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INTRODUCTION

Evaluation should incorporate the teacher students, and parents.


When leaner and their parents are involved in establishing
instructional objectives, the possibilities of achieving the state
objective will be enhanced, as what is taught and learnt in school
are so varied, curriculum experts have been able to classify
educational objective into domains are cognitive, affective, and
psychomotor domains. Each domain is further divided into
different levels.

The categorization and classification of objectives is usually


referred to as the taxonomy of education of objective (bloom
1956, krathwhol 1964). The three domains are of great
significance in the delimitation of aims, goals, and objectives as
well as in selecting learning experience and content. This must of
the objectives state by teachers in our schools as well as those
found in our educational literature fall into the cognitive, affective
or psychomotor domains.

Evaluation of leaning outcome will be classified


into three.
1. Cognitive domain- knowledge and understanding
2. Affective domain attitude, habits and values
3. Psychomotor domain social skills.

UNDER COGNITIVE DOMAIN


1. Knowledge
2. Comprehension
3. Application
4. Analysis
5. Synthesis
6. Evaluation

1. KNOWLEDGE: This is the ability to remember previously


learned materials.

This may involve the recall and recognition of materials been


used in learning. Examples, the learners will be able to mention
the 36 states in Nigeria.

2. COMPREHENSION: This is the ability to grasp meaning of


material. This may shown by translating material from one
form to another interpreting and extrapolating for example,
learners can translate words ten numbers or differentiate
between seed germination and flower pollination. We can see
that these learning outcomes go one step beyond the simple
remembering of material to the level of comprehension.

3. APPLICATION: This is the ability to use learned material in


a new situation.

It involved the application of such things as rules, formula,


materials, concepts, laws, principles, theories etc to solve
problems. For example, learners will be able to prepare
birthday cake.

4. ANALYSIS: This is the ability to breal down material into its


component part
That its organization structures may be understood. It may
involve identification of parts, and analysis of relationship
between parts, etc for example, learners will be able to
deduce the role of oxygen in cellular respiration from a
simple equation on internal respiration.
Analysis requires an understanding of both the content and
structural form of the material.
5. SYNTHESIS: At this level students are required to combine
different parts of an element together to form a whole
Onukwo (2002) noted that it involves joining new unit to
form new whole of restructuring old unit to form wholes.
Some terms that can be used in sating objective at this level
include, design generate, reconstructs, Fevise, combine
rewrite compose, organize compile etc.
Example of objectives state at this level are, at the end of
the lesson, the students should be able to,
1. Design a test tube print
2. Compile the steps involves in solving or calculating the
mean of a set of date
6. EVALUATION: Evaluation is the highest level of the
cognitive domain. It is also the most complex level.
Evaluation refers to the process of passing value judgment
on the worth of a programmer or instruction and equipment
etc such value judgment or decision is based on information
or example of terms that can be used in stating objectives at
this level data. Include justify, criticize, argue, consider,
decide, support, appreciate and define etc.
Example of objective at this level are at the end of the
lesson, the students should be able to.
1. Criticize the use of objectives in teaching
2. Justify the use and relevance of measures of central
tendency.
3. Augue against the teaching of measurement and
evaluation in university and colleges of education.

UNDER AFFECTIVE DOMAIN


1. Receiving level
2. Responding level
3. Valuing level
4. Organization level
5. Characterization level
The affective domain deals with the learners attitudes,
interests, anxiety, motivation, self concept and appreciation.

RECEIVING LEVEL: This is the simplest and lowest


willingness to attend to particular phenomena. The
awareness of feeling and emotions as well as the ability to
utilize. Example participating in a group discussion. The
learner gains satisfaction in reacting to the discussion,
starting of objective at the level include, choose, select, give,
ask, identify, describe, locate, use, develop, listen and show
etc.

RESPONDING LEVEL: This level refers to the active


participation on the part of the learners and feeling of
satisfaction in response. For example, learner will be able to
ask and answer questions meaningfully during the discussion
session.

VALUING LEVEL: This is concerned with the intrinsic worth


or value a student attached to a particular object,
phenomenon or behavior so that motivation is heightened
and belief emerge behavior that is consistent and state
enough to make the values clearly identifiable. For example,
learners will be able to pick up a novel to read during free
period even when others are playing.

VALUE SYSTEM: For example, a learner will be able to help


his needy classmate with his extra writing material.

CHARACTERIZATION LEVEL: Characterization by values or


value complex concerns the value in such a way that he or
she develops his or her own character. Such person may
describe as well behaved or not discipline. Some terms used
in starting objectives at this level are: act, practice, perform,
influence, display, qualify, verify and question etc.

PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN (ANITA HARROW, 1972)


Objectives in this domain are concerned with the acquisition
of skills. It involves the co-ordination of muscular activities in
order to acquined skills which can be applied to perform
stated tasks. This domain will involve reflex movements,
physical abilities, skilled movements and no-verbal
communications.\

UNDER PSYCHOMOTOR

1. Reflex
2. Basic fundamental movements.
3. Perceptual abilities.
4. Physical abilities.
5. Skilled movement.
6. No-verbal communication.

REFLEX MOVEMENTS: This include involuntary motor


responses to stimuli which form the basis for all types of
behavior involving body movement.

Basic fundamental movements: these are the inherent


movement patterns built upon simple reflex movements.

PERCEPTUAL ABILITIES: These are concerned with the use of


sense organs to obtain cues those quid motor activities. There
is an ability that enables the learner to interpret stimuli so that
he can adjust to the movements.

They include visual, auditory and tactile discrimination.

PHYSICAL ABILITIES: These involve strength, endurance


speed, agility, dexterity, and flexibility. They are the abilities
that form the essential foundation for skilled movement.

SKILLED MOVEMENTS: These involve co-ordinate movements


in games, sports, playing musical instruments and the arts.
They are components of any efficiently performed complex
movements and these require learning and practice.

NON- VERBAL COMMUNICATION: These include facial


movements, gerunds postures and creative expressions. They
are the non-discursive communication, advanced behaviors
involved in the type of communication relating to graceful
movement.

CONCLUSION

Education is one great instrument which can make a society


everything the human society needs to survive and prosper in
a given society is with the society. It takes quality educational
system to evolve quality human resource to discover them and
utilize them to transfer life. Evaluation and measurement had
brought about a desirable change in the learners cognitive,
effective and psychomotor behavior to accomplished
educational goals.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keziah A. Achuonye and Lawrence I Ajoku,
foundations of curriculum development and
implementation

Published in 2002.