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BULETINUL INSTITUTULUI POLITEHNIC IAŞI TOMUL L (LIV), FASC. 5, 2004 ELECTROTEHNICĂ, ENERGETICĂ, ELECTRONICĂ

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES IN OPTIMAL REACTIVE DISPATCH. SOLUTIONS USING GENETIC ALGHORITMS

BY

*D. BICĂ, *D. SARCHIZ and *VASARHELY I.

Abstract. Genetic algorithms are becoming popular to solve the optimization problems in different fields of applications mainly because of its robustness in finding optimal solution and ability to provide near optimal solution close to global minimum. In the present paper, a genetic algorithm to determine the optimal size of the capacitors under different load conditions is implemented. The objective is to minimize the energy losses under voltage quality conditions. The voltage constraint is formulated as a penalty function to the objective function. To test the proposed genetic algorithm, an power system model has been taken as an example.

Keywords: power system, artificial intelligence, genetic algorithm, capacitors optimization.

1. Introduction

Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, that is a new branch of computer science, have in recent years emerged as a complement tool to mathematical approaches within power systems. Today the main AI used in power system applications are those utilizing logic and knowledge representations of Expert Systems (ES), Fuzzy Systems, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and more recently, Genetic Algorithms (GA). The Optimal Reactive Dispatch (ORD) is a particular case of a more general problem that is the Optimal Power Flow and consists in determining the state of an electric power system that optimize a given objective function and satisfies a set of physical and operating constraints. The ORD has grown in importance for many reason: the need for most efficient operations of power systems has increased, the losses of the power systems can be reduced by optimizing the reactive power flow and the voltage is considered one of the most important parameters of power quality.

2. Some aspects about GA

Genetic algorithm (GA) is a global search technique based on mechanism of natural selection and genetics. It is a general-purpose optimization algorithm

D. BICĂ, D. SARCHIZ and VASARHELY I.

that is distinguished from conventional optimization by the use of the concepts of populations genetics to guide the optimization search. A GA operates on a random population of individuals each representing to the problem at hand. In recent years, GA has gained popularity for its easy searching process, global optimality, independence of searching space and probabilistic nature. Instead of point-to-point search, GA searches from population to population. For hard optimization problems, GA are a superior methods by providing simultaneous both exploitation of the best solutions and exploration of the search space. The advantages of GA over traditional optimizations techniques are [4,7]: i) GA needs only rough information of the objective function an place no restrictions such as differentiability or convexity on the objective function; ii) The method works with a set of solutions from one generation to the next and not a single solution, thus making it less likely to converge at a minimum locally; iii) The solutions developed are randomly based on the probability rate of the genetic operators such as mutation and crossover. The initial solutions thus would not dictate the search direction of a GA. In general, a GA performs a multidirectional search by maintaining a population of potential solutions and encourages information formation and exchange between these directions. This populations undergoes a simulated evolution: at each generation, the relatively “good” solutions reproduce, while the relatively “bad” solutions die. To evaluate the quality of a solution, a special function is used , playing the role of the environment. In most case, this function is the function to optimize. To make the transition from the current population to the next population, three processes are used: selection, crossover and mutation.

Initial Fitness Stop? population evaluation Start no New Best population SELECTION cromozome sol CROSSOVER solution New
Initial
Fitness
Stop?
population
evaluation
Start
no
New
Best
population
SELECTION
cromozome
sol
CROSSOVER
solution
New
population
MUTATION
Fig. 1.- Genetic algorithm - basic cycle.

BUL. INST. POLIT. IAŞI, TOMUL L (LIV), FASC. 5

3. GA applications in power systems ORD. Mathematic model

The objective of the problem is to find number, location and discrete size of capacitor to be placed in the system in such a way that the total cost of energy loss, including the cost of capacitor is minimum, under energy quality constraints. Objective function: the objective function for optimization can be stated mathematically as [1, 2]:

Minimize:

F

(

Q

)

=

K

e

PT

+

ncap

K

c

  • i = 1

(

Q

i

)

(1)

where P is the active power loss at the power system with a time duration T,

K

c

(

Q

i

)

is the cost of the ith capacitor of rating

Q , ncap the number of the

i

candidate locations for capacitor placement and

K is the energy cost of losses.

e

One of the main objectives of compensation problem is to place the minimum number of capacitor so that installation cost could be minimum. Hence it will be worth-while, if the installation cost of the capacitor could be incorporated in the capacitor cost calculation itself. Both the installation cost and marginal cost of capacitor has been considered separately. The capacitor cost is considered as the linear function of its size:

K

c

(Q ) = K

i

ci

+ K Q

c

i

where

K

  • ci is installation cost of the ith capacitor.

(2)

Constraints: Two types of constraints are imposed:

  • a) Reactive power constraints:

min max Q ≤ Q ≤ Q i = 1, ... , ncap i i i
min
max
Q
≤ Q ≤ Q
i = 1,
...
,
ncap
i
i
i
b) Voltage constraints: The voltage constraints will be formulated as a
penalty function of objective function. The constrained objective function is:
ncap
T
l
F
(
Q
)
=
K
PT
+
K
(
Q
)
+
λ
V
V
(3)
e
c
i
min
s
i
= 1
l
where
V min is the vector containing the minimum voltage limit for each load
bus,
V
is the corresponding vector of the load bus voltage and λ is the vector
s

of constant multiplier which determine the importance of each voltage constraint in the objective function. A higher value of λ elements can cause premature convergence while with lower value of λ vector elements, the GA may create individuals that violate the constraint but are rated than those do not violate the constraints. Hence suitable value of λ , satisfying the constraint limits and also giving best possible result could only be found out by trial and error.

D. BICĂ, D. SARCHIZ and VASARHELY I.

4. Implementation of GA model. Test results

In the GA, the fitness function is defined as a nonnegative function of merit to be maximized which is directly associated with the objective function (1) or (3).We consider the inverse function of F as the fitness function, then it will the both conditions (nonnegative and to be maximized). Therefore for the given problem the fitness function will be defined as K/F, where K is a constant

multiplier. A chromosome from the population is formed as [

Q Q

1

2...

Q

ncap

] where

Q

i

represent the binary string of

n

b

=6 bits representing the value of the

compensation reactive power from the ith candidate location, allowing that the value of variable to be optimized (reactive power) vary for the given

[

Q

min,

Q

max

]

, taking discrete values by:

where

X

i

Q

i

=

Q

min

+

X

i

2

n

b

1

(

Q

max

Q

min

)

(4)

is the value of the binary string

Q

i

in the base 10. The maximum

number for the generations for the problem is 40.The parameters of the objective

function are: K 60[$ / MWh]

e =

,

K

ci

= 100[$]

,

K

c =

0.01[$ / MVAr ]

and

λ = 1 .Thus as convergence criteria will be used the difference between average fitness of entire population calculated in the last two consecutive generation

( ε =

10

7

).

The main steps of algorithm of the proposed method are:

  • 1. Form initial chromosomes equal to the population size as: [

Q Q

1

2...

Q

ncap

]

;

  • 2. Evaluation of the fitness for each chromosome: i) Convert each binary substring Q in string into decimal number representing the size of the reactive power; ii) Assign this reactive powers for the given location and carry out the power flow calculation and to find out : power losses and nodal voltage. iii) Calculate the objective function F with (1) then the fitness K/F.

  • 3. Find the best fitted chromosome and send it to the solution vector and calculate the mean of whole population fitness.

  • 4. Set the generation number=1.

  • 5. i) Select a number of individuals from the current population in proportion with the selection rate, selection based on the rank method; ii) Perform crossover and generate offspring; iii)Mutate these offspring based mutation probability.

  • 6. Calculate fitness for each offspring as in step 2 and step 3.

  • 7. Combine the old population and new population to create a single population best of both. For example, at t-th generation, total population size is NI(old population).In step 5 a set of new population is obtained NIc in proportion

BUL. INST. POLIT. IAŞI, TOMUL L (LIV), FASC. 5

with the selection rate. When combining these old and new population, results a population with NI+ NIc size, from wich will survive in the t+1-th generation only NI individuals- the best fitted.

  • 8. Repeat step 5 to step 7 till the solution converges or a maximum number of generation is reached. A test 6 buses - power system is given, represented in figure 2. The reactive power compensation will be calculated for load buses 2, 4 and 5.The results obtained after running the optimization program based on a GA are represented in figures 3, 4 and 5.

1-NG 1-NG 22 3-NG 3-NG C2 C2 55 44 C5 C5 C4 C4 66 -NE -NE
1-NG
1-NG
22
3-NG
3-NG
C2
C2
55
44
C5
C5
C4
C4
66 -NE
-NE

a)

BUL. INST. POLIT. IA Ş I, TOMUL L (LIV), FASC. 5 with the selection rate. When

b)

Fig. 2.- The 6 buses- test power system: single diagram (a) and daily power features P(t) and Q(t) on load buses (b).

a) b)
a)
b)

Fig 3.– Daily active power losses P (t) : initial steady state and optimal steady state (a), Instantaneous compensation values Q (MVAr) in the load buses for optimal rating (b).

D. BICĂ, D. SARCHIZ and VASARHELY I.

Appendix

* “Petru Maior” University of Tg.Mureş, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tg.Mureş, Romania.

R E F E R E N C E S

  • 1. Das, D., Reactive power compensation for radial distribution networks using genetic algorithm. Electrical Power and Energy System, Elesevier Ltd, 573-581 (2001).

  • 2. Sarchiz, D., Applications of Genetic Algorithms in optimization in Power Systems. Proc.of Conference Inter-Ing 2003, Petru Maior University of Tg.Mureş, 203 -208 (2003).

  • 3. Eremia, M,. s.a., Tehnici de inteligenţă artificială.Concepte şi aplicaţii în sistemele electroenergetice .Editura AGIR, Bucureşti, 2001.

  • 4. Bansal, R.C., Bhatti, T.S., Kothari, D.P., Artificial Intelligence for reactive power/voltage control in power system: A review. International Journal of Power and Energy System, Vol.23. No.2, 81-88 ( 2003).

  • 5. Buiu, C., Evolutionary computing. From natural to intelligent machines. Proc. Advanced Technologies in power systems: FACTS and I.A., Bucharest, 407-426 ( 2003).

  • 6. Bică, D, Contribuţii la optimizarea regimurilor de funcţionare şi stabilitatea de tensiune a sistemelor electroenergetice.Teză de Doctorat, Universitatea “Politehnica” Bucureşti, 2003.

  • 7. Bică, D., Bucur, D., Sistemele expert-opţiuni atractive în studiul sistemelor electroenergetice. Buletinul Ştiinţific al Universităţii “Petru Maior” din Tg.Mureş, 45-51(2003).

  • 8. Dumitrache, I. s.a, Tehnici de conducere intelligentă a proceselor.Universitatea “Politehnica” Bucureşti, 1993.

TEHNICI DE INTELIGENŢĂ ARTIFICIALĂ ÎN OPTIMIZAREA PUTERII REACTIVE. SOLUTII UTILIZÂND ALGORITMI GENETICI. (Rezumat)

Algoritmii genetici au devenit tehnici populare, utilizate în problemele de optimizare din diferite domenii şi aplicaţii, datorită robusteţii în găsirea soluţiei optime şi capacităţii lor de a furniza o soluţie optimală aproape de minimul global. Lucrarea propune o soluţie de aplicare a algoritmilor genetici în determinarea valorilor optime ale capacităţilor de compensare într-un sistem electroenergetic, funcţionând sub încârcări variabile. Obiectivul este de a minimiza pierderile de putere activă cu respectarea restricţiilor privind nivelul de tensiune în noduri. Restricţiile privind tensiunea sunt introduse în funcţia obiectiv printr-un factor de penalizare.