
TAND) , TAND
mate2.

TAND . ,
- (ones co-workers)
,
(special mates), (good
mates), - (mates-riends).
mate 1,
(
), mate3,
( ,
).
5.3. Mates mateship
mate,

mateship (male$, TAND), ,
TAND , ,
, ' ' (one with whom the
bonds of close friendship are acknowledged, a 'sworn friend).
, mate ( )
.
, mateship, ,
, friendship [''] dose friendship ['
], ,
(friendship mateship) -.
, mateship (friendship)
(comradeship) (Kapferer 1988:
158159). .
Where his mate was his sworn friend through good and evel report, in sickness and
health, in poverty and plenty, where his horse was his comrade, and his dog hid com
panion, the bushm an lived the life he loved. ', mate
, , ,
, , ,
(1891),
No matter what you do, your Australian mate will defend you 'A mate can do no
wrong ' , mate mate
(1965);
He's me mate. I gotta help im he stated simply and incontrovertibly. ...T here was
no answer to that, G unner knew: the outcome of this incident had been predeterm ined
by the peculiar chemistry of compatibility, by social mores and by the almost tribal ties
of marriage, all pledged with countless beers. It was personal, traditional, and deeply
masculine. ' mate.
... , :
,
,
. ,
- (1977).
mate
, - (
matei),
, ', .
, -
, , ,
.
Mte-
-
- , ()
( ). , ^-
,
, ,
,
.
()
, ,
,
, , ,
,
.
, , - ,
(
- ).
There was mateship, sharing a billy of bitter-black tea, a smoke and a yarn '
(mateship), , -
, ( , 1985; Wil
kes 1985.)
, having a yarn ['
] ( , . 5*),
- (
), .



: .
,
,
. , 17 (Hawkes 1990: 60).
, good, mates
' mates', best mates ' mates old mates ' mates,
dose mates ' mates' ( close
friends [ ]). , mate-

Understanding Cultures through their Key., rupee.


ship
(
), ,
( ),
, (,
). :
Alf: Wack and me are old mates. At the war together. (...)
Mum: 'Es never got married. 'Es never 'ad no one.
Wacka: Ive had youse.
ALF: You said it, Wack, what dymean 'e never had no one? We bin mates for
years. Ive looked after him, havent I, Wack? I seen 'm through. ...What 1 cn work
out, my old man seen 'im through the first show [i. e. WW1], 1 looked after him all
through the last lot.
: . . (...)
: . .
: .
: , , ?
. , , ? . ...
[. .
],
(Seymour 1962: 3233)

matey ,
; mate (mate$)
(, ,
). (
):
A. {mate i)
(a)
(b) ,
(c)
(cl) - ,
() ,
(1)

. (mates)
(a) ,
(b ) ,
(c) .


mates (, ),
, ,
() , () '
() ' .
, ( mates-
) mates
.
, , , .
(. . ^-) mates
, ,
( , , ). ,
, ,
-
.
, mateship
friendship , friendship
, mateship
, >
.
mateship, ,
, . (
, ,
, , mates,

mateship , .)
- -,
mate 1, mate,
('
, )
( , ).
,
mate,
(mate$y.
Xis mate-iX mate-i'
: - :

,
,

,
:
(-).
( ;
.)
, mite (
mate.\ mate)
( ),
,
,
.
('/ )
.
mate ( quasi-friend)
(TAND ,
1928 1930 .), ,
mate
(
).
, ,
,
mate, ,
, mateship:
mate is always a man. A female may be my sheila, my bird, my charley, my
good sort, my hot-drop, my judy or my wife, but she is never my mate My mate
[ mate] . ,
, , , ,
, mate (I960, ,
Wilkes 1985).
, , ,

1840 .
(Baker 1970: 121), ,
, 'm ate
'mateship,
, ,

, .
, ,
(mates),
mate:
, mate ()
, ,
(a mate
or mates), :
A mate in Australia is simply that which a bloke must have around him. Mates do
not necessarily want to know you 'Mate ,
. , mates (1972,
. , Knockers 52, TAN D).
The male who hasn't a male mate is a lonely man indeed, or a strange man, though
he have a wife and family ', ,
,
(1913, . , noTAND).
:
It is necessary to have good mates ' '
(Hawkes 1990:52).
(o f a mans mate')
,
.
Stevie is more to me than a man is to a girlyes, 1 know you grin at that, but you
dont rightly know what men are to each other out here. He's my matewere mates,
and good mates , ,,
, , -,
. ,
(1917, . ).
Youve been a good mate and a man cant say more than that '
, , (1948,
. 1|).
(mate)
, .

5.4. mate
, (
mate j, . . mate-) mate
,
mateship ,
, . ,
, ,
(the American ideal of
self-reliance), ,
,
,
.
, :
,

, (Renwick 1980: 16).

, :

,
. ...
,
mateship. - ,
, ,
.
(spirit of mateship), ,
(were in this thing together). ...
, , ,
(to his mate) .
, (Ren
wick 1980: 17 18).

, ,
,
,
.
(Ward 1966 [1958}):
,
, - .
(
) ,
,
, ,
. (fellows)
, ,
, ,
. ' ,
,
' ,
. ,
noce-
, , - , -
(226227).
(Bell
1973), ( Turner 1968): ,
,
.
(Bell 1973: 5).
( ), mate-
ship ,


, ,
(Ward 1966 [1958]: 227).
(mateship)
:
They tramp in mateship side by side
The Protestant and Roman
They called no biped lord or sir,
And touch their hat to no man!
' , (in mateship),


,
!*
mate
,
:
.
, mate
, kolega
, ,
: .

, Barry and his mates [
] and a few old mates of mine [

* . . : , / , I
/ . / Chiu , /
, / / ., .
], ,
:
: - :
.

, mate
, . ,
,
, . ,
Abos sheilas (. .
, ., , H orn 1989: 184),
(., , M edding 1973),
, , ,
, ,
, ,
( , , ).
,
OEDS:
When the diggers address a policeman in uniform they always call him 'Sir', but
they always address a fellow in a blue shirt with a carbine as Mate'. Mate is the o rd in
ary popular form of allocution in these colonies ' *
, Sir,
Mate. Mate
(1852).

, , mate
, mate,
, , mate
,
. mate ,
,
[like a mate],
, , (a real mate).

(mateH sir) ,
: , ( )
, .
,

* {. , . . )
. , ..
. ,
:
,
(a mates shovel),
, -
'' (Garvin 1988: 38).
,

(mateship),
, : ( 1 )
( koledzy), (2 )
, ( ),
(3) , (4)
, (5) .

:
,
- ,
-

,
, .

() , mates
,
(
).
,
. '
' - ,
, -
(two
aspects of mates mutual support). :
, -
, - (a man) ,
, mate
(Garvin 1988: 38).
mates,
, ,
, ,
( , mate).


mate mateship, , ,
,
mate. ,
,
,
- ,
- . ,
( TAND), mate can do wrong (mate
), ,
(the idea of dobbing a mate in) (cp. 5*)
(ones fellow workers), scab (. .
), mateship.
,

, solidarity
, mutual support ' , loyalty
sticking to one another through thick and thin
; ,

, -
, koledzy, .

, : , ,

, , ,
.

, []
mateship (Ward 1958: 77).
. ,
:
mates
(188). ,
, ,
(ones companions) , ,
. [ ] - [
] -, ,

* Understanding Cultures through their Key.. .



(mateship). mate-
ship ,
:

,
, - ,
,
loyalty
,
, scab dob in ', ;
,
'mate.
,
mates. ,
[to rubbish ones mates] (. e.
) ,
( ),
, ,
.
,
mates, ,
, - .

(dobbing a mate in), . . ,
- -
(, , ) , ,
.
'mateship
[Australian psyche], (Hornadge 1980)
,
(1926):
What is a mate nowadays? Somebody you can rely on-through thick, thin and
middling; past hell and high water. Like the mariners compass he always points north
to you. In any trouble, you always know what he will do, without argument; because,
since he is your mate, it is exactly what you would do yourself. Your mate is indeed
yourself in another fellow's skin ' mate ? ,
, ;
. , , .
, , ; ,
(mate), , . mate
(129).


(mates), mate,
, .

' ,
, ,
,
, mates . mates

, . ,

mateship.
mate
good mate,
, Jack is a good mate
of Bill [' ], Jack is a good
mate [' ]. :
Old Sam, born and reared in the bush, a good mate and bushman ' ,
, ' (1968,
OEDS).

,
(good mate)
.
XIX ,
:
At this time I was mates with a young fellow called, Jim Smith, a good enough lad as
a mate ' (mates) ,
, (1880, OEDS).

, , (good
mate) , ,
, , ,
,
, .
,
,
, - (mates),

, - 18.
great mates ' . :
An obelisk in the Jewish section of the Melbourne General Cemetery records the
names of those who fought for Australia in the 1914 War. Many of them trained in the
Faraday Street School cadets. They asssimilated the lessonsof patriotism and were great
mates '
, 1914 .
-.
(1974, , OEDS)
- [mate] (, ,
) ,
ad hoc, :
Poor old Joe! Too much courage and too little brain... A grand mate, though
! . ...,
, (1953, Wilkes 1978)
mateship, ,
, .
:
() mate
(a) : - :
(b)
(c) ,
(d) ,
(e)
( ,
(g)
(h) - ,
-
(
(i) ,
,
(j)

(k) , *

(l) tie , -

()
() ,
,
() .
() , mate
,
, ()
, ()
(companionship), (d) ()
, (t) . (g)
(mates)
, (h)
(i) .
(j), () (1), ,
,
- . ()
. (),
mateship,
, -
,
,
. , () ,
mate ,
.
()
,
, ,
old ( old mate of mine ['
]) , , ,
() ,
, ,
.
mate,
TAND
( mat-), mate2
mate3. ,
TAND
mate2 :
The boy had joined his mates in one of the little cemeteries on the Western front.

Seventeen of our mates were killed in the mining industry last year.

-
vates ,
mate$, :
He's me mate. I gotta help in ' . (1977,
).
TAND
mate2 mate$ : mate$
- (personal friends),
mate< ( )
(fellow-workers),
(fellow-sportsmen), (fellow-soldiers),
.

,
(personal friends)
( ).
mate
.
, ,
,
, ,
(mates).
, ,
, :
Old mates blokes who've known each other for H), 20, 30 years, who've played
together, got drunk together, been best man at each others wedddings have thrown
down the gloves and they're going for each others throats. Its shocking '
, , 10, 20, 30 , ,
, ,
. (Jamrozik 1995: 36).

(mates), ,
,
,
, ,

.
, -
mates mates mates,
-
. mates
, friend. mate
, .

mates mates mateship ,
,
:
Shearing to me is the mates Ive made. ...There is no greater mateship in any
industry in Australia ' [] ,
. ...
(1984, [], noTAND).
mateship
best mates ['
] great mates [' ],
, ,
, , ,

19.

5.5. (m a te s h ip )?

mateship
, ,

,
.
, ( 1989),
(Thompson
1994). ( ),
mateship - :
... [XIX] [ mate] ,
mateship,
. ,

. ,
() ,
,
. 90-
, XIX
; *
(camaraderie of soldiers) -

. . ., .
; ,
(mateship) -
(183).
,
(mateship) ,
, , ,
. Mateship , , ,

( ):
(mateship)
,
. mateship , ,
, , , .
, (mateship)
.
, (35);
,
(252);
, ,
,
, , -
(215).

, , ,
mateship :
,
.
, , ,
, ,
. -
, (.
Wimbush & Alekseev 1982), ,
, rice-eyes ' {. -
), slit-eyes , slant-eyes (cp. Dean 1985);
(
) , .wog , dago greaso*.

* , ; grease
, .
. .
greaser
,
, ,
,
bitch '', doll ' . mate, mateship
.
,

(mateship), ,
.
mateship
.
, mateship ( )
' '
. '
.
,
,
vate,
. (

plate for mate [
], 1991 .)
, mate
,
,
,
. (, ,
,
, ,
.)
, (mateship)
.

. , , ,
mate, 'friend 'comrade, ,

,
, . (...)

, , , grease-ball
, , ., .
6.

, , ,
, , ,
.
, ,

, , (
) .
, (friendship), ,
,
(, , Sage
).
, friend friendship,

,
.
, ,
(human friendships),
,
,
(Serpell 1989: 116).
, ,
, , ,
? ,
, , 'friend?
,
(Allan 1979):
... (friendship) ,
,
- (38);
(friend relationships)
, .
,
(40);
, (friendship) ,
, , .
-, -
(41);
... ..., ,
(43).
,
friend .
, , koledzy,
mates
, ,
- ; , koledzy,
mates ,
, friends.
,
. friends ,
koledzy, mates ,
- .
, ,
,
,
. , ,
, ( friend is a person
with whom I may be sincere), :
, (better be a nettle in the side of your
friend than his echo),
(friend) .
przyjaciel
. , ,
(Allan 1979) (
), ,

. ,
- .
, ,
,
, friend friendship,
,
- .
, , :
(Deep friends love one another)
, ,
(Thomas 1987: 217).
? friend?
- , friend ,
. ( close
friends [ ], old friends [ ], good
friends [ ] best friends [ ],
deep friends [ ].) ?

, , -,
,
, .
,
,
, (friendships of
pleasure), (friendships of conve
nience) (companion friendship),
,
,
. ,
,
(215).
,
? -
,
. ,
friend,
,
- .
, ,
, ,
mate, ,

.

.
, ,
, , friend, mate, kolega, -
}. , ,
,
,

, .

(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
() , ,
() , ,
(() ,

() ,
() ,
(

(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
((1)
() ,
(!) ,

()
(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
()
() (
- )
( :
() -
() , ,
() , ,
( , ,
(k)
(l) - ,

() ,
() ,

()
()
(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
(!)
()
(!)
, - ,

() , - ,

(1) , - ,

0) ,
(k) :
(l)
()
(a) : - :
(b )
(c) ,
(!) ,
() ,
(!)

() I
(a) : - :
(b )
(c) ,
() ,
() , ,
,
(0 ,
-
()

^
(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
(<1) ,
() ,

(1) - ,

(g) -
(h)
(i) ,
(j)
()
(a) :
(b)
(c)
(d) -
(e) ,
(m u ) koledzy
(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
( ,
(g) ,
(h) ,
(i)

() colleagues
(a) :
(b)
(c) ,
(d)
(e)
(f) ,
(g) -
(h) ,

(/) przyjaciel/ przyjaciolka


(a) : - :
(b )
(c)
(d) , - ,
(e)
( , ,
(g) , ,
(h) ,
(i)
(j)
(k) ,
() znajomi
(a) ; - :
(b )
(c) ;
(d)
(e)
(f) ,
(g) ,
(h)

rodzina (-)
(a)
( b)
(c) , , ,
-
(d) X
(e) -
(

X*s family
(a) ,
( b )
(c) , , ,
-
(d) X
(e) -

()
(a) : - :
(b)
(c)
(d) ,

(e)
( ,
(g) ,
(h)
(i) ,
(j)
(k) :

() mate
(a) : - :
(b)
(c) ,
,
()
,

() - ,
-

,
,


(.) ,

(1) , -

()
() ,

()
,
3.
: ,
,

1. '

,
. ,
.

. ,
,
,

, ,

1.
, ,
, bail [',
], warrant [], custody ['], 'solipsism ['],
'determinism ['], 'parliament ['], oath ['
] 'democracy ['], .
, ,
freedom ', justice ';
truth '; , .
,
,
, . .

(. Langacker 1987, 1990).
, , ,
, (
- -
; ., , Johnson 1980). free
dom . ,
,
. , ,
- . ,
, ,
,
,
freedom ( ), libertas ( ) (
), ,
,
,
2.
,
freedom, : 'libertas' ( ), 'liberty
( ), ' ' ( ) 'wolnosc (
).
,
, , ', , '.

2. L ib e r ta s

,
libertas 'liber, . . ,
; ,
(Wirszubski 1950: 1). ,
, libertas, ,
(Paradoxa Stoicorum; Lewis and
Short 1962):
quid est enim libertas? potestas vivendi ut velis
' lib e r ta s ? , '.
,
, , ,
. , ,
liber
. ,
,
(Wirszubski 1950: 7).
, -
licentia, libertas
, a licentia .
( Wirszubski 1950: 6):
Illa vtus (Graecia)... hoc una malo concidit, librtate immoderata ac licentia contio-
num (, Pro Flacco, 16).
' ... : libertas licentia .
Licentia plebis sine modo libertatem exercensis (, XX1I1, 2, 1).
' , libertas .
, ,
libertas potestm vivendi ut velis (' ,
), , libertas
(libeitas in legibis consista-, De Legibus,
Wirszubski 1950: 87).
(
, Oxford Latin Dictionary)-.
. ..sibi libertatem censet Graeci datam, ut Graeci inter se disceptent suis legibus (
, pistulae ad Atticum).
... libertas
.
,
; . ,
libertas (
), ,
. 'libertas
, ,

( ,
- ).
, libertas, -
, , (Berlin 1969) (
freedom liberty)
(the notion of positive liberty): '
('liberty)
. ,
,
. ,
(131).
(Taylor 1982) :
,

. ,
,
.
(213). - , , ,
, - ,
, . libertas
(. Johnson 1980):
Quae sit libertas? Nulli rei servir, nulii necessitate, nulli casibus, forlunam in aec-
quum deducere (, Epistulae ad Lucilium, no Stevenson 1958: 723).
'What is freedom? It means not being a slave to any circumstance, to any constraint,
to any chance; it means compelling Fortune to enter the lists on equal terms
( )
[' ? ,
, ; (. .
)].

, ,
'libertas
:
libertan
(a) (X) :
(b) , ,
(c) , - :
, ,
(d) -.

() (), , ,
-
, ; (d) ,
,
, , ,
, (Lewis and Short 1962).

, libertatem dare ' , berteuern
, se in libertatem vindicare , favor libertatis
.

libertas ,
, .
( Oxford Latin Dictio
nary 1968 1982):
IS .
summa libertatis in oratione, multae facetiae (, Brutus).
' tiberios , .
nimia libertas in adulescentia (, pro Caelio).
' libertas .
omnium rerum impunitam libertatem tenere (, De oratore).
' libertas .
tanta librtate verborum (, Epistulae ad Familiares).
' libertas (. . , ).
, libertas

,
. , , ,
:
libertas2
(a) (X) :
(b) , ,
(c) :
, - ,
.

3. F reedom

, ,
freedom, ,
libertas.
.
libertas freedom
.
, freedom of speech ' ; .
,
(a freedom of words '.
); -
*freedom maintained with impunity '.
. , *exerase freedom '.
, () libertatem
(.), . - exercise
power ' exercise one's rights '
, exercise freedom. , free-
dont libertas. , , freedom from per
secution freedom from tyranny '
( ),
*libertas ab insectatione *lihertas ab dominatione,
libertas ()
.
,

freedom.
. -, ,
; - ,
.
:
freedom =>
- , .

,
libertas
- liberty (
, , , ).
freedom
,
. , ,

freedom liberty. ,
,
,
freedom, liberty
libertas,
,
- . ,
freedom liberty,
, ,
. , ,
, :
,
.
,
.
, ,
(Berlin 1969: 122123).
,
' ('freedom') .
:
, ... ,
(Hobbes 1923), ,
, :
... ,
, ... -;
, . ... '
,
, , ,
, ' ().
''
(126127).
, from ' (liberty
from [ ]. , liberty
from , -,
, freedom 3.
freedom, libertas,
liberty, ,
, '
(libertaslliberty), -
: , freedom,
.
:
freedom
(a) (X) :
(b) - ,
(c) : ,

(d) - ,
(e) : ,

(f) -
(g) , - .

,
, , libertas freedom,
, ,
. , ,
free of tax ' free of tourists '-
,
, ,
kind ', courageous ', , honest ''
just '. , , (
, , Sommerville 1962), free (is free
of) . Free
(' , ),
(' ,
-). free from 1 , Z
X -
(free) 4.
(Taylor 1982)
(, freedom)

. ,
,
, ,
, , -
(213).
libertas freedom
.
libertas:
, ,

,
freedom:
(a) - ,
(b) - ,

. ,
,
: ' - , ,
, ,
() () .
: In this then
consists freedom, in our being able to act, or not to act, as we shall choose,
or will [
,
] ( , OED).
freedom
libertas ( libertas? -
, ) ,
:
libertas , , ,
freedom ,
, , . ,
, ,
(' :
, , '
: , )5.
freedom
, ,
: -
-. (freedom OF) ('freedom )
- , (freedom of action),
(freedom of trade), (freedom to
emigrate) . ., (freedom FROM) -
. freedom from
,
,
, . , OED
, :
Though age h orn folly could not give me freedom,
It does from childishnesse (, 1606)
[ ,
] ;

Promising to the doers long life, health..., freedom from losses, and the like '
, , , ...,
(, 1614);
The contemplation of our own freedom from the evils which we see represented '
!,i , ' (, 1756).


*freedomfrom folly, childishness, losses evils. He
*freedomfrom illness ' , death, ', stupidity '-
, injustice ' neglect '.
, freedom from persecution '
, harassment ', oppression ', 1

* . . : , /
.. .
', coercion , external control '
interruption , :
This isolation, though it had, as Wittgenstein anticipated, 'great disadvantages, was
necessary if we were to enjoy the freedom from interruption he thouhgt essential for
his work ' , , '
, ,
, (Monk 1991, 525).

-, :
freedom from X , X ,
,
, , , .
freedom from
X ,
, ,
freedom from hunger '
freedom from poverty .
:
, , X (
, . .). , ,
,
, , . *freedom
from illness , ,
,

.
(four freedoms) :
In the future days... we look forward to a world founded upon four essential
human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression... The second is
freedom of every person to worship God in his own way. ...The third is freedom from
want... The fourth is freedom from fear ,
, .
...
-. ... ...
( OED).

,
, ; ,
(freedom from fear)
,

,
. (1690, OED);
The m odern spirit o f liberty is the love o f individual in d ep en d en ce [

].
, freedom
,
- . -
, ,

.
: ,
-, , , ,
, .
, , ,
: {freedom) ,
('
), (', -
). 'fre e d o m '
;
freedom liberty
.

4. L ib e r ty

(the Statue o f Liberty)


. (liberty),
X V II X V III , - ,
,
.
1788 . : Liberty, w hen it begins to take
root, is a plant o f rapid growth [,
, ] ( Steven
son 1958: 1104). XV11I
, ,
,
: The sun o f liberty is set; you m ight light u p th e candle o f indust
ry and economy [ ;
] ( Stevenson
1958: 1004).
liberty ( ) ,
freedom ( ).
XVIII liberty, libertos
( libert),
, , ,
, liberty ,
(. Tocqueville 1953 [1935 1840]). -
, , , ,
liberty
( ).
, liberty ,
:
100 liberty 1 ,
COBUILD 100
liberty 10 , Liberty
L ( Liberty Road [ ] Statue of Liber
ty), 100 liberty 20 6.
liberty Liberty (100:122) ,
,
.
,
(
) , ,
'freedom ,
freedom ,
,
,
. , liberty
, . freedom
, , ,
, liberty
,
, .
liberty,
,
, , :
So loving-jealous of his liberty ' -
(, , Stevenson 1958).*;

* . . -: .
, .
Mans liberty ends, and it ought to end, when that liberty becomes the curse of his
neighbours ' ,
( ,
, Stevenson 1958);
The liberty of the individual must be thus far limited; he must not make himself a
nuisance to other people '
: (
, , Stevenson 1958);
1 enjoy large liberty to round this Globe of Earth '
(, 1671, OED).
'freedom'
'liberty
; freedom of speech ' liberty of the tongue
' , :
John the Baptist, whom Herod had beheaded for the libertie of his tongue '
, ( , 1558,
OED).
freedom of speech ,
, . ,
liberty of the tongue , ,
, .
liberty
:
liberty ()
(a) (X) :
(b) - ,
(c) :
(d) - :
(e) - .
liberty,
OED, . , ,
:
You have my full liberty [*freedom] to publish them '
( , , 1749).

liberty
- ,
.
:
:
,
:
- : '
- .
, freedom
. :
Youthful men, who give their eyes the liberty of gazing ' ,
(, , 1590,
0ED)*.
liberty (of)
permission (to) ' ',
: liberty , , ,
, , -
.
Bid him come and wait for the liberty [*freedom] to talk '
, ( , 1833;
OED).
Some particular matters, which 1 am not at liberty to report '
, ( , , 109,
1709, OED).

, not
at liberty ' ,
, - .
, to take the liberty ',
(. ) ,
, -
, - ,
:
I will... take the liberty to give them ... my opinion ' ...
... ( , 1818, OED).

to take the liberty


,
liberty. ,
-

* . . : , /
. , .
, .
, ,
liberty, ,
, ,
. :
The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people
everywhere march with you ' .
( .
, , 6 1944 ., D, Bloomsbu
ry 1991);

1 would remind you that extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice '
, ( ,
1964, Bloomsbury 1991);
In totalitarian states there is no liberty of expression for writers and no liberty of
choice for their leaders '
( ,
Merriam-Webster 1972).

,
liberty ( man'a liberty his liberty
).

: 23 % liberty
(23 83),
COBUILD 5 % (12 222, Liberty
). Liberty
,
, (12 100 ; 3
12 liberty of the subject
' ).
. liberty
, ,

.
, liberty () ,
, , ,
, justice ' brotherhood '7.

, ,
. , : Johns honesty is not in ques-
tion [ ],
: Johns justice is not in question [
] ( Gods justice [
] ).
,
:
Of a truth, m en are mystically united: a mysterious bond of brotherhood makes all
men one ' ,
( , , Stevenson 1958);
T h e crest and crowning of all good,
Lifes final star, is B rotherhood.
[ ,
]
( , , Stevenson 1958).

, -,
,
, (
, ). Liberty
.
:
liberty ()
(a) :
(b ) - , , ,

(c) : ,

(d) : .

, liberty

, , ,
;
, liberty
, ('
- , , ,
).
(XVII ) , liberty
, , : liberty to do that only
which is good, just, and honest [ , ,
] ( Stevenson 1958).
5. f r e e d o m
, freedom
,
.
freedom, -, liberty,
, ,
, -,
, :
They died for the Libertie and Freedom of their Cittie.
( , 1606, no OED)
[ ].

freedom, ,
( OED):
1. Alexander of Macedn... shall rule powerfully and with great freedom and abso
luteness ' ...
(. , 1633).
freedom

; ,
, , ,
, -
.
2. would not pe mit Merchants and Sea-men to enjoy a freedom ofthat Sea...
but at an extraordinarie rate '
... (, 1652).

enjoy a freedom ofthat Sea [


]
,
, , -,
, , .
3. Having conferred on you the freedom of the library, he will not concern himself
by observing how you use it ,
, ' (, 1862).

,
freedom ,
,
freedom permit
( ).
(2 3) , ,
( -) , , ,
- ,
.
, 4,
() :
4. Let her alone to make her the best use of those innocent Freedoms 1 allow her
' ,
, (, 1681).
5 freedom privilege ,
, ,
(
, ):
5. All Foreigners might freely come and reside in any Part the Kingdom with the
like Privileges and Freedoms as our selves '
, ,
(. , 1719).
freedom , 6,
, (
, ):
6. Neither age nor force
Can quell the love of freedom in a horse
[ ,
]. (, 1782)

, (7 8)
,
:
7. And laughed and joked with everyone... with the utmost freedom ,
(. , 1887);
8. When the officers do not eat or drink or take too many freedoms with the seamen
, ,
(. . , 1854).


, - .
- ;
, , , .
,
(with utmost freedom), , -
, , , ,
. ,

(takes too many freedoms with seamen), , -
, ,
- .
(18),
, :
freedom ()
(X) :
- ,
: .

,
liberty, , '-
: .
, freedom ( fredon)
, ,
. . . , *
fredom (,
) , '
('which was the most free) (Lewis 1990: 116).
freedom () '
: ,
() ' : - :
.
. .
free {freo), ( ) (), ():
,
,
'freo (Lewis 1990: 114).
, , ,
(): ' : ;
( ).
, free ,
freedom. , -
, -

. , .
, .
, ,
freedom , ,
( ): ,
freedom ,
,
, .

6.

, ''
freedom,
, , libertas,
,
from. :
[liberation from
the past, . ^ fre e d o m from the past] (. , ,
);

[*freedom from phantom s],


,
, (, ).

, ,
, freedom,
. ,
,
,
freedom ( ).
, freedom,
freedom, . ,
, freedom from interruption '
,freedom from interference ' freedomfrom
harassment ' ,
* - .
, freedom from hunger
freedomfrom poverty ' * *
, .
,
freedom,
:
,
, (,
).


,

.
, ,
, ,
, -
( ):
() , ,
(. );
. ,
, ! ();
, ,
,
().


. ,
,
, , ,
, . , , ,
, , ,
,
,
,
.
,
, ,
, ,
, .
(
) ,
. ;
. , , ,
- (,
);
: ...
(, ).

,
(1955 [1882]):
, , .



. , ,
,

. , :
? (Erikson 1963: 388).
:
(. Mead & Mtraux 1953).
,
,
,
- .
libertas freedom,
, - , -
, - , .
. -
to breathe freely ' ,
(completely removed [ ]) -
(, ); ,
. -
, , -
,
(fully expand [ ]),
: .
completely fully
. ,
, freedom.
, *full
freedom - : complete freedom,
*full freedom. (full)
(complete) freedom
full
complete. , , full responsibility ' -
, full length ' (. ) , full blood '
(. ) full daylight ' (.
), *complete responsibility, length, blood daylight,
complete (*full) absence of ' , complete
(full) lack of , complete (*full) inability to '
. . Freedom complete, complete free
dom (complete absence)
, . . -,

XIX (1955 [1882]):
, , -;
, , , .
: , ,
, ,
, .

freedom (, , )
, , ,
.
:

(a) (X) :
(b) - ,
(c) , :
, , - ()
- /
(d) - X .
() ,
,
; (d)
.
() libertas: '
, , , ,
- : , ,
. ,
( , ),
-
. ,
, .
,
,
,
' -, . , ,
, , ,
, ,
, . ,
, (
freedom),
. ,
- (
), ,
() : ' , :
, (. . : ,
), - () - /,
(d): '- X '.
, '
',
( -
), { .
,
(1981: 92).
, ,
,
, , ,
, ,
. , ,
, , :
, , ,
, (-,
).
- 'freedom*
, ,
, , .
, ,
, , , (pri
vacy) .
,

, - , :
() ,
(, );
, , , ...
(, ).

, ,
freedom, ,
( ,
).
'freedom,
. ( ,
let have freedom [. ' ],
, give freedom ' ,
.
,
, ,

. ,

, ,
,
,
. . (. Wittfogel 1963,
1981, 19661970).
,
,
, ,

(Walicki 1987: 1).

. ,
( Walicki 1987: 10) : ,
, ,
.
( )
XIX ,
, ,
, (Walicki 1987:
1112). , , -
, ' ( vs.
, , , . .).
,
, , (
1984
?) :
, -,
,
. ...
,
-
(1978: 43).
'Whether because of its historical traditions or for some other reason, the idea of
self-government, of equality before the law and of personal freedom and the respon
sibility that goes with these are almost completely incomprehensible to the Russian
people. ...To the majority of the people the very word freedom is synonymous with
disorder or the opportunity to indulge with impunity in some kind of anti-social or
dangerous activity (Amalrik 1970: 3132).

'freedom, , ,
., freedom.
,

, , ,
, .

, 8.

( )
.
, :
,
- () - /
,
.
- , -
. ,

, - () ,
, - () ,
, .
Treedoin
; ,
, , ,

(. Berlin 1969: 127; . Walicki 1984: 226).
libertas
, . :
Libertas , disciplina Romana, mos
maiorum instituta patrum,
, ,
(Wirszubski 1950: 8).
,,
, ,
.
,
,, .

7 .

, ,
,
freedom, : (
, will ', ). XIX
, .
, ! (
).
XIX (
):
, , ,
.

,
( -
). - , ,
, ,
.
(.) , .
( Gen-
tile ), -
, , ,
, , ,
9.
(1981 [1945])
:
, , ,
, . ,
. , ,
, .
; .
, .
, . , ,
,
, , , , , ,
, , (183).
, (18861951),
, ,
,
. , ,
, .
libert.
.
(183)10.
,
,
( ).

( 1 . , 2 . ),
(198 25)
. ,
( 1955 [1882])
' ,
. ,
- libert,
. ,
(1981: 183) ,
libert:
: , ', .

. libert
,
. libertas
liberty ,
. ,
, freedom from
. libre
( ,
libert)
free, .
, free to choose '
libre de choisir, 1 avi leaving you free to do as you please '
, je vous laisse libre de faire
comme bon vous semble-, dust-free surface ',
une surface dpoussire (. ',
), area free of malaria ',
zone non touche par malaria (. ', ),
we chose a spot free of tourists ' ,
nous avons choisi un endroit sans touristes (. '
),/? of tax '
hors taxe (. ' ( Collins-Ro
bert 1983)11.
, ,
, , (
), *les
lieux libres d'arbres *le ciel libre de nuages.
, , , ,
libertas libert,
, .
, * ,
freedom from.
', ,
:
, , , ,
. '
:
,
, , ,
, (
)
, .
, ( , ), -,
libert,
,
. ( ,
) ,
, ( ): -
, ...,
.
,
,
( , )
,
. :
,
.
, , ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
, . ,
, .

. ,
;
, ; ,

, (Mazour 1962: 74).
: , ,
, , ,
, . ,
( ),
, , ,
.
,
( ):
,
, . ,
, , .
,
, ,
, , -
.
, ;
.
(Pares 1955; 250).


,
, , ,
' (
). , ,

' ;
-, .
(-i)
( ), , XX
( ),
,
( - )
. ;
|

(a) (X) ;
(b) - ,
(c) - ,
(d) ;
,
,
(e) -
1

(a) (X) ;
(b) ,
(c) - ,
(d) - ,
(e) , -
() -.

, , ( liberty, freedom),

, ,
,
;
,
, -
(Walicki 1987: 14).
( )

,

.

8 . W o ln o s

- ,
wolno.se ,
freedom.
, ,
wolnos freedom
, struggle for freedom ' freedom
of conscience ' ,
freedom , ,
freedom of movement ' , freedom of access '
freedom from interruption ' .
wolnos ,
:
,

( ,
, ).
, , wolnosc
(SJP): wolnosc 1.
()
, ; ,
.
, , : 2.
, ; ,
.
, , , wolnosc .
,
,
- ,
(freedoms). Freedoms

swoboda ( ,
), wolnost!.
, swoboda wolnosc
:
Brysio miody wyje, szceka, nvie si?, dqsa
i przekl?te wi?zy kqsa,
i domaga si? swobody!
' , , , ,
(*wolnoU)
(Hertz, Bajki, STP).

- ,
wolnosc.
, wolnosc
,
(freedoms) ,
:


'Country freedom possesses its happy rights*
( 1975 :182).
Wolnosc
( ).
( -):
wolnoSc sie krzyzami mierzy...
' wolnosc
(. . ).
( ,
- .)
- *uczucie wolnosci '
wolnosc', - ,
- feeling of freedom-, wolnosc ,
, , . . ,
( ).
,
wolnosc, ,
, {freedom
from, ) (freedom to ' -.). (
wolnosc -
liberty,
.) , , wol
nosc ,
wolnosc
, , sfmwedliwosc ('
) honor (''). , wolnosc od X
(' -) wolnosc do X (' -, X),
,
,
, , .
, wolnosc sumienia (' ), wolnosc
wyzmnia (' ) wolnoc slowa (' '),
, ,
, , .
, ,
freedom ( libert) wolnosc:
freedom to emigrate
la libert pour emigrer
??wolno$c emigrowania, PwolnoS do emigracji, ?wo!no$c emigracji.

, wolnosc,
, ,
wolnosc XVI XVII .
, XVI - :
daleko jako temu mamy wolnosc, tego nie chcemy npucic
' y , (Ort Mac 64,
Mrz-Ostrowska 1962: 316).

( temu '
do tego) *wolnosc do tego.
, ()

,
.
:
17731795 -

.

, ,
. ...Ro

(Davies 1981: ).

,
,
(
).
:
,
,
,

... ,
, , ,
( Walicki 1984: 230).

,

, ,
, ,

,
, :
While acknowledging that restrictions on alcohol sales in Aboriginal communities
will limit the absolute freedom of individnals, the report says indigenous people are
increasingly demanding the right to address the problem of alcohol abuse in their
communities from a collective perspective ' ,

, ,

(, 11 1995). .

swoboda, -,
. XIX
,
,
:
') ] ^!

' , !
.

wolnosc, swoboda. ,
wolnost, ,
, :
wdnosf
(a) :
(b) - , ,
(c) , - : ,

(d) , -
(e) , - .

, 'wolnosc
, , - '' ('),
,

: niepodleglosc ( , '
).
,
, (

nieialeinosc. (,
, ,

wolnosc. ' . 4*.)
'wolnosc ()
.
wolnosc
,
,
, szcz^scia w domu nie bylo,
bo go nie bylo w ojczyznie ( ,
) (Mickiewicz 1955,11: 109).
wolnosc

,

, swoboda.

* 4 Understanding Cultures through their Key


Words., .
16 .
wolnosc/swoboda ,
(swoboda)
(wolnosc).
'wolnosc :
, , ,
( []);
(' ').
( [])
( [d] []).
, , ,
() . freedom,
, ,
,
, .
. wolnosc
, , .
, (d) ().
XVI XVII ,
, ,
Zlota
Wolnosc ' . ( [Davies 1981: 207]
- .) wolnosc
, ,
( ),
. XX wolnosc
zlota ';
, , .
, ,
, - ,
, wolnosc ,
(. Davies 1981,
Garton Ash 1983, Benet 1953)12. ,
,

wolnosc.

9.
,
. , -
,
, ,
, .
, ,
. ,
, -, ,
- freedom, libertas, wolnoc, ,

,
. ,
, ,
, - freedom,

, .
, , -,

, ( ), ('-
), ( ')
giri ( ). (
. 6 *.) ,
, amae (. Doi 1981)

, -
freedom. :
jiy,
freedom ,
, , -, . ... jiy,
,
, , , ,
.
freedom liberty, jiy
,
.
jiy ,
, , ,
(84 85).
,
, :

* 6 Understanding Cultures through their Key


Words. , nepee.
... , ,

. ,
.
, ,
. , , ,
, , . ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
. , ,

; -
, ,
, . ,
{White 1987: 24).
(Dale 1986: 6162)
, freedom, jiy,
, . . ,
jiyil ,
, ,

freedom, ,
, freedom.
, freedom, libertas, wolnosc,
,
. ,
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
, (free)
, ,
,
, freedom.
,
, ; -
, ,
.
.
.
('free),
,
,

.

libertas
(a) (X) :
(b) , ,
(c) , - : ,
,
(d) -
(ilibertas2)
(a) (X) :
(b) , ,
(c) : , -
,
freed o m
(a) (X) :
(b) - ,
(c) : ,

(d) - ,
(e) : ,

(I) -
(g) , -

liberty ()
(a) (X) :
(b) - ,
(c) :
(d) - :
(e) -
liberty ()
(a) .
(b) - , , ,

(c) : ,

(d) :
freedom ()
(X) :
- ,
,


(a) (X) :
(b) - ,
(c) , :
,
- () - /
{) - X

]
(a) (X) :
(b) - ,
(c) - ,
^ ) :
,
,
() -

(a) (X) :
(b) ,
(c) - ,
- ,
() , -
( -

>1&
(a) :
(b) - , ,
(c) , - : ,

() , -
() , -

1.

1 '
. , (Dovlatov 1986)
( ?),
: .
2 , - (
)
- .
3 . Smolicz 1979.
4 , ,
: , ,
- , ,
-
*, , ,
, .
, , , ,

( ). ,
, , ,
(
, ).
5 (Tyler 1987) ,
- , ,
. , ,
, , ,
, .
,
, (214). , ,
, ,
: ,
, .

2
1 , Ste
venson 1949.
2 , , ,

. , ,
-, , ,
(Packard 1974: 189). ,
. ,
girlfriends, boyfriends,
, .
friend , .
8 - ,
, , ,
friend of mine ,
friend,
friends ( - ,
), . -, friend -
, :
We are still friends (lovers, neighbors) ' (, ),
, the friends
the two friends ' ( ,
), ,
:
Fastening their boat to a willow, the friends landed in this silent, silver kingdom,
and patiently explored the hedges, the hollow trees, the tunnels and their little culverts,
the ditches and dry waterways ' ,
,
, ,
(Graham 1980 [1908]: 135).
The affair was soon over. Up and down, the whole length of the hall, strode the
four Friends, whacking with their sticks at. every head that showed itself; and in live
minutes the room was cleared ' . ,
,
, (Graham 1980 [1908]: 247).
, the Society of Friends '

: Whose friends? ' ?.
, , the society of friends of the whale ' ',
the society of friends.

friends .
( the two friends '
the four friends ) ,
.
(friends)
,
( ) ,
,
.
4 -
, , , .
, ( )
acquaintance; ,
- close acquaintance ' ' good
acquaintance ' , .
:
. ...
, ! ,
( 1991: 7).
... , ,
, , ( 1991: 23).
,
,
acquaintances, friends,
.
5 , 817
djrye close friend,
. (155) friendship
(27 8) ,
,
.
(
) , ,
:
, , ,

,

.
, !
'But you, Bordeaux, are like a friend
who is, in grief and calamity,
at all times, everywhere, a comrade,
ready to render us a service
or share our quiet leisure.
Long live Bordeaux, our friend!
( , Pushkin 1975: 196).
7 , -
- . .
XIX ,
:
[ ] - ,
!, , (. ).
girlfriend,
.
8 (WindJe in press), ,
,
: , :
.
,
.
9 , (Hollander 1973) :

. , ,
, ,
,

.
,
.
-
, , 80 (
, )
78 .
,

, , (256).
,
, (.,
, Shlapentokh 1989).
10 -:
-,

, ,
, , ,
...
, , , -
,
,
.
,
,
,
(14-15).
11 - mein Kollege '
- ()'. Kamera
den (.), Kollegen (.).
( Freund Bekannte
przyjaciel znajomy), ,
koledzy Kollegen, Kameraden.
'* ,
druh, , wie druh
(' druh'), -, ,
( niezawodny druh, ). Druh,
,
,
. druh druzi-
''. przyjaciel .
13 ,
, , (Miiosz 1972: 83)
daleki przyjaciel daleki kuzyn ' '
Mycielski, m oj przyjaciel tez, ale daleki, tak ja k mowi si^ daleki kuzyn. Choc wi^cej
niz tylko kolega ' , przyjaciel, ,
. kolega'.
14 , , znajomi
, . , ,
znajomi ,
, :
, ,
, ,
( 1970: 132).

znajomi .
15 , ( ), ( ) (
) .
,
mateship, ,
. . Wierzbicka 1986 1991.
16 , , mate,
(mates). ,
mate
,
: Your licence, mate, was a peremptory question Crom a six-foot
Fellow in blue shirt, thick boots, the face of a ruffie, armed with a carbin and Qxed
bayonet [' , ', ,
, , ,
] (1855, . ; TAND).
17 ( ) , ,
, (mateship) , ,
, : The best of bloody mates dont say anything [
] (Hawkes 1990: 32); Silence was the
essence of traditional mateship. The gaunt man stands at his wifes funeral; his mate
comes up, says nothing but rests a gentle hand brielly on his shoulder [
.
; ,
, ] (1986,
[], TAND). Mateship
, ( )
(, , , ).
, (mates)
.
18 , - ,
,
, , :
? ,
.
mate
,
, , (mates)
, - -
.
19,
(Garrett 1989)
(Morse and Marks 1985), ,
'mates friends: mate
(friend).... ,
mateship , ,
(mates) , (
),
(friends), mates] 139).

'mateship. , mates
, mates
, friends. ,
, ,

(just friends), (close friends).
mates
'friend'
. ,
.
3
1 , ,
,
.
2 , , (l'reedom)
, ,
...,
, . . , (Oppenheim 1962: 274). ,
'' ,
, ,
.
, ,
, '' ,
. ,
, , \ ,
'', ,
freedom\ , -, .
* liberty,
OED (1933), , libertyfrom: Political civil li-
berty is the liberty from legal obligation which is left or granted by a sovereign go-
vernment to any of its subjects [
,
- ] (Austin, Jurispru
dence [], 1832). , , ,
,
-
. , , : liberty
in this sence means liberty from [
-] (Berlin 1969: 127), , from
liberty .
, ( 20 ) COBU1LD
libertyfrom, \
.
4 , fret from help ' ( free
from interfrence ' ) ,
. , free of admirers ' ,
free of relatives ' free of fans '
, ,
. , tax free '
pollution free ' [ ], .
, ,
- , ,
. , , X is free to do Z 'X -
Z, , Z ,
- ( Z
).
, , puptl-free day ',
, ,
. , -,
,
,
, ,
, -,
, ,
.
, , -
(Sommerville 1962) ,
, (freedom)
(780), . ,
, , (781),
, , ,
, '' ('freedom) . 'Free
dom , .
.
, , , -.
5 . (Walicki 1984) ,
:
,
, ,
, . ...,
, (positive liberty), . .
; (negative liberty) (free
dom) , .
, ,
.
; ,
, ,

. ,

, (226).
(Pettit 1997: 21)

,
,
, ,
, ,
,
. ,
liberty freedom ( ) .
, , , ,
. ,
, . li
berty,
, ( ) ,
libertas, .
6 83 liberty 880
, COBUILD 222 20 ,
Liberty, 100 .
7 liberty ,
, , (
COBUILD liberty):
Killer on run fears liberty ' ;
...to preserve and extend the sacred Ore of human liberty '
.
8 , -- (
1985 .),
,
freedom. ( 1985 .) : : , ,
,
. ,
, , -
,
'.
, , ,
, ,
freedom.
9 , XX ''
- ,
.
10 , , ,
freedom ( , freedom),
, ,
truth,
, (
. : Mondry 8 Taylor 1992 1996).
11 ,
free (') ,
libre. , free '
, , ,
(. . ).
, , free
gratis, kostenlos gratuit.
J'avortement libre gratuit (. .
) (tree tree abortion?).
12 . ,
,
(, ) XVIII :
Polak nie siuga, nie zna to
nie da si okuc przemooj w kajdany.
Wolnosciq zyje, do wolnosci wzdycha,
Bez niej jak kwiatek bez rosy usycha
' , , ,
.
,
, , .
1794 ., ,
( ,
).
Polak ' serce '; ,
:
, ,
, .
.
,
. (Milosz 1983: 175).
,
.

>. 1993. . : .
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. 1977 [1862]. : . Leipzig: Zen-
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-

:

1. 1


, ,
,
() . ,
, (1
1994: 54):
(...) ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
.

. I

,
,
,
:


. (...)
,
. ,
,
.
, , ,
. ( ,
) , (. 57).
, , ,
, ,
( ) ,
.
(Plutchik, ibid.):
(K em per 1987) ,
, : , ,
. , ,
, , (
) ,
,
,


. ,
,
.
(O rto n y a n d T u r n e r 1990)
, ,
: (1)
, -, ; (2)
; (3)
; (4) ,
- , ( ).

,
,
. , , ,
( , , ,
) .
, , , , ,
, ,
-
, .
( zjyycmb,
, , .)
,
, , , ,
-
, .
, ,
, .
, , ,
, ,

. ,
,

... -
[],
, ,
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
, - ,
, ,
,
(1890: 485).

,
, ,
, .
(, , ,
)
{moth )
( mol ).
.
, -
, sad ',
,
, ,

, , , toiaha '-
', (
).
, ,
;
,
toiaha . :
,
, toiaha .
[sadness] [anger]
,
, ,
sad ' , angry
' , sadness anger.
, , .
,
,
: ,
.

2. ,

( -
) ,
.

. ,
. -
,
, ,
,
. :
?
. - (
), -
. ,
, ,
.

, - ,
,
( )
.
, ,
, '*,
' , , , , ' , ' . .,

(. Boguslawski
1966, 1970; G oddard 1989; Wierzbicka 1972, 1980, 1992, in press; .
, Goddard and Wierzbicka 1994).

,
( ,
), .
,
(
) ,
.
,
, anger sadness,
,
. ,
, ' ' '' ', '', '
'', ,
; ,
, .
,

,
.
(. Goddard and Wierzbicka 1994)
,
, ,
; [] , , , , ;
[ , ] , , , , ,
/ , / , , /;
[ ] , , ,
, , ; [] ; [, ,
] , / , ;
[ , ] ( ), ; []
, ; [ ] , ; [
] , , , , ; -
/, / ; [] , , , ,
, ; [, ] /-
, ; [] , ; [
] / ; [ ]
, , / - ; [
] /H E - ; [] . (-
., , G o d d a rd and
W ierzbicka (eds.) 1994; . W ierzb ick a, in p re s s c.)

3.

3.1.
( , fear
' , joy ' ', surprise , disgust ' , shame
' . .), sadness ' , ,
( )
. sadness
,
:

(a)
(b ) , , :

(c)
(d) .

, , - ,
, , () (
); () ,
, : , ; ()
, , (d)
. , ,
,
, , .
, , ,
,
, ,
sad sadness.
,
, ,
- , : I feel sad I dont know why '
, . , ,
sadness, ,
, .
sadness
:
sadness
(a) X
(b ) :
(c)
(d) , , :

(e)
(
(g) -
(h) X .
(d) () sadness
, , (sad)
,
. , (anger),
- ,
, - . sadness
, : -
, , , : '
; ,
, .
, ,
sad.

.

3.2.
-
sad: (.,
, Falla et al. 1993). sadness
: ,
, (., , Falla et al. 1993).
, ,
( sad, sadness). .
,
, ( , ,
melancholy ' ).
, sadness
( , sadness,
, . Wierzbicka 1992).
( Kudera and Francis 1969,
Carroll et al. 1971):
{ I )
sadness 6 (5) melancholy 8 (4)
sad 35 (52)
sadly 12(15)

53 (72)
( 1 )
. 19 zffyrmb 25 53
. 56 36 10
.* 21 6 10
. 6 ( 6 16
106 73 89


( ,
),
, . ,
, , ,
, melancholy
. ,
(
) , .
, , ,
, ,
-
sadness, ( sadness)}
,
, ,
, ,
, , . .


.
, ,
( , ? ). ,

, :
, {
.
(") ( 1982(1938): 103).

, , ,
, , ,
, , .
, ,
, sadness,
, ( -,
). /
.
,
, ,
, ..
,
, ,
: ,? , , ^
. , ,
, ,

. ,
, * . ,
,
(, -
luminous depression)'2. ,
,
sadness, ,

(.
Wierzbicka 1992).

, , ,
,
:
.
* .
, sadness,
,
sorrow ' , grief ' , .
sorrow grief, ,
.
( )
:
, , .


: ' .
, ,
, ,
.
,
, . ,
, ,
. ,
* ,
.

,
,
.

- , , .
* - , , .
(Falla et al. 1993)
sad , ,
- : sadness, melancholy,
grief, sorrow. , melan
choly ' ,
grief sorrow .
, , grief, sorrow
, :
, ,
, (
), , ,
, ' .
,

, :
... Befry
, (*) (
1982: 41).
:
*.

(' ).
(. .
), .

, .
,
, grievous [' ,
],
,
grievous, d istressing,
grievous ( distressing [' ]).
,
, {
3.
:

(a) X
(b ) :
(c)
(d)
(e) , , :

(f)
(g)
(h) -
(i) ,
(j) X
(k) - X
(l) X
( ) - X

* :
! , .

(a) X
(b ) :
(c)
(d) , , :

(e)
(f)
(g) -
(h) X .


. - ,
('X );
.
( )
( (i)).
, , ,
!, .
- , ('
)
(' ).
- , ( ,
) (
() (1)). [ .
, , ? .
- , , [,
' .
( ) ' ('
), ,
' ,
.
( (h)). ,
, .
- , , ,
(, ()),
.
, ,
,
sadness, .
sadness, -
, -,
' , .
, (sadness, ,
) .
, -
, .

4.
4.1.

anger angry
: (Y) (Z),
(X) , , , Y ;
, X Y-a
- - Y- (,
Y-a Y-y - ).
:
X was angry.
(a) X - :
(b)
(c)
(d) - - Y-om
(e) - X
(f) , .

.
, () , anger
,,
( , ).
, (), () , anger
,
(anger),
, (anger),
. , (angrily)
, ; ,
( - ), ,
(anger) ,
.
() '
: -, ?
(d) ' :
, , ,
, - , ,
, (
, , ).
() :
(anger) ? , ,
,
; , ,
?
, , , ,

, ,
angry anger.
,
, ,


.
, ,
(., , Lazarus 1991), , ,

, ,
;
,
, . .
'X ,
, X
.
, ,
, ,
(
). Oh. ! '
!,
, ,
: ,
, Oh !, ,
, ,
. ( sadness
, , ,
, , .)
, ,
,
() ' ,
, ,
, , (anger),
,
, . (
, X (angry) Y - , Y
-,
, .)
(d), , , ,
- ,
-, (.,
, Wierzbicka 1992,b,). .
, ( )
Y-a, - , X
. , (angry)
, , ,
, (,
). , ,
, , ,
, ;
,
(angry) . , , , -
, (d) ,

Y-a.
, ,
anger ( ), ,
,
(angry) , ,
.
, ,
, .
, (anger)
, ,
;
( ),
: -
anger ,
.

4.2. :
- anger
(, Falla et al. 1993).
, anger,
wrath. -
(Melcuk and Zholkovsky 1994: 252)
:
X Y- Z =
X - ,
, X
( ) Z, -
X , . -
; - ,
, - ;
, , .
, anger, ,
(
, anger).
:
- , .
anger .
anger , ,
, , ,
,
(. . ).
anger
:
anger
(a) X -:
(b)
(c)
(d) - - Y-
(e) - X
() ,

(a) X -:
(b)
(c)
(d) - ,
(e) - - c Y-m
(f) - X
(g) ,
, ,
anger (
ranger), ,
,
anger, . ,
,
, .
, , ,
: ( ) (
).

4.3. ,

(lordanskaja 1973: 108)
*:

-
, , :
1. ,
( )
2.
3. -
4. ,
.
,
, :

* (
), .
. .


- - .

- , ,
, '
, a n g e r a n g r y . ,
,
; ,
. ,
, .
, , ,
, .
, ,
, a n g e r . ,
, a n g e r ,
. , ,

.
,
a n g e r , a n g r y , ( ,
, w r a th ) .
,
a n g e r , ,
a n g r y ( , ) ,

a n g e r (
) . ,
,
.

4.4.
, a n g e r
,
,
. (
. Wierzbicka, in press b.
,
, Kuiera and Francis 1969,
Carroll et al. 1971, , ,
1977):

( 1 )
. anger 48 (14) wrath (2)
. angry 46 (63)
. angrily 7(13)
.
101(90) 2

(. I )
. 35
. 16 28
. 7 70
. 1 74
. (.) 1 37
60 209

,
, , : 269
101 (Kuiera and Francis 1969) 269 90 (Carroll et al. 1971).
,
,
( .
Wierzbicka 1992 in press).

: , , ,

,
( ).
(., , Wierzbicka 1992
1994), ,
, .

4.5.
rejoice '
, happy '
glad *, grieve '
, sad,
,
a n g r y . (to rejoice, to grieve,
) , *, ,
, ,
,
,
( ,
):
: ,
, (,
).

a n g e r ,
,
: , ,
, , (,
(g) (h)), ,
((i), (j) ()):
anger
(a) X -:
(b)
(c)
(d) - - Y-
(e) - X
(f) ,
(g) X
(h) - X
(i)
(j) X -
(k) , .
,

, ;
(
; . .).
, , , mutatis mutandis,
, :
*
, ..
.
(Falla et al. 1993) angry

, angry ,
.

angry , :
A. seemed angry.
.
B. felt angry.
.
C. I feel angry.
?# .

, , angrily (
angry). , ,
, angrily .

5.
, sad. angry ( sadness anger)
,
,
. ,
, ( ).
, , sadness anger
? ,
?
,
-
. ,
- ,
, good ''
bad '', want '', know '', feel '', think ''
say '' . . - ,
- ,
,

, ,
a n g e r . , , sadness
sa d n ess
anger (Plutchik
1994: 57), .
,
- , , - .

1 , ,

.
2 , ,
:
, .

,
3 ,
, :

, .
,

, (
, ).

. 1982 . N. P.: Ardis.


\. . 1977 . : .
. 1982 . . New York: Chalidze
Publications.
Bogusiawski A. 1966 Semantyczne pojcie liczebnika [
]. Wroclaw: Ossolineum.
Bogusiawski A. 1970 On semantic primitives and meaningfulness, in: A. J. Greimas,
R. Jakobson, & M. R. Mayenowa (eds.), 143152.
Carroll John, Peter Davies id Barry Rickman. 1971 Word Frequency Book.. Boston:
Houghton Milllin.
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Goddard Cliff. 1989 Issues in natural semantic metalanguage, Quaderni di Seman
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Goddard Cliff id Anna Wierzlhcka (eds.). 1994 Semantic and Lexical Universals: Theo
ry and Empirical Findings. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
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specificity in cognition and culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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words denoting emotions, in: Ferenc Kiefer (ed.), 389410.
James William. 1890The Principles ol'Psychology. Vol. II. New York. Macmillan.
Kemper T. D. 1987 How many emotions are there? Wedding the social and the au
tonomic components, American Journal of Sociology. 93: 263289.
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Kitnyama Shinolm id Hazel Markus (eds.). 1994 Emotion and Culture. Washington:
American Psychological Association.
Henry id W. Nelson Francis. 1969 Computational Analysis of Present-day Ame
rican English. Providence, Rhode Island: Brown University Press.
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MeCtuk Igor and Aleksandr Zholkovsky. 1994 -
. Vienna: Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. (Sonderband 14).
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:
-
,


- ,
(The Russian-English Collocational Dictionary of Human Body,
RECDHB) (Iordanskaja,
Paperno 1995)
. ( ,
418 ), , ,
, .
, ,
,
(

).
, ,
( ),

.
, ,
. ,

, .

-

(1984). ,
, (.,
, Melcuk et al. 1984, 1988, 1992), RECDHB

. RECDHB ,
-
(1979).
( ),

, ,
- (
) ,
, ,
,
, ,
.

:
,
,
.

Laughter:
RECDHB, laughter
, { ),
laugh ,
: . ,
, ,
: chuckle ', , giggle
, cackle ', ,
laugh laughter
, ,
, , .
: giggle, chuckle cackle
, .
, giggle
(
),
chuckle cackle
.
giggle, chuckle cackle, xoxovi, r RECDHB
laughter, good laughter, ,
, , ,
.
,
, , -
giggle, chuckle cackle, RECDHB
, :

*t.o be dying from chuckJing/cackling '* /

.
, - , -
chuckling, cackling giggling. (
, giggle, chuckle cackle
,
.)
, RECDHB,
:





.
, ,
, giggle,
chuckle cackle:
-- ?loud giggle/chuckle/cackle
?merry (cheerful) giggle/chuckle;
?cheerful cackle
?robust/hea!thy giggle/chuckle/cackle
?general (, harmonious, in concord)
giggle/chuckle/cackle
*peals of giggle/chuckle/cackle.
(: )

,
( , ,
) - , , ,
. Nomina personae () (
) ,
,
. , , ,
, . ,
, laugh, (bitter)
(sarcastic),
(* , " ).

, ,
,
: ,
, -,
, , , ,
, ,

( ,
, . .);
,
. , (
), ,
chuckle cackle, ,
.

guffaw ', ,
-
. , guffaw
;
(
, ).

laughter laugh, ,
.
, ,
,
.
:






.

,
, .
, , ,

, .
nearly died laughing
[' ], , was dying with ( from)
laughter [' ( )].
,
, :




.

:



:
:
:
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
,
,
.



, tears,
. -

,
:
. RECDBH
(. 340),
, :
, ,
, , ,
-
,

'The princess, sitting peaked and wan
Alone, with no adornment on,
She holds a letter up, and leaning
Cheek upon hand, she softly cries
In a still stream that never dries.
,
,
. ,
, , :



.
,
, to dissolve in tears '
; , , , -,
, -,
:
(dissolve in tears) ,
-

,
- .
() -
in tears ' . :

She arrived in tears;
,
'W hen I home, I found m y m o th er in tears.
, ,
- . :
/
N ( ) ( )
/
N ( , ) ( )
/.
N () ( )

N ( )

N ( )

N .
, - , ,

. ,
.
, RECDHB tear-
reddened eyes [' ],
: ,
, ( ).

RECDHB tear-stained face [' ],
: ,
. stained
- ,
, ,
.
,
RECDHB face stained witli tears [' ],
(face in tears) ,
(face flooded with tears), -
, .
, RECDHB V
(V until one cries), -
, ,
: , ,
, , , . ,
until one cries
. -, ,
,
, ,
, , , , . .

:
happy tears
ecstatic tears
tears of humiliation
tears of repentance
tears of disappointment
sorrowful tears
tears of sympathy.
He , ,
, , ,
.

Face
, RECDHB,

, ,
face.
,
, (, ,
. .),
: someones face lit up '- ,
. :
N ()
// ( )
N ()
N

(: , , ).
18 .
, -
:
N
N
N
N
/ .
-
( , -):
.
,
, :
N ( )
N .
, RECDHB
('joyful smile j,
,
, .
-
, -
. ,
a face flooded with tears,

- ,
tear-stained face (
, ).
RECDHB
, ,
- ( - ):
unexpressive face
immobile face
wooden face
stone face
set/frozen face
N Ns face hardened/froze.
( ) ,
, /, -
, (
, . .).

, , someones face froze .

, ,
. ,
, , ,
, ; , (free
zes), , *
.

, ,
: facial expression
' ,
,
, , , -
. , - (expression)
( ),
. ,
, -
face, . :
(?)joyful face
(?)merry face
?frightened face
Surprised face
(?)angry/mad face
?dispieased face.
, sad face
-,
. - ,

( ),
.


,
, -
, eyes '.
, , -
. RECDHB :
( )
( )
.
,
:
;
; .
RECDHB,
,
, . ..
, ,
.
, , .
:
( )


( )

/ .
, ,
, . :
'surprised eyes
'astonished eyes
( )

/
(

, ,
- ')


goggle eyes
'someones eyes get round

.
,
, RECDHB
, . :
/ ( )
()
; .

, (. 18).
(
, )
:
/
.

to raise ones eyebrows ' ,
:
/
/ (.) ( , .)

.
,
( ),
(. 19);
/ ( )
/ ( )
- , , -, ,
,
.


- ,
. , -
0 4 ,
() , to stamp
ones foot ' .
. :


( )
( )
( ).
RECDHB ,
to shift h orn one foot to another [ ]:


.
,
, , ,
(. 227). RECDHB
, ,
:
/
/ .
,
,
, (. 227).
,
,
:
( )
( )
( )
/
( )

( , . 318)
/
(
, . 318)
(),
( -,
, , . 318)
/
( , . 318)
/
( ,
(...) . 319)
/
(, ,
(...) , . 319)
/
( , . 319)
,
(,
, . 319)
(-)
(,
, . 319).
, ,
,
,
. ,
-,
. ,
. , ,
() ,
/ ,
.


, ,
,
. ,
, :
/
(, ,
).
,
, :



.
(^)
( ),
( )
, :
/ ( ).
,
,
;

(, )

(,
-)

(, ,
, .
, ).
,
,
.


,
, (
: , ]-
/ ). , ,
,
: ,
.
, RECDHB,
( , ,
) ,

. , N's heart skips a beat
' N RECDHB,
N ,
,
:
N
N
N
(. Ns heart sank ' N (, ))
N
N .
N's heart is pounding ' N
,
:
N ( ,
, )
N ( ,
)
N .
RECDHB,
,
, .
, RECDHB
, , , -
,
, , Ns heart aches
N Ns heart bleeds N
(, ) (
, ):
N
N
N ( ) ( ,
)
N .

,

. ,
,
, .

,
- . , ,
,
-
.
, ,
RECDHB,
.
, , (Nabo
kov 1957: 41) ,
, , (
)
:
Laurence even made a film of what Timofey considered to be the essen
tials of Russian carpalistics, with Pnin in a polo shirt, a Gioconda smile on
his lips, demonstrating the movements underlying such Russian verbs
used in reference to hands as rnahnut, vsplesnut', razvesti-. the one-hand
downward loose shake of weary relinquishment; the two-hand dramatic
splash of amazed distress; and the disjunctive motion hands travelling
apart to signify helpless passivity.
' ,
...,
, ,
,
, rnahnut, vsplesnut, razvesti:
;
;
, ,
.
,
, , ]
( ), -

, ( ),
.
. ,
, ,
, .

, ,
.
, ,
,
, ( );

A. () ,
(b ) - -

(c)
(1)
() - ,

B. () ,
(b ) -
(') -

(c)
(1)
() - ,
.
, ,
,
, . ,
,
, , ,
, :

. () ,
() - -

()
(d)
(e) - ,

. () ,
(b) -
-
( ')-------------------------------------------------
(c ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(d)
(e) - ,
.

(., , Wierz-
bicka 1992 1994),
(), vs. ()
() ( ,
vs. ,
).
,
, (')
.
(') ,

,
,
. ,
-, - ,
,
( ). ,
,
( ),
, (.,
, Bally 1926; Chappell, McGregor 1996; Melcuk 1995; Wierzbicka
1979 1988), ,
,
,
.
,
: , , ,
.
,
( )
, ,
:
, , .

, ] ,
, ,
: , , ,
() ,
, , , ,
,
.
, emotional
', , effusive '*,
demonstrative , excitable ' (
), dispassionate ', calm ', keep
calm ' , keep cool ' ,
self-control (
) .
,
, ,
, , , ,
,
.
,
;
;
, .

., . . . 1979. - .
: .
, 1995 *Claza MaSi golubye vs. Claza u MaSi golubye: Choosing Bet
ween two Russian Constructions in the Domain of Body parts. : 1*
<=> , Igor Melcuk. lp. 155164. :
. [. Mel'cuk Igor].
and . 1984 -
, (Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern
Russian.) : Wiener Slawistischer Almanach (Sonderband 14.)
Bally Charles. 1926 LExpression des Ides de Sphre Personnelle et de Solidarit
dans les Langues Indo-Europennes. In Festschrift Louis Gauchat. F. Fankhauser and
J. Jud, eds. Pp 6878. Aarau: Verlag Sauerlander. (Translated into English by Chris
tine Bal and Hilary Chappell in H. Chappell, and W McGregor, eds. 1996b.
P.3161.)
Chappell Hilary and William McGregor. 1996a Prolegomena to a Theory of Inalienabi
lity. In H. Chappell and W. McGregor, eds. 1996b, P. 330.
Chappell Hilary and William McGregoreds. 1996b The Grammar of Inalienability: A
Typological Perspective on Body-part Terms and the Part-whole Relation. Berlin: Mou
ton de Gruyter.
Iordanskaya Lidiya and Slava Paperna. 1995 The Russian-English Collocational Dictio
nary of the Human Body. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Publishers.
Melcuk Igor et al. 1984 Dictionnaire Explicatif et Combinatoire du Franais Contem
porain II. Montral: Les Presses de lUniversit de Montral. (Recherches lexico-s-
mantiques, I.)
Melcuk Igor et al. 1988 Dictionnaire Explicatif et Combinatoire du Franais Contem
porain II. Montral: Les Presses de lUniversit de Montral. (Recherches lexico-s-
mantiques, II.)
Mel'cuk Igor tal. 1992 Dictionnaire Explicatif et Combinatoire du Franais Contem
porain II. Montral: Les Presses de lUniversit de Montral. (Recherches lexico-s-
mantiques, 111 )
Nabokov Vladimir. 1957 Pnin. London: Heinemann
Wienbicka Anna. 1979 Ethnosyntax and the Philosophy of Grammar. In Studies in
Language 3(3): 313383,
Wienbicka Anna. 1988 The Semantics of Grammar. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Wienbicka Anna,. 1992 Semantics, Culture and Cognition: Universal Human Con
cepts in Culture-specific Configurations. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wienbicka Anna. 1994 Emotion, Language and Cultural Scripts. In Emotion and
Culture: Empirical Studies of Mutual Iniluence. S. Kitayama and H. Markus, eds.
P. 130: 198. Washington: American Psychological Association.
Angst

1.

1. 'Angst

Angst . ,

,
Angat.
:
...community was replaced by the fleeting, passing contacts of city life;
people came into the university, and disappeared; psychiatric social
workers were appointed, to lead them through the recesses of their angst
'... , ,
;
; (angst),
- (Breadbury 1975: 64).
, angst
, , -,
, ,
{fear). ,
fear, Angst, a Furcht;
, Furcht, a Angst

.
, ,
angst
,
Angst, :
.
Existenzangst [ ,
] (., , Jaeger 1971: 26), existentielle
Angst ( ] (., , Nuss 1993: 189)
existenzielle ngste ( ] (
; ., , Langenscheidts Wrterbuch 1983; 308).
angst
, -,
Angst (existentielle Angst), Angst .
angst Angst
,
.
Angst Furcht.
Angst, Furcht,
. (Ruoff
1981), Angst 52 ,
(sich) frchten 4 ,
Furcht .
Angst Furcht,
, (Angst),
, Ich habe Angst ' (. '
Angst'), Angst,
Ich frchte mich ( ' ), ,
. - I am afraid '
,
What are you afraid ol? ' ?. ,
Ich habe Angst , , ,
I am depressed ' . ,
- , I am depressed
.
, Angst , ,
Angstzustand ' (Angst)
. , fear ( being afraid)
, , ,
- -.
(Nuss 1993; 193), (Angst)
70- :
Das war die Epoche, in der Millionen von Deutschen einfach sagten
Ich habe Angst, ohne auch nur zu versuchen, Beschaffenheit und Ursa
che dieser Angst zu przisieren.
' , Ich ha
be Angst,
(Angst).
,
(Angst),
, ,
(Angst),
- ;
:
So gab es nach der Euphorie der fnfziger und sechziger Jahre eine
Zeit, in der die Deutschen Angst vor allem Mglichen hatten: vor der Kern
kraft, den lscheichs, der Arbeitlosigkeit, den Japanern, den Raketen, vor
der Umweltverschmutzung, dem Polizeistaat, der Zukunft (...) Jedesmal,
wenn eine Bedrohung berwunden war, tauchte eine andere auf und nis
tete sich in ihrem Geist ein (c. 193).
' 50- 60- ,
( Angst) , : ,
, , , ,
, , (...) ,
,
.
(Duden (1972)) ^
mit Beklemmung, Bedrckung, Erregung einhergehender
Gefhlszustand [angesichts einer Gefahr] (
, ) [
], , undeutliches Gefhl des Bedrohtseins (
). undeutliches (')

, , Angst
,
, ,
, .
, ,
Angst (Angst),
Angst,
, - . (Nuss 1993:
188189) (
,
):
Auf dein Boden der Unsicherheit gedeiht die Angst. Je mehr die
Deutschen mit Ungewiheiten konfrontiert sind, desto mehr Grnde ent
decken sie, sich Sorgen zu machen. Das Angstgefhl breitet sich auf diese
Weise immer weiter aus und erzeugt bei manchen einen permanenten
Angstzustand. Er wird durch tausend Kleinigkeiten genhrt, die nach und
nach zu einer stndigen Bedrohung anschwellen, gegen die anzukmpfen
unmglich wird. (...)
Fr einen Deutschen drcken die unendliche Stille, die Lenz erstickt,
und das (hausen, das Woyzeck empfindet, auf eindrucksvolle Weise die
namenlose Angst aus, die jedes menschliche Wesen empfindet und die
man nie vollstndig in den Griff bekommen kann. Sie ist allgegenwrtig,
weil alles im Grunde genommen eine Gefahr darstelll und der Mensch nir
gendwo wirklich in Sicherheit ist. Der Deutsche frchtet weniger die phy
sische Gefahr (er ist von Natur aus mutig) und die vielfltigen Wechselflle
des Lebens (...) als das Unbekannte. Nicht zu wissen, was geschehen wird,
sich nicht darber im klaren sein, mit welchem Problem man sich befassen
muss, denjenigen nicht zu kennen, den man als Gegner haben wird, macht
ihm sehr viel mehr/lngs/ als eine wirkliche Gefahr.
' (Angst).
,
. (Angst)

(Angst).
,
, .
, ,
, ,
(dng.s7),
. ,
-
.
( )
, (...) . , ,
, ,
, ,
, .
,
(Nuss 1993) Angst,
(das Unbekannte)
( ).
, !
:
,
.
2. A n gst,

, ,
Angst,
- ,
, 'Angst' 'Furcht'
als Angst bezeichnet wird, was Furcht ist, und Furcht genannt wird,
was den Charakter der Angst hat (Furcht Angst, a Angst
Furcht) (Heidegger 1953: 185).

Angst, Angst
'Furcht', . (
, 'Angst',
angest, .)
Die Bedrohung, die einzig furchtbar sein kann und die in der Furcht
entdeckt wird, kommt immer von innerweltlichem Seienden her. (...)
Das Wovor der Angst ist das In-der-Welt-sem ah solches. Wie unterscheidet
sich phnomenal das, wovor die Angst sich ngstet, von dem, wovor die
Furcht sich frchtet? Das Wovor der Angst ist kein innerweltliches Seien
des. Daher kann es damit wesenhalt keine Bewandtnis haben. Die Bedro
hung hat nicht den Charakter einer bestimmten Abtrglichkeit, die das Be
drohte in der bestimmten Hinsicht auf ein besonderes faktisches Seinkn
nen trifft. Das Wovor der Angst ist vllig unbestimmt. Diese Unbestimmt
heit lsst nicht nur faktisch unentschieden, welches innerweltliche Seiende
droht, sondern besagt, dass berhaupt das innerweltliche Seiennde nicht
relevant ist. Nichts von dem, was innerhalb der Welt zuhanden und vor
handen ist, fungiert als das, wovor die Angst sich ngstet. Die innerweltlich
entdeckte Bewandtnisganzheit des Zuhandenen und Vorhandenen ist als
solche berhaupt ohne Belang. Sie sinkt in sich zusammen. Die Welt hat
den Charakter vlliger Unbedeutsamkeit. In der Angst begegnet nicht
dieses oder jenes, mit dem es als Bedrohlichem eine Bewandtnis haben
knnte. (...)
Die Angst ist nicht nur Angst vor..., sondern also Befindlichkeit zu
gleich Angst um... Worum die Angst sich abngstet, ist nicht eine bestimmte
Seinsart und Mglichkeit des Daseins. Die Bedrohung ist ja selbst unbe
stimmt und vermag daher nicht auf dieses oder jenes faktisch konkrete
Seinknnen bedrohend einzudringen. Worum sich die Angst ngstet, ist
In-der-Welt-sein selbst (Heidegger, 1953: 186187).
The only threatening which can be 'fearsoine' and which gets discover-
ed in fear, always comes from entities within-lhe-world. (...)
understand this talk about Daseins fleeing in the face of itself in fall
ing, we must recall that Being-in-the-world is a basic state of Dasein. T h a t in
th e f a c e o f w h ic h o n e h a s a n x ie ty [das W o v o r d e r A n g s t] is B e in g -in -th e -w o r ld as
su c h .What is the difference phenomenally between that in the face of
which anxiety is anxious fsich angstet] and that in the face of which fear is
afraid? That in the face of which one has anxiety is not an entity within-
the-world. Thus it is essentially incapable of having any involvement. This
threatening does not have the character of a definite detrimentality which
reaches what is threatened, and which reaches it with definite regard to a
special factical potentiality-for-Being. That in the face of which one is an
xious is completely indefinite. Not only does this indefiniteness leave facti-
cally undecided which entity within the world is threatening us, but it also
tells us that entities within-the-world are not 'relevant at all. Nothing
which is ready-to-hand or present-at-hand within the world functions as
that that in the face of which anxiety is anxious. H ere the totality of invol
vements of the ready-to-hand or present-at-hand discovered within-the-
world, is, as such, of no consequence; it collapses into itself; the world has
the character of completely lacking significance. In anxiety one does not
encounter this thing or that thing which, as som ething threatening, must
have an involvement. (...)
What oppresses us is not this or that, nor is it the summation of every
thing present-at-hand; it is rather the possibility of the ready-to-hand in ge
neral; that is to say, it is the world itself. When anxiety has subsided, then
in our everyday way of talking we are accustomed to say that 'it was really
nothing. And what it was, indeed, does get reached ontically by such a way
of talking. Everyday discourse tends towards concerning itself with the rea
dy-to-hand and talking about it. That in the face of which anxiety is an
xious is nothing ready-to-hand within-the-world. But this nothing ready-
to-hand, which only our everyday circumspective discourse understands,
is not totally nothing. The nothing of readiness-to-hand is grounded in
the most primordial 'somethingin the world. Ontologically, however,
the world belongs essentially to Daseins Being as Being-in-the-world. So
if the nothing that is, the world as such exhibits itself as that in the
face of which one has anxiety, this means that Being-in-the-world itself is that
in the face of which anxiety is anxious. ( Macquarie & Robinson 1962:
230231.)
[ , ''
, . (...)
,
[das Wovor der Angst],
. -- .
, [sich ngstet] , ,
?* ,
, - .
.
, ,
,
--. ,
, .

, - ,
, '-
. ,
, , ,
. -

. . ,
.
; . (...)
(Angst vor)...,
{Angst um)... , ,
(Seinsart) ** (Dasein).


(Seinknnen). , , -
].
(Angst) Un
bestimmtheit Bedrohung (
) Angst
, ; Angst
- ( -

* A n g s t , sich ngstet (.,


, . .
). .
A n g s t F u rc h t, ,
( sich n g stet sich f r c h te t
). , .
** . Dasein
- , - , - , - , ,
, , , ,
. .. .
),
.

, ,
, Angst, : '
.
- , ,
( -
--). ,
(unbestimmt). ,
Un-
zuhause-sein '--, ,
,
.
, :
,
.
,
Angst, Angst
. ,
-
Angst Angst
Furcht (
angest nnge.st fiygt).
,
, Angst
. , Angst
, , ,
, .
- ( -
), Angst, anxiety,
, , anxiety
( ) Angst. ,
(1957: 345):
, ;
.
(anxiety). anxiety
Angst,
angustiae, .
Angst
. , ,
, ,
. (anxiety);
.
.
(-sich ngstigende Freiheit).
(
) Angst
Angst, ?

3. A n g s t

Angst
, ,

Angstneurose ' Angstpsychose
' , Angst ,
, . ,
, Duden (1972: 188), in der Fachsprache der Psychologie
wird fter zwischen Angst als unbegrndet, nicht objektbezogen, und
Furcht als objektbezogen differenziert [
Angst
, , "Furcht
, ].
, Duden (1972), Angst
Furcht, ,
: in der Allgemeinsprache ist die Differenzierung nicht blich ('
).
,
Angst Furcht? , ,

, ?
.
, Angst Furcht,
, ,
, ,
.
, (Ratinger 1968: 24647)
(die Einsamkeit) ' Angst' (die Region der Angst),
, (Furcht) Angst ,
(die Furcht der Einsamkeit ist,
die Angst eines Wesens, das nur im Mitsein leben kann).
,
Furcht
, -
. -
Furcht:
Wenn ein Kind einsam in dunkler Nacht durch den wald gehen mu,
frchtet es sich, auch wenn man ihm noch so berzeugend bewiesen hat,
da berhaupt nichts sei, wovor es sich zu frchten brauche. Im Augen
blick, wo es allein in der Finsternis ist und so Einsamkeit radikal erfahrt,
steht Furcht auf, die eigentliche Furcht des Menschen, die nicht Furcht vor
etwas, sondern Furcht an sich ist. Die Furcht vor etwas Bestimmten ist im
Grunde harmlos, sie kann gebannt werden, indem man den betreffenden
Gegenstand wegnimmt. Wenn jemand sich beispielsweise vor einem bissi
gen Hund frchtet, kann man die Sache schnell bereinigen, indem man
den Hund an die Kette nimmt. Hier stoen wir auf etwas viel Tieferes: da
der Mensch da, wo er in letzte Einsamkeit gert, sich frchtet, nicht vor
etwas Bestimmtem, das man wegbeweisen knnte; er erfhrt vielmehr die
Furcht der Einsamkeit, die Unheimlichkeit und Ausgesetztheit seines
eigenen Wesens, die nicht rational berwindbar ist.
[ ,
, , .
,
, ,
, -, . -
,
, . ,
- , ,
. :
- ,
; ,

, ] (. 246).
, , ,
Furcht
die Furcht der Einsamkeit (' , ,
), Angst
, Angst,
Angst der Einsamkeit.
,
: (
, ). , Furcht

(, ).
Angst Furcht ,
Angst ,
. , Angst
, Furcht,
, , Angst, Furcht
, .
, Angst ( Furcht)
,
.
:
1. Eugen Bisser, berwindung der Lebenangst. Wege zu einen befreienden
Goltesbild. Erlsung von existentiellen Grundngsten ('
(angst) . ) (1986, Don Bosco
Verlag).
2. Klaus Lange, Bevor du sterben willst, lebe! Auf der Reise nach innen ver
wandelt sich der Welt. Von Todessehnsucht, Krankheit, Schuldgefhlen. Angst und
Einsamkeit zu Weite. Leichtigkeit, Freiheit und Vertrauen ('
, ! . ,
, , (Angst) ,
, ) (1996, Kreuz Verlag).
3. Kst, Verena. Angst: Facetten eines Weges aus Angst und Symbiose (Angst:
(Angst) ). 1995. Mnchen:
(Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag).
4. Schutz, Jrgen, ed. 1995. Angst: Urgefhl ('Angst:
). Mnchen: (Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag).
5. Gerhard Stocher: Angst, lass nach! Wieder Lust am Leben finden. Um
fangreicher Ratgeber bei allen Angstzustnden ('Angst, !
.
(zlng.v/)). (1996, Pettloch Verlag).
, ,
,
, Angst R . ,

(Angst) (Angst),

. :
Eine kleine metaphysische Angstwelle lief durch ihn hinndurch '
(Angst)' (Schwanitz
1995: 332).
,
, Angst Furcht
( ) ,

, .
.

4. A n g s t

, Angst haben ('


[dwgsi]) ,
(Noll 1993: 104):
Auerdem hatte ich grauenhafte Angst. Ich konnte mich im Augenblick
berhaupt nicht zusammennehmen...
' , (Angst).
.
grauenhafte ('),
,
, - .
, Furcht sich frchten
. : Ich habe Furcht
vor dem Tod('M ), : Ich habe
Fuicht Ich frchte mich. frchten
; sich
frchten , ,
,

, 1,
, (Lan
genscheidt 1993):
Das Kind frchtet sich im Dunkeln
' .
, Angst
, Furcht ( sich frchten)
,
:
Ich habe Angst, ich wusste nicht wovor und warum
' (Angst), , ;
?Ich frchtete mich, ich wusste nicht wovor und warum
' , , .
, Angst ,
,
:
Wie der Tod nicht aufhrt zu existieren wenn wir nicht an ihn denken,
so auch nicht die Angst ' ,
, (Fritz Riemann, ,
Schtz 1995).
2. Angst
,
tarnend ngsten schweben ; ,

ngste, , :
die Wolga hier hat nicht so viel der tropfen als ngste mir an meine seele
klopfen ' , (ngste)
(Fleming: 486, Grimm and Grimm 1854: 358).
...unter welchen ngsten litt ein Mensch, der vor sich behauptete, keine
Angst zu haben ... (ngsten) ,
, (Angst) (Mechel,
Duden 1993)
Ihre ngste vor einer verstrahlten... Umwelt sind eklatant
(ngste) (Wie
ner 1, 1989, 44, Duden 1993).
, Angst
(ngste),
, Angst -
Bedrohtsein ( ), -
. , Furcht,
.
3. mir ist angst mir ist angst und ban
ge , Angst'
, - -
, (., , mir ist kalt, '
, mir ist bel, ' ).
4. ngstzustand/Angstzustnde (/-
Angst) Angstgefhl/Agstgefhle (/ Angst)
, 5* ,
, .
5. angstvoll ( '-
/) ngstlich (),

, . :
Und so anmutig und jung, aufgeregt und angstvoll stieg ich am Samstag
die ausgetreteten vier Steinstufen hinauf und schellte einfach an seiner
Tr ' ,
[angstvoll],
(Noll 1993: 53).
6.
furchtlos () angstfrei ('angstfrei ['
]): ,
Furcht (: ), ,
, , ,
,
. ,
*angstlos *furchtfrei .
7. (Angst),
(, jemandem sitzt die Angst im Nacken, .,
, Duden 1972: 188), (Angst)
,
- ,
.
8. sich ngstigen, Angst,
-
noKoftcTf (), - , -
. sich ngstigen
to be anxwus , to
fear ' to be afraul of -.
sich ngstigen sichfrch
ten
Angst Furcht: sich ngstigen ,
(- ), steh
frchten ,
. WDG (Wrterbuch, der Deutschen
Gegenwaitsprache) , , :
ein bser Traum hat mich bengstigt
' {Angst).
,
- , ,
.
9. Angsttraum, ,
:
, , , ,
. (Duden 1972: 139) Angsttraum
mit ngsten verbundener Traum, ', ngste (. .)\
Alptraum ,
Alptraum (,
Alptraum),
Angsttraum
( ngste ):
, ,
.
10. Angst Furcht ,
, . ,
( )
Angst haben
, sich frchten (
Furcht ):
(a) Er hatte Angst vor der Prfung
' {Angst)'
(b) ?Er frchtete sich vor der Prfung
' .
, Prfung Hund
, Angst haben, sichfrchten:
(c) Er hatte Angst vor dem Hund
(d) Er frchtete sich vor dem Hund.
-, ,
( ),
, , ,
, , .
11. , afraid '
,
ich frchte, ich habe Angst:
afraid thats true.
, .
Ich frchte das stimmt
*Ich habe Angst das stimmt.

5. A n g s t

Angst?
,
, ,
, , ?
, , Angst
Angst ^
, ,
, Angst Furcht, ,
.
,
, .
,
:
Angst (, X hatte Angst vor dem Hund/vor der Prfung)
:
,

,
,
-

X
Furcht (, X frchtete sich vor dem Hund/*vor der Prtung)
X - :
-

,
X , X .
Angat Furcht,
.
-, Angat
, :
Angst, ,
,
. , Angst,
, Angst.
Furcht, , ,
Furcht .
-,
Angst Furcht.
Angst
(Bedrohtsein);
ngste. ,
,
Angst,
,
. ,
, Angst
(undeutlich), ,
Angst .
,
,
( ).
-, Angst
, *
.
-, Angst .
,
, Angst, Angst
, .
-, - Angst
Furcht , Angst -
, - ,
, Furcht
. , , Angst
Furcht ( Duden 1993):
blieb Lea ein Gefhl der Bedrohung, das... Angst (PFurcht) auslste 'y
, (Os-
sowski, Liebe ist 357).
, Angst Furcht,
Angst
Angst ,
. , Angst ,
Furcht, objektbezogen, :
A. Sie frchtete, da sie ihren Job verlieren wrde
' , .
B. Sie hatte Angst, da sie ihren Job verlieren wrde
' Angst, .
Angst
?
, Angst, (haben) frchten
.
, ,
. ;
,
:
. :
, -
. ( )
, :
.
,
. ,
,
.
,
, :
Gleichzeitig aber klapperten mir alle Knochen vor Angst, wenn ich an
die Konsequenzen einer erfolgreichen Auferstehung dachte '
(Angst),
(Noll 1993: 202).
Ich war halbtot vor Angst, dass auch mein Koffer inspiziert w rde '
(Angst), * (Noll
1993: 207).
, Angst
, objekt
bezogene, , Angst

, .
,
, Angst Furcht, -,
.
,
, , ,
,
.
, Angst
( Furcht ), , ,
Angst, .
, Angst
, ,
(
, Angst: Urgefhl, 'Angst; ),
,
.

6. A ngst
Angst

, . -,
, , ,
, /
- . ,
fear ( to he afraid),
peur ( avoir peur),
pam a ( avr ),
miedo ( tener miedo),
( ) . .
19
,
, Furcht, sich frchten.
, ,
, .
, , .
-
Angst anxiety ' ,
anxiety. , Furcht
fear ,
, fear. ,
anxiety -
Angst, ,
Angst, fear Furcht
, Furcht.
Angst
peur, , miedo , angoisse, ansia
, ,
anxiety, /.
, - ,
Angst Furcht, ,
, fear anxiety
, peur angoisse
. , ,
, , ,
; ,

,
, , .
, (Delu-
meau 1978: 15) peur angoisse (
fear anxiety),
(1 distinction fundamentale)
(les peurs particulires)
(un climat de peur), ,
,

,
.
Peurs particuliers: cest--dire peurs nommes. Ici, peut devenir
opratoire au niveau collectif la distinction que la psychiatrie a maintentant
tablie au plan individuel entre peur et angoisse, jadis confondues par la
psychologie classique. Car il sagit de deux ples autour desquels gravitent
des mots et des faits psychiques la fois parents et diffrents. La crainte,
l'pouvante, la frayeur, la terreur appartiennent plutt a la peur; linqui
tude, lanxit, la mlancolie plutt langoisse. La premire porte sur le
connu, la seconde sur linconnu.
La peur a un objet dtermin auquel on peut faire face. Langoisse nen
a pas et est vcue comme une attente douloureuse devant un danger
dautant plus redoutable quil nest pas clairement identifi; elle est un sen
timent global d inscurit. Aussi est-elle plus difficile supporter que la
peur. (...) Parce quil est impossible de conserver son quilibre interne en
affrontant longtemps une angoisse flottante, infinie et indfinissable, il est
ncessaire lhomme de la transformer et de la fragmenter en des peurs
prcises de quelque chose ou de quelquun. Lesprit humain fabrique en
permanence la peur pour viter une angoisse morbide qui aboutirait
labolition du moi

[ .

,
. ,
,
, . , , ,
{la peur)-, ,
, {l'angoisse).
- , .
,
. ,
, - ,
:
. ,
. (...)
,
, -
,
- -.
,
, ] (. 15 16).
, , angoisse (
) peur () ( ,
), , ,
angoisse, ( , 'Angst),
, 'Furcht,
, , --
, ?
-, , Angst
- , ,
.
,
, , (
, , , ,
), ,
-, ,
, . -,
:
, ,
', , ,
' ', .
,

, , ,
,
Angst ( Angst)
, .

7. Angst?
,
(, - fear).

(Masson & McCarthy 1996: 57):
, ,
,
.
, :
.
,
,
,
. , ,
, , , ,
.
fear,
Angst. , , ,
, , , -
Angest,,
Angst Angst.
( 1844 .):
, -
, ,
. ,
, . ., .
, , ,
(Kierkegaard 1980: 185).
anxiety,
Angst, angest,
anxiety*. ,
, , ,
(anxiety) , ,
(fear). , (Mas
son 8 McCarthy 1996: 64)
:

( ).
,
, ,
. , .
,
,
, , , ,

*
angest nnftax.
frygt ( -
) angest ( -). ., ,
Frygt og ( ) Begreift angest (
). , -, anxiety,
angest , The Concept of Anxi
ety,
The Concept of Dread (Princeton, 1944).. .
. ,
, ,
.
,
,
, .
, , -,
.

, - ,
. , ,
, -
, , .
, .
, ,
? ,
(anxiety)
, Angst (, ,
Angest).
,
- Angst,
, . ,

,
(anxiety) (objectless fear),
,
.
(fear-related) ,
,
: , .
A. :

-
X
B. :


-
X
. :

,
-
X .
, , ,
, Masson and McCarthy (1996),
, . ,
(fear), (anxiety),
Angst, ,
, ,
, ,
, Angst.
,
, ,
.
.
, , ,
, . ., ,
, , ,
(Kierkegaard 1980: 185),
( ) ,
, (1991: 70).
. Angst,
, ,
, .
( , ,
) ,
.
, , Angst
,
, Furcht,
( Furcht) ,
: ( Furcht)
, Angst ,
, , .

8.
, , ,
(linguae Germanicae parens),
.
,
,
(Keller 1978: 355),
. ,
, ,
, ,
.
An den christlichen Adel deutscher Nation
Von der Freiheit eines Christenmenschen, 1520 .,
. ,
, , , , ,
, - .
.
:
,
(Keller 1978: 356).
,
1578: Grammatica
Germanicae linguae ex bibliis Lutheri Germanicis et aliis eius libris collec-
ta, ,

.
(Bach 1965: 25960):
Ein Werk von der Sprachgewalt der Lutherbibel aber, das in einer Zeit
sich ausbreitender Lesekunst in Abertausenden von Exemplaren in allen
Teilen Deutschlands, auch den kathol, nicht nur gelesen, sonder weithin
auch auswendig gelernt wurde, konnte im Verein mit der Sprache seiner
Sendschreiben, Reden und Lieder schlielich festere Grundlagen fr eine
die ganze Nation umspannende Gemeinsprache legen, als es den Kanzlei
oder den Druckersprachen (...) htte gelingen knnen.
[ , ,
, ,

, , ,

, ].
,
, -
, ,
, :
,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
(Grimm 1822: 11; Erikson 1958: 227).
,
,
, -
. , (Chambers and Wil
kie 1970: 42) (Short history of
German language), ,
:
... , , ,
: ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
- ,


.
,

. ,
. ,
(Keller 1978: 449).
,
, :

,
(. 452).
Angst, ,
angst und bange ,
,
, , Hoffnung und
Zuversicht (' ) bekm m ern und vexieren ('
) (Keller 1978: 449).
.
, (Chambers Wilkie (1970: 42)) ,

,
.
,
Angst
.

9.

-, ,
,
, .
,
,
(Delumeau 1978: 211)
, ,

, :

,
. (...)
(...).
, ,

, (. 216).
(...) ;
,
,
,
, (...) (. 210).

, ,
(Delumeau 1978: 210) , ,
1524 1525 .,
, , ,

, .
,
XVI XVII ,
, , . -
( 1978: 228) , , 89
,
( 1625), ,
68 , 20 .
( 1990: 527) ,
XVI
, ,
( 1544 .), !,
1672 ..

XIII,
, , (. 527).
(1 1978) , ,
, (
) .
,
(1 1978: 237),
, .
-

(1 1978: 239). (
): ... XVI XVII
? (1 1978; 237). ,
, XVI
( 1978: 239).
( ), 15601570 .
,
, XVI
24 .
, 1561 .
- , ,

, (1 1978: 240).
, ,
, ,
.
10, A n g s t .


/ 'Angst,
, Angst.
,
(Mosse 1955), Angst an
xiety, fear, distress [, , ]
die Furcht ', die Herzenangst ' (Angst) ,
die Seelenangst ' (Angst) .
,
Angst , ,
. , -
( 1963) Angst fear, fright, dread;
mental anguish; anxiety; Psy; angst [, , , ,
; .: angst].
, , -, -,
, -, .
,
:
- (Flgel 1845: 32)
Angst anguish; anxiety; agony; pangs (of death); fear, terror [
; ; ; () ; , ] (fear ,
), Angst (Grimm
1854: . 1, . 358) : angst ist nicht bloss mutlosigkeit, sondern qu
lende sorge, zweiilender, beengender zustand berhaupt (Angst
, ,
).
Angst
: ,
, ,
( fear Furcht).
, Grosswrterhuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache [
] (Langenscheidts 1993)
Angst (
):
1. Angst (pl .ngste): Zustand von jem andem , der bedroht wild oder sich
in Gefahr befindet (' -,
).
2. Angst ( Sg.): die ernsthalte Sorge, da jemandem etwas Schlim
mes passiert, da man jemanden/etwas verliert (' ,
- , -
-).
, -,
: ,
,

.
Angst
( ) ,
Angst
timor (.) temere (.) fobos (.)
fobeomai (.) ( ). ,
Furcht sich
frchten ( erschrecken).
( ):
1. Frchte dich nicht, Maria ( l, 30, Luther NT, c. 131)
'Do not be afraid, Mary (NEB, c. 93)*
ne timeas, Maria! (NTL, c. 152)
in fobou, Mariain (GENT, c. 151)
2. Sie frchteten sich aber (. 8, 25, Luther NT, c. 155)
Tn fear and astonishntent they said to one another(NEB, c. 111)**
timentes (NTL, c. 182), fobetntes (GENT, c. 182)
3. Frchte dich nicht, du Tochter Zion! (. 12, 15, Luther NT, c. 240)
'Fear no more, daughter of Zion (NEB, c. 175)***
Noli tim ere (NTL, c. 291): m fobou (GENT, c. 291)
4. Es kam aber alle Seelen Furcht an (. 2, 43, Luther NT, c. 269)
'A sense o f awe was everywhere (NEB, c. 200)****
Fiebat autem omni animae timor (NTL, c. 326)
egineto d pt psyxe fbos (GENT, c. 326).
, Furcht (die
Furcht Gottes, die Furcht des Herrn, Gottesfurcht)
(Mosse 1955: 46).

* : , .. .
** ,
:
.. .
*** : , !., .
**** : . , .
, Johns
Furcht, Angst. Angst
: pressura, angustia tn-
bulaiio stenoxoria, tlipsis synoxe,
, affliction
' distress '. :
Pressura
1. In d e r Welt habt ih r Angst (. 16, 33, L u th er N T, c. 251)
In the world you will have trouble (NEB, c. 183)*
(In m undo pressuram habetis (NTL, c. 304; .: tlipsis, GENT, c. 304)
2. Ein Weib, w enn sie gebiert, so hat sie T raurigheit, denn ihre Stunde
ist gekom m en. W enn sie ab er das Kind geboren hat, denkt sie nicht
m e h r an die Angst um d e r F reu d e willen, da ein Mensch zur Welt
geb oren ist (Joh. 16, 21, L u th er N T, c. 250)
A w om an in labour is in pain because h e r tim e has come; but when
the child is born she forgets the anguish in h e r joy that a m an has been
bo rn in to the world (NEB, c. 182)**
M ulier, cum p a rk , tristiam habet, quia venit h o ra eius; cum autem
p e p e re rit p u e ru m , iam non m em init p ressu rae p ro p te r gaudium quia
n atu s est h o m o in m u n d u m (N TL, c. 302; .: tlipsis, G EN T, c. 303)
Angustia
3. W er will uns scheiden von d e r Liebe Gottes?
T rbsal oder-Angst o d e r V erfolgung...? (. 8. 35, L uther NT, c. 354)
T h e n w hat can sep a rate us from the love o f C hrist?
C an affliction o r h ard sh ip ? (NEB, c. 267)***
Q uis nos sep arab it a caritate C hristi?
T rib u latio n an angustia..? (N T L, c. 424; .: tlipsis, G EN T, c. 424)
4. D en n ich schrieb eu ch aus g ro sser T r b sa l u n d Angst des Herzens
m it viel T r n e n (II Kop. 2, 4, L u th e r N T , c. 402)
T h a t le tte r I sen t you cam e out of g re at distress and anxiety; how
m a n y tears I sh ed as I w rote it! (N EB , c. 305)****

* : . , .
** : , , ,
; , ,
. . .
*** : : ,
, ..? /7/. .
:
. , .
Nam ex multa tribulatine et angustia cordis scripsi vobis per multas
lacrimas. (NTL, c. 475; .: synoxe, GENT, c. 475)
5. Die Angst meines Herzens ist gross; fhre mich aus meinem Nten!
(. 24: 17; Luther Werke, T. 10/1, c. 176)
The troubles of my heart have enlarged,
Oh bring me out of my distresses (NKJV c. 549)*
Tribulationes cordis mei multiplicatae sunt, de necessitatibus meis
erue me (Luther Werke, T. 10/2, c. 205)
Tribulatio
6. Wenn mir angst ist, ru ich den HERRN an, und schrey zu meinem
Gott, so erhret er meine stim von seinem Tempel, und mein geschrey
kornpt fr in zu seinem Ohren (. 17, 7; Luther Werke, T. 10/1, c. 149)
In my distress I called upon the LORD,
And cried out to my God;
He heard my voice from his temple,
And my cry carne before him, even to his ears
(NKJ, c. 545)**
In tribulatione mea inuocaui Dominum, et ad Deum meum clamaui.
Et exaudiut de templo sancto suo uocem meam, et clamor meus in
conspectu eius introiuit in aures eius (Luther Werke, T. 10/2, c. 201)
Angst
, ,
, '
' ( Furcht), ,
' ( 'Furcht),
.
Angst ;
1. (Althochdeutsch), 1000 .: Angst
( (Althochdeutsch
Wrterbuch 1968)) seelische Bedrngnis, Erschtterung, *-

* : ,
! ( ,
)./7/. .
** :
. ,
( ,
: ,
)., .
, (Gegensatz zuin Begriff des 'Friedens',
, ); Sorge, qulende innere Un
ruhe (', , );
Leid, schmerzvolle Bedruckung (',
).
2. , 15001550 .: Angst, -,
, (
pressura, angustla tlipsis ', timor fohos
'), ,
,
, , (
'Furcht).
3. : Angst
, ',
, , ( 'Furcht), , ,
.
Angst
(tivior/fobos), (jrressura/tlrpsis), ,
( XX ) Angst.
timor fohos,
, Furcht.
:
Ich frchtete mich vor dir, denn du bist ein harter Mann (. 19, 21;
Luther NT, c. 189).
Ich hatte nmlich Angst vor dir, weil du ein strenger Mann bist. (NG,
c. 73).
I was alraid of you, because you are a bal d man (NEU, c. 135)*.
Und da ihn die Jnger sahen auf dem Meer gehen, erschracken sie und
sprachen: Es ist ein Gespenst! und schrien vor Furcht (. 14, 26,
Luther NT, c. 43).
Als sie ihn auf dem Wasser gehen sahen, wurden sie von Furcht
gepeckt. Es ist ein Gespenst! rieten sie und schrien vor Angst (NG, c. 40).
When the disciples saw him walking on the lake they were so shaken
that they cried out in terror: Its a ghost (H-P H3, c. 42)**.

* : ,
.. .
** : , , ,
: ; . , .

, ,
Angst
Angst , ,
, anxiety, distress
trouble ( fear) ( l'an
goisse, peur). 25 (17):
Die Angst meines Herzens ist gross:
Fhre mich aus meinem Nten! (Luther Werke, vol. 10/1, c. 176)
Mein Herz wird immer mehr von Angst geqult; befreie mich von je
dem Druck! (Die Bibel: die gute Nachricht in heutigem Deutsch, c. 499)
The troubles of my heart have enlarged,
Oh bring me out of my distresses (NKJ, c. 549)
Mes angoisses menvahissent;
dgage-moi de mes tourments.(Lo Bible, 1988, c. 813)
, ,
Angst
,
: Angst ('/) Furcht (').
Angst
( ). ,
, Angst ,
.
, ,
Angst ,
:
Angst '/,
Furcht ', Angst
,
.1

11.
Angst
, ,
, ,
> Angst
Angst - , .
(Fromm 1980), [] ,
, [Angst und Zweifel]
(1980: 65).
[] (1980: 66),

(1980: 66). ,
, ,
- ,
, . (...) Boi
[Angst und Zweifel], ;
,
(1980: 56).

, , -,
, . (Dalbiez 1974)
neurose d angoisse trs grave ('
) (. 332), langoisse morbide de culpabilit ('
) un sentiment morbide de culpabilit
d une extrem e violence (' )
(. 12), ,
: pour moi, Luther nest quangoisse ('
) (. 24).
, ,
,
, ,
praeceptor Germaniae, . . ;
,
, ,
( ),
Tischreden . ,
(Melanchton 1939: 158) :
, ,
- ,
, .
, , ,
,
, , :
, *.

* .: , (. II,
52)., .
,
. (...)
,
,
.
.
, , (Dalbiez 1974: 339):
' , ,
, , ,
, , ,
; ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
, , .
, , : *.
: , -
(. VI, 7). , mirabile dictu**,
,
. , ,
,
, , , ,
.
Tischreden,
, :
. , , ,
, , ,
, : , !
. ,
, ,
. () (?) , .
' ,
. .
, , ,

* . 30, 23 (
)., .
** (.). , .

, ,
.
(Dalbiez 1974), -
,
( ) ,

(
). :
.
, .
, , ,
, , . (...)
,
, :
,,
, ,
, (
, . 53, Dalbiez 1974: 352).
, , ,
. ,
(Angst),
.
-,
,
.
-, ,
Angst
( pressura, angustia
tribulatio stenoxona, synoxe tlipsis).
-, ,
,
, ,
(
).
-,

,

.
-, ,
, , ,
; , ,
(
, ,
).
, ;
( )
. Angst
( angst und bange), ,
,
, , ,
, , (
). ,
( ) .
, ,
,
, ,
- , /Ingsl,
- . , ,
,
, (cp. Stern 1931),
, ,
.
(,
,
),
, 'Angst':
,
,
. , ,
- . , \
, . (
) , (Althaus 1966:2456):
,
, solafule.
; .
.
, .
.
, ( ,
[ ]), (
)
( [
]) ,
'Angst .

,
, Angst, ,
,
,
, , , : (10001600),
/ (16001900), / (1900/2000).
, , , , /,
/
. ,
, .

12. Angst '


Angst '/
, Angst
Furcht (, ,
), , , ,
, . ,
Angst, ,
, .
116- , angst der Hellen:
Stricke des todes hatten mich umbfangen,
Und angst der Hellen hatten mich troffen,
Ich kam in jamer und not
(Luther Werke 10/1, c. 489).

'The pains of death encompassed me,


And the pangs of Sheol laid hold of me;
I found trouble and sorrow
(NKJ, c. 602)*.

(. 114, 3): ,
; ( -
angst der Hellen ( angst
)
, pericula infemi ('
), pangs
of Sheol.
...:
Mitten wyr im leben sind
mit dem tod umbfangen
Wen suchen wir der hulffe thu
das wyr gnad erlangen?
Das bistu alleyne.
Mitten hyn dem tod anficht
uns der Hellen rachen,
Wer will uns aus solcher not
ffeh und ledig machen?
Das thustu Herr alleyne.
Mitten hyn der Hellen angst
unser sund une treyben,
Wo soln wyr denn flihen hyn
da wyr mugen bleyben?
Zu dyr herr Christ alleyne (Luther Werke, Vol. 35, c. 454).
1. In the mids of earthy life,
Snares of death surround us;
Who shall help us in the strife
Lest the Foe confound us?
Thou only, Lord,Thou only (...).
2. In the mids of death's dark vale
Powers of hell oertake us,
Who will help when they assail,
Who secure will make us?
Thou only, Lord, Thou only {...).
3. In the mids of hell-born woe
All our sins opress us,
Where shall we for refuge go,
Where for grace to bless us?
To Thee, Lord Jesus, only (...)

, , ).
, .
[ ,
;

?
, , (...)
,
,
, ,
?
, , (...)

,
,
?
, (...)].
,
hell-born woe [ ],
der Hlle Angst (Polack 1942: 420), , ,
( ) ,
der Hellen angst
(woe).
, (Althaus
1966: 410)
, [],
. Angst,
'', ',
,
. der hollen angst ' (
) :
' , ' ,
( ) . (
snares of death [' ],
, , der
Hellen Rachen, Althaus 1966: 406: hells jaws gaping at us
[' , ] .)
Angst, ,
,
,
(Oberman 1983: 330) :
Dem Teufel ich gefangen lag
im Tod war ich verloren,
mein Siind mich qulte Nacht und Tag,
darin ich war geboren.
Ich fiel auch immer tiefer drein,
es war kein Guts am Leben mein,
die Snd hatt mich besessen.
Mein guten Werk die galten nicht,
es war mit ihn verdorben;
der frei Will hate Gotts Gericht,
er war zum Gutn erstorben;
Die Angst mich zu verzweifeln trieb,
da nichts den Sterben bei mir blieb,
zur Hllen mut ich sinken.

'Fast bound in Satans chains I lay,


Death brooded darkly oer me,
Sin was my torment night and day,
In sin my mother bore me;
Yea, deep and deeper still I fell,
Life had become a living hell,
So firmly sin possesed me.
My own good works availed me naught,
No merit they attaining;
Free will against Gods judgment fought,
Dead to all good remaining,
My fears increased till sheer despair
Left naught but death to be my share;
The pangs of hell I suffered
(Translation from Australian Lutheran Hymn Book 1961: 281).
[ , , ,
.
,
;
, ,
,
.
,
;
,
angst
(als symptomat. Erleben der Hlle). Angst
Angst .
,
(Reichman 1989),
angst , ,
(Passion Christi, Todesangst Christi, . 1190)
(religise und didaktische Texte,
. 1191). (
)
.
angst, Todesangst (
) Hllenangst,
,
(
anxiety []):
,
,
.
.
. ,
, . (...)

.
,
.
, ,
.
, .
, ,
(Tillich 1957: 679).
,
Hllenangst, ,
, ,

,
. ()
(Asendorf 1967: 57):
Das Jngste Gericht wird nicht an einem fernen Punkt auf der Zeit
achse geriikt, sondern ist eigene, unmittelbare Gegenwart. Das eigene Ge
wissen ist die Hlle. Gericht, Zorn, Snde und Tod sind zugleich gegen
wrtig. (...) Wenn wir das Gewissen fhlen, dann fhlen wir die Hlle und
meinen, wir seien ewig verloren (c. 54).
[es wurd (...) darauf hingewiesen, da] im bsen Gewissen die Hlle,
das Eschaton selbst, in dieses Leben hineindrckt, und zwar so, da die
ohnmchtigen Flche, die zu Gott emporgesandt werden, nur der Aus
druck letzter Gottesferne und vlliger Verzweiflung sind. Hier wird durch
litten, was es heit, ferne zu sein von seinem Angesicht, und eben das hat
der angefochtene Luther vor seinem reformatorischem Durchbruch mit al
ler Schwere erfahren. Die Grenzen zum Eschaton sind geffnet. Gottes
ewiges Gericht wird hier und heute durchliiten (c. 5960).
-
; .
. , , .
(...) , ,
.
[ , ] , . . ,
, , ,
,
. ,
;
, .
. .
, Angst
,
, , , ,

. ,
Angst, ''


. ,
, ,
.
angst (
).
Hlle
infemum ( -)
, 1527 . , ,
[] , -, :
Mehr als eine Woche lang bin ich in Tod und Hlle hin und her gewor
fen, am ganzen Leibe fhl ich mich geschlagen, mir zittern noch alle Glie
der. Fast habe ich Christus vllig verloren, umhergetrieben von Fluten
und Strmen der Verzweiflung und Lsterung gegen Gott. Wegen der
Frbitte der Glubigen hat Gott dann aber angefangen, sich ber mich zu
erbarmen und meine Seele aus dem Grund der Hlle gerissen (
Oberman 1983: 335).
- , ,
, .
,
. , ,
.
Angst, (
, ), (Ober
man 1983: 335):
Es war nicht die Begegnung mit dem Tod, die ihn so in Angst und
Schrecken versetzt hatte. Krperlich erholt Luther sich schnell, wie er be
richtet. Was er mit dem Ausbruch der Krankheit als berfall des Teufels
erfuhr, sollte mit zunehmender Gesundung erst voll in Gang kommen. Es
ist auch weiterhin so, da ihn kein Zweifel ber die evangelische Wahrheit
plagt. Was ihn ngstigte, ist die Frage, ob er selber in ihr bestehen kann.
Angst . ,
, . ,
, ,
.
. ( Angst) ,
.
( )
, , (
, ),
, ,

, : ,
, , .
:
.
, angst ' angst -
/, -
XVI-M ,
, :
angst pressura,
angustia tribulatio (/) angst ,
, .

13.

, , ,


. (Erich Fromm 1980: 67):
... .
,
; .
[Angst]:

:
. ,
.
,
; ,
;
(1980: 85).
[Er fhlte sich nun allein und war voller Angst, Fromm 1980b: 275].
Angst
. :
Die neue Freiheit musste in ihm ein tiefes Gefhl der Unsicherheit und
Ohnmacht, des Zweifels, der Verlassenheit und Angst wecken (1980b: 254).
'
, , [Angst] (1980: 53).
:
?
(1980: 67). ,
,
,
, [Angst],
(1980: 52).
( )
, :
, ,
[Angsterfll] (1980b: 264).
...
, ,
, (1980: 87).

, ,

(. 87).
... ,
[ ]
(. 89).
,
,
(. 69).
[] ,

. (...)

,
[Angst] (. 89).
, Angst
, ,
.

14. vs. , 'Angst' vs. 'Sicherheit'


,
'Angst'
, ,
. (Nuss 1993: 188189)
, [ ] Angst,
(...). , (...) [ ]
Angst, .

,
,
.
,
Vergewisserung ( ):
Ich bin gewi! Ist das ein Satz aus unseren Tagen? Lt sich heute
so sprechen, wie Paulus einst geschrieben hat? Gewiheit scheint sich selte
ner finden zu lassen, und sie zu suchen mhsamer. Aber wer knnte wirk
lich auf Gewissheit verzichten? Gewi zu sein: seiner selbst, seiner Sache,
eines anderen Menschen und vor allem: des eigenen Glaubens , das ist
lebensnotwendig. In Ungewiheit lt sich nicht leben, Schon die belang
losen Ungewiheiten des Alltags sind schwer zu ertragen. Nicht selten ma
chen sie krank und lassen darin anschaulich werden, wie der Mensch unter
ihnen leidet,
Ungewiheit in den Grundfragen des Lebens bedroht das Leben selbst
(Rssler 1979: 6).
!* ? (...)
, .
? : ,
, , ,
. .
,
- ,
, .
.
, gewiss
r.ertain
', Gewissheit certainty
. sicher
gewiss, Sicher
heit Gewissheit. (
(Langenscheidt 1993), Gewissheit das siche-

* . 15, 29: , ,
., .
20 .
re Wissen in bezug auf etwas = Sicherheit, . e. -
, Sicherheit.)

sicher gewi.
Mag sein, da Ivy mich liebte. (Sicher war ich bei Frauen nie.) (Frisch
1972: 43)
, . (
.)*.
sicher,
Sicherheit , ,
, '', ' '
. (Langenscheidt 1993)
sicher : vor Gefahren oder Risiken geschtzt < ein
Versteck, ein Weg, ein Arbeitsplatz, ein Einkommen ('
<, , , ).
sicher , ,
-
. sicher
, sicher
,
diebessicher ' flschungsicher '
( , ).
-sicher .
$-
cher (.) Sicherheit (.)
, ,
:
1. Erwhnen mchte ich noch, dass ich nicht weiss, ob ich vor Verzweif-
lungsanfallen sicher bin (Hahnemann, 1995: 61).
. 'I would also like to mention that I dont know whether I am cer-
tain/secure from attacks of doubt [' ,
, / ] (
-).
2. Wer in seinem Schicksal einen Sinn sieht, der kann versuchen, ein
Lebenprinzip zu finden, durch das er Sicherheit fr sich selbst, fr die an
deren und fr die gesamte Welt, in der er lebt, gewinnt (Harder 1995: 69).

* Cp. . :
. , .
'He who sees a meaning in his life (fate) can try to find a lifeprinciple,
through which he can win Sicherheit (certainty/security) for himself, for
others, and for the whole world in which he lives)' [,
(),
, , , ,
, Sicherheit ( /)'].
, Sicherheit ( ,
) '',
'', :
, .
sicher
, , ,
Angst; ,
, .
, Sicherheit ,
:
, .

('', '', '', '', 'Sicherheit
'Sicherheit2) ,
. ,
doubt ', (
Zweifel) :
doubt (, I doubt it that X happened ' ,
X ')
: , X
: , .
certainty ',
Gewiheit ( Sicherheit{)
:
certainty (, I am certain that X happened ' ,
X )
: , X
: , .
' (- Gefahr) '' (
)
:
safety ' (, person X is safe ' X
)
X
- :
-
-

danger ' (, person X is in danger ' X


)
X
- :
-
:
-
-.
security, , safety,

( - -), -
[-] [ -]. Sicherheit (
Sicherheit2) ,
security: ,
Sicherheit, ,
:
security ( security screen , security lock '
)
-
- :
Y X,

- , Y-a X, Y-a

SicherheiU

- :
,
,
:
,
.
'Sichevheit2\ '',
'' '',
(., , Syberberg 1995: 122)
'Angst'. , Si-
cherheit (
),
, .1=
' *1
, ,
, , , sichern, skherstellen sichergeken. 4
II
, ( Langenscheidt 1993):
Wir mssen sicherstellen, dass nicht noch mehr Vogelarten aussterben
' , ',
, -,
, .

Die Tr durch ein doppelten schloss gegen Einbruch sichern
'
, ,
, (
). : 4^
Sie wollte sichergehen und fragte deshalb noch einen Arzt
' ,
,
, , ,
, ,
.
'Sicherheit
Geborgenheit ( geborgen '), ,
( ,
, , ,
Angst). , ,
'Heimat , , ',
, ,
. (
. Wierzbicka 1995 in press.)
- Geborgenheit
safety security, Geborgen
heit -

>
. ,
( Angst
);
, , ,
' ' . ,

, Heimat.
, Hei
mat, Heimat - ,
, Geborgenheit
Angst. Angst, ,
nicht-zuhause-sein (' ),
Heimat ( ) Zuhause,
. . '. (Nuss 1993: 178):
Durch solche Traumbilder entsteht fr den Deutschen eine Sttte der
Geborgenheit, in der man, wie im Schoe der Familie, den Wechselfllen
und Gefahren des Lebens nicht mehr ausgesetzt ist. Das Schlimmste, was
einem Deutschen Daher passieren kann, ist, seine Heimat zu verlieren.
Dann hat er den Eindruck, seiner Seele beraubt zu werden.

Geborgenheit, , ,
. ,
, Heimat.
, .
, 'Angst -
, -


. Sicherheit, Ordnung.

15. Ordnung

certain certavnty ' (gewi Gewiheit, sicher\
Sicherheitt), ,
, : bestimmt, ge
nau, klar Bescheid.

. .
Bescheid , ,
, .
(Duden 1980), Bescheid
bescheiden, Amtsprache (
) jemandem
behrdlichersiets eine Entscheidung ber etwas mitteilen ('
- , ).
Bescheid
, -
. Langenscheidt (1993) eine er
wartete Information ber etwas ('
-) :
Sag mir bitte Bescheid ob du zu meiner Party kommen kannst!
, Bescheid, .
- Bescheid
.
, , , ,
,
- ,
. Bescheid
, ,
:

, ,
, - .

bestimmt (
bestimmen) (Langenscheidt 1993)
gewiss '/
: 1. ,
, 2. ,
. :
Du wirst bestimmt Erfolg haben bei deiner Arbeit!
'
Weiss du das bestimmt?
' ?.

ganz bestimmt ' ('). -

geborgen ' , . .
Geborgenheit,

( Claessen 1995: 38):
Von guten machten wunderbar geborgen erwarten wir gehrt, was
kommen mag. Gott ist mit uns am Abend und am Morgen und ganz be
stimmt an jedem neuen Tag.
(geborgen) ,
, . . ,
(ganzbestimmt), .
Genau
precise .
, ( Langenscheidt 1993):
Wisst ihr schon Genaues ber den Unfall?
' - ?.
Langenscheidt (1993) ,
, : sich ge
nau etwas merken, bewut und konzentriert,
' .
Genau!,
, ,
.
( )
.
', , , ,

.
'.
klar , , ',
, . Langenscheidt (1993)
,
(Ma)klar! selbstverstndlich, sicher (' ,
), ber etwas klar/im klaren sein ('
-) etwas genau wissen und deshalb sicher dar
ber urteilen knnen ('
). ,
Alles klar! (, ' )
, ' ' (
, ), , , '
, ' , ,
.
,
, , -,
'' ,
.
, Vorschrifts
und Ordnimgethos (Hentig 1996: 59),
',
(Nuss 1993) ,

, .
, ( )
, ,
, ,
Angst. (Nuss 1993: 195):
Im tglichen Leben wird deutlich, welch unaufhrlichen Kampf die Deut
schen unbewut fhren, um ihre latenten ngste abzubauen. Materiell wie
psychisch haben sie das Bedrfnis, in einem sicheren Rahmen zu leben.
,
,
(ngste). ,
/.
, ,
Verboten ('') (. Wierzbicka, forthcom
ing),
Sicherheit ('/'), -
Ordnung (''). (Nuss
1993: 123):
Fr Deutsche ist unerllich, Ordnung zu haben und in einer Welt zu
leben in der Ordnung herrscht, ln der Tat ist nur die Ordnung imstande,
den inneren Frieden zu sichern. Damit der Kopf ordentlich funktionieren
und die Seele sich frei fhlen kann, mu der Krper in einem geordneten
Rahmen leben. Der Deutsche kann es nicht ausstehen, wenn er sich nicht,
zurechtfindet in seinen Sachen wie in seinen Gedanken, im Beruf wie
in seinem Gefhlsleben. Er liebt klare Verhltnisse. Er mchte wissen, wo
ran er ist und wie es weitergehen soll. Er ist ein Gewohnheitstier und mchte
alles genau geregelt sehen. Das Unbekannte belastet, ja erschreckt ihn. Er hat
das Bedrfhiss, das Terrain, auf dem er sich bewegt, zu erforschen und abzu
stecken. Wenn das einmal geschehen ist, fhlt er sich in Sicherheit.
Ordnung (') ,
Ordnung. , Ordnung
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
, . .
, .

. , .
, .
, //.

16.

, ,
(., , Kemper 1987, Plutchik 1994).
,
(Urgefhl)
(, -, Furcht),
, Angst
.
, 'Angst,
, ,

'Angst',
.
'Angst' ,
.
Angst
,
, , , ,
'Angst' ,
, Angst XVII ,
, , ,

.
, 'Angst*
,
Angst, ,

. ,
: ,
,
,
, ,
, .
,



, Angst.

Althaus Paul. 1966 [1963] The theology of Martin Luther. Translated by Robert
C. Schultz. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.
Australian Lutheran Hymn Book. 1961. Adelaide: The Lutheran Publishing Co.
Bark Adolf. 1965. Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache. Heidelberg. Quelle and Meyer
Benecke, Georg Friedrich. 1854 see Mller, Wilhelm, 1963.
Biser Eugen 1986. berwindung der Lebensangst. Wege zu einem befreienden Got
tesbild. Erlsung von existentiellen Grundngsten. fOvercoming the angst of life. Ways
to a liberating image of God'). Don Bosco Verlag.
Blum Siegfried, T. Frings, H. Glz, S. Habermann, E. Karg-GastersUidt, G. Mller,
E. Ulbricht and G. Wolfram (eds). 1968. Althochdeutsch Wrterbuch. Berlin: Akademie
Verlag.
Bradbury Malcolm. 1975. The History Man. London: Arrow Books.
Chambers W. Walker and John R. Wilkie. 1970. A Short History of the German Lan
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cial attitudes and cultural values.

- (--)...
(Nabokov 1956: 12)

1.

1.1. : phsis thsis (' '')


(Karcevski 1968: 196)
'
:
Alla! scria-t-il en portugais.
'A-a-a! -.
, ,
, , ,
,
, . ,
, ,

.
, ,
.
,
. ,
' ,
,
. (Rosten 1968: 26)
, ,
, ( ' [
] ) , .
, Mt ,
, .
, , . . ,
: ' ?, : 'Nu? ( , ,
: Nu-nu).
,
,
' , , ,
- .
:
, .
... . ... ,
. .
,
. : ! ('Pooh!')
(Rayner 1978:21).
, ,
, Pooh!,
, - .
, - Pfui!, - Fu! (. ,
2). , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
. , gee wow
(
),
,
. , ha ow -
( , ).
,
,
gee wow.
,
, ( )
.

, - ,
, . , LDOTEL (1984)
, wow '
(, ) gee
' , ,
,

( , , gee wow
). , , ah '
, , ,
, phew ' ,
, ,
ah phew
. , ,
LDOTEL ( ),
, wnh, gee, ah phew
. ,
,

^.
- '
, ,
?
, ,
,
X L. -,
( ) :
??Good morningshe said in Russian 'Good morning [ ],
-.
??How nice to see you she said in French ,
-.
?It is getting late she whispered lo him in German '
, -.
?Who is this? he asked her in Italian ' ? -
.
,
( Wierzbicka 1974)
;
, ''
,
. , ' L'
, h v i , ,
, .
,

, . , ,
, Good, heavem! ' ! (.-
!), ,
() , Oopst, Ouch!
Wowf; , How nice.l '
! Whnt ! ' !,
, , , Good
heavens!;
, . ,
:
?It is time to go she said in Russian 'It is time to go [ ],
-.
??What woman! she said in Russian What a woman! [
!] -.
???Good heavens! she said in Russian 'Good heavens! [ !]
-.
????Wow! she said in Russian 'Wow! -.
,

. ,
,
.
, ()
, . ' L ,
, , -
, . ,
,
, .
(Haiman 1989: 156)
,
() ():
(a) Yuk!*
(b) I feel disgusted ' ,
( Wierzbicka 1973)
(Biihler 1933) Ausdrucksfunktion (
), Darstellungsfunktion
(, , ).
, ,
1:

, ., .
Yuk!

I feel disgusted!
:
, , .
:
Ow! (: Ouch!)

I feel pain '
:
, , .
(
),
,
..., ( ,
...). .
( '
...), . ,
, (.
Goffman 1981).
, .
, .
,
, ,
, : 'wow,
(,
), 'oops,
, , 'ah
, , ,
(LDOTEL 1984).
,
, .
, ,
'disgust ['] ( ), impressed ['
] ( wow) 'pain ['] ( ouch),
,
,
,
.
, ,
,
'' '', ' '', , '',
(. Wierzbicka 1972, 1980, 1985, 1987 1988)2.
, oops wow
(. Goffman 1981: 102 108):
oops!
3:

-
( )
, - ,
(- )
wow!

,
: 4
( , )
- .

1.2.

,
, ( 1)
, (2 )
, (3) (
), (4) ..
,
, (5)
(, ' ..., '
..., ' ..., ...).
, Good Lord! '
!, Good heavens! ! (. !), Christ!
'! (. !) Hell! ' ! (.!),
, , gee, wow, oops
ha, . (. [Goffman 1981: 99])
, :
, .)
,
,
, hyc () bfc ()
, ,
,
, :
Kot hyc! z okna na ziemi^ (Grodziefiska 1970: 16).
'Kot hyc (. e. ) ;
}ak to slonko ujrzalo,
si^ glosno zasmialo,
si^ wzieio pod boki,
Az b^c!z chinury wysokiej.
' ,

,
[]! .
' , hyc $,
, -
, ,
,
. , hop
,
( , hyc,
) ,
.
hop ,
hop,
(4). , ,

, wow gee, , ,
Christ! Hell! (
).
,
(4) ,
( ,
, ),
( ,
).
: (4) -
,
(. . ).
(4),
, , Christ!, Hell! Damn! '
!', ,
,
. ,
, Hell!
hell '',
;
hell ',
. .

1.3.

,
.
, :
( 1 ) (
' );
(2 ) (
' - ' ;
, Sh! Sza! ' );
(3) (
' '
' , ' -
; , Aha ').
,
, .
,
,
.
, , ,
-
. ,
,
,
, .

5.
. \Vierzbicka (1991).

2.
2.1. '' ('disgust')
(Haiman 1989: 157)
...
(rvulsion). ,
,
pfui . , ,
,
.
(rvulsion).
?
,
, ,
,
, anxiety '', Schadenfreude,
tsknota . , , ,
, , ,
. ,
. , : fu,fe
tfu, , , -
'' ('disgust'),
.

2.1.1. /
fu
[\, fu .
(Karcevski 1968: 198) <fy ,
repulsion olfactive, .
(
)
fu, ,
.
, , ,
, - . -
/, -
.
, fu,
- -
,
.
-, : fu
, ' ('disgusting)
, ' - '
, ,
- , ,
-
( ).
, - ,
fu ,
(
, -,
). fu, -,
,
, ' ('repulsive)
.
fu
( ) :
fu ()
- :
-
, -, : ,

, .
' ,
, ,
'
. ' ,
,
, , , ,
.
, ,
. LDOTEL, () '
, , ,
.
( ) ,
,
: ,
, !,
, .

:
, .
Australian (25.10.88: 14) , ,
(
)
: FEMINISTS YUK! As a woman I feel ashamed [
yuk! ] ( ,

,
Sheila-Speak [ ])7.
fu '
. , [
- -
.
yuk
(, ) ,
: phew (
, phew ,

pee-yew .). Phew
, ' ,
pfni, ,
.
yuk. , ,
, ,
, phew .
:

/
:
-
,
, -, :
, .
2.1.2.
phew (phew ) ,
,
,
, , ,
(Karcevski 1968: 198) '
,
(, . .) .
, , :
... ,
... . !
! - ! ! ( 1982:
188).
,
,
' ('disgusting) , '
. fu
, ,
.
, ,

(physical disgust or revulsion).
( 19501965)
', , ,
, (1955)
, ' ,
. , ,
, ',
, :
, ! ... ! (
, 19501960);
, ! ,
(, 19501960).
, ,
, :
()
/
:
-
,
, -, : .

, -
,

: ' , ;
,
' -
. , ,
' ,
fu.

2.1.3. fe
/, fe (fry -
,
. ,/*?
(disgust).
,
- , (, ).
, , , '
, , -,
, :
,

.
fe
, ,
, ,
. SJP (19581968) fe ',
, , ,

: ! !.
:
Rzepa takze go zagadnie:
Fe! Niedobrze! Fe! Nieladnie!
Jak pan moze,
Panie pomidorze? (Brzechwn 1983: 23)
' :
Fe! ! Fe! !
,
- ?*
Fe! Jak pan moze mwic takie rzeczy? (, SJP
1958 1968).
'Fe! ?
Fe, Sewerynku, wstydz si, zfym bratem jestes (,
no SJP 1958 1968).
'Fe, , , .
, ,
f e , fe, nietndnie , ,
:
Fe, nieladnie! Fe, klamczucha! (Brzechwa 1983: 9)
'Fe, ! Fe, !
Fe, nietadnie! Ktoz tak klamie?
Zaraz si poskarz mamie! (Brzechwa 1983: 9)
Fe, ! ?
!
, f e , fe!
fe! !, .
fe ,
:
Brudasek.
A ten piesek Brys
si nie chcial kijpac dzis,
m a na lapkach kurz i piasek,
wic spac pojdzie jak brudasek.
Fe! (Szelburg-Zarem bina 1970: 60)
.
,
,
,
.
Fe!

* . . : : / !/
--, ! / ! , .
, , ,
,
( , ), fy,
,
-,
. , ,
, - -
(disgusted) fy, fe

,
. , fe
, fy ,

(disgust):
fy ()
,
-
,

, -
,
fe ()
,
,
,
, , , -
,
, , , .
Fe
' ,
,
.
, , , -
. ( .
2.1.6.) ,
fe ,
(' ,
, , - , ),
fy.
2.1.4. feh
- ,
, ,
feh :
...
!

'
( , )
.
(Rosten 1968: 115), Feh!
,
(disgust), Phew!, -!, ugh!, Phooey!, Erxh! Pfrr!. ...
Feh!,
. , ,
,
( ) , Feh!
:
(1) .
(2) .
(3) - .
(4) -
-.
(5) .
(6) .
(7)
.
(8) .
(9) ,
.
(10) , .
(11) .
, feh fe
(, , ). ,
feh
,
yuk. , , ,
, : ' -
, ,
, , , . -
, ,
' , vay,
feh.
, -
,
feh. vay :
; feh :
'
. feh
: , '
- .
, - ,
Feh!
feh, - ' ,
.
( ) feh (.
2 . 1 .6.):
feh
:
-
,
, .
feh
.
, ,
, , , ,
/*?/?. ,
:
,
.
, ,
- , ,
.

, feh
, ,
,
, feh
, ,
fe. feh, , ,
, yuk , -
, , ,
( , , , ),
feh.

2.1.5. tfu
tfu
, , , ,
.
,
Ich spucke darauf! '
. ,

:
!
!
, ,
,
, :

.
.
: 'I dont [ ],
.
. :
, ! ( 19501965);
!
(, 19501965).
( )
:
()
(I dont care about this)
,
, -, : []
I don't, , ,
:

, - ,

.
, , .
,, .
,, ,
( 1968: 110).
( 19501965)
, ,
' , ,
. .'.
, :
... !
(,
19501965).
, ,
,
,
.
, tfu ,
. ,
( ),
. SJP (19581968) ( )
:
Tfu! wstyd! warcholilismy si$ okrutnie, a teraz trzeba przed i
niewinnosci;) swiecic ().
'Tfu! ! , [. .
] [. .
]
Tfu! Mospanie Hrabia, czy Wasc zb6jca? ().
'Tfu! , ?.
, tfu, -, :
21 .
tfu ()
: X
, - -
,
,
( , -, : []).

:
;
- .
: 'I spit at him call him a slan
derous coward and a villain [ -
']. : 'Tell thee what, Hal, if I tell thee a lie, spit in
my face [' , , , ]. ,
, !
(pooh!), .
, ' .
, . -
, '
; , , ' -
(Darwin 1955: 260).
,
. ,

, , .

2.1.6. (disgust)
'
, , , -
,
,
' ( ).
, tfu
( ).
yuk .
phew, pfui fy
( -
). fu

, , fu,
.
(fu) , (t/
), , , , fu
/ ,
.

(, ,
),
.
:
tfu, (' )
, -, :
,
,
phew, pfui ( )
, -, :
, /
,
fu,fy ('/ )
, -, :
,
,
(' )
, -, :
,
,
feh,fe ('/ )
, -, :
,
, .
, fe
/
. - ,

: (, , )
' ,
, ,
. :
, -, :
,
,
.
,
, ,
- .
, ,
;
, .
:
(disgust)
- , ,
.
,
, , , ,
, ... ,
:
, ,
; ; , ; ,
. ach ugh;
, ,
, , .
, ,
. , ,
,
. ,
(Darwin 1955: 257).

2.1.7. '
, ,
, , ,
. ,
pfui phew
pooh. ,
''
: -
- ( -
) , . -

' , :
-
, , (
- ).


, , , ,
,
, , , feu (
phew )
, (. Kinchin-
Smith and Melluish 1966: 33).
, , ,
, ,
[1] , - ,
('disgust). , ,
, ,
, .
, feu, ,
/, , feh
?
, .
:
-
, ,
. ,
' ' ' (
, feu), ,
.
, ,
, '
; ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
, .
:
, , , ,
, -
; . ,

, ,
, ;
,
(Darwin 1955: 261).
, '
,

; ' ' . ,
,
, -, '
.
, ' , , '
; , , ,
, ,
, . ,
, '
( )
' , '
; .

2.2. '
,
, .
, LDOTEL (1984) oh ',
(, ,
), (Webster 1973) ah
', , , , ,
, , , . .,
. , ,
,
,
. , (Rosten 1968: 274)
, , ,
(
): ( 1 ) , (2 ) , (3) ,
(4) , (5) , (6) , (7)
, (8) , , (9) , (10) ,
(11) , (12) , (13) , (14) , (15)
, (16) (), (17) (), (18) ,
(19) , (20) , (21) , (22) , (23)
, (24) , (25) , (26) , (27) ,
(28) , (29) --.
,
, ' X ( )
,
. ,
ah
:
, ! , ,
a-aah. , : -;
, , , ! (Rosten 1968: 274).

: ', ,
: ..., ,
. ,

, , , ,
, .
,
; , ,
, , ah
, '
. , , , ,
, -
,
, ,
. ,
, oj,
,
.

2.2.1. oj
Oj
. SJP (19581968) ',
, , , , ,
, . .

.
oj ,
,
. , ,
oj, : oj, niedobrze 'oj, , oj, boli. 'oj, oj, nie 'oj,
.
.
oj
;
.
,
,
:

: ,
,
, -, :
, .

.
' ,
, ,
, .
,
. , ,
Oj, jak tu pi^knie!
'Oj, !
, .

. -, ,
, ,
( oj boli 'oj,
); -,
, ,
; -,
,
; , -, ,
, ,
,
. , , ,
,
oj. , -,
. , oj nie 'oj ,
, -.
,
oj:
(a) Oj, niedobrze.
'Oj, .
(b) *Oj, swietnie.
'Oj, .
(c) Oj, jak tu piyknie!
'Oj, !
() ,
,
; ()
; ()
, ,
, .
, (),
, (
). , , , oj
,
, SJP (19581968):
Oj, nie dobrego z tej dziewczyny nie bydzie! ()
'Oj, .
Oj, ja nieszczysny, w jak^z pojdy drogy?
Kocham dziewczyny, a wziqcjej nie mogy! ()
'Oj, , ?
, !
:
Oj, na niebo wyszty chmuvki! (Szelburg-Zarembina 1970: 12)
'Oj, !
Oj, niedobrze mysli swierszczyk
To nie zarty z zimnym sniegiem! (Gntdzienska 1970: 30)
'Oj, , ,
!
Oj, to kopot wielki! te mate literki
Myq si Jasiowi juz: czy to A, czy to
Przno dice, nie pamita ani rusz. (Grodzieska 1970: 30)
'Oj, ! :
, , .
Ktadzie mama koteezka do ciepfego lzeczka.
Bierze syna za rijczk. Oj, masz kotku gonjczk! (Grodzieska 1970: 81)
' . .
Oj, , !
Oj, ratunku! stonko tonie! Stonko tonie! Co to bdzie? (Grodzieska
1970:81)
'Oj, ! ! ?
, oj,
,
,
, ojej ( ojejku),
.
ojej oj
ojej,
( * ) . ,
/ ojej :
Oj, (*ojej) ja nieszczsny! ...kochain dziewczyn, a wziqc jej nie mog!
'Oj, ! ... , !,
. , ojej
,
, ,
SJP (19581968):
Ojej, alez lecicie, led worn was ztapat. zawotat ostatkiem tchu. ()
'Ojej, , , .
Ojej, tak si boj, zeby si nie pomylic! wzdychata Marysia. ()
'Ojej, , ! .
, ojej oj
, ojej , a oj
(, , ;
):
Idzie ch m u ra ciem na, bura, duza.
Ojej! Bdzie burza!
Szumia, gn3 sie, skrzypi^ drzewa.
Oj! B^dzie ulewa! (Szelburg-Zarembina 1970: 22)
' , , .
Ojej! !
, , .
Oj! !
, ojej oj,
ojej :
ojej
: ,
-
, oj,
,

.

2.2.2.
, (
)
oj.
( 19571961):
! , , ! ().
, ! , , ().
, , ! ().
,
, oj. ,
, .
, oj,
, achac (' ach'),
ach. ( !-
, !.)
oj
:
, , ... :,
(, 19501965).
oj
, , , :
/, jak 1?!
'/, !
?0], m^kk! (. ], niedobrze!)
'/, ! (. ], !)
, -, ,
07,
, .
, , ,
(' X),
.
(/ ), ,
:
07 ()
: ,
,
()
(?)
, (?)
: ,
-
'
, ,
, ,
oj. ,
, -, .

2.2.3. Och ach


Och [] ach []
. SJP (19581968) ach
: ',
(. ); och
,
: ', (wzru-
szenie, . '), , , . .
, ,
, och , ach,

. , , -
:
, 'och
, ach, . , och tak (och )
,
, ach tak (ach ) :
: .
: Ach tak?/*Och tak?
ach, och,
. , ach (ach )
,
, och nie (och ) ,
- . ach tak
,
, , - that so '?.
och tak :
: .
\ Ach tak!/*Och tak!

, och tak! ( ach tak)


,
:
: ?
: Och tak!/*Ach tak!
, ach
, och , .

:
ach
()

och
()
- .
, , ,
ach och , :
,
, , .

,
, .
ach och
, SJP (1958 1968):
wpadajfj w achy i w ochy na widok poczochy ().
' (achy ochy) .
Przybyla jakas niemiecka Korinna, peina achw ().
' , (achw).
Wrcili nareszcie! w kiiku powiatach zakipialo jak w garnku na odgios
tej nowiny; a bliskie sqsiedztwo ochaio i achaio z podium , siuchaj^c opowia-
dania pana Groszka cudach ich rezydencji i trybie ich zycia ()
' !
;
, -
.
, ,
, ' ,

. , , -,
' ( , ),
ooh nah,

och ach. ', ,
,
. ,
,
oh ah
' och ach. ' ach
och
; ' , - .
Oj , ,
oj,
, . ach
, /,
, och ,
, SJP (19581968):
Och! zawolaia z dobrze udanym zachwytem.
Pani dzie pikniejsza. ( )
'Och! .
.
Kamionkowa wydata okrzyk: och! I zemdlona padla na ziemi^ (-
).
' : och! , ,
.
Och! jak bolesnie, och! jak bolesnie,
Ze dzien wczorajszy nigdy nie wskrzesnie! ()
'Och! , och! ,
!.
,
, , -,
, och ac.h.

.

3.
,


.

.
( ) ?
, -,
.
, shoo ', * psst '- (
) ,
(. Wierzbicka 1991).
, ,
oj, och, ahn oho,
,
,
.
(, ,
). ,
( ',
,
),
:

,
.
,
,
, , ,
, . ,
,
, , ,
? ,
, , -
', ,
?
, '
()
. ,

, , .

,
,
. ,
,
. ,
, , pfui,
fy
(disgust), , , .
, , 'disgust
,
, (. Wierzbicka 1986),
, 'disgust
,
- .
,
, ',
' ', ' ',
--
.
- ,
,
.

.
'-
,
. ,
, ,

(. Matissof 1979),
, -, vay ( yeh), '*
, :
vay
,
- -

- .
, ,
,
. , , -,
, ,
, - .
,
. -, ,
,
, . -, ,
, .

, ,
. ,
(1977)
19 , 23 ,
(KuCera and Francis 1967)
, , phew pooh, .
, , ,
,

, ,
.

. (Cp. Wierzbicka
1992.) , , , ,
, -
.
-
, ,
(., , Levy 1973; Lutz 1982, 1987; Solomon 1984;
Rosaldo 1980; Gerber 1985; Wierzbicka 1986a in press). -
,
,
, .

1 () , ' ,
yuk!, ' , / feel disgusted,
:
I feel disgusted.
:
,
-
Yuk!

,
- : [ ].
, ,
.
2 ,
, . Ameka (1987)
(1985); . Wierzbicka (1986b).
3 ' -,
. ,
' ('I perceive). perceive know

, , , know (
).
4 , wow
' . , ,
. , -
Wow! (i), ()-.
I got three As today! ' !
I got three Es today! ' !,
(ii) (Wow!) .
5
, -
.
6
. .
7 .
(1973: 94):
Don: (to Mal) Why in the hell do you get her pregnant every eighteen months?
Mai: She wont take the pill. (...)
Don: (to Mai) Use Silvertex.
Mai: (with distaste) Yuk!
[: ( ) , ,
?
: . (...)
: ( ) Silvertex.
: ( ) Yuk!]

, 19501965. :
17 . : .
, 19571961. : 4 . :
.
) 1968. , . :
.
. 1955. . 4.
: .
[18811882].
1977. . 11: 129140.
1968. . : .
. . . 1977. . : .
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-

:


1. -
, ,
, ,
, (
)
,
, , .
(Wierzbicka 1991b)
.

.
(Wierzbicka 1993, 1994, 1994b 1994, in press )
, ,
,
,
,
, .
, , ,
, ,

.
,
, ,

, .
,
, ,
. ,
,
. , , -
, , , , (
) , , (
) , .

. ,
Japanese
Cultural Encounters (1991). ,

, 2,

(Hall 1976: 166).

,
3. ,

.
, Japanese Superiority Proven by Discourse
Analysis , ,
(
)
, ,
, ,
, , (McCreary 1992:
312). ,
,

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Wierzbicka 1994a), :
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ley and Syder 1983), ,
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3 . ,
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).

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7 , ;
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.

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:
*

1.

(. Wierz-
bicka 1991): 1.
-,
. 2.
. 3. ,
, . 4.
, ,
( )
(behavioural) ;

, , , (cul
tural scripts);
,
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,

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* public signs,
, .
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, -
. (. Wierzbicka 1994, , ; 1996 ; 1997, , Goddard
1992 1997.) ,
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(culture-specific) ,
,
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), .
,
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.
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1994; Wierzbicka 1996).
, ,
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