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4/2/2017 PatentUS4068422RoofingfordomicalshellstructureGooglePatents

Roofingfordomicalshell
structure
US4068422A

ABSTRACT

Thisdisclosuredescribesanimprovedconceptforusingflatsheathingmaterialstoconstructthecurvedroofofadomical
structurewiththeunderlyingdomeframeandtheshapeoftheroofpanelsdesignedtopermitoriginallyflatsheathing
materialtobecurvedindifferentdirections.Thus,asingleflatsheetofsheathingmaterialmaycontainseveraldifferent
curvedsurfaces,improvingtheappearanceandtheshelleffectoftheroofandincreasingthestrengthandeconomic
efficiencyofthedomicalstructure.

IMAGES (6)

DESCRIPTION CLAIMS (10)

Thisapplicationisacontinuationin Whatisclaimedis:
partofU.S.Pat.applicationSer.No.
1.Adomicalstructurecomprising:
544,766,filed1/28/75,now
abandoned. apluraklityofbases,

BACKGROUNDOFTHE afirstpluralityofarcuatelyshapedbeamseachcarriedonatleastoneend
INVENTION byadifferentoneofsaidbasesandextendingtherefrominasubstantially
verticalplane,
Thisinventionrelatestothe
constructionofdomicalstructuresand afirstmeansforconnectingsaidfirstbeamsattheapexofsaidstructure,
moreparticularlytoasimple,integral
assemblyofapluralityofroof apluralityofarcuatelyshapededgebeamssupportedonadjacentbasesand
surfacesformedfromoriginallyflat extendingupwardlyandoutwardlytherebetweentodefinetheperimeterof
sheathingmaterialstoformthecurved saidstructure,
domicalroofconfiguration.Inorderto
asecondpluralityofarcuatelyshapedbeamscarriedonatleastoneendby
accomplishthis,thearchframework
oneofsaidedgebeamsandattheirotherendsbysaidfirstmeansatthe
ofthedomemustprovidesupportfor
apexofsaidstructure,
theedgesofthecurvedroofpanels.It
maybeconvenientattimestouse saidsecondpluralityofarcuatelyshapedbeamsbeingspacedaroundthe
straightsupportivestrutsdesignedto domicalstructurebetweeneachofsaidfirstpluralityofarcuatelyshaped
underlietheroofpanelsespecially beams,
alongbendzoneswhereanoriginally
flatpanelchangescurvaturefroma saidfirstandsecondpluralityofbeamsandsaidpluralityofedgebeams
curveinonedirectiontoaflatportion beingarcsofgreatcirclesandformingastructuralframeworkdefining
oracurveinanotherdirection. sphericaltriangularopenings,

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Theshellactionofthecurved saidsphericaltriangularopeningseachhavingacornerofsaidtrianglesat
sheathingsurfacelendsadditional theapexofsaiddomicalstructure,and
strengthtotheoveralldomical
adomicallyshapedcoveringforthestructurecomprisingapluralityof
structure,allowingtheunderlying
originallyflatpanelseachofacurvedtriangularconfigurationtheedgesof
archestobelighterinweightthan
whichlieonthearcuatebeamsofsaidframeworkinedgetoedgeassembly
supportivemembersforflatsurfaces.
aroundsaidstructureandeachpanelcoveringoneofsaidcurvedtriangular
Thegreaterstructuralstrengthofthe
openingsformedtogetheradomelikeouterconfiguration,
disclosedshellconfigurationpermitsit
toespeciallyalongbendzoneswhere eachofsaidpanelsbeingformedbythreecurvedsubstantiallyisosceles
anoriginallyflatpanelchanges trianglesformedinthecornersofeachsphericaltriangularopeningtogether
curvaturefromacurveinonedirection withaninterconnectingplanetriangle.
toaflatportionoracurveinanother
direction. 2.Thedomicalstructuresetforthinclaim1wherein:

Theshellactionofthecurved saidsphericaltriangularopeningsareoftwodifferenttriangular
sheathingsurfaceleadsadditional configurations.
strengthtotheoveralldomical
3.Adomicalstructurehavinganapexandsupportableonthreespacedbases
structure,allowingtheunderlying
comprising:
archestobelighterinweightthan
supportivemembersforflatsurfaces. afirstpluralityofarcuatelyshapedbeamseachcarriedononeendbya
Thegreaterstructuralstrengthofthe differentoneofthebases,
disclosedshellconfigurationpermitsit
tobeusedforclearspanconstruction afirstmeansforconnectingsaidfirstbeamsattheapexofsaidstructure,
withouttheneedforbearingwalls,
apluralityofarcuatelyshapededgebeamsextendingupwardandoutward
althoughconventionalverticalwalls
formingtheperimeterofsaidstructure,
canbereadilyusedwiththedisclosed
shellstructure,ifsodesired. asecondpluralityofarcutelyshapedbeamseachcarriedonatleastone
endbyoneofsaidedgebeamsandsecuredattheirotherendsbysaidfirst
FIELDOFTHEINVENTION
meansattheapexofsaidstructure,
Thisinventionusestheprinciplesof
saidsecondpluralityofarcuatelyshapedbeamsbeingspacedaroundthe
sphericaltrigonometryanddifferential
domicalstructurebetweeneachofsaidfirstpluralityofarcuatelyshaped
geometrytosolvetheproblem
beams,
inherentintheproperdesignand
layoutfordomicalstructures. saidfirstandsecondpluralityofbeamsandsaidpluralityofedgebeams
formingastructuralframeworkdefiningcurvedtriangularopenings,
Conceptsareparticularlydirected
towardtheconstructionalfeaturesof adomicallyshapedroofcoveringforsaiddomicalstructure,
domicalstructureswhereintheframe
ofthedomeiscomprisedof saidroofcoveringcomprisingapluralityofsinglycurvedtriangularpanels,

interconnectedgreatcirclearches.
eachofsaidpanelshavingacommoncornerthereofattheapexofthe
Theoriginallyflatroofpanelsare
structureandacommonedgebetweenadjacentpanels,
designedtoexactlycoveropenings
betweenarches.Straightstrutsmay theedgesofeachpanellyingonanarcuatebeamofsaidframeworksothat
crossthecurvedtriangularopening thepanelscovertheentireareaformedbytheframework,and
betweenarcheswiththesestruts
meansforconnectingjuxtapositionededgesofsaidpanelstogethertoform
optimallypositionedtoliealongthe
saiddomicallyshapedroofcovering.
lineofchangingradiusofcurvature
(bendzones)ofthesheathingpanels. 4.Theroofsetforthinclaim3wherein:

DESCRIPTIONOFTHEPRIOR thejuxtapositionededgesofsaidsinglycurvedtrianglesurfaces
ART areconnectedtogethertoformadomicalconfigurationeach

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Therehavebeenmanyprevious substantiallycoveringadifferentoneofsaidcurvedtriangular
attemptsatsolvingtheproblemof openings.
efficientlycoveringadomewithan
5.Thedomicalstructuresetforthinclaim3infurthercombinationwith:
originallyflatsurface.FrenchPat.No.
1,562,266portraysaflattopped,three apluralityofbasesoneforsupportingeachofsaidfirstpluralityof
leggedstructureusinganoriginallyflat arcuatelyshapedbeams.
surface,butthestructureisnotreally
domicalinshapeusingdefinablegreat 6.Thedomicalstructuresetforthinclaim3infurthercombintionwith:
circlearches.U.S.Pat.No.3,812,632
threebases,andwhereinsaidfirstpluralityofarcuatelyshaped
disclosesadomicalstructurewiththe
beamscomprisethreeinnumbereachsupportedbyoneofsaid
edgearchesspecifiedasbeingarces
bases.
ofsmallcirclesandthesurfacing
materialbeingreinforcedwithcurved 7.Adomicalstructurecomprising:
archesratherthanwithstraightstruts
underlyingbendzones.U.S.Pat.No. apluralityofarcuateedgebeamsextendingupwardandoutwardformingthe
2,978,074usescurvedgeodesic perimeterofsaidstructure,
strutsandsphericalisosceles
saidpluralityofedgebeamsformingastructuralframeworkforsaiddomical
trianglesbutthereisnoteaching
structure,
aboutthemoregeneralaspectsof
sphericaltrianglecoveringproblems adomicallyshapedroofcoveringforsaidframework,
includingthemethodforthespherical
scalenetriangle,andthereisno saidroofcoveringcomprisingapluralityofsphericaltriangularsectorswith

provisionforaraisedshelledgeunder eachsectorcomprisingaplanesurfacepanelformedbyinscribingacircle

whichthestructurecouldbeentered. touchingattangentpointsthethreesidesofasphericaltriangularsectorand
bendingsaidpanelfromsaidtangentpointstodefinethreesinglycurved
SUMMARYOFTHEINVENTION partsforeachofsaidtriangularsectors,

Inaccordancewiththeinnovations saidedgebeamsdefiningtheouterperimeteredgeofsaidroofcoveringand
claimed,animprovedmethodof forminganedgeofapluralityofsaidsphericaltriangularsectors,
designingandsheathingadomical
structureisdisclosed.Theclaimed saidtangentpointsdefiningtheendsofthestraightbasesofthreesingly

domicalframeconfigurationand curvedtriangularpanels,andaflatplanetriangularpanelinteriortosaid

sheathingpanellayoutprovidesa triangularpanelsborderingonthethreebasesofsaidcurvedtriangular

strong,lowcost,easytoerectand panels,

efficientdomicalstructureforusein
saidcurvedtriangularpanelseachfittingintoadifferentapexofoneofthe
domestic,commercialandmilitary
sphericaltriangularsectorswiththeflatplanetriangularpanelborderingthe
functions.
basesofsaidthreecurvedtriangularpanels,and

Thisinventionemploysasuperior
meansforconnectingthepanelsofsaidroofcoveringintoaunitary
methodofdesigningdomical
structure.
structures,takingadvantageof
triangulartrusstypeconstruction 8.Adomicalstructurecomprising:
techniqueswhichallowstheuseof
afirstpluralityofspacedarchesinverticalplanesinterconnectedina
simple,strong,pinnedjointsbetween
domicalstructuralframeworkbyapluralityofarchededgebeamsforming
archesandbeams.Theangles
theperimeterofsaiddomicalstructure,
betweenarchesandbeamsarelaid
outtoprovideaninterconnected saidframeworkdefiningapluralityofsphericaltriangularsectors,
triangularpatternwithastraightcross
beam(whenused)formingthebaseof adomicallyshapedroofcoveringforsaidframework,
cornerisoscelestrianglesas
saidroofcoveringcomprisingaplanesurfacepanelforeachspherical
illustratedinthedrawings.The
triangularsectorformedbyinscribingacircletouchingattangentpointsthe

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straightcrossbeamactsasabend threesidesofasphericaltriangularsectorandbendingsaidpanelfromsaid
zonealongwhichtheinitiallyflatroof tangentpointstodefinethreesinglycurvedpartsforeachofsaidtriangular
panelcansmoothlychangeitsradius sectors,
ofcurvatureandyetbefullysupported
saidtangentpointsdefiningtheendsofthestraightbasesofthreesingly
andretainthestrengththatisinherent
curvedtriangularpanels,andaflatplanetriangularpanelinteriortosaid
incurvedpanelsheathingmaterials.
triangularpanelsborderingonthethreebasesofsaidcurvedtriangular
Thebendzoneitselfstrengthensthe
panels,
panelsheathingtotheextentthatthe
bendzoneactssimilartoastraight saidcurvedtriangularpanelseachfittingintoadifferentapexofoneofthe
crossbeam. spericaltriangularsectorswiththeflatplanetriangularpanelborderingsaid
straightbases,and
Itis,therefore,oneoftheprincipal
objectsofthisinventiontoprovidethe meansforconnectingthepanelsofsaidroofcoveringintoaunitary
framingconfigurationforadomical structure.
structuresoastoallowflatsheathing
materialtobeusedonthecurved 9.Adomicalstructurecomprising:
surfaceofthedome.
afirstpluralityofspacedarcuatebeamsformingarcsofgreatcircles,
Anotherobjectofthisinventionisto
afirstmeansforconnectingsaidfirstbeamsattheapexofsaidstructure,
maketheframingconfigurationofthe
domesuchthatflatsheathingmaterial apluralityofarcuateedgebeamsextendingupwardandoutwardformingthe
canbelaidsothatitwillcurvein perimeterofsaidstructure,
morethanonedirectionenhancingthe
shellpropertiesofthedomical asecondpluralityofarcutebeamseachcarriedonatleastoneendbyone
structure. ofsaidedgebeamsandsecuredattheirotherendsbysaidfirstmeansat
theapexofsaidstructure,
Anotherobjectofthisinventionisto
providedesigncriteriaforflatsurface saidsecondpluralityofarcuatebeamsbeingspacedaroundthedomical
panelssothattheywillfitovercurved structurebetweeneachofsaidfirstpluralityofarcuatebeams,
openingsofaframedstructuraldome.
saidfirstandsecondpluralityofbeamsandsaidpluralityofedgebeams
Anotherobjectofthisinventionisto formingastructuralframeworkdefiningsphericaltriangularsectors,
showhowtolayoutanedgepattern
adomicallyshapedroofcoveringforsaidframework,
onflatsurfacepanelssothatthe
panelwillfitovercurvedopeningsof saidroofcoveringcomprisingaplanesurfacepanelforeachspherical
thedomeandwillbecurvedin triangularsectorformedbyinscribingacircletouchingattangentpontsthe
differentdirections,enhancingthe threesidesofasphericaltriangularsectorandbendingsaidpanelfromsaid
shellcharacteristicsofthedome. tangentpointstodefinethreesinglycurvedpartsforeachofsaidtriangular
sectors,
Anotherobjectofthisinventionisto
createadomicalstructurewhich saidtangentpointsdefiningtheendsofthestraightbasesofthreesingly
enbracesalloftheadvantagesof curvedisoscelestriangularpanels,andaflatplanetriangularpanelinteriorto
greatstrength,minimumamountsof saidisoscelestriangularpanelsborderingonthethreebasesofsaidcurved
materials,lowcost,andefficiency, isoscelestriangularpanels,
yetissimpletoconstructanderect.
saidcurvedisoscelestriangularpanelseachfittingintoadifferentapexof
Anotherobjectofthisinventionisto oneofthesphericaltriangularsectorswiththeflatplanetriangularpanel
provideasimpleandeffectivemeans borderingthebasesofsaidthreecurvedisoscelestriangularpanels,and
forimprovingtheshellcharacteristic
ofdomicalstructures. meansforconnectingthepanelsofsaidroofcoveringintoaunitary
structure.
Anotherobjectofthisinventionisto
provideameansforsectionalizingthe

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arches,beamsandpanelsemployed
inthestructuresoastofacilitateshippingandhandlingandtopermittheeasyerectionofthestructurebyrelatively
unskilledpersons.

Theseandotherobjectsandadvantagesofthisinventionwillbecomemoreapparentasthedescriptionisgivenandthe
featuresofnoveltywhichcharacterizethisinventionwillbepointedoutwithparticularityintheclaimsannexedtoand
formingapartofthisspecification.

BRIEFDESCRIPTIONOFTHEDRAWINGS

Thepresentinventionmaybemorereadilydescribedbyreferencetotheaccompanyingdrawingsofwhich:

FIG.1isatopplanviewofanimproveddomicalstructure

FIG.2isasideviewofFIG.1

FIG.3isasecondsideviewofFIG.1

FIG.4isatopviewofacenterroofpanelshowingthecurvaturesoftheoriginallyflatpanel

FIG.5isafrontviewoftheroofpanelshowninFIG.4

FIG.6isasideviewoftheroofpanelshowninFIG.4

FIG.7isatopviewofacornerroofpanelshowingthecurvaturesoftheoriginallyflatpanel

FIG.8isafrontviewofthecornerroofpanelshowninFIG.7and

FIG.9isasideviewofthecornerroofpanelshowninFIG.7

FIG.10isanillustrationofasinglycurvedsurface

FIG.11isanillustrationofasphericaltriangularopeninginasphericalsurfaceFIG.12isafurtherillustrationofasingly
curvedsurface

FIG.13isanillustrationofadoublycurvedsurface

FIG.14isanillustrationofasphericaltrianglecoveredbyafolded,singlycurvedsurface

FIG.15isanillustrationofanequilateralsphericaltrianglecoveredbyasinglycurvedsurfaceonwhichtherearebend
zones,withsectionsAA'andBB'showingellipticalintersectionswiththecurvedsurface

FIGS.16Aand16Billustratecurvedisoscelestriangleswithinscribedplaneisoscelestriangles

FIG.17illustratesasphericalscalenetrianglewithaninscribedplanetriangle

FIG.18illustratesascalene,curvedtriangularopeningcoveredwithanoriginallyflatsurface

FIG.19illustratesasphericalscalenetrianglewithtwoequalsided,singlycurvedtriangles

FIG.20illustratesasphericalscalenetrianglehavinganinscribedinteriortrianglewithaconicalsurface

FIG.21illustratesaplanescalenetrianglewithaninscribedcircleand

FIG.22illustratesasphericalscalenetrianglewithaninscribedsmallcircle,and

FIG.23isatopviewsimilartoFIG.1usingthreesecondaryarchesinplaceofsixsecondaryasshowninFIG.1.

DESCRIPTIONOFTHEPREFERREDEMBODIMENTDomicalStructure

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Referringmoreparticularlytothedrawingsbycharactersofreference,FIGS.13discloseaframeworkforadomical
structure10havingabaseormountingpad11foreachofthecornersofthedomicalstructures,thebases11being
preventedfromspreadingapartbyinterconnectingundergroundtensionalbars12runningbetweenadjacentbases11.

Base11istypicallyareinforcedconcretepadextendingwellabovethesurfaceoftheground13andextendingincolder
climatesbelowthefrontline.

Theframeworkofthedomicalstructure10,asshownclearlyinFIGS.13,comprisesprimaryarches14,secondaryarches
15,edgearches16andstraightcrossbeams17.Intheembodimentshowninthedrawings,therearethreeprimaryarches
14andsixsecondaryarches15,theprimaryandsecondaryarchesbeingarrangedaboutthepartialsphericalcontourofthe
domicalstructure10asgreatcirclesconvergingatthetopcenter18ofdomicalstructure10inamannersimilartothe
arrangementofthelongitudinallinesdrawnonaglobeoftheearth.

Thethreeprimaryarchesareequallyspacedfromeachotherapproximately120apartwithtwosecondaryarcheslying
betweenadjacentprimaryarches,againuniformlyspacedsothatbetweenadjacentarches,priimaryorsecondary,thereis
anangulardisplacementofabout40.Thethreeapproximatelyequallyspacedprimaryarchesrestattheirlowerendson
thethreebases11whilethesecondaryarchesterminatewellabovethegroundwheretheyintersecttheedgearch.

Theedgearchalsoliesinthesphericalsurfaceofdomicalstructure10anditextendsbetweentwoadjacentbases11and
risestoaheightatitscentermorethanhalftheheightofthecenter18abovethesupportofstructure10.Twoedgearches
thusconvergewithoneprimaryarchateachofthethreecornerswheretheprimaryandedgearchesaresecuredtobases
11bymeansofspecialsupportbrackets(notshown).

Thecrossbeams17arearrangedbetweenadjacentprimaryandsecondaryarchescompletingatriangulartrusspattern.

Thestrengthofthedomicalstructure10isinherentinitssphericalcontourbyvirtueofwhichtheprimaryandedgearches
areincompression,thetotalweightofthestructurethushavingtheeffectofforcingmostofthejointsorpointsof
intersectionbetweenthesearchesintoclosercontactwitheachother.Thesecondaryarchesalsohaveabending
movementimposedonthem.Thus,theymustresistashearingforce.

Whilethesecompressionalforceswouldtendtodrivethebases11outwardly,suchundesireddisplacementiseffectively
controlledandpreventedbytheprovisionofthetensionalrods12.Thesubsurfacetensionalrods12canbeordinarybolted
steelreinforcingbarswithorwithoutaturneduphook12Aateachendwhichiscastintotheconcretebase11.Thethree
rods12thuslieintheformofanequilateraltriangleholdingthethreebases11securelyatthecornersofthetriangle,the
tensionintherods12thuscounteractingthetotaloutwardlycomponentofcompressionexertedthroughthearchesbythe
weightofthestructure10.

Althoughtheembodimentshowninthedrawingindicatesastructure10havingonlythreecorners29supportedbythree
bases11,similarstructureshavingmorethanthreecornersarecontemplatedandsuchsimilarstructuresfallwithinthespirit
andscopeofthisinvention.

Roof

Theroofofthisdomicalstructurecanusesheathingoftongueandgrooveboards,plywood,orcompositionboardswiththe
usualcoveringofinsulation,tarpaper,shingles,etc.Thissheathingmaterialisinitiallyflatbeforeapplication,butbecomes
curvedwiththecontourofthedomesothatthesheathingactslikeadomicalshellovertheframeworkofthestructure.

Analternateroofingapproachmightusewovenglassfibers,metalmesh,orasimilarflexiblebasematerialwhichislaid
directlyoverthearches,stretchedtautandsecuredinplace.Asemiliquidcement,capableofhardening,isthenappliedto
thewovenmaterial.Inthisalternateroofconstruction,thedrapedroofmaterialisintension,thusitispossibletoeliminate
thestraightcrossbeamstherebyrealizinganadditionalsignificantreductionincost.

Thesheathingmaybepreformedofindividualsheetsgluedorfastenedintoindividualpanelsforeaseandspeedoferection
withfasteningstripsusedifnecessarytoaidinsecurelyfasteningthepanelstogetherandtotheframeworkofthedomical
structure.
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Inaccordancewiththeinventionclaimed,anewandimprovedroofingstructureisprovidedwhichwillutilizeapluralityof
twoormorekindsofcurvedtriangularroofpanels.Althoughfour,fiveandsixcornereddomicalstructurescanbebuiltusing
theseconcepts,forsimplicity,anequilateralthreecornereddomicalstructureisshownanddescribed.

Again,forthesakeofsimplicityinthedesigningofadomeformedfromcurvedroofpanels,apointofsymmetryonthe
sphericaltriangleischosensothatthereisacyclicalrepetitionofpatternaboutthispoint.Thisplanningmethodreducesthe
workinlayoutandactualconstructionofthebuildingbymakingpartsinterchangeablewithaminimumnumberofbasic
dimensions.Theaxisofhighestsymmetryoftheequilateralsphericaltriangleisthroughthecenterofthefigure,
perpendiculartothesphericalsurfaceandthepointofsymmetryistheintersectionoftheaxiswiththesurface.Extending
fromthepointofsymmetry,sphericalequilateral,isosceles,orscalenetrianglescanbeformedfromanoriginallyflatpanel.

Anotherdesignconsiderationforasphericaltriangularbuildingistheavailbleentryheightandsidewallheightofthe
structure.Itisimportanttohaveasuitableverticalentryheightwhendesigningasmallbuildingsincethisdimensionlimits
theminimumsizeofthestructure.Buildingsbelowacertainsizearenotfeasibleiftheycannotbecomfortablyenteredbya
fullsizeperson.Theoptimumsizedtriangularshapeddomicalstructureisreadilydividedintosphericaltriangles.Sucha
structureisshownbythecurvedarchesofFIGS.1,2and3.

CurvedSurfaces

Inaccordancewiththeinventionclaimed,theproblemofconformingasinglycurvedsurfaceasshowninFIG.10tothe
edgesofasphericaltriangleasshowninFIG.11hasbeensolved.Indisclosingtheclaimedinvention,thefollowing
definitionsshouldbekeptinmind:

Asphericaltrianglesisonewhosesidesareformedofarcsofgreatcircles.Agreatcircleofasphereisformedbythe
intersectionofaplanethroughthesphere'scenter.Asmallcircleisanyotherplaneintersectionwiththesphere.

Asinglycurvedsurfaceisasurfacethatmayhaveoriginallybeenflat.Thecurvatureofaflatsurfacewithrespecttoapoint
onthesurfaceiszeroinbothX,Ydirectionsthatis,theradiiofcurvatureareinfinitesince:

curvature=1/(radiusofcurvature).

Asinglycurvedsurface,viewedatapointonthesurface,haszerocurvature(infiniteradiusofcurvature)inonedirection
andsomefinitecurvaturevalueinthedirectionofrightanglesasshowninFIG.12.

Adoublycurvedsurface,viewedatapointonthesurfacehasafinitecurvaturevalueinbothdirectionsasshowninFIG.
13.Asphericalsurfacehasequalcurvatures,bothofthesamesign,intwodirections.Anoriginallyflatsurfacecannotbe
transformedintoadoublycurvedsurfacebysimplybending,usingtheconceptsofEuclideangeometry.

Itshouldbenotedthatallsphericaltriangles(equilateral,isosceles,andscalene)canbecoveredwithasinglycurved
surface.Butthecoveringtechniquemustfirstbespecified,becausetherearedifferentmethodsofcovering,someofwhich
arenotstructurallyacceptablebecausetheoriginallyflatsurfacemayhavetobefoldedtoaccomplishthecovering.For
example,asphericaltrianglemaybecoveredwithaflatsurfaceextendingcompletelyacrosstwosidesandtheincluded
angleandthethirdedgewouldbecoveredbythegreatcircleplaneextendingtothefirstcoveringsurface,intersectingalong
astraightfoldlineasshowninFIG.14.Thiscoveringmethodwouldaccomplishthebasicobjective,butthistypeofclose
foldingwouldbestructurallyunacceptble.

JointsintheShell

Anyjointsbetweenstandardsizedpanelsegmentsofthedome'sshellsurfacemustbeasstronglybondedandasrigidas
theshellitselforthejointbecomesazoneofweaknessandpossibleeventualbuckling.Ofcourse,themajorjointsare
betweenthesphericaltrianglesectionsalongthelengthofthearcheswhereadjoiningcurvedsurfacesectorsabut.Other
joints,internaltoacurvedtriangularsectormaybemadebetweenstandardsizedsheetsoftheoriginallyflatshellsurface
material,suchasplywoodorsheetmetal.Hereitisadvisabletouseastronglyfastened,nailed,riveted,orbondedjoint,
perhapsoverlainandfastenedtoanunderlyingstrutforadditionalstructuralstrength.

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Jointsintheshellsurfacecanbemademosteasilyoverthestraightbendzonesoroverstraightstruts,paralleltothebend
zone,thatmaybeplacedatintervalsforadditionalskeletalstrength,butjointscanalsobemadeoncurvedpartsofthe
originallyflatsurface.Foramaximumshellstrengthbetweensheetsadjacenttoajoint,thejointlineshouldlieonthe
originallyflatsurface,whichiscommontothetwosurfacesbeingjoined.

LayoutoftheShellSurface

Inordertoobtainamaximumbenefitfromthestrengthofadomicalshellsurfaace,itisfirstnecessarytoplanandlayout
theperimeterofthedome.Theperimetermustsustainstressconcentrationsthatmayarisebothinteriorandexteriortothe
shellsurface.Therefore,theperimeterzonemustbestrongerthantheinteriorshellsurfacealone.Innature,thisnecessary
strengtheningofshelledgesisseeninmanyexamples,notablyinthethickeningofedgesoftortoise,abalone,andwalnut
shells.

Theformandshapeofthisdiscloseddomeperimeterisimportantbecausetheheightoftheshelledgeabovegroundlevel
formsanopeningwhichcanbeusedforentryintothestructuretoprovideforwindowspaceandtobeusedforflat,vertical
wallsurfaces.

Therearestructuraladvantagesinhavingtheshellperimeterformedandstrengthenedbyunderlyingedgearches,extending
alonggreatcircles.Itisalsoconvenienttohaveotherinteriorarchesforthepurposeofshapingandstrengtheningtheshell
surfaceandtheseintermediatearchesshouldalsobeongreatcirclesofthedome.

Theperimeterandintermediatearchesintersectoneanothertoformsphericaltriangles.Thesesphericaltriangularopenings
mustthenbecoveredwithappropriateshellsurfacingmaterial.

Thepurposeofthecoveringisforstructuralstrengthwherelowanglebendingisacceptablebutwhereclosefoldingisnot.
Thefollowingcoveringtechniquesareacceptable:

EquilateralTriangles

Anyequilateralsphericaltriangle,havingsidesthatareeithergreatcircles(orevensmallcirclesofthesameradii)canbe
acceptablycovered.Theinteriorinscribedflattriangleislaidouttobeaplaneequilateraltriangle.ReferenceismadetoFIG.
15whereinacurvedequilateraltriangleisshownonwhichtherearebendzones.SectionsAA'andBB'showelliptical
intersectionswiththecurvedsurface.Thecurvedplanetriangleisbentalongthesebendlinesinthreedirectionstocover
theedgesofthesphericaltriangleexactly.

Itshouldbenotedthatthecrosssectionalshapesofthethreesinglycurvedsurfacesarethesameandthattheyareall
ellipticalinform.Theseellipticalsectionsarethesameforallsectionsatrightanglestoabendzone.Thebendzoneisa
tangentialtransitionbetweentheellipticalandflatsurfaces,whichistherequirementforanacceptablecovering.

IsoscelesTriangles

Thesphericalisoscelestrianglebeingconsideredheremustbeformedofgreatcirclesorsmallcircleswiththesameradii.

AninscribedplaneisoscelestriangleisconstructedasshowninFIGS.16Aand16Bandthecoveringplanesurfaceisbent
andcurveddownwardlytocoverthecurvedtriangleedgesexactly.Thiscoveringtechniqueisalsostructurallyacceptable
becausethereisatangentialtransitionbetweentheellipticalandflatsurfaces,aswasthesituationwiththecurved
equilateraltriangle.

ScaleneTriangles

Asphericalscalenetrianglehavingthreeunequalsidescanbeacceptablycoveredwithanoriginallyflatsurface.However,
thesectionsthroughthecurvedsurfaceatrightanglestoabendzonemaynotbeidenticalellipticalcurves.

Themethodofcoveringasphericalscalenetriangleisimportantbecausethetechniquegeneralycanbeappliedtoany
sphericaltriangularopening.Asmallcirclemustbeinscribedinthescalenetriangle.Toproperlylocatethecenterofthis
circle,eachofthecorneranglesofthescalenetrianglemustbebisectedandtheintersectionofthesebisectorswilldefine
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thecenterofthecircletobeinscribed.FIG.21illustratesthegeometricconstructiontechniquesasappliedtoaflatplanar
triangleandFIG.22showshowtolocatethecenterofaninscribedsmallcircleonasphericalscalenetriangle.Hereitcan
benotedthatthedihedralanglebisectorsarealsogreatcirclearcs.Thepointsoftangencyoftheinscribedcirclewiththe
threelegsofthesphericaltriangledefinetheaspicesofaninscribedscalenetriangle,theedgesofwhicharethestraight
basesforcurvedisoscelestriangleslyinginthecornersofthesphericalscelenetriangle.

Itshouldbenotedthatwheretwocurvedsidesofthecoveredscalenetriangleareaofunequallength,thecrosssections
throughabendzonewillnotshowidenticalellipticalcurvesbutrathertheyareconicalellipticalcurves.

Whencoveringacurvedscalenetriangle,itmaybedesirabletochoosethepositionoftheplaneinscribedtrianglesothat
thetwocurvedsidesadjacenttoabendzoneareofequallengthsothatstressdirectionsmaybeconsidered.Onany
scalenetriangle,twosuchequalsidedcurvedtrianglesmaybeselected,butthethirdwillhavetwounequalsidesasshown
inFIG.19.Inordernottoexceedthebendingstrengthofthecoveringmaterial,thelengthsofthetwounequalsidesofthe
thirdcurvedtrianglemustbechosenwithcarebecauseaconical,ellipticalsurfacewillbegenerated.

Inordertohaveastructurallyacceptablecoveringsurface,thesmallestradiusoftheconicalellipticalsurfacemustbelarger
thantheminimum(strengthwise)radiusofcurvatureofthecoveringmaterial.

Theformoftheconicalsurfacecanbecalculatedbyapproximatingthissurfacewithanumberofnonparallelbendzones.
Processingfromthetruebendzoneatthebaseofthecurvedtriangle,thebendzonesconvergetoformaninfinitesimally
smallisoscelestriangleattheapexofthecurvedtriangle,asshowninFIG.18.Thisconstructionsupportstheruletending
thatcurvedisoscelestrianglesmustbeusedtocoversphericaltriangles.Itshouldbenotedthatsecondarynonparallelbend
zonesconvergetoaninfintesimallysmallisoscelestriangle.

Anotheracceptablewayoffittingasinglycurved(originallyflat)surfacetoasphericalscalenetriangleistoallowthe
inscribedinteriortriangletobeaconicalsurfaceratherthanaflat,straightsidedtriangularsurface.ThisisillustratedinFIG.
20.Thestraightsidedlegsoftheinteriortriangleareshownasdashedlinesandtheconstructionallowscurvedisosceles
trianglestobeformedintheremainingtwoareas,asisshown.

ApplicationofRoofingtoaDomicalFramework

Theroofisformedofsphericaltriangularpanelscoveredwithoriginallyflatsurfacematerial.

InthedomicalsurfaceshowninFIGS.13,theprimary,secondaryandedgearchesarearcsofgreatcirclesandtheyform
thesidesofsphericaltrianglestobecovered.Theroofpanelsareoriginallyflat,andwhenappropriatelycurvedandfastened
tothearches,thepanelsactasashell,givingoverallstrengthtothestructure.Crossmembers,ortertiarybeams,canbe
locatedatthebendzonestolendadditionalstrengthandsupport.However,abendzoneinitselfactslikeastraight
structuralmember.Thestrengthofthesurfaceshellcanbevariedwithdifferentmaterials.

Severalgeometricparameterscanbevariedtosatisfytheconditionsrequiredforastrongroofstructure.Generally,allroof
panelsaredesignedsuchthatthebendzonesarecontinuousbetweenpanelssoastoformatensionring.Some
compromiseismadeforthesakeofsymmetryandgeometriccompatibilitywithadjacentpanels.

InprovidingaroofforthedomicalframeworkofthestructureshowninFIGS.13,anapproximatelyisoscelesspherical
trianglesshowninFIGS.46maybeusedhavingcorners18,26and27.Ideally,thereisaninscribedplaneisosceles
trianglewithinthisfigure,suchasthetriangleformedbypoints22,23,24ofFIG.4.Theformingoftriangle22,23,24within
triangle18,26,27permitsthelayoutofthreeplanecurvedisoscelestrianglesformedbypoints23,28,2224,26,22and
23,27,24.Triangle18,26,27ofFIG.4isnotmadeexactlyasimpleplanetrianglesothatedge18,22,26willadjoina
correspondingedge18,22,26inanadjacentsphericaltriangle18,29,26showninFIGS.1,3and79.Theentirespherical
triangle18,26,27ofFIGS.13canbecoveredwithasingle,originallyflatsurfacewithcrossbeams17underlyingthebend
zonesasoutlinedbyplanetriangle22,23,24,illustratedinFIGS.46.Thus,thesidesofthetriangularpanel18,26and27
aremadetoexactlyoverlayarches15,15,15.

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WithreferencetoFIGS.1and7,itisnotedthatsphericaltriangle18,26,29isapproximatelyisosceleswithside18,26
beingaboutthesamelengthasside26,29.Itispossibletosubdividethislargersphericaltriangleintosmallercurvedplane
triangles.Itcanbenotedthatpoint28ishalfwaybetweenpoints18and29andthatadistancebetweenpoints18and26
canbemadetobethesameasthedistancebetweenpoints18and28.Also,theangledefinedbythesides26,18and29
18canbemadesubstantiallythesameastheanglebetweenthelinesdefinedbypoints26,18and27,18therebyproviding
overallsymmetrytothedomicalstructure.

Thus,itispossibletolayouttheinteriorplanetriangle28,30,22suchthattriangles28,18,22and29,28,30arefigures
withequalcurvedsides28,1822,1828,29and30,29withstraightbases28,22and28,30.Theremainingsmall
triangles22,26,30isnotisosceleshowever,theradiusofcurvatureoftheconicalsurfaceisnottoosmallsothatthe
extensionofasinglecurvedsurfacewilladequatelycoverthisopening.Thebendzonesoftheoriginallyflatroofpanelare
shownasdashlinesonFIG.7.Thecurvededgesofthepanelwillexactlyoverlaybeams14,15,16ofFIGS.13.

TheremainingsevensphericaltrianglesofthedomicalstructureshowninFIGS.1,2and3canbelaidoutinduplicationof
thetwotrianglesjustdescribed.Thispermitstheentireroofofthedomicalstructuretobecoveredwithnineoriginallyflat
panels.Jointsintheflatroofingpanelmaterialshouldbemadeoverstraightstruts,suchasatbendzones,sothatthereis
nolossinshellstrength.

Althoughthedomicalstrengthisshownhereinwitharoofconfigurationonly,suitablewalls,doorsandwindowsmaybe
arrangedanyplaceundertheroofstructureasknowninthepriorart.

FIG.23isatopviewofadomicalstructuresimilartothatshowninFIGS.13whereinlikepartsareprovidedwiththeprime
ofreferencecharactersusedforthevariouspartsofsimilarstructuralelementsshowninFIGS.13.FIG.23differsfrom
FIGS.13inthatonlythreesecondaryarches15'areusedinplaceofthesixsecondaryarches15showninFIGS.13.

ThemethodofcoveringsphericalscalenetrianglescanbereadilyappliedtothedomicalstructureshowninFIG.23.As
describedabovewithreferencetoFIGS.21and22asmallcirclemaybeinscribedinthesphericalscalenetrianglesformed
bytheprimaryandsecondaryarches14'and15'andtheedgearch16'.Thecorneranglesofthescalenetrianglesare
bisectedandtheintersectionofthesebisectorsdefinethecenterofthecircletobeinscribed.Thepointsoftangencyofthe
inscribedcirclewiththethreesidesofthesphericaltriangleformedbytheprimaryandsecondaryarches14'and15'andthe
edgearch16'definetheapicesofaninscribedscalenetriangle,theedgesofwhicharethestraightbases(bendlines)for
curvedisoscelestriangleslyinginthecornersofthesphericalscalenetriangle.

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