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Vol.1 : Compiling Characters
Chapter 1 Drawing the Face
Chapter 2 How to Draw Bodies
Chapter 3 Drawing Characters
lsBN4-7661 -1 473-6

Vol.2: Compiling Techniques

Chapter 1 Background Management Basics
Chapter 2 Tone Techniques
Chapter 3 Expressing Light and Shadows
lsBN4-7 661 -1 47 4-4


Vol.3: Compiling Application and Practice

Chapter 1 How to Draw lnteriors and Exteriors
Chapter 2 How to Draw Machines
Chapter 3 How to Create a Short Story MANGA
l5BN4-7661-147 5-2

Vol.4: Dressing Your Characters in

Casual Wear
Chapter 1 Underwear and T-shirts
Chapter 2 Sweatshirts and Skirts
Chapter 3 Jackets and Jeans

Special: Colored Original Drawing

(Copic Sketch Pen)
Chapter 1 Copic Sketch Pen
Chapter 2 Copic Airbrushing System
Chapter 3 Try Using Different Painting Materials with Markers
lsBN4-7 661 -1 47 9-5

Vol.5: Developing Shoujo Manga

Chapter 1 How to Draw Characters
Chapter 2 How to Draw Backgrounds
Chapter 3 How to Create Stories
Chapter 4 How to Create Manga
tsBN4-7661 -1 476-0

Vol.6: Martial Arts & Combat Sports

Chapter 1 Judo
Chapter 2 Karate
Chapter 3 Kendo
Chapter 4 Boxing
Chapter 5 Street Battles

D stribured by
- 2 Sa',ga<u:-:.3^1:ca <-. :<_.: -l- -'le-,=:='
=-:re:3--:-32?2-3-:- :ar:3' 3-32J2-::- I =--= ::E:--: ,
Penning Characters
HORE HOWT0 DRAW MANGAVoI.2: Penning Characters
I Go Office

Copynght @ 2002 Go 0ffice

Copyright @ 2002 Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd.

Thrs book was first designed and published by Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd. in Japan in 2002.
This English edition was publisned by Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd. in Japan in 2004.

Artwork and Production: Kazuaki Morita, Yumiko Deguchi, Hiroko Shioda, Ushio, Takehiko Matsumoto,
Hikaru Hagi Gekko, Akira Gokita, Kozue Onishi, Haruto, Hitoshi Sato, BeE,
Kento Shimazaki, Rio Yagizawa
Production Takumi Takahashi, Kozue 0nishi
Production Julie Asakura
CwerArtwork: Kazuaki Morita
fulish Main T'itle Logo Design: Hideyuki Amemura
Composition and Text: Hikaru Hayashi, Rio Yagizawa (Go 0ffice)
Heference Photography: Yasuo lmai
EElish Edition Layout: Shinichi lshioka
EnglM Translation Management: Lingua friinca, lnc. (an3y-skmt@asahi-net.orjp)
Phnnir Editor: Motofumi Nakanishi (Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd.)
Foreiln Language Edition Proiect Coordinator: Kumiko Sakamoto (Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd.)

A{ rqhb reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced 0r used in any form or by any means
- graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage
ffd rebieval systems - without written permission 0f the publisher

Japflr h.dilhalions Trading Co., Ltd.
' -2- i Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, I 01 -0064

E-rna*: id@jpho.co.jp
iJF{:-: @: wrw.lptco. co.jp/

;rs ffro,.rE: March 2004

I sm, ,--m---r&l
Vot. 2
Penning Gharacters

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Table of Contents

Ghapter 1
Pen Fundamentals ,7

Ghapter 2

Male vs. Female Faces......... ..........52

Pointers in Drawing Cute Female Characters.. ......................54
Creating Adult Faces ........,.,......,,...56
The Basics of the Human Figure .......................60
lnking the Figure: Using the Different Lines Appropriately......... ...................62
Creating a Sense ofVolume:Shading .,..,.............64
Distinguishing Female Body Types ......................70
Distinguishing Male and Female Figures........ ......74
Features to Modify When Drawing Different Male Builds.. ...,.....76
Drawing Hands and Feet..... .,...,.....78
Hands......... ..............78
Fee1............ ..............81
Waking Up ............. ........................84
The 3 Key Elements in a Gharacter Waking...... .......................84
Sample:A Jolting Wake-up .............88
Chapter 3

Drawing Any Expression lmaginable............,. .......................90

Mouth Movements: Depicting Basic Vowel Sounds....... ........92
Theatrical Eyes .......... ....................96
Combining Features to Express Emotions.... ....100
Symbolic Representation of Emotion,.,,,,........ ...............,....104
Using the Mouth to Show Emotion ..................110
Chibi (Super-deformed) Characters and Vowel Sounds ...........114

Chapter 4

Creating Key lmages and Character Entrance Scenes ........116

Vehicles and Figures: Driving Scenes ........,.....1 18
Suggesting Movement Using a Single Panel: Glancing Back..,........ .......120
Penning Techniques That Create Depth ......... .....................122
Making Corrections ........,.............'125

The Basic Mangadrawing Process: From Beginning ro End

O Rough sketch: Set the composition @ Complete the under drawing.

at this point.

. "'

[r. v
@ Erase as needed.

3 lnk the drawing.


@ tne finisning touches: Add special effect

Iines and screen tone.
Pen Fundamentals


,' ,i
': tt::l
.,; : '
.;, ,a a., .:

iiMi;,,:. ::.
ari,:r.,.t .31ir:l

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':: 1'l'

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. 1..
The Key lngredient to Manga and
lllustrations is lnking.
Finish using ink only The clear, distinct black strokes of a pen
(Realism manga style) breathe life into penciled drawings.

A sense of speed is generated

using diagonal strokes.

A gradation effect is created

using kakeam i (crosshatching).

The above was created using only

various forms 0f hatching and solid
blacks. This use of ink allowed me
to create a soft overall look, while
S,'urirq il'fi']mr: :a- :E Hatching suggests f lesh Uniform, parallel, ruled lines projecting an intense atmosphere.
qJE0fl5-rFrI lHnigrmn; :r -r:,r,r
create a shading, almost
ciarym T'ffifnr[ s .se:
silhouette-like effect.

:r:,'i this version anticipating that I would use only various I drew this version anticipating that I would use screen tone for the
.l:rs of hatching and solid blacks for the final image. I rendered final image. With the exception of the final panel, where perspective is
1-r s.,bjects using powerful, heavy, modulated lines for silhouette stressed, the overall page is rendered primarily using fine, even lines.
-:s Jagged sound effect lettering allows for the creation of an Since the Iinal image will have a lighter feel, I used more simplified
,-=-.se mood. style of sound effect lettering.

-?:i" 2d drawing

Realism- manga version:

Here, I used hatching in the
pupils and irises as well.
diagonal strokes used in the
cheeks were carefully

Screen tone version:

I used fine, uniform
lines, giving the
.':r.--; '6ns ygpsion: I filled in the pupils
composition a clean,
-,:i'r; ;: d black and then attached
light look.
r?=:,1'r tone. The diagonal strokes
i+: - :Te ,cheeks are less concentrated
-r- :-.:-<e in the realism-mangauersion.
lnking Tools
and Materials


The nib is held
The nib inserts into securely up to
the penholder. this point.

Pen nib
(Kabura-pen) Change nibs:
o when the nib becomes worn
o when the tips stad to spread.

Penholder mouth
(Available in wood and plastic)
(Plastic) Nibs become worn as they are
used. 0nce your old nib tips
Many artists feel that wooden become permanently spread, and
penholders are less tiring on the hand. you are no longer able to draw a
crisp line, replace the old with a
new nib. When inking characters,
switch nibs about every 2 to 4
Black.ink, drafting ink, and lndia ink are those primarily used.
lnk lf the ink becomes gummy, add water.
sheets in the case of B4-sized
paper (25.7 X 36.2 cm or approx.
10" x 14 1/4').

The advantage of
drafting ink is that
While lndia ink does take
it dries quickly.
longer to dry than drafting
ink, it gives a "blacker"

Black or drafting ink

lndia lnk

o 84 is the standard size for publication

Paper submissions.
. Top quality paper(1 1 0 kg to 1 35 kg per

1000 sheets or 121 lbs to 148.5 lbs per

ream) or Kent paper is used.
. Manga drawing paper with predrawn
margin lines, which are available on the
market, may also be used.
" ,,i,- rt :: ::,: .tuch ink to ihe nib,
if-- . r, := : :- i3 nk jar's rim
. Use paper oI a size that will allow a margin j

around the entire drawing.

Itrr,,,"s.: r:'- ::Jlx end up with drops
lr 1-I :- .':'-' :?itillg,. Note: since the /ranga process involves penciling
.. an under drawing, inking, attaching tone, and other
work, most artists use large, durable paper.
Pgn NibS The 3 Most Common Nibs: The Kabura-pen, the G-pen, and the Maru-pen

For those with a light touch: The G-pen nib is flexible,

making it somewhat
ditficult to control.
However, it is capable of
producing fine as well
as thick strokes,
allowing you to
modulate your lines.
For those with a heavy hand: G-Pen

-- s nib draws primarily
=-er lines and allows
':n modulated lines.

. For artists who have a light

touch when using
mechanical or regular pencils
. For those who do great clean
up work with the eraser, not
leaving a single extra mark

. ::r tlrose artists who often

:,tak their mechanical or
'-:;ular pencil points
For the technicians
. ::r'those who tend to
lines even aftef
::F-alring it up with the

This nib allows you to
create thicker lines than
with the G-pen and finer
lines than with the

--i -.aru-pen comes with its own r For those who regularly
r*:,ei penholder. Holders of some distinguish between values It is ditficult to draw long
-n ,ficturers cannot be used with when drawing with a lines with this nib.
However, this is a suitable
:e -,as of others, so be careful to mechanical or regular pencil
nib for those who build up
:rr;:;.; brand names when (i.e. those skilled in controlling
contour lines using
:irr;-tasing. the pressure applied to the pen)
multiple short strokes.
Figure drawn with
the pen held at an
angle close to the


Figgre drawR
holding tne pen al
the, sarne angle.as.
w[en. wt'iting ,',,

Not good

Here, the pen

is too vertical.

ln this figure, the nib caughl

onto the paper, resulting in
clumsy-looking strokes.
-riier drawing Normally, arhsb start wittr the face contours
and work from $ere.


lh:te paper to an angle that allows you to ink more easily.

'lTe iarne holds true

$mri'ng hair standing on end.


oi a
The paper is flipped Return the paper to its original position

to ink the hair. when inking the shoulders. Constanfly

rotate the paper to the most
comfortable position when inking. An
artist rarely inks an entire drawing
without moving the paper.

I The Basics: Even and Tapered Lines

. Tapered Line

Using both lines with

sharply tapered ends and
blunt, uniform ends allows
for a composition'with

Figure Drawn Entirely with Tapered Lines Figure Drawn Entirely with Even Lines

While this ( q ft) risure nas

drawing does ( ))L"acrisper,tidier
have vigor, it ),q\) look but is
) has a diffuse,
disorderly look. s somewhat
lHiltry fu h d Taoered and Even Lines: Drawing Nudes rapered rines are key t0 givins the ftesh volume.




(r l,\ '/
A sense of volume is lacking in figures
drawn only in even strokes.

0hnawing Tapered Lines

- )o"awing in a single stroke 2. Building up a line using multiple strokes

'{ 'l (1 @

hactica! application: Adjusting even tines 1

Adjust the lines so that

the ends taper.
EI l.lsing Heany and Fine Lines (Balancing Heavy and Light Areas)

Make contour and silhouette lines

heavier than those in the interior.

Balance your
line usage
even in small

These lines are finer

5r*.1(fi v
fian the contour line. t, ,




Assorted Uses of Heavy and Fine Lines

Here, a G-pen was used,

allowing for full exploitation
of line modulation.

The G-pen allows you to

draw graceful, sinuous lines.


-ru s he most
.lmriron way of
rmrguishing lines.
4m1: reavy lines were
*imr r fie silhouette
irmm:rntour lines,
urnir iner lines were ts This is a delicate

"unu: r fie interior.

WfiilI)\I 1't figure rendered
entirely using fine


Use even finer lines

for parts visible from
underneath see-
through fabrics, etc.

Modulating Lines: Building up Lines to Produce a Satistying Gomposition
" 3,.: ding up those areas requiring heavier lines afterfirst doing an even inking
lnking is not something that has to be done in one fell swoop.
0nce you have done a simple first inking of the entire
composition, go over it again, creating a balance between
heavy and fine lines and gradually building up contours and
silhouette lines using many short strokes.


First inking

Build up contour and

silhouette lines in the face
and figure as well as crease
lines and lines distinguishing
body parts. Finished drawing
This technique involves using the pen in much the same manner as
you would the pencil. lt is effective when the final
2, Building up tines right from the start is to be a reduction
of the original (reducing drawings causes the individual strokes
come closer together, making the execution appear smoother).

-rcer drawing

Completed drawing
(reduced size): The
drawing appears to
have been rendered
Pen hatching
using single, Iong
diagram (Enlarged)


Hatching basically consists of short, tapered lines drawn freehand'
fl Mastering Hatching, Etc.
Longer versions become diagonal lines. Hatching adds spice to the inking
job and is a finishing technique used in artwork.
These strokes
are a standard
technique aftists
use to suggest
"blond hair."
The addition of
these diagonal lines
suggest a blush to
the cheek and help
give the figure

Completed inking of conlour, silhouette,

and other major lines

Drawing Tapered Lines

Diagonal lines drawn
with a downward stroke
(Neck shadows, etc.)

\ Z\.- )-
---_/ \\\

: rection perpendicular to that of
Ie nib, Avoid pressing down on
Diagonal lines drawn with an
upward stroke [Suggesting
volume in the chest (flesh), etc.l

:'re pen. Use light, rapid strokes.

P'ractical Application of Hatching

and Diagonal Lines
--es are used for shading. The key
: :l 'ccus on evokingvolume in the
':-r: and io draw strokes in the
,1.-a,. l;'Ie figure's "curves."
Making characters Distinctive

/ ^r t,F .-;42:
//1 f'"f
f' ,f--


5 Basic Faces
5 Gommon Faces Used for Glose-ups

1. Face Turned to the Right (3/4 View) 2. Front View

-:,: 3, I 'i e;r.i dr'rd front view are primarily used when the
::-;a3:-y -akes his or her appearance on the scene 0r
il.e. :'e a"!si l',,ants to show the character's face.


i1 I


3, Side View 4. Moderate High Angl 5. Moderate Low Angle

-:en used for characters when Primarily used in dialogue scenes
:;raking alone or engaged in
::: nVefsati0n

This view is effective

when intending to give
movement or variety to
the composition, or give
a character's depiction

The main differences between this

view and the standard 3/4 view and
the points that you, the adist, must
show the most care are the extent to
which the crown is shown and the
nose's angle.

Standard 3/4 view

Even when not intending to
keep the bridge of the nose in
1 . 314 View the final drawing, including the
Slightly larger than the right eye
Approximately the bridge in the under drawing will
same distance help you balance the eyes.

i '*4


There should be a gap

lnk only the tip of the nose.
between the face's
silhouette line and the
corner of the eye.
The line of the neck should
The throat's silhouette be drawn so that it would
line should be further connect to the bottom of the
inward than the chin. ear if extended.

2 Standard Styles for Rendering the Nose

Too close together


v 6) Take care not to

space the eyes
too far apart or
:co close together
Nose rendered using only Nose rendered with the bridge
shadows underneath and the nasion (where the
Z- bridge meets the eyes)
There are standard positions for the torso (i.e. from the neck down)
bitioning the Figure with a 3/4 View Head used with each of the 5 head views. Since how the torso and neck
. -.:nmon poses showing the throat's silhouette line
connect depends on in which direction the torso is faced, I have
'-1f:er inward than the chin compiled a few common samples for you.

_":,rmon poses showing the throat's
; .ouette line directly under the chin

Here, the figure is shown from a

ltl-r:l- :te head is drawn so this line
somewhat high angle, displaying
I ;r':-y under the chin, the figure
volume from the shoulders to the
I :?.. shown from a moderately
",ly :i-Ele.

The neck may appear overly

thick (masculine) when this
line is drawn further out than
the chin.
2. Front View

Faces with the eyes drawn too far apart 0r t00 close
together are often intended to be stylized.

Faces appear most

attractive with the eyes
spaced apart about the
same length as the mouth.

There are faces

stylized so that the
eyebrows span the
space between the
corner of the eyes
and the face's
There should be space contour.
left between the eyes
and the face's outer
Getting the Best from
the Front View
=mct Views Etfective in Manga


-"r :,-:?'contour is not perfectly

- --al, but shows the face
.,,, -,*: :: fie right. Alternatively,
', :,:,- : show the face turning
The nose should also be drawn facing either
right or left with the head.
: -1.

l,ssorted Noses for Front Views

\a t:

Nose with shadows Nose with shadows

underneath under one side

kuk Girths

- :; -ead's
i :::-

112lhe head's width 1/3 the head's width 2/3 the head's width
Appropriate for female characters Appropriate for stylized, Appropriate for realistic characters
manga-esque characters and characters with naturally thick
necks (i.e. male characters)
A frontal view of the face allows the character t0 connect
hitioning the Figure with a Front View Head
strongly with the reader. lt is often used with the full figure.
H.egulu Angle

Low Angle
lle character is looking down,
:u:: fieface is seen straight on.

Shoulders raised


--i: *roulders' and clavicles' contours

$ uell as the chest's shape take on
:'*:rEnt appearances in high angles
:,r' uren the figure is lying on its

r: -ach. Close-up of the upper body

Fractioal Application Sample

Sketch to check shading balance

Penned drawing


Beference figure

Note the distance between the eye and ear.

-->is*<in Not good --+-i



Too far apart

Common Pitfalls When Drawing Side Views

and Counter Strategies

Not good

The chin is too jutted.
The head is too stunted,


The chin should have a

gentle curve.
hffiitioning the Figure with a Side View Head


Figures drawn at a low or high

r9 angle are rarely paired with

side view heads.

4. Moderate High Angle
Regular side view

high angle

The jaw
the mouth
When drawing a head at a moderately
high angle, lower the level of the eye
and shift the face's axis further away
from the centerline in order to distinguish
this angle from a regular side view.
Furthermore, the top half of the head
(the haifl should occupy a larger portion
of the whole.

Nose drawn with a bridge Nose drawn without a bridge

\i :.
m.cmg trc ileck and the Torso

\\ ./'
Pose where the
neck is at an angle
Pose where the
neck is straight



:e,:c-s arar,tn at moderately

- il- i.i! e.S ile great for
:[ffi {rhE]'e $e back faces
lE ''ei\31'
5. Moderate Low Angle Regular angle Moderate high angle

The axis is
positioned about
The top half of the
the same as in a head occupies a
face drawn at a smaller portion of
moderaiely high the whole.

The guideline for

/f ----S. Establish the the eyes becomes
G chin's depth, an upward
curving line.

The neck can

easily be drawn
too thick, so take
extra care.

'*: , Upwafd
., ' -,: ites are used
::r- ne upper
": -,1:reyelids.

,: :,:^. pafallel,
. :: res for
:. :+ -:s used to
Nose drawn with a bridge
ir"l- :ing the ear's
:::- ng. Nose drawn without a bridge
Connecting the Neck and the Torso

Neck contour line

The entire figure drawn from a low angle

Retaining the head in an "upward
looking" position, but tilting the
neck affects the length of the
neck's silhouette line.


Comparison of Neck Contour Lines

Note that while the figure's
l '---
pose is the same for all of
these figures, the neck's
\\ ,/
contour lines change
to which direction the head
\\ faces (i.e. how the neck and
figure connects changes).

Moderate High Angle Front View Side View

Ghanges in Eye Shape for Each of the 5

Front View Side View

\l_ /


3/4 View Moderate High Angle Moderate Low Angle

/ ,/)
(. @


Depictions of characters from behind are

Back of the Head essential in manga.lf you are able to draw

characters' heads from behind, the possibilities
for dialogue scenes will expand dramatically.

Skeletal drawing of the back of the head

Sample Close-ups

lf you can draw this area Target area to include in a

successfully, you can panel, trimmed as needed

Given the variety in panel

create a dialogue scene.
shapes and margin sizes,
the possibilities
compositions are endless
ilon :.-atures in Drawing the Back of the Head:The Ear and Hair Flow

r$hre' f Ear ls Visible When the bangs have

plenty of volume:
Show the bangs clearly
i' flutfing outward. Ensure
u"/^y'/ ll that you do not give the
ilqilll back of the head too
much hair.
\-- Front View (Ref. Fig.)
"'rlrx- et !ef. Fig')

,gll'ifflii- :E ::a: and chin are

Ii]illl:l ri
'lirili': s p-ss hair in
':lillllll"?: 1-r: SidebUrns, and
tr* 'ar s short.
r:rru :E "ead so that the
lll'r'tU*: :r ].]e back iS
litr{:i*, lsemible.

,fl{l\rrr fe Ear ls Not Visible

-'ltflt- ?,rr tef. Fig.)

illllilnfl" :E -air has little volume:

ruli :p. 3re not visible, and
tiLrlrt:-rJ- lre hair is long, since
rx :e volume, it should
iliiiti-r lr-slY to the head.
- -ii1:
rH should have a round
iiii:r;: -.f'"1 fie top of the head
i r ,d-^.

Front View (Ref. Fig.)

With voluminous hair:

o Use the hair's silhouette lines and
flow to suggest clearly that it is in
fact the back of the head.
The Eyes are the Face's Key Feature.
These 3 beauties all
intaining Variety in the Characters' Eyes have completely
different eyes. Desig-
the eyes so that the
particular character
can be recognized
even in a close-up
of just the eyes.


Figure showing variety in the hairstyle,

face shapes, and clothes

Not good
The eyes constitute a major
stylistic point. Give each
character a distinctive eye


finffimg Process
. aa::rl"xing: Process for Rendering Eyes Using Primarily Hatching

Under drawing

::.: ,vith the upper eyelid. Draw

:.-r: rir-veS while rotating the
.;=' - the direction easiestto

2. Draw the upper eyelid. Build 3. Draw the lower eyelid. Since
up strokes, keeping them at a you are using hatching to render
: comfortable. not overly long the eye. make sure that the fine
length, contour of the lower eyelid does
not evolve into a single (solid) line.
Use fine, connecting strokes.

", , :: outlines of the Since these are light

5. tur the hatching inside the iris,
.-: :; light reflections, use as fine
use curved lines, maintaining an
r' : r -r- S Take care to
awareness of the iris's curved
, : . -*ing the iris a solid line as possible.
r..--: -:ll becoming a

7. To finish the eyelashes, the key is t0

draw shorter lines clustered around a
long, central line. Take care to use
beautiful. tapered lines.

. ,.' -atching to finish off the

.-: cupil. Build up light and
- r::,r, rotating the paper in
- ' : '=.ltron easiest to draw.

When needed, add+

for white highlights.
8. Finished!


Take care to Prevent

the contour from
becoming overlY
Draw the contour thick. (lf the drawing
t Draw the contour of the uPPer so that both ends is small, then You
eyelid. (the Paper often must
be 2. Draw the contour
come to distinct may simPlY use a
rotated to the direction easiest to of the lower eYelid.
points solid line.)

Use ultra fine lines

for light reflection

drawing the iris The inside oI the

outline is to use dotted lines
a uniform, heavy 3. Draw the iris, the actual PuPil
and light reflections.

inside ol
4. Draw the eyelashes and the Ensure that eac
indicates which areas are to
the iris. X eyelash ends ir
be filled with solid black'
a clear Point.

are connected.

5. Spotting Blacks and Hatching

lf the eyelashes are rendereo

solely in solid black and end -
with a rough, crude feel, add
6. Finishedl White highlights
Iine, individual lines seParate:
from the main lashes.
uishing Types The following pages discuss 5 common
eye types:
standard eyes, upward tilted eyes, Oownward-iitted
eyes, large, round eyes, and almond_shaped
Upward Titted Eyes Downward Tilted Eyes

The corner of the

eye is lowered.

:tandard Eyes


-mward Tilted Eyes


[-arge- Round Eyes

Standard eyes Downward tilted eyes

tf you find your large, round eyes resemble

standard or downward tilted eyes, use your
ingenuity and adjust as follows:
. 0mit drawing the lower eyelid, More large, round eyes
. Make the irises extra dark, or
adjust how you render the eye's interior, etc.

Almond-shaped Eyes

_i;,1r,ri -rofl gygg Standafd eyeS

;1,1,-;'i i!Jr almond-shaped eyes
,;,,rard titted or standard eyes,
=Ei:-:,8 r]tr"-t)'and
-si ,rr,i" adjust by narrowing
+*: ]tE!: r_
More almond-shaPed eYes

Distinguishing Ages
t*aking Children Look Ghildlike

-roer Child with a Mature Face Somewhat Mature Child chitd

This face basically has the same shape Here, the face's contour is ditferent and
contour as that oI the mature face, but the the facial feafures' proportions have been
features have been altered. adjusted.
. The eyelashes were omitted. o The cheeks were made fuller.
idult's face Child's face o The eyes were enlarged. . The eyes' position was lowered.
. The bridge of the nose was reduced. o The eyes were spaced farther apart.
. The portion taken up by the upper part of
the head was enlarged.

Not good
The presence of eyelashes
To draw a child's face,
and small eyes tend to
concentrate all of the facial detract from a childlike
features toward the lower appearance.
half of the face.

Mature face Moderately childlike face Childlike face

ItffiErencs between Adult and Child Faces
Adult's Face Child's Face

Smallish eyes


The nose should

The nose should
be kept small
be made longish.

Thickish neck

Position the eYes

higher and make
fiem smaller than
you would ior a
child's face. (lf
you are using the----t
adult's face as i ti This figure shows
your standard, I --the 2 laces
tren position the ----i
overlapping. Drav,
eyes lower for a i the child's feature:
child character.) ------from the nose
downward ,iutting
out somewhat to
---------gain a "childlike
neck appearance.
Long span thick and
Draw the neck tilted relatively straight
and on the narrow- up and down.

The upper parl of upper
the head occuPies part of
a lesser portion. the heat
a greait

f frnon

Give the cheeks roundish contours to adult's createl

3'''e fie cheeks angular contours to create a "childlike' look. childlike look

50 :ener-ate an adult" look.

Mm$ishing Youthful and Elderly Faces
Give older male
characters large,
distinct nose bridges.
The neck should be
short and thick.

sarrfiars in Aging Gharacters . Reduce the size of the eyes and irises.
r 0mit the eyelashes.
r Give the hair less volume.
Not good

@,,, ae

:-r-,1 character's
i.r9S afe lafge
-,:Se and mOth
the mouth's sides still does
not age the character.
\G) r
sratrs Wrinkles alone do not make an old person.

Not good

C. ..D

I ir_-! man'S face
,r iandard (slightly
--= Giving the eyes a
:' , ,-: : ied) eyeS, thiCk downward tilt facilitate
',1;":',r,-< afld hair, and suggestion of mature or
,. -i nose and elderly character.
Male vs. Female Faces
Male and female characters share virtually the
same eye, nose, mouth, and ear positioning.

Female Character

Give the hair a fine

and supple appearance.

Avoid making the

eyebrows thick.

lnclude the
Androgynous face

Use curved lines
for lhe cheeks. t-/
Accentuate the

The neck is thin.

Male Character

Be conscious of
using thick lines
for the hair.

Draw thick, clearly

delineated eyebrows.

Keep the lips

simple: just add
a shadow.

,se angulu lines for

:E ?De s Gontour

-:e reak is fiick.

&rving a Gharacter That Feminine Touch Designing a Character
That Looks Feminine

o Enlarge the eyes. . Accentuate the

o Darken the eyelashes. eyelashes and lips.

r Move the neck contour

. Use more detail in
inward, and draw the the hair.
neck long and thin.

ilfltaking a Guy Look Like More a Guy

Designing a Character
That Looks Masculine

r Reduce the size of the irises. . Use a heavy line for

o Make the neck thicker. the face's contour and
thicken the eyebrows.
. Accentuate the bridge
of the nose.

Angular, bony facial

facial contour can also contours are not
usually used with
be applied to a male
female faces.
character's face.
Pointers in Drawing Cute
Female Characters
Not good
1, Enlarge the eyes. Good

Here, the eyes are

small and the bridge
of the nose is preser

Smallish eyes

2. Omit the bridge of the nose.

Downward tilted eyes


Upward tilted eyes

0trte Accessories and Hairstyles

1 't,'l\i,,

The headband should

be drawn coming
behind the ear.

r li :':nytail


Short, high piggy taits

,,' , :- Glasses (Boxy, prominent frames


Bound frames
(No ,*rames around

k 55
Greating Adult Faces
Yourfiful Character Mature Character

Reduce the
sizes of the
eyes and

S. W
The eyes are
$ -rb
made large. Lengthen the
distance from
- the lower lid to
the nose.
Use fewer lines in small drawings.

nJ Pay attention to tlt:
size of the eyes.

Give the neck more

gifth that you would
for a young character.

Rendering the Closing of the Eye and Depicting Eyelashes



!i 3 :J!,,:a a;rgle. closed eYes follow At a low angle, the eYes Use the same downward curve for
i f,!'Nr^r[?i] lUn{8. take on an uPward curve. the eyelashes of the uPPer eYelid
that you would for a closed eYe.

C;tose-ups of the Lips



The Basics of the Human Figure
Making Etfective Use of Even and Tapered Lines

Uentuating ffe muscular
Use a tapered line for the
point where the shoulder
joins the neck, since it
While the suit jacket is
roomy, undulations form
-ati'e urill allow you to suggest owing to protrusions
also marks the swell of
:e nardness of the male and recesses in the
the muscle.
:cd'y. so use even lines body, such as the

=, "r
Orginnrg of \/ shoulder blade, waist,
s'roulder blade and The bony shape of the elbow and elbows.
" 3 b0ne contours. is discernible. Use both even
and tapered lines when
drawing a male character in
order to achieve a rugged,
craggy appearance.

-lraw a downward, tapered i)
re cutting ever so slightly
"'*ard. This subtle touch
,,,"1, accentuate the figure's
- :.rscular look, generating
a sense of manliness. ln
:cntrast. use smooth,
Jicroken lines for a female

::: :: .O
waist{o-hip contour


Bunching formed by the
loose trouser fabric.

Use a tapered line
where the swell of the
breast begins, since the
breast does constitute a
natural mound of flesh.

:ir're fiese are inward-

:i'-tng wrinkles, use
rered lines.

These diagonal strokes

ryf: we see a tapered are not used with
ii'r{: ?/en strokes used nudes. They appear
Even strokes are used
lq-,ier to suggest the here to suggest the
here to delineate the
llc :reated by the bent roundness of the
staft of the toes on the
r;. Slnce the folded blouse's shoulder. Use
'*sfi- ts concentrated in top of the foot, while
even lines.
tapered strokes are
l. rrard direction, the
used for the underside.
se' sfoke is the main

Use rounded, diagonal

lines to suggest the
bulge of the kneecap
underneath jeans or
snugly fitting pants.

This shading. used tor re

underside of a leg dad r
tighty fitting jea,rs. s
same as that usec or a
nude figure"

Making the line heavier in strategic locations
will generate a sense of volume and
Pointers in Thickening (Darkening) Lines

lnside of the neckband and

Juncture where the
gap between the collar and
Jnderarm and other
,res overlap neck

This figure was drawn using a

uniform line thickness. While this
is acceptable when designing a
character or when producing
Shadow forming
anime genga (drawings of key
as air moves
action scenes), in the case of
under the cloth
manga,il makes for an
unimpressive product.

Line Modulation

When emphasizing
form, use an even

Use a modulated line when

intending to accentuate softness
or a sense ol volume.

J -t : tird:
:r:t:-i-: -S f'!
ir*j i"rl-
f -,:t-- - El:l
Here. portions of lines have been
modulated by building them up /
.rslrc a dic or technical pen.
nig! and low angtes, use heavier lines
oDlects ctose to the picture plane.
Lighrsource y#l;Hiff'il::,ffiT1ili;ii$il:'ffi:li:'

Use trick, heavY lines
for tre side oPPosite
$e light source.

Light Source


lnked drawing

Hatched drawing

Under drawing

Screen tone finish (Screen t0ne ,,,,,as crc .s

developed as an alternative f0r l.a:Eh.r-a"c'


hactirxlApplication: Achieving a Sense of Volume
Using Hatching, Etc.
Blouse & Tight Miniskirt

Use clean lines for

blouse creases.

\ --/-.

Tight T & Jeans

Since this tufileneck

has a snug fit, use
short, diagonal lines
for shading. Use widely
spaced lines for sweaters.

Unlike with the

sweater, use
clean, fine,
diagonal lines for
\-/_--z the T-shirt.

-te ra,gonal lines

iUlrtu :i,'3geSt the
ru::rg s texture.
"y :'reaters, use
llfllE: lr-es
lr,ng-F-afi the
rlnts; :r-d on the

Depending on the angle,

it may be better to omit
shading under the chest
to make this snugly
fitting shirt looks properly
like a T-shirt.
faffig the Back Blouse
Use broad

-E srslMer blade and waist are the main shadows.

!ry pa!"E atrertins crease formation in Emphasize
nnffirnq. Add creases and diagonal strokes them.
-fu slrading focused primarily on the right or
eQ $uullder blade, depending on the
drectb{r that fie figure faces.


indicating the
shape of the
shoulder blade

Raising both shoulders

causes the right and left
shoulder blades to shift
closer to the spine.

Wearing a snug{itting
blouse in the same
pose, an inverted Y

Sunken areas

lmagine 2
rhombuses when
drawing the
shoulder blades.

fi.bing Lines to Reinforce Body Types
" Emphasizing Curves
o Drawing Slim Figures
\rlare extensive
tse of diagonal
nes and solid
Use as unmodulated
:racks to
lines as possible for
u-derscore the
rrfast of the -.?'\9 the figure's contours.
ir;ure's hills
rr1 valleys.

--ese diagonal lines

:rading) on and
r:emeath the
r-est emphasize the
"qne I of the breasts

iavy lines
u r:centuate
Use a genty
nr :f:est, waist,
sloping curve
!lrr: - lPS.
from the hip
to the thigh.
----.-> V


Drawing the Back

nguishing Female Body Types
Average Build Slender Build Athletic Build

Draw the neck on the

shorl side to evoke
the proper look.
When drawing the
arms and legs,
visualize a long, Muscular shoulders
smooth column.
The limbs are
clearly indented
at the joints. ....

F eshy thighs

Slim thighs: Bulging muscles

Visualize a uniform appear in the
column for the legs thighs and calves.
as a whole when

Esg Rectangle lnverted triangle

Draw cherubically Draw long, slender Draw large joints tc

chubby fingers gently fingers. generate an angula
tapering from knuckle look.
to fingertip, Give this figure wider
i[-< ru'r],i':.:: l? The shoulders and hips
have approximately the shoulders than hips.
s-r:Lir:E": :i-a? l:3' Ie
:j15 :r:r:i -,:E same width.
Key Feature in the Side View: The posterior Take care with thickness of the arms and wrists and the
of the calves.
Average Build Slender Build Athletic Build
Structural Diagram Structural Diagram Structural Diagram

The waist does The shoulder and back Since the shoulders
not taper, and
of the posterior can be and chest are
the posterior connected by an almost
muscularly developed,
perfectly straight line.
the posterior ends
further inward.

L'rnon i ;
ll/ Stender


+,h\\ t'

l! I
,i Sweilofagenfly
ll tl straight

ir ( r( l,.t
(, ('*"*
\i \*
(ey Feature in the Rear View:
"Tm Shoulder Blade The athletic build
is muscularly
The back has greater The back on a slender developed. The
amounts of fatty build is on the thin shoulder blade is
tissue in an average side, and the shoulder visible to the point

build. The shoulder blade is clearly where its skeletal
blade juts out stighfly. visible. shape is clearly

W 71
./ p, / breast size, the
\ 1 Al more the tiP of the
-l )&\r\ breasts willextend
--\ tnenose.
beyond the tip of

/t \
// \\
t( , \
<--F /

When Wearing a T-Shifi Draw few creases in the clothing for small breasts and deep
creases for large breasts. Use hatching, etc. to distinguish
For average-sized breasts, the chest is moderately accentuated
the different sizes.

/-'- ,

."\ .////
owi (,v
fl( \ ,/,
\, \

,,-\\ L)
a-=-'-- /

:pr small breasts, the chest is rendered in typical


:!'n large breasts, the chest is accentuated to the

/r *l(*' -
i N*
*y N)
nguishing Male and Female Figures
j,'raden the As men and woman have different skin
sloulders of male and skeletal structures, care should be
rharacters. The hips taken with the figures' siihouettes.
should be narrower
fian the shoulders. The hips of a
female character
should be as wide
or wider than the

The neck is long

and slender.

While brawny
male characters
do have beefy The torso of a male figure is
-nighs, the thigh thicker than that of a female
should never have
more girth than The arm is slender and graceful.
]te waist.

The waist is trim and may be drawn

Accentuating the with the same girth as that of the
calf muscles fattest paft ol the thigh.
:reates a robust

Depiction of musculature and skeletal

structure is often omitted from a
female figure's arms, stomach, knees,
Adding lines to the and legs.
knees to suggest
the kneecap evokes
a rugged appearance,

)ravring the arms thick and

:rpnasizing musculature will set
a snarp contrast with those of a
'erale figure.

- =:rent Iines should also be used to draw
Here we have a poorly drawn sample, where
-:.' ard female figures. Use finer lines, /,1'
Not good , not only the lines, but also the shoulder
:*rr.'., ng less pressure to the pen when
blade and the posterior are handled in the
r::,, irg female figures. \ manner of a male figure.


Here we have a well-drawn sample, where the lines are

flowing and the pans of the back (i.e. the shoulder blades,
spine, and posterior) have been handled differenfly from
that of a male figure.

z___-- Use angular Use a crescent

shadow to suggest shadow for giving
thickness in the volume to a female
hard muscles of a figure's curved
le figure surfaces.

ffien Drawing Different Male
Adjusting the Neck's Thickness and Length

O The neck's girth

@ The shoulders' breadth

@ The torso's thickness

Despite that the shoulders of this

This figure features a long and
slender neck, creating the look figure are the same, the thicker
of a style-conscious tyPe male and shofter neck suggests a
@ The arms'
character. rugged, muscular character.
and legs' girth
Adjusting the Neck and Shoulder Width

FM /rv\ Fr7
Here, we see narrow shoulders Average build Here we see a broad shoulderec
and a slender neck, suited toward build. Top the shoulders with a
adolescent boys and young men short neck.
with slender builds. This expanse
suggests the
thickness of the
torso from the
Adjusling the Torso's Thickness: Muscular build
Suggesting a Muscular Build

Average build
Broaden the I

Accentuate the
muscles in the
shoulders and

beef up the


The curved line extending

from the underarm to the
waist is a key Point.
Distinguishing Average Builds from Muscular Builds The key points in distinguishing
an average build from a brawny
build lie in the neck, the chest,
and the arms.

Drawing the arm on a brawny

build at about 1,5 times that of
an average-build character will
establish a clear distinction.

This contour
suggests a

Flank muscles
The addition of this line
indicating the bottom of $e
Avoid drawing abundant ribcage gives the abdomen
muscle contours on the a taut appearance,
abdomen of an average-
build character: keep it

\erage Build

-,* reck and

:e lTn are
rerir at

Muscular Build

.:Ls:ng the
i'r,f;r;eSS Of the
The chest on a
muscular build
appears puffed

:es: and girth of

:rE :{-,."ts and neck
iszf, shes a
:r=r-xrce in build,
*r,,ry ri fie This figure shows

s the the muscles of
ialE the abdomen





Lines Used on the Back A man's hand has a rugged, knobby
of the Hand appearance. Depicting the skeletal
and muscular structure will elicit a
3-dimensional feel.

Draw the lines on the back

of the hand extending from
almost the knuckles'

Emphasize the knuckles.


ihornan's Hand Draw long, tapered nails.

These lines are drawn the same as The knuckles are minimized.

/ -'t
those on a man's hand-from almost
knuckles' centers. However, the
protrusion of the joint is downplayed.
These curved strokes are kept short
and delicate.

- frngers are
n'awn at 2/3 the
f ckness of a

ltand Gsfures and Poses
Tendons lying underneath the
skin cause lines to form on top
of the foot.
Lines Appearing on the Top of the Foot
Tendons are included when
intending to give a foot that
masculine, rugged look.

\ ! '=--
\"\ \
The tendons extend
from the joints'

Tendons become prominent

when applying pressure to
the foot or raising a toe.

The foot will appear busy and

cluttered if too many tendons
are drawn. Reduce the number
you draw according to the angle.

tendons are usually visible even when the foot is in a
'' ued state. However, the tendons may be omitted
:':wing the foot in a relaxed state in order to render more
.-:ctively (i.e. distinguish from) those times when the toes
,.-: raised or pressure is applied to the foot.

Draw the foot first and
then the shoe on toP.
Note that the toe of high-
heeled shoes is different
from that of an actual foot.

When drawing flat-heeled

or athletic shoes, start with
the outline, drawing it as i{
enveloping the foot.
Oeslgn and Portrayal)
Showing Gharacters Moving

The 3 key Elemants Scenes of a character waking

in a Character Walking are among the most common in manga.

The character

The eyes open.


The character
The first page of a mangawill often include an
establishing panel showing the sun rising as its
initial panel, indicating that the scene takes place
at dawn or in the morning.

. Shifting angles and movements are also
included in these key elements.
. Facial expressions and body language help
illustrate the character's personality.

'[" The Character Asleep. 2. The Eyes 0pen. 3. The Character Rises.
| iltLil: s:,Ii cf expression does she . Does she wake up immediatelY?
. ls she reluctant to get out of bed?
0r, is she groggy and grumpy? o ls she cheerful and alert?
ilE;3.' sleeping?
o 1:rdr f:85 Sh appear when asleep? . ln which direction does she sleep? . Does she hop out o{ bed?
. Under what circumstances does she o Contrast the character's appearance
" {thE{: :i-i: rri-ie.n is she sleeping?
awaken? What is her PersonalitY? waking with her appearance sleeping.
These points tie into the next element, These allow you to portray the character's
ar where the character rises. personality.
ln most cases, mangaaftists have no leeway in allocating scenes of a
Compositional Samples character waking to a significant number of pages. Such scenes function
ffi a Character Waking as an introductory scene {or the protagonist 0r an incident within the story
portraying the personality or private liJe of the protagonist. Scenes like
these do not usually extend beyond one page.
A Leisurely
Here we have a
peaceful, everyday
scene. The first two
panels may be
condensed into one
by omitting the first
panel, which
portrays "sunlight"
or "the sky" and
combining it with the
second panel to
show sunlight falling
on the character.

2qe with the Sleeping Figure Emphasized

Lltii'enemphasizing the sleeping figure, the scene is
-s-aily drawn up to the characler opening her eyes,
ur.r e the panel of her rising is omitted.

lim Latel
Scenes like this are primarily used to portray
the character waking in a flurry. This is a
popular form of portrayal, usually based on
the concept that the character overslept.

Slowly Unfolding Scene

Scenes like this may take up 2 or more pages.
The first scene shows the character asleep and
then her eyes opening. The second page
shows her rising. This approach is used with
full-length mangaor where "the morning" or
"waking" constitutes a major plot development
for the story.

You are not required to show the entire figure
hes SEq*ng when drawing a character sreeping. rn fact,
it may be more effective not to. prease note, however,
that when cropping a tiguie, draw
the portions not visibre, beyond the pane|s borders -'-
as weil to ,n.rr. ine-rigrr;ir'
drawn correcfly.

line may
mark the grounc
or floor line, or
even the edge
of the bed.

-'ese are the basic actions in rising.

Sample: A Jolting Wake-up

Facial Expressions
Drawing Any Expression
I m ag ina b I e H;xlli'I-'r',l33,i',:' to Portrav

Portraying lacial expressions by

manipulating solely the eyebrows:

When the eyebrows are left the same, and
the other facial features are manipulated: Not good


thing the Eyebrows to Portray Emotion: "Joy, anger, pity, and pleasure" are generally regarded in Japan as
Joy/Pleasure Anger, SorroMPity, Surprise the 4 basic emotions. However, there is not much difference between
"joy" and "pleasure" when rendered visually. Consequenfly, I tacked
on the much-used-in-manga emotion of "surprise."

kJ@ *@w
*1 w
*@w M6a
Mouth Movements:
Depicting Basic Uowel Sounds
TIe following are the most common shapes taken by the mouth when expressing a
character's emotional state. They are essential to porlraying a character full of life.

Side View


Rendering the Mouth's lnterior
Upper lip
A.natomy of the
,\ \ Top row of
-) a teeth

Upper jaw
\=-. (Maxillae)

\d-^a Throat
This figure

shows the outline
Tongue of the lips.
Portions of the

Bottom row teeth and the

of teeth
interior are r1-)
Lower lip covered
by flesh.
Sssorted Manga-esque Expressi0ns

// d lf the skin were

removed to reveal the
entire mouth, it would
look something like
Here, the moufi has th is.
been rendered solely
as an outline. The
\ teeth and tongue have
been omitted.
/iren sh0wing the
-outh just barely
:cen, draw only the
- -rline of the lips. d Y

Top teeth only Tongue only Top teeth and tongue

)9 )9 I
s/\ w(
\/ L/

Corners of upper lip turned up Bottom teeth slightly revealed Realistic mouth:Top
ro and

bottom teeth and tongue

I g

re mouth opens by the

,: r,,er jaw dropping. The

-:per jaw does not move,

Speed lines are frequently used
when drawing a character yelling.
Screen tone finish (Gradation tone)
Screen tone finish (Dot tone)

Clme-ups of the Mouth There are occasions when drawing some of the inside
of the mouth is effective in character close-ups.

fuce with mouth

slightly open

The mouth's interior is typically

dark. However, blackening the
mouth's interior or drawing
each tooth faithfully could
easily cause your drawing to
have an unsettling leel-unless
you are working in a realism
Revealing the Teeth:
Exaggeration through Realistic Portrayal
Here we see a relatively nonstylized,
realistic portrayal. The teeth are
rendered as a solid row rather than

\ individually.

o To shout, the mouth opens widely,

exposing the bottom teeth and tongue.
Use simple lines to render them.

Here we see another shouting

mouth. A large expanse of the
lower jaw is visible.

When the mouth

is wide open, the
inside flesh of the
The canines cheek swells.

The key is to leave a small space between the

contour for the molars and that for the front row
of teeth. This will also give the molars their
-ere, a center line has been added to the distinctive thickness.
":'ngue, heightening the realism. Since the
-:uth is wide open, the canines are
,'sible. The canines are often exaggerated
tr'en drawing vampires and demons.
Here the mouth is open t0 the extent possible in

a fullthrottle yell. The upper jaw, which is in
fact stable, appears as it it could move, causing
wrinkles t0 form at the sides of the nose, on the
cheeks, and under the eyes. Furrows develop on
the brow

Mouth with molars Here we see a mouth open in full

given thickness shout with the front teeth, the
canines, and the molars faithfully
rendered. The tongue has been
abstracted and diagonal strokes
used for the throat's dark interior,
resulting in a powerful image.
Theatrical Eyes


' The upper and

lower eyelids move
Normally, when the eye
is closed, the eyelashes
wr,en tni. is squeezed
shut, the eyelashes take on an
both up and down. form a downward curve. upward curve, and creases
form around the eye.
ng the of the Eyes for Emotion Portrayal
Wide open eyes

Manga-style iacial

Droopy eyes
Dramatic Porkayals:Mouth and Eye

::r,iard eye Half-closed eye Normally closed eye

Eye squeezed shut

Adjusting the shape or position of the ma'uJr

allows for a variety of facial expressiors. sve.
when paired with the same eyes and eyebro,i,,E
CErious Expressions wath the Eyes Glosed



l1es SQueszed shut

Maintaining the face in the same direction and at the
same angle but changing the hair and the background
Uses of Showing the Eyes makes this face adaptable to any number of scenes.

3/4 View

\ 6
Sleeping Scene: Adjust the flow of the hair and draw
[( a mattress edge and pillow creases.

N 0riginal drawing
\,. N--


Shower Scene: Draw water or perspiration droplets.

Show the hair clinging to the face to suggest wet hair.

,/l *
,tt I
tll/, s-
ll //

//( I
/ /\)\
Eating Scene: Add chopsticks and a morsel of food.

Side VieW Drawing a side view on a diagonal or horizontally
suggests that the character is lying down or reclining.

Here is the original drawing. I

rotated it to a diagonal or till

the head appeared lying down,
setting up scenes of the
character "nodding in
acknowledgement, "
"sleeping," "eating," and
"reading. " Sleeping: I flipped the original drawing on its side
and drew part of a comforter.

Here is the character

nodding in
(greeting). I used the
same angle (with
respect to the panel)
for the eating and
reading panels.

Reading: I simply added a book and a hand.

Nodding in Eating: I drew a hand and fork, and


)ractical Application: Showering

this figure, I adlusted

eyes and the moutr to suggest
a smiling expression and drew
the hair as if flowing in a
Combining Features to Express
Sample Emotions and Subtle Expressions
Emotions Created by Combining Features
Closing One Eye


Eyebrows: Angry Eyebrows: Angry

Mouth: Smiling Eyes: Hall closed
-rStruggling for patien Mouth: Angry
--+Looking displeased,
This expression could change reproachful

dramatically by slightly altering the
angle or adjusting the size of the mouth
Adjusting the Size of the Eyes
Showing One Eye Slightly Glosed

-f j EVebrows: Concerned
r;cutn:wry smile
Eyebrows: Asymmetrical
Mouth: 0pen
Eyebrows: Angry
Eyes: Both half closed
\_-/ -Casting a meaningful --+0bjectin g, com plai nin Mouth: Smiling
glance, signali --+Smiling scornfully, jeering

Using Eye Movement to Express Emotions

Changing the appearance of

fie mouth can also
dramatically atfect the mood.

Eye Portrayal Unique to Manga

Using Ditferent Shapes for the
Eyes and lrises

(\)* "0"";''**@
These are rarely used with realistic characters


Used with small images, these
illustrate a flabbergasted,
dumbfounded, disgusted
Blank Eyes expression.
0ften used in close-ups,
these are used to show
dumbfounderment, shock,
or a glazed, vacant look.


Since the lower eyelid

is being seen through
the tear (liquid), render
it using a finer line.
As tears are a liquid, using

an elliptical shape creates
the look of tears brimming
over. Use a broken line for
the tear's contours.



When drawing
streaming tears,
imagine water falling
along a surface. Use
a gentle arc following
the cheek's curved

Stylized Tears: Assorted Grying Faces

Sample Crying Faces

.G \

Strrrholic Representation O@OO
of Emotion

Undemeath and above the eye

Fine lines are used as a rule.

Lseo *rfia smile, the vertical line shading suggests a

Ar_r s{fllc covering something plaguing that character. Note that use 0f thick lines will look like
ne lerrcal lines belie the smile. some sort of decorative patterning on
the character's face.
. Express tension, unease, and the depth of emotion
. Can be used in dramatic as well as humorous situations


Comical rendition

Serious rendition A single, large sweat bead Combination of sweat

used for a comical rendition bead and vertical lines
-1 . Used to express realization or surprise
Dashes t-=7 . Can also be used with a smile or to express
joy or cheerfulness

While there are n0 set rules regarding the

number of dashes or where they are placed,
about 3 to 4 lines works fine.

-+ b

Drawing dashes on both sides suggests

joyful cheer.



-:r: -1.., 1:s rnay cause their intended

:i,:tt-r=,::1.-,:.:-: Secomg vague.

t lush . These are often used to show a
character suddenly
turning red or suggest embarrassment


//z , --

About 2 to 3 lines are appropriate.

drawing a close-up of a character
drawn in a
realistic style, use numerous, clean,
fine lines.

,7 A {t'
U //.

Take care in that

making blush lines
too small can
cause them simply
to look like smudge


'$D I

When angered, our blood

flows faster, and when
truly incensed, the blood
vessels at the temple
become engorged and
rise. The "cross mark" is
a symbolic representation
of this phenomenon.

Felt-tip pens work well with this mark.

-rccrnered cross mark

4-cornered cross mark

@ c' Iffi"ffi#:;il: ffi:i?ll iilx'#,ilfilx;,

${ ()



0ther Popular Symbolic Representations

Draw a smaller version when creating a close-up

Horns, fangs, and
of a character rendered realistically.
lightening bolts
Using the Mouth to
Show Emotion
Long e



The size and shape of a speech balloon change along with the intensity of
Standard face emotion. The stronger the emotion, the larger and more exaggerated the
mouth, and the larger the speech balloon and copy inside.

Long oo Short e Long o





Smiling Faces
ha Giggle,
ha giggle

"Tee hee hee" etc. may also be used.

t3 ,'ft



When writing ',rrfir*,,, omit the puff (sigh). Tee hee hee or hee hee hee are
other opilons.
Chibi (Super-deformed) Gharacters and Vowel Sounds

e uintttilillllllllllllllllllllltirl,rrrr

pp) ?
Manga Miscellaneous
When drawing key images and
character entrance scenes, do not

Creating Key Images and just simply make your subject

large, but rather draw a pose,
showing the character leaning
against an object. The image will
Gharacter Entrance Scenes carry even more impact if you
keep vague against exactly what
the character is leaning.

The key is to draw the

character so that her
back (back of the neck)
and left foot follow the
same line as they rest
against the wall.
( .EaI


Character resting her

:lbows on a table Character leaning against
the panel frame

\ Character leaning against a pillar


Character leaning out
beyond the Panel frame
Vehicles and Figures: Driving Scenes When illustrating a character driving, you are often portraying scenes where
the character would actually be hidden by the car's roof or hood (i.e. when the
figure would not appear in a photograph). Check out angles and shots used in
movies and W dramas for pointers.

The steering wheel is actually larger

fian you probably imagine.

This is a gpical car-driving

shot. Key points are the
partially visible steering wheel
and seatbelt, and the window
frame on the opposite side of
the car.

reference drawing Here, the steering wheel is contrasted with the hands. Pay attention
to the steering wheel's diameter and thickness and take care that
the wheel does not become too thin.

Special effect lines are drawn

in this direction. Use straight
or curved lines to match the
scene or purpose of the

This composition
tirequently appears in
acceleration" scenes.
Draw fie composition
+om a relatively low
ar,Ele: omit car windows
a",0 other interior
'?erres. filling in the
lank space instead with-
:r'eed iines and fie like.
This is the portion
typically used in a
. mangapanel.

Normally in a car,
reference drawing there would be
of the passenger enough space (sense

of distance) between
the 2 characters to
fit another figure.

0verhead perspective drawings

of fie cars and passengers
Suggesting Movement Using
a Single Panel: Glancing Back
Taking Notice and Glancing Back

(- -) Dashesarea
\:-/ standard means of
indicating "taking
Here, rather than showing physical notice."
movement, only the gaze is shifting.
As the face and body are
Repetition of similar cuts would result
facing different directions,
in bland manga; however, since
movement is given to the
compositions like this do seem to
composition. This
carry significance, artists tend to lure
combination is used both
themselves into thinking they are
for "taking notice" and
showing movement. This is a common "looking back."
fap for beginning artists.
. The Most Common lngredient of "Taking Notice" and "Looking Back": Showing the Back and Face

, /! - ""'rl

I l, ,l


\ '\-.,,
. The Gaze and Flow of the Hair Evoke a Sense of Movement

Even if the full figure will not be included in

the panel, drawing the entire upper body or
full figure will give your bust and close-up
compositions a sense of energetic

When you are able to give

torsion to your figure's
waist, then you will finally
be capable of creating a
striking, "key" image.

Penning Techniques
Th at G reate Depth frf#$fr',1',ffii,X?t',l, "

Using a finer line for the horizon Using a finer line for the horizon than for Reducing the concentration of diagonal strokes used
than for fie figure will generate a the figure will generate a sense of depth. for shading in the gossamer lace will give a sense of
sense of deph. volume to the "closer" lace.
Wind Drawing clothing, angelic robes or other sort of
Space (Wind)
shawl or scarf, or long hair sweeping in a wide

\ arc around a central figure allows you to suggest
space (wind). Special effect lines representing
wind appear in 2 locations at the top and bottom
of the composition.

Tipse wind lines, not visible in actuality, are used to create a sense of the ,,air,s
density" or speed. The lines can be rendered in various forms, be it straight or
curved. Here, sweeping arcs are used to suggest air swirling. Having the wind
lanes become finer as they wrap around toward the back of the figure allows the
lines themselves to give the composition a sense of depth.
tlater Dmpleb The key point here is the contrast between the sizes of the water
droplets and splash. ln the foreground, a large wave and a large
splash of water appear in the foreground ,,proximity.,,
to suggest
The tiny circle centered at the woman's face is in fact a water
droplet. The contrast between the small water droplets and the
large splash create a sense of space and depth.


The contrast between black, white, and greys form the water's
surface. Hatching was used for the greys.
A lcy poirlt is tre shapes used for the mosaic water pattern for:med by reflected-tignt.
Since this is still
a ltcutd s:rrace. geomekic patterns drawn using curved lines were used
to suggeit the waves' undulations.
Making Gorrections
Brushes for use
ffiite Paint Diluted with Water:Water-based White paint
with white paint

White poster paint
@ Misnon
Misnon W-20
For use with
permanent ink
Misnon comes
equipped with a
brush attached to
the cap. This
brush is NOT
suited to detailed
Note: Too much water
can cause the paint
to become too dilute.
Use fine brushes like a
mensofude (thin brush used to
render facial features) or a
h a kke i (ultr a-fine m e n sof u d e ).

Place some paint

in a small dish.
-V Arlcl water
Mix well.
Clean up lines sticking beyond boundaries, etc. r As water-based white
paints age, they begin to
dry out and become
Clean-up target difficult to apply.
r The Misnon brand uses a
special liquid that easily
damages the brush.
"Once you have finished
using the paint, wash the
brush well.
o Mistakes made with
Cleaned-up image water-based technical
pens and felt-tip pens are
quick brush strokes. Do
difficult to correct.
not rub the paper. *Use
an oil-based
Using White for Special product to conect water-
to Eyes
based materials.

Create tiny dots by

tapping with a brush.
.0il-based products
consist of correction pens, white ink pens, and liquid paper.
Artist's Profile

Hikaru Hayashi
'1961 Bom in Tokyo.
1986 Graduated with a degree in the Social Sciences and Humanities from Tokyo Metropolitan University
with a major in Philosophy.
1987 Received a hortative award and honorable mention for his work on Shueisha lnc.'s Business Jump and served as
assistant to Hajime Furukawa.
'1989 Worked on Shueisha's Shukan Young Jump while apprenticing under Noriyoshi lnoue.
1992 Published his debut work based on a true story, " Aja Kongu Monogatari ' ["The Story of Aja Kong"] in Bear's Club.
1997 fuunded lhe manga design and production studio, Go office. Produced illustrations for the works Butsuzo ni ai ni iko lon
the appreciation of Buddhist sculpturel by Hiromichi Fukushima (published by Tokyo Bijutsu lnc.)
1 998 Authored How to Draw Manga: Female Characters, How to Draw Manga: Male Characters, How to Draw Manga: Couples,
and How to Draw Manga: lllustrating Baftles.
'1999 Authored How to Draw Manga: Bishoujo around the World, How to Draw Manga: Bishoujo/Pretty Girls, How to Draw
Manga: 0ccult and Honor, and How to Draw Manga: More about Pretty Glas; promoted, produced, and wrote lhe manga
copy for Koki lshii's Kokuhatsu manga riken reffo (book on the wasteful spending of Japanese politicians), published by
Nesco Co., Ltd.; and produced the corporate identity mascot characterforTaiyo Group driving school.
2000 Authored How to Draw Manga: Animals ; produced and initiated the release ol Bishoujo Fighting, a dojinshi (lanzine or
small press comic) for pro wrestling fans under the name 0f Meto (a fanzine specializing in woman's wrestling and cat
fight videos, published biannually when matches occur; fifth issue on sale as of 2002).
2001 Coauthored How to Draw Manga: Martial Arts and Combat Sports, How to Draw Manga: Giant Robots, and How to Dnw
Manga: Costume Encyclopedia, Everyday Fashion.
2002 Coauthored More How to Draw Manga Vol. 1 and How to Draw Manga: Costume Encyclopedia, lntimate Apparel,
published by Graphic-sha. Mr. Hayashi continues the planning and production of origlnal Go ffice fanzines.

Rio Yagizawa
Ms. Yagizawa was born in Tokyo on January 8. She is a Capricornwith an A blood type. She first started doodling in pencil in
nursery school and made her first attempt at drawing mangain pen during the fifth grade. ln junior high, she began to produce
doujinshitype mangaworks with friends from upper grades and in her class.

ln 1981 she debuted as an illustrator with Minori Shobo's monthly publication, Gekkan 0W. She acted as an illustrator, an
aniparo (animation parody) and manga artist, an anime writer, etc., contributing illusfations to Minori Shobo's Aniparo Comics,
Akita Publishing's My Anime,fokuma Shoten's Animage, elc.

ln 1 986 she debuted as a full-fledged manga aftislin Kobunsha's Comic Val. Since then, she has contributed series and single
publication works to Kobusha's Pretty,as well as cover and page illustrations for paperback editions targeted toward young
readers published by Seishinsha, Kadokawa Shoten, Shogakkan, and other publishers. She has aufiored g mangavolumes and
illustrated more than 25 paperback books.

ln 1998 she began to participate on the production side with Graphic-sha and Go 0tfice, starting witr How to Draw Manga:
Couples and continues such efforts today.

Go Otfice Profile
Go 0ffice was founded in May 1997 and has been specialzing in the production of tutorial resources using manga and
illustrations, which include publications on How to Draw Manga series.

Graphicia Publistriru Co., ttd.

FROIU TH ffil,l
1l 'r




us $19.99
Chapter 1 The Basics in Composition
Chapter 2 The Basics in Character Portrayal
Chapter 3 The Basics in Voice Portrayal
Chapter 4 The Basics in Panel Design
Chapter 5 The Basics of Manga Portrayal
lsBN4-7661 - 1 480-9


Chapter 1 Materials and Simple Means of Usage
Chapter 2 Creating Manga
Chapter 3 Drawing People and Animals
Chapter 4 Manga Techniques
Chapter 5 Depicting Greenery and 3-Dimensional Objects
Chapter 6 Creating Well-composed Manga .",1_&.8.
lsBN4 7661-1481-7

More How to Draw Manga

Vol. 1 : The Basics of Character Drawing
Chapter 1 Drawing in Pencil
Chapter 2 Drawing Faces
Chapter 3 Drawing the Figure
Chapter 4 Manga Miscellaneous
tsBN4-7661 -1 482-5

More How to Draw Manga *o#*roo*ov

Vol. 2: Penning Characters
Chapter'l Pen Fundamentals
Chapter 2 Making Characters Distinctive
Chapter 3 Facial Expressions
Chapter 4 Manga Miscellaneous $+5
tsBN4-7661 -1 483 3

More How to Draw Manga

Vol.3: Enhancing a CharacterAfs Sense of Presence
Chapter 1 TheTrick toa Character's Sense of Presence Lies in
the Tone Work
Chapter 2 What ls Meant by Character Shading and Color Portrayal
Chapter 3 Portraylng Movement io :nhance a Character's Presence
Chapter 4 More Manga
tsBN4-7661-1484 1

More How to Draw Manga

Vol. 4: Mastering Bishoujo Characters
Chapter 1 Twelve Characte'ry,o:s
Chapter 2 Making the Figure Niove
tsBN4-766 1 -1 485-X

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