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Chapter # 20 Atomic spectra

Q1- Bohr's theory hydrogen atom is based upon several assumptions Do any

these assumptions contradict classical physica?

Ans Yes, Bohar's first postulate contradicts the classical physics. According

to this postulate electrons revolving around the nucleus do not radiate

energy where as according to classical physics revolving electrons around the

nucleus radiate energy continuously in the form of electromagnetic waves.

Due to this emission of radiations, the electrons come close to the nucleus.

Q2- What is meant by a line spectrum? Explain, how line spectrum can be

used for the identification of elements?

Ans The spectrum emitted by mono-atomic element which gives sharp

bright lines separated from each other is called line spectrum. In line

spectrum each line corresponds to a definite wavelength and frequency. Each

elements has its own set of wavelength in the line spectrum between

electrons of atom in various elements have various energy in their orbits.

Q3- Can the electron in the ground state of hydrogen absorb a photon of

energy 13.6 ev and greater than 13.6 ev.

Ans By absorbing a photon of energy equal to 13.6ev the electron will be

ejected from the atom. If provides energy greater than 13.6 ev, then it will

absorb it and utilize the excess energy greater than ionization energy as K.E
of electron. Thus the electron of hydrogen atom in the ground state can

absorb a photon of energy greater than 13.6 ev.

Q4- How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many line when hydrogen

contains on electron ?

Ans When hydrogen atom is excited its electron in ground state jumps up to

some higher energy state. When it de-excited electron does not come to

ground state directly but jumps to lower energy in multiple steps and every

jump corresponds in a certain wavelength.

hf hf

Q5- Is energy conserved when an atom emits a photon of light?

Ans Yes energy is conserved when an atom emits a photon of light.

Reason: As energy absorbed by the atom during excitation is exactly equal to

the energy emitted during its de-excitation i-e law of conservation of energy

in satisfied.

Q6- Explain why a glowing gas gives only certain wavelength of light and why

that gas is capable of absorbing the same wavelength? Give a reason why

Ans The atoms of every glowing gas emit the radiations of certain

wavelengths which constitute its spectrum The spectrum of every gas is

separate from one another so for a certain gas the radiations of specific

wavelengths are needed for excitations which are similar to the radiations

emitted during their glow.

Q7- What do we mean when we say that the atom is excited?

Ans When an electron jumps from lower energy level to a higher energy level

by absorbing a photon whose energy is equal to energy difference between the

two states, the atom is said to be in excited state.

Q8- Can x-rays be reflected diffracted, reflected and polarized just like any

other waves?

Ans Yes, x-rays can be reflected diffracted and polarized .

Explanation: This is between that x-rays are electromagnetic waves. As the

wave length of x-rays is much shorter than that of ordinary light waves. So,

the circumstance for these phenomena may be different. For example, x-rays

can diffracted by crystals only.

Q9- What are the advantages of lasers over ordinary light ?

Ans 1- Is very intense. 2- It is phase coherent.

3- It is unidirectional. 4- It is mono chromatic.

5- It can be sharply focused to a very fine spot.

Q10- Explain why laser action could not occur without population inversion

between atomic levels?

Ans To achieve the laser action we have to make sure that the number of

excited atoms in the lasing medium is much more than the atoms in the

ground state. This condition is known as population inversion. Without

achieving this state, be started. In-turn large no of phase coherent photons

can not be obtained which ultimately result into an intense laser beam.