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- - _ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ .. '". ~ ~~ . ... . ,,-,'., ,. ,<- ..... ' 'r" ""_.

The lood ofL>'e stnlCture is trnll s:crred to U 1C su usoil th rough [.(3 C, '" cohesi on of soil ncar the tip of the pile
piics. GO \\) c = cohesi on . .
Pia Foul/datiOIl. Th is is alsQ a deep found ation transferring (; ~ The uitilllatp. load Q can also be computed assumin!; th:it th e
Il, e load to a deep rocky stratn. This type of foundoli on is give n to piles aTe spaced Car apart so that they act. individually.
support huge amount of load e.g. to support a brid!;e.
Classifiention of Piles. Depend in!; upon th eir usc they arc .,
Q -- (rtDLC /I + NC Cj !!4 D2)" ... (8.1 8)
classified as (1) Bearin!; pile (2) Friction pile (3) Laterally loaded C. = m;!'-. value of m varios from 0.4 for stiff clay to 1.0
pile (4) Battered pil.e (5) Compaction pile.
for soil. clay.
Dependin!; upon their material of construc tion piles are
, T! = number of piles.
classified as (1) Timber pile (2) Precast con crete pile (3 )
'.., Castinsitu c"""etc pOl.: (4) Steel piie. Attention should be paid that D and L should be in metres and
Pile Driving Formulae. There are sev era l pile driving r. nd C in tonnes/m 2 . Then Q will be in tonnes. If D and L arc
formulae but here th e most important one, th e Engineering News .... 0 a t 2 Q '11 b .
in centimetres C, should be taken in k&/cm and Wl e III
Formula is given.
kilograms.
6.28 IVH
Q = 39.4S (S _ Spacin!; of the piles is so adjusted that ult.imate loads in above
.. C .... 10)
lwo equations arc same or smaller oCthe tW? IS tak~n to be f~ll~re
Q. = th e allowable bearing capacity of the pile in tonnes. . load. But former procedure gives most effiCIent deSIgn for Cnctl on
IV = weight of hammer in tonnes. piles.
H = drop of hammer in metres.
S = penetration of pile per blow in metres.
#( Problc::..m B.I . Calculate the ultimate bearing capacity per unit
area of-
C =a constant having value of 1.0 for drop hammer
and 0.1 for :team and diesel hammers. ...}!!"a strip footi., g 1 m wide -
(2) a square footing 3 m x 3 m. and
FaetorofSafety of the formula is 6 (which is commonly taken (3) a circular footing of 3 m diameter.
for pile foundation).
Given:
A rough estimate oC loadcarrying capacity Q of a friction pile
is given by . Unit weight of the soilI.B tlm 3, cohesion =2 tlm 2
Q=!!l)xLxc ... (S.16) and ~=2~ .
D = diameter of the pile N, =17.6, N. =7.6 and Ny = 5. ~
L = depth oCembedment
Solution. In question nothing is mentioned about the dE!p~h
c = unit cohesion. of the foundation . Hence in all the three cases the foundatton .s
The allowable load Q. is obtained by applying a factor of safety assumed to be on surCace ortha ground.
usually 3 to the failure loa~. .-~~~-
(il Strip footing:
Q=9. ...(S.16 a) Ultimate bearing capacity Crom equation (8.11)
3
The load carrying-capacity of a group oC piles is computed as q. = (eN. + yelp. + ~ yb Ny)
Since d = O . 2nd term will be zero.
Q =P La + N, C,A ...(8.17)
P = the perimeter of group of piles. q"=cN,+~ybNT

.
'
A = the area of the group
N, =the bearing capacity Cacto r .
=2x 17.5+yx 1.8xlx5
= 35 + 4.5 = 39.5 tonnes/m .
2
236 PX>OlEMS IN SO il MECHA""CS
DEARING CAPACfTY AND FOUNDATIONS
(ii) Square footing:
From equation (8.12) = _1_ [1.9 x 1.5 x 43 + 1.9 x 2.5 x .j 2J + 2.85
2.5 . ; ,:':: 2
q" " 1.3 eN< + ydNq + 0,4 ybN,
'" 129 + 2.85= 131.85 to~nes/ m .
(Since d = 0, 2nd term will be zero) If surfac~ loading is there the terms containing d will be zero.
q. = 1.3 eN, + 0.4 yb x N,
:. Safe loading capacity
= 1.3 x 2 x 17.5 + 0.4 x 1.8 x 3 x 5
1
2.6x 17.5+0.72x 15 ,.' =2.5 [~y. bN,1
= 45.5 + 10.8 = 56.3 tonnes/ m2 ~'-
(iii) Circular footing : ~ = 2~5 [~x 1.9 x_~ x 42J
I From equation (8.13), 196.5
= "'2.5',=J9.8 tonnes/sq.m.
j
qu =1.a'cNc + "(dNa + 0.6 yrN,
1<
!
Here dia =3 m, r =1.5 m ' lIenee we sec that loading capacity of the foundation is 1.65
I ~. q. = 1.3 c.v. + 0.6 yrN, times more than surface loading capacity. Ans.
.... /
Problem 8.3. An R.C. column footing square in shape lS to
.
=1.3 X 2 X 17.5 + 0.6 x 1.8 X 1.5 X 5
i
rest 1.5 m below ground leuel. The total load to be transmitted
= 45.5; 8.12 =53.62 tonnes/ m2 Ans. including the weight of the column is 200 tonnes. As the area is
~ Problcl!l 8.2. A foundation in a sand will be 5 metres wide subjectcd to frequeni (looding, the friction of the footing along the

:f and 1.5 m etres deep. Adopting a factor of safety of 2.5 what will sides is to be IIcgleeted and a factor of safety 2.5 is to be allowed.
be safe bearing capacity if the unit weight of the sand is 1.9 gm I c.c. If saturated den si!y of the sand be 2.4 8m Ic.c. angle of intemul
and angle friction 33 and ualue of N 1 " 33 and N. =32 find a suitable size
- -,. . of internal . friction
_.
.
is 35..-' .- -- -- -------- - -
of the footing for Ihe aboue condition.
,,. 1!0w docs it compare with safe loading capacity for surface
loadIng. Solution. Assuming size of the footing as 2 m x 2 m
'~
I b =2 and d = 1.5b >d
," Solution. From chart, for 4> = 35
Hence the foundation Is shallow.
I" N,= 57, Nq = 44 andNy = 42. q. " 1.3cJII"" + yd N, + 0.4 ybNy ... (8.19)
!~ From equation (8.14 a), allowable bearing capacity.
I = 0 + 2.4 x 1.6 x 32 + 0.4 x 2.4 x 2 x 33 (.: for and c =0)
Ii,.
Qo =i [eN, + yd (N, -1) + ~ ybN,J + yd . = 115.2 + 63.4 =178.6
Allowing factor ofl8fely 2.5,
Since the soil is sand hence c = 0 and the term containing c Safe bearing capacity
will be zero . - _ 178.6 ,,71 4 V 2
- 2.5 . m.
1 '
Hence qo = F [)d (N. - 1) + ~yb Ny! + yd Area of footing = 2 x 2 = 4 m2
Total load it can carry
= t,s [1.9 ): 1.5 (H - 1) + i X 1.9 x 5 x 42) + 1.9 x 1.5 =- 4 x 71.4 = 285.6 lonnes
And tolal load Is only 200 tones.
'._ Y= 1.9 / = 1.9 x 100 x 100 x 100 Hence the section is safe.
[ gm C.c. 1000 x 1000
To be more economical side of SQuare footing less than 2 metres
= 1.9 tonnes/m3] may be taken and trial may be made for most suitable section.
Ans.
.. , . I

238 GEARING CAPACnY AND f O UNDA1 ION5 239


PROBLEMS IN SO il t..~CH/.. NICS

Problem 8.4. A (oundation in a cense sand is 4 1Il !('ide and q, =*' [yd (N. - 1) + 0.4 yo N,! + y. d
1.5 m dcep. The soil weighs 1600 kg/m2 and has an on;;le of
internal friction 36. What is the safe bearing capacity, adopting Now tot.,llo~d =200 + 220~ 5 - 210 tonlles,
factor of safety 2. Compare with the safe loading capacity for
surface loading. 210 _l[2.1xd(22-1)+0.4x2.1X 1.5x20J
Solution. Here bearing capacity factors are /lot given 1.5 x 1.5 3 + 2.1 x d
Hence we shall use Ritter's Equation.
3 [2 . 1 x 21 x d + 25.2J + 2.1d
-_l
Q,. =f)d +~ tan (450 +!)][tan' \45 + ~)- 1] +)d0
= (14 .7 d + 8.4 + 2.1 dJ
1600 1.6x 4 4 or 16.8 d = 93.4 - 8.4 = 85
= 1000 x 1.6 + ~ tan 63' (ton 63 - IJ + 1.6 x 1.5
" d -- 85.0
16.8
=5.6 metres.
= [2.4 + 1.6 x 1.963J (1.!l63j' - IJ + 2.4
=5.54 x 13.9 + 2.4 c. The footing will be placed at 5.6 metres below the ground
= 77 + 2.4 = 79.4 tonnes/m 2 level. Ans. . [ Ie
Safe bearing capacity d. Problem 8.6. A load tesl was made wtth a 35 em square p 0 !!
~ a depth of one metre be/ow the ground leuel tn sod ~!lh 4> - d
---z-
= 79.4 = 39 . 7 tonncs/m 2 ~he u'atertable was located at of depth 5 m:tre{V~~lt:~,:;l~~uI~e
level. Failure occurred ~I a load of 5200 g. me/res wide
[Iimale bearing capactty per 11 7:11 area for a 1.6 . h

~~~~n:o~r~ ft::fr~e~:~: ~! s~~t~~~a/~dg~ ;;~.s~~~ed~:~:I~tle~


For surface loading the Ritter's equation will be

Qu = [If tan (45


0
+!] tan' (45 +!)- J
0
1
For 4>=0, Nc =5.7N.=1 andNy=O .
= [1.6 X 4 tan 63}tan' 63 0 _ IJ Solution. For square footing ultimate bearing capacity
4
q. F [1.3 eNe +)d N. + 0.4 yb. N) _
= 3.14 x 13.9 =43.7 tonnes/ m2
:. Safe bearing capacity Taking the ease of load test.
b =0.35 m, d = 1 and since t =0, Ny =0
= 4;,7.= 21.85 tonnes/m2. Ans.
and hence the term containing Ny of the above equation will be
it- Problem 8.5. Size of an isolcted (ooting is to be limited to 1.5 zero. I
metres 8QlUlre. Calculate the depth at which the footing should be
placed to take a load of 200tonnes, wilh a factor of safety 3. The
q. = l.&Ne +)d . N.
iI
"
Boil is having angle of interntil friction ~ = 30". or 5200 = 1.& x 5.7 + 1.9 x 1 x 1
" 1000 x 0.35 x 0.35
Given: Weight of the footing 5% of ertemalloiJd.
Weight of the soil 2.1 gm/ c.c. or 6.2
0.35x 0.35
=5.7 x 1.& + 1.9
, , Bearing capacity factor for 9 = 30", N. = 22 and Ny = 20 7.42c = 42.5 - 1.9 = 40.6
c=- 40-.6 = 5.47 tonnes m 2 .
Solution. The soil is sandy, ilierefore, it is assumed that there 7.42
is no cohesion in the soil.
Now taking the cas~ of continuous footing of width 1.6 m .
. . From equation (8.14 b) allowable bearing capacity or a square Ultimate bearing capacity
rooting. ~ ......,_..o..-._ _ _ .. _._.
BENIING CAPACr.V AND fOUNDATIONS
240 PR09lEMS IN SOIL ~[CIIAN ICS
where IV = total load in kg.
q" ; cN, - yd N q ... ~
fONy A = area in m 2
;5.47x5.7+1.9x1x1+0 P = perimeter in metres:
f' 31.2 ... 1.9 = 33.1 tonnes/m'. Ans. p = bearing capacity in kg/ rna.
Problem 8.7. A 3.0 mel res slrip {ooting rests 2.5 melres below x = camp. stress on soil in column directly
ground level over sandy clay lIavine !lnil weigh I o( 2250 kC / mO. below the foundation in kg/mO.
Quiek le. I. ill a shear bo:r apparatus gave shear slrellcth o( a 0.37 y = peri:neter shear in kg/m.
and 0.50 kg/em' (or normal siress o( 0.75 and 1.5 kg/mo res. For 1 III xl m test plate
pectively. Find oullhe cohesiarl and ollgle o{inlemal (riclum. From
Terzaghi's (ormula , calculate the ullima te load per melre rlln o{ A = 1 x 1 = 1 rna
l/te (oundation. Given Ihal N, = 9, N. ; 3.5 alld Ny; 2. T'=4xl=4m
IV =Ay+ Py or lO,OOO=x + 4y ...(1)
Solution. We have the Coulomb equation S; e + 0 tan 4>.
For first case of shear tcst. For 2.0 In X 2.0 m test plate
0.37; e + 0.75 tan 4> ... (i) A = 2.0 x 2.0 = 4.0 mO
and for scconJ case shear test T' = 4 x 2.0 = 8.0 m
0.50; e + 1.5 tan 4> .. .(ii)
Taking 2nd case
Solving EQs. (i) and (ii) for 4> and e 30,000= 4x + 8y ... (2)
Solving for:r andy
tan cp; 0.1733 :. 4> = 9.83' and e = 0.25 kg/ COl'
30,000= 4x + 8y
From Eq. (8.11) ultimate bearing capacity
and 20,000 = 2x + 8y
q, = eN, + ~Nq + ~ yb . Ny
For which, we get:r = 6000 and y = 1250
- 0.25 x 100 x 100 9 2250 2 5 3 5 I Now for 5 In X 5 m footing
- 1000 x + 1000 x . x . + ii
A=5x6=25m2
2250
x 1000 x 3 x 2 and P= 4 x 6= 20 m2.
; 2.5 x 9 + 2.25 x 2.5 x 3.5 + 2.25 x 3 Now, we have AP=Ax+Py
. P
= 22.5 + 19.7 + 6.75 = 48.95 tonnes/m o. or P=z+ A' y
Ultimate load per metre run of the foundation 20
= 48.95 x 3.0 = 5000 + 25 x 1250
= 146.85 tonnes per metre length. Ans. = 6000 + 1000 = 6000 kg/mt
~ Probl6Dl ~.8. A fOOling 3 m x 3 m is existing over a sandy soil. The maximum load which the footing of 5 m' x~ m size can
The maximum selliemenl allowed is 1.5 em. Tho load tesls are take with a maximum settlement of 1.5 em.
made 01 the sile, one Wilh'a 1 m x 1 m test plate and Ihe other with
a 2.0 m x 2.0 m pia Ie. For 1.5 cm selliements, ihe corresponding ... W=p A=6000x5x5 .
= 6x25 = 150tonne5.
load., for the Iwo lesl.. WNe {mmd to be 10 tVTlTl es and 30 IOIlTl<'S
rc:;peelice/y. Calculale Ihe bearinc capa cily o{ Ihe soil. Whal load Hence bearing- capacity of the soil is 6000 kg/m2.
I"" t .71 X 5 m (OOliTlg sllOll be able 10 carryon the same soil ? j and the gi~en footing will be able ta take 150 tannes.ohoad. Ans.
Solution. Following- equation has been given by Housel to Problem 8.9. A R.C. column, supporting on.laeetion girder i,

I
determine bearing capacity of the soil.
.,' to resl aT! 'a square (oolifli/ fuunded on a sandy soU. The internal
IV=Ap=Ax+1'y

, .
.,
f-'I.'O tll E~.,S IN SOll . .~ECHA:~ : CS
243
angle o{ (riction o( the , oil ilia), be taken as 30" and its so ture tcd
= 39.09 x 2.75 x 2.75
density 2.4 gm/c.e. The area is oilen submerged u nder wa ter and
a factor o{ safety. of 2.5 is to be allowed agaillSt ultimate (ailure . I{ = 295.6 tonnes.
the loed tra nsmlttcd to the (oo:ing including weight o{ column be lIenee the footillg is safe.
180tollnc.<, find out a suitable size of square (ooting {or worst
:. Suit..1ble sile of ilie footing will be 2.75 m x 2.75 m.
condition neglecting {riction U/l its sides. The depth o{ the
foundation may be taken as 1.7 metres. Ans.
Solution. If values of bearing capacity factors correspondi nr: Problem 8.i0. A structure was built on a ro[l foundation. The
to ~ = 30' would have been r:i,'en we could solve the problem as raft rested a/ the ground surface on il stratum of uniform so[l clay
problem 3. But valu es of bearing capacity fa ctors are not given ($ = 0) which atelldcd to a depth o{ 50 m. I{ {ailure occurred Ilt a
hence we shall apply here Ritter's equation. uniformly distributed load of25 tOllnes/ sq. m, and size oftM ra[l
was 20 m x 20 m, culculate tM average value o{ c for the clay.
. As per Riller'. equation, Ultimate beu,' ;; capacity '(for
cohesion less soils) . Solution. From equation (8.12) bearinr: capacity for a squ~rc
, footing is r:ivcn by
I, q. =['P +1 tan (450+~] x[tan' (450 +!)- I] +yr1 y =1.3 eN, + yr1 N. + O.4"(b Ny
I
2.3 x b tan (45' + 3~0] Since the foundation is at :round surface d = 0 and hence 2nd

l
= [2.4 x 1.7 +
4 term of the equation will vanish .
x [tan' (44' + 3~0)_ 1 x 2.4 x 1.7 Again for $ = 0, bearing capacity factors N, = 5.70. N. = 1.00
and Ny =0 hence we are havinr: above expression as q = 1.3 eN,.
= [4 .08 x 0.6 b tan 60] [tan' 60' - 1] x 4.08
Since at stress of25 tonneslm2 failure occurred hence this may
= [4.08 x 0.6 b x 1.732] [9.03 - 1] + 4.08
!f I
= 34.05b + 4.08
Assuming si~p. . of foot.ing as 2 m x 2 m
be taken as ultimate value of bearing capacity.
.. 25 = 1.3 e x 5.70
2

.~ qu =34.05 x 2 + 4.08 =72.18 .. e - 6.7 ;1.3 = 3.37 tonnes/m'
;10 ... Allowable (safe) bearing capacity :. Average value of cohesion for the clay: 3.37 tim'. Ans.
1I q:j:::- Probll!m'8.11, A column taking a load of 325 tonnu is to be
72.18 28.872 tim2
=2.5'= taken on a square mass concrete footing e%tendi"ll from ground
Hence. the load the footing can take level to 3.5 metres deep into a clay stratum. What will be the lue
of footing aI/owing a factor of safety of 4 7
=28.872 x 4. '!' 116.488 tonnes. ,.... Given:
Hence the footing is WIIaf'e.
Weight of concrete 2570 kg/m!
Now let us try with size of footing 2.75 m x 2.76 m
Shear strength ofloi! 1.2 kg/em'
q. = 34.05 x 2.75 + 4.08
Density oi soil 2.1 gm/c.e.
= 97.72 The adhesion of clay with footing 2.5 tonnes/m'.
Hence allowable bearing capacity It may be supposed to be acting ooer a depth of 2 metres from
= 9~:~2 = 39.09 tim'. the bottom of foundation.
Solution. Since the soil is clay, anr:le of internal friction.;. may
:. The load the footing can take be assumed to be zero. .
. ~~;+-__
Hence the ultimate load which
' . ..the_...
foundation
_." _ .. will take . . ~ ~_

.
" ~

-
L ' . __ '"
", -.c .,' '. __,... ..-'-_ '-' , -. '~ '-

-- - . -~- ..,'_ ... -- - ' . ...' _ . .. . ..... .


' -
o .~ _ __ " ~ ~. - ~. "" .

.\"
~ __ _ _ _ _ _ 0 __ _

BEAf;r UG CAPACITY A~D fOUNDATiONS

~ Q. = b' (1.3 eNe + yd Nq + 0..\ y!; N,) + 4be' ci Q.~!)d (Nq 1) t 0.4 y!; N,I
-

c' ~ adhesion between the found ation nnd soil. = [3.75 (44 - 1) t 0.4 x 1.1 x 3 x 42J
For ~O,Ne=5.7,N.~14ndN,=0 = 3.75 x 43 + 0.4 x 1.1 x 126

and it is civen in the Question that adhesion of cl ay with footing


=162.2 + 55.5
= 217.7 tonnes/m'.
is acting over a depth of2 metres from boltom of foundation. lienee
the above equation will be written as
Now net pressure: ::;03 - 2.1 y. 2.5 = 89 - 5.25
Q. =b' (1.3 eNe + yd N q ) + 4bc' x 2
: 83.75 tim'
Allowing a factor of safety of 4, allowable load,
217.7
~ 4b~x2 Factor of safety =83_ 74 =2.6. Ana.
Q. = 4" (I.:l eNe + yd Nq ) + 4
fProblcm 8.13. A bridge pier is to be founded on a river bed at
Now allowablt load a depth of 6':5' metres. The soil is clayey and its shear strength is
~ 325 tonnes + Wt. of footing itself. 10 tOIUles / SQ metre . The wall ~ohesion on the sides of the pier could
Therefore, be taken as half of the shear strength and the saturated density of
the soil is 2.3 gm I c.c. The rectangular pier will have width, 10
b' metres and length 40 metres and ~, expected to carry a total load
325'" b' x 3.5 x 2.57 ~4" (1.3 x 12 x 5.7 + 2.1 x 3.5 xl)
of 24,000 tonnes including ils own weight. Determine t(ie factor of
+ b x 2.5 x 2 safely of the pier against ultimate failure when the depth of water
or [$ ~ 0, S : e :. e = 1.2 kg/em' in the river is B metres.
= 12 tlm'J Solution. Cross-sectional area or base of the foundation
or - 15.1 b' - 5b + 325 = 0 = 10 x 40 =400 sq. metres.
J5.1 b' :.. 5b _ 325: 0 :. b _ - 5 -124 + 4 x 15.1 x 325 Gross foundation pressure
or
2 x 15.1 = 24000 = 60 tonneslm'.
= 4.47 metres. 400
Hence size of the footing will be 4.47 m x 4.47 m in plan and 'lbtal adhesive force
full section will be 4.47 m x 4.47 m x 3.5 m. Ans.
Problem 8.12. Size of a footing is 3 m x 3 m and including its
&elf-weight total load transferred through it is 800 tonnes. If the
j . 10
= 2'(10 +.40) x 2" x 6.5 = 100 x 5 x 6.5
c 3250 tonnes.
foundation has been taken 2.5 metres below ground level and Equivalent pressure
watertable is 1.0 metre below G.L., calculate the factor of safety of
the foundation agaiTl3t shear failure . The foundation soil is sand c 3250 ~ 8 14 tlm2
400 .
and have angle of internal friction 35 and ' bulk density 2. 1
tonnes/m. . Weight of overburden removed per square metre of the
Given values of bearing c~!,nril.v f"c/or for 4> = 35 foundation area
2
Ne = 59, N q + 44 and N y =42. = 2.3 x 6.5 = 14.96 tlm
Solution. Effective pressure 2.5 metres below ground :. Net pressure on clay
= 2.1 x 1 x 1.1 x 1.5 ., ~ 60 - 8.14 - 14.96 = 36.9 tim'
= 2 .1 + 1.65= 3.75 tonnes/ro' Reduction in pressure due to buoyancy
Now allowable net bearing capacity from Eq. (8.14 b).
246 PROOlEMS IN SOil MECHANIC S 247
=.1 x 100x 100x 100 x 8 = 8l/ '
1000 x 1000 111

(t.aking weight of wat.cr 1I,'mic, c,)


/ Net pressuro On clay =36.9 - 8.00 =28,9 l/m'
Skcmp"'n has given an equation for nct ultimat.c bearing
capacity of cohesive soils.
Q. = eN,
where
N,=S(l +02~)(1 +02~) 1
for d
'b S2 ,S I
!
I
. !!.4 d'
and N,= 7,S (1 + 0.2 f)for~ ~ 2,S
1800
-=S6,S+--
I, band d are length, width and depth of the footing :: d'
respectively. 4

Here !! = 6,S < 2.S = (56,S + 2!!0)tonnes/m'


b 10
Hence
N,:~t + 0,2 ~g)(l + 0.2 ~g) Weight or over-burden removed per squaro metre,
2,1 x (16 -10) = 2.1 x 6 = 12,6.
Due to nood, erosion caused is 10 metres, Hence "'tal effective
Since the soil is clayey, shear strength is equal to cohesion. depth of water should be considered as (10 + 3) = 13 metres and
depth of foundation =(16 - 10) = 6 metres. '
c=s= 10t/m2 Net preS!IIIre on founilation soil
In'timate bearing capacity
= lOx 5.94
= 59.4l/m2
= (56:5 + 2~Ol- 12.6
Fac"'r of safety of the pier against ultimate failure , = e~!o + .;.9 Vr1!L
59.4 206 An
"'28:9= " 8. Reduction in pressure due to buoyancy
JF. Problelll8.14, A bridge pier is to be constructed of two widely ~ 1 x 13 = 13 tonnes/m2
spaced cylinder, to be filled up with concrete weighing 2,57 tonnes
per cubic melre. Load coming on each cylinder from the Net pressure on ~[o2';9~ation SOli!
superslructure is 1800 tonne. The cylinders will have tala I length r = d~ + 43.9 - 13.0
of 22 metres and will penelrate IG Tn below Ihe sa,uiy bed o( the \
river. The river during flood rises liP to a height o( 3 melres above
the normal bed leaving a (ree board of 3 metres and causes a = 22;0 + 30,9 tim' ...(i)
maximum erosion of 10 metres. d.
Calculate the dw.meter
. of cyltnders
" if a factor of safety of 3 be ~ I er ~ ~ qual'
..N' ow Iirom R'll' ,~ '. net ultimate bearing capacity
. I on . _ .. _ _ .
allowed, Saturaled density of S(Jn(L=_J?!Jtml.!;&..1',ndit" ,ong~- of _ ___ : _" ~.~ .:- .' :': :::-. . _ .__ ._._____ _ .. .. _ _
--r.~IitJJ1- J".
-- -"-- ...-
.. .-.,.~'"""- ~-:
H . ___ ~~
_ _ _ _ - _ - . - . - _ . . . _ , ,

.-
.. _. _. _ _ _ _w __ _

248 PRQ'll[MS IN SOil M,CHAN!CS

~-. - q.=[~+ ~0~1n(45o+~] x [L1n450+~)-IJ 12.56


= 39.48+0.1
d---<l cpth of fo.und 2tion snd 4> = 30. -'1888= 12.56 - 2= 10.56
:. Ultimal<l net bearing capacity~ with a fa ctor of safety 3. 8 = 10.56 eue
788 m
q.='3 1.1 do
1 [ 1.1x6+- . ] x[(1.732) <-II
-x1.732 1056
,,, 4 = 788 = 1.34 cm. Ans.
I = (2.2 + 0.159 d.) 8.05 Problem 8.16. A pile of 0.25 m x 0.25 m cross-sectional orca
=17.7+1.28do ... (ii) t is penetrated to sof! soil having C = 0.75 kg/em' for a length of 15
I.,
Equating equations (i) slid (;1) mctres alld {illally re sts on hard soil. Determine its load carrying
\
capacity by skin friction.
2290
-2-+30.9= 17.7+ 1.28d Solution. Q-Ioad carrying capacity of the pile (by skin
do friction)
or 2290 + 30.9 d; = 17.7 d; +1.28 d 3 = wl.L x C. -for circular piles
or 1.28 d; - 13.2 d~ - 2290 = 0 = 4 d.L x C. -for square piles.
or d; - 10.3 - d~ - 1790 =0 where d. is the side of a square pile and diameter of a circular
pile
Solving the equation by trial method, we get
.- Co = m xc
d. = 16.58 metres.
m = 0.4 for stiff clay and 1.0 for 60ft clay.
Hence diam'eter of cylinders will be 16.58 metres. Q= 4d.LC
0.75 x 100x 100
. Another method of solving this problem will be to assume 60me . x 15 x 1 x
., 4 x 025 1000
suitable value of diameter and to check whether it is safe to take
the load under given conditions. ., 60 x 0.25 x 7.5
.' Problem 8.15. What will be the penetration of square RC piles = 112.5 tonnes.
per blow which must be obtained in driving the piles with a 11 Hence, load carrying capacity of the pile by skin friction
tonnes steam hammer falling through 1 metre. Allowable load is
20 tonnes. . = 112.5 tonnes. Ana.
'.,
Solution. Using the Engineering News Formula equation Jt Problem..8.17. NiTU! piles of 25 em diameter are arranged in
(8.15) , a square form. Centre. to centre spaci1lllLs 1 metre. If the length of
6.28WH the piles be 12 metres and cohesion of the soil 0.8 kg /c n'I,
Qoc 39.45 +C determine if the failure would occur with the piles acting
'. Here Qo = 20 tonnes individually or as a group. Neglect bearing at the tip of piles.
1;'" Solution. For individual action. load carrying capacity of the
W= 2 tonnes
H= 1 metre. piles (Eq . 8.18).
and since the hammer is steam driven . "do] n
C=O.l
Q= [ ftd.LC.+N,C'4
"
20 = 6.28 x 2 x 1 d.-dia of piles.
39.45 + 0.1
As per problem. 2ndtenn is ne~iected.
250 PROBLEMS IN SOL rl.fCHA.'-J!C S 251

Q = rn: do . L,CoJ 11 Solution.


R=[~XO.25X 12x 1x O.Bx 100x 100J 9 c = ~ unconfined compressive slrenglh.
1000 x . 150 2
=[n x 0.25 x 12 x B x 9J c=T = 75gm/cm
= 678 tonnes. 75 x 100x 100
=
In group action, 1000 x 1000
Q=PL.C. + Nob o A = 0.75 Urn'.
... (8.17)
Second term is neglected. Surface area of the entire pile group Rcting as a unit
.. Q=PL.C. _= 12 x 4 (90 + 901~;5 + 15)

( 25 2-)
= 4 x 1 + 1 + 100 x 2 x 100: 2 x 12 x 8 =12 x 4 x 2.1 ~ 100.8 m'
=4x2.25x12x8 :. 'Iblal shear resisted
= 9 x 12 x 8 =100.8 x 0.75 =75.5 tonnes.
= lOB x 8 Safe soil pressure at base
= 864 tonnes.
In group action piles will take more load than acting
individually.
q. = 0.95 q x (1 + 0.3 f)
q = Unconfined strength
Hence failure will atour with piles acting individually. Ans.
J,J:.. Problem }.IB. Under a column base it Was decided to use a
grou'! of 9 piles of 30 cm diamefer in square form with 90 em
q. =0.95 x 1.5 (1 + 0.3 x ;:!)
spacing centre to centre. The length of the piles was 10 be 12 metres. =0.95 x 1.5 x 1.3 = 1.852 tlrn 2
If the unconfined compressive slreTl8th of the surrounding soil be :. Load carrying capacity at base
150 gill/em', determine the group streTl8th of the pile. =1.852 x 2.1 x 2.1 = 8.16 tonnes.
Group strength of the piles
= 75.5 + 8.16
= 83.66 tonnes. Ans.
~ Problell.! 4.19. The
cohes(cn inside a soil stratum
---I
m"l '--
75Th' ,- --
increases linearly with depth
from c c 7.5 tonnes/m' at the
top of the stratum to a value of ~
1
c =25 tonnes / m' at a depth of ~lo.;
20 metres. If the adhesion or ~~
skin friction is one half of the ~t---..----~
measured cOhesion, compare
the ultimate load carrying t--~,~-----l....
capacities of two piles b o r e d :
.'-'--.c_ - : ~--- '::': ~~ ~~~'ikl.~!!tr~~;e~~,:&~;'~~~~;}o -:.~:- r>""'''''+--H7iiii'& "...~---- :-- l
. , ~IIJAia pile is penetrated to a Fill. a.a I
:: -
252 PROOL EMS IN SOil M;CHA~ : CS BEM:,~G CAPACflY AND FOUNDATIONS

depth of 18 Il:etres and the GO em dia pile loa .deplh of 15 mel res Q, (ill x L x C in tonnes)
only.
= 1.413)( 18 x 15~.75 _ 1 88~ v 1~ 14.06
.. ~olution. Variation of cohesive force is "hown ill the diagram. - .. v" .... x 2
\ alues of cohesion at 18 melres depth . = 198.8
= 195.5
= 7 5 + 18 x 17.5 :. Q (Q, + Q,) =228.8 tonnes =251.3 tonnes: Ans.
. 20
= 7.5 + 15.75 W Proble,]!. 8.20. In a plale beoring lesion pure clayey soil
failure occurred at a load of 12.210Ilnes. The stU of the plale was
= 23.25 Vm' 45 em x 45 em and the lesl was one 01 a deplh of 1.0 TIl below
At 15 metres depth ground level. Find oul the ultimate bearing capacity for a 1.5 m
, =75 15x17.5
wide conlinuous wall fooling with its base al a dcplh of 2 m below
. + 20 ground level. The unil wi. of clay may be lakell as 1.9 gill! c.c. and
= 20.62 Vm. N, =5.7, N q ~ 1 and Ny~ O.
., Solution. For a square footing equation for ultimate bearing
Now average cohesion over 18 metres length
capacity is given as
= 8.5 + 23.2515.375 Vm'
2 q. =1.3cN, + r dN. + 0.4 r bNy.'..(l)
and average cohesion Over 15 metres Icn,;th In case or plate bearing test railure stress
7.5 + 20.62 _ 14 06 ' 12.2
2 . Vm c 0.45 x 0.45

Load carrying capacity of a circular pile (Given by Meyerhof) 12.2 ,


= 0.2025 = 60.2 tim
Q= Q,+ Q.
where Q. =q,xA xcN"A = 9Ae. NolV putting numerical values inEq. (1)
IN, for a circular footing in deep purely cohesive soil =9 and 60.2 = 1.3 x c x 5.7 + 1.9 x 1 x 1 + 0
c is the cohesion at the base of the pile] = 7.4c + 1.9
Q,=7tDxLxC' c =7.88 Vm' .
where D-Dia of the pile. Now taking the case or wall footing equation, for ultimate
L-Length of the penetration. bearing capacity is
C-Average unit skin friction or adhesion q" =cN
c +ydNq +!ovI.N 2 rv T
between the pile and the soil. Since Ny = 0, 3rd term will not be there
Comparing the two piles. q. =7.88 x 5.7+ 1.9 x 2 x 1
45 em dia pile. 60 em dia pile = 44.9 + 3.8
. ' 45 60
Cucumference = It 100 )~,48.7 tim'. Ans.
"100

Area
(:; D in metre) = 1.418
(~D2 in
m')= ~ X (0,45)'
=1.685
'4" x (0.6)'
! Problem 8.21. In a load tesl concluded al a depth of 1 melre
clolL' groutld with a square plete of 30 em side OIt ogre ,, {,la r suil,
load required to cause 25 mm settlement Was 7.2 lonnes. Find out
the size of a square column footing which will be havirlg its base.
= 0.159 = 0.2825 at a depth of 2.5 m below ground level and is required to take a
Q, (9 x C x A) in tonnes = 9 X 23.25 X 0.i59 = 9 x 20.62 x 0.2825 load of 175 tdnnes. The settlement of the footing is restricted 10 be

I
~33.3 ~62.6 10 mm ~rily and factor of safely against Maring capacily fai/ur '
~ .... 255
rr"OElEMS IN SOil tl.ECHANICS ii.
~;
lE!\RiNG CAP,\CfTY AND fOUNDATiONS

is to be 3 only. Given ~ unit wt. of soil 1.9 gm/c.c. {oun d to be 18gm!c


. .c. Calculatc the factor ofsafcty against hcave
Ne ~ 25, N q ~ 12 ana NT~ 6. of the bottom. Assume Nc = 7.5.
. eN .
Solution. For 25 mm of settlement alJowable lo~d was 7.2 Solution. ~'.S. = yD +c q
annes for square plate 'of 30 cm side
where e = cohesion, Ne = bearing capaci ly factor
.: Allowable pressure = unit wt. of soil
. 7.2 D = depth of excavation
0.3 x 0.3
80 tim" 1. q = surcharge, ifany.
If the alJowable settlement for the footing is kept difTerent 'Since unconfined compressive strength
lhan the plale settlement then allowable pressure for selllement
S can be given by the equ"tion = 0.82 kg/cm"
q. ~S (q) 0.82
c;-2-;0.41 k ' "
glcm
where q ~ pressure for S ~ 25 mm ; = 4.1 tim"
S = allowable sett.lement 0.41 x 7.5
q. = allowable pressure for settlement S F.S. 1.9 x 10 + 20
10
q. = 25 x 80 4.1x7.5;16 An
- 1.9 . . s.
=32t1m" ~ Problem ..23. A trapezoidal footing is to be provided ""iii<
For square footing following details;
qu = 1,3 Ne + y. d N q + 0.4 y. b . NT The footing is to support two square columns of 30 em and.50
em sides respectively. Columns are 5 m apart and. safe bear~ng
Taking the case o'f load lest capacity of the soil 4 kg!cm 2 The bigger columll wtll transmtt a
32 = loSe x 25 x 1.9 x 1 x 12 + 0.4 x 1.9 x 0.3 x 6 load of 500 tonnes and the smaller on.e 300 tOlln~s.
= 32.5c + 22.8 + 1.37 Find out a suitable size of the footutB so that tt does not extend
beyond the column faces.
Solution. Let resultant of the two forces 500 t an~ 3~0 t is
Now, taking the footing, let b be the side of the square footing acting at a distance % metres from the point of apphcabon of
3 x 175 .
b" = 1.3 x 0.272 x 25 + 1.9 x 2.5 x 12 + 0.4 x 1.9 x b x 6 500 t load.
~ooT 500T

~.=t
= 8.84 + 67 + 4.56 b = 65.84 + 4.56b
',,~
54m
or +
4.56 bJ 65.aH2 -175 x 3 = 0
5m
or bl + 14.4 b2 - 115.1 = 0
By trial and error, vlIlue df b comes as 2.6 metres. 5~m
:. Size of the footing = 2.6 m x 2.6 m. Ans.
Problem B.22. A braced open cut 2 m wide ana 70 m in length
is to be made up to a depth of 10.0 m in a clay deposit. The sheeting
extends only for a very small part of the excavation below the
bottom of the cut. Cylindrical samples of the soil have average
value of unconfined compressive as 0.82 kg /em 2 and unit wt. was
I[-< Fig. 8.9
gI
-. --. _-- ---_ - - ,- .. . - --- -- . - .- .- - ----...
.~~

256 PROBLEMS IN SOIL MECHANICS


BEARING CAPACITV AND FOUNDATIONS ,.,. ~
500" = 300 (5.4 - x) .
Problem 8.24. A circular catsso" h~ U tng. tis extern? 1 an""
.. ~ '.
= 300 x 5.4 - 300"
illt,mel dwmdcr cs 6 mana 5m respeclwdy ~I to Mue tls base "'"
300 x 5.4 202- 12 m below high waler level. The caisson is to be emptied of water ..
X= 800 ,~m ,
a(leT the concrete seal is poured. Fina ?ui the thiekness of the
:, Line of application of resultant of load is 2,025 m from line COllcreie seal fo r the following Iwo condttto"s :
of application of500 t or 2,025 + 0.25 = 2.275 m from the outer edge (0) If the uplift is to be resisted by the wt. of the concrele seal
of the foundation as shown in the figure . o~~ .
Let the trapezoidal area of the found ation is to have bigger (b) If the concrete seal is assumed to act as a plale simply
an d sm aller s ides as a and b respectively. ,, supported by the caisson edges.
:. Area of the foundati on Given: Unit wt. of concrete 24 gm!c.c. Safe stress in concrete
= (a b)5.8
2+ ... (1)
20 kg !cm' and Poisson's ratio for concrele 0.15.
Solution. (a) lsi ca.<C. Let I be the thickness of the conc. seal.
and the distance of c.g. from .he edge of bigger sid e will be given :. Upward force per unit area
by
= 12 x 1 = 12 Vm'

i=H::~b) ... (2)


:. Downward force which is to counterbalance the upward
force is wt. of conc. of thickness t.
:. Allowable bearing capacity 2.4 x t = 12
= 4 kg/cm' =40 Vm' 12
t = 2.4 = 5 metres .
.'. Area required based on allowable bearing capacity
(b) 2nd case. Assuming the seal to act as a plate simply
,,; 800 =20m'
40 supported by the caisson edges.
:. Equating the required area to the area in Eq. (1) Thickness t --~'VI3qR~~+!ll
(a; b )5.8 = 20
(The equation based on theory of slasticity)
20x2 where q = pressure on the base o(foundation.
.. a+b=5:8=6.9 R =radius of the circular foundation.
.. a == 6.9 - b ...(3) f, =allowable stresa in concrete.
For unifonn pressure distribution C.G. of the foundation area 11 =Poisson's ratio
should coincide with C.G. of the load system. Now q =(12 - 2.4 t),

M::~bl=2'275
f, = 20 kg/em' = 200 Vm'
, ..
6 8 {(G.9 .~\ + 2b) =2275
'I __ /3 (12 - 2.4 t) x 3 (3 + 0.15)
~ . or .. I-'J 8 x 200
3 23.35 (12 -- 2.4 t)
or 6.9+b 2.275x6.9x3=8911 or I = 1600'
5.8 '.
=
b l.21 and 0= =
6.9 -1.21 5.69 or /' + 0.0425 t - 0.2125 = 0
_ 0.0425 + "r.(0::-."'04';';2""5~)-+--;4C:-x-;0'-:.2O-:1-=25=-
.: . The trapezoidal footing will have size as .. /= . 2
5.69 m x l.21 m x 5.8 m. Ans.
= 0.4401 m a 44.01 em.
-.~.---~----.------

~r=~""'--------- ----------

PROOLEMS !N so;~ t.1ECHA."4!CS


t
.~
GEARI~G CAPACITY AND fOUNDAliONS
259
258 :;
In 1st case, thickness of seal is 5 metres which seellls lo be 5 t I III 2 I 7 .Dr. U I,,'I100
'
tim' I150
'
lim' , 20 tim' and 30 tim'.
more. Actually in this case ','It. of the caisson will also Now max. scltlement under each pressure increment is plotted
counterbalance the upward hydrostatic pressure. In wat ca;~ on loglog graph as shown in the figure.
thickness of the seal \\i1\ be much less. But as per question only
i 1/ i/O;
wt. of the seal is to be taken iato account lo counterbalance tl,e
hydrostatic force.
In case two, thickness of seal is only 44.01 em we should see
30 ..
I~.~'/! 1
if water is emptied out after the pouring the seal, the upward force -1 I 'l
--=~~~
iF not more than the downward force. Yield stress
i'
Let H be the height of thp <o;'5on -. 15 12 t rn' ..I
Wt .. of caisson shell , I.. .. i \ \

= ill (6 - 5) x 2.4
= 7.54 II lonnes. ~IOl'
.,
Wt. cf seal = ~ x 5' x 0.4401 x 2.4
5 .
,I ,1,\ ,,--;,-,
= 20.8 lonnes. o 2
SettlC:11lnt Ir; mn; -
j'[
Upward force = '4 x 6 x 12 = 339 t
Fig.810

:. For balance conditio~ Now ordinate (12 tim') of the break point B of the curve give,;
7:54 II + 20.8 = 339 the yield stress, i.e. ultimate bearing ceDocity for stratum.
,,18.2 :. Taking faclor for safety 2,
II = 7.54 = 42.3 metres.
Problem ~.25. In order to find out bearing capacity of Safe bearing capacity
a granular soil stratum for a column footing a plate load 12
test was conducted with 30 em square plate at a depth of 2 =Z=6t1m.
m below ground level and following observations were
Since the soil is granular, side efTect will be taken into
noted:
consideration.
Load in Tonnu 0.45 0.676 0.9/ /.35 1.80 2.7 :. Safe bearing capacity for 1.5 m wide founql!tion .
Ma.i utt[emtTLt 2.10 3.20 4.26 6.60 ,. 11.00 21.70 Width of footing
in '"'" = q (load test) x Width of plate
Plot the result and find out the safe bearIng capacity of the =6 x 1.5
.3
=30 tim'
stratum taking factor of &afety 2.
Calculate the maximum permissible load and settlement for a Permissible load on the footing
1.5 m x 1.5 m square (ooling at a depth of m below ground level. = 30 x 1.5 x 1.5 = 67.5 tonnes
Solution. and permissible settlement of the footing
Area of plate used = 30 x 30 = 900 sq. em = 0.09 m' B{(B p + 30.48)I
:. Pressure applied per square can be kno'wn by dividing the " S{= Sp [ Bp (B{+ 30.48)
load applied by area of the plate. We get pressure as,
1 where
'-~--~r"~~'~'-' ~~ c
S = Permissible settlement of the footing
{ ~.:-::: -~. - - _ . -~
-_... ,-- .- - - ".. ------
.,,"
..
"

260 E,MING CAPACITY AND FOUNDA1!O,';S ";,.~


Sp = Settlement ~fthe test plate at yield stress N nnd N = Dearing capacity faclor for vertical loading. '-< "
f Dr=Width of footing in em T ; = Th~ ' distance between the centre line cf lhe ' ~: "
Bp = Width of the test plate in em base lo point of application of resulL1nt force "-
From graph Sp = 4.6 mm on the base
Cl = The angle of inclination of the resultant force

S = 4 6 [150 (30 + 3.0.t8)J with vertical


.. f 30 (150 + 30.48) Putting numerical values in the above equation
,
Q.=B(I':~)(1-9~.J r. dN:
4 x 60.48J
= 4.6 [ 180.48 = 12.48 mm. An .
"
. ~blcm 8.26. For I'" given conditicn find ou! lite load Q per I
"J(;c -':;'n for /'" strip fwing wilh factor of safety 3. Unil 1i:1. of soil \
I
+(1-~) (1-~) ~YB'NT
= 2.2 tlm 3 Angle of intern"l frietwn 300; Bearing eapaci1y factor
=[(1_2X30l1-~~)2
"
N. = 22.5 and Ny =22.0.
2.2X2X225X3]

+[(1_
2
\05J (l-~~J 2X2.2X3'X22]

.. = (0.667) (0.778)' x 4.4 x 67.51


+ (0 .445 x 0.116 x 1.1 x 9 x 221

,/\
2m

,
..
I
= 120 + 10.8 = 130.S tannes.
:. Safe vertical load
'-'~ c -3-130.S = 43.6 tannes.

:. The magnitude ofload which will be acting at the inclination


of 70' ta horizonlal.
<l =O.Sm =43.6 : - =43.6--
"-=90"-70'20 c:oS 20' 0.9397
= 46.4 tannes. Ana
i Fig. 8.11 Problem 8.27. For a raft foundatwn of size 8 m x 10 m in plan
in strutted e;rcavatwn has 10 '" done uplo 0 tUpllt of 6.5 m below

.'

Solution. Bearing capacity under inclined and eccentric loads
for the strip footing can be found out by equation given by
Meyerhof.
! !
ground level. The Boil is clay having shear Sirength of 0.12
kgle m ' and tUn.ity of 1.6 gmlcc. If I'" ground surface carries a
i sure/lO r!!" load of 0.25 kg Icrn' calculate t'" faclor of safety against
q. =~ =[(1- ~)(1- 9~')- YdN.] I a ba.'e failure.
I Solution. Assumed mechanism of the failure in a cohesive soil
+[(l-~)' (I_~),
'I
i
"i
trENT] is shown in Fig. S.12. The straight portion All of the failure plane
makes and angle 45' with horizontal. The curved portion BCD is
a circular arc having centre at P (the ba.se o~ the side sheeting)
'. where B = Width of footing
" ! Q. = Max. or allowable vertical component of the Since LABP = 90'

../~ Ii
. load : . nadius or the arc = AP sin 45'
r
~ 269
i: BEARiNG CAPACIlY AND fOUNDATIONS
,.., 268 PROBLE MS IN SOil MEC HANIC S i ~ p -\Jlem 8.37. Design a friction pile group to carry a load ~f
IJ ~ rv , . ,. h- .;:i h' orhe iiI;! t:':1"'::It (l s:.!e where t.e
ir: 300 tOllnes tnC'Ur"'~ t a'd~~;f. ~f 21 m 'underl~ill by rock. A verage
15 (0.4264~'
,
sOtI LS u mform c ay a k 12Th I y
: 1'1l3 15:35 m ressive strength of the clay is 0.7 g em. ec a
_ 0.595 m O. m. Ans. unconfined co ~ t be of normal sensitiuity and normally loaded
(Note. Minimum depth of foundation should be around 1 m). :ft~ ~i~~:d~:it 6~%. A factor of safety 3 is required again~~s~e~.~
Problem 8.34. A single acting steam hammer weighing 2400 failure.
kg and falling through a height of 1.0 m drives a pile to an average solution. Load on the pile group, Q,: 300 tonnes
penetration of 0.75 em under the last few blQws. Determine the Unconfined compressive strength
allowable load for tM pile. (C.EB. 1980) qu = 0.7 kg/em
2

Solution. W = 2400 kg H = 1.0 m = 100 em . q 2


8=0.75em C = .; = 0.35 kg/ em
.. Cohesion
C = 0.25 for single acting steam hammer. 2
=3.5Vm
From Engineering News Formula
WH Factor of safety F=3
Qo (kg) . 6 (8 + C) Let the length of the pile

l 2400x 100
6 (0.75 + 0.25)
= 4 x 10' kg
= 40 t. Ans:
Dia of pile
Spacing of pile
L= 10m
d=0.5m
= 3d = 3 x 0.5 = 1.5 m

it
Let the number of piles = n . .
Problem S.35. A wooden pile is driven by a drop hammer Considering the piles to act individually, the load at faIlure 15
weighing 1000 kg and having a free fall of 3.0 m. The final set is
1.2 em. Determine tM allowable load "sing the Engineering News given by
1 Q.=ne7tdL
. formula or any otMr suitable formula. (C.E.S. 1980)
"i
I [Solution. Same as problem 8.34) .
.3 x 300 = n x 3.5 x "x 0.5 x 10
900
." Problem 8.36. A 30 em square bearing plate settles by 1.5 em n = 3.5 x 0.5 x 10 x "
f.! in a plate loaaing test on a eohesionles .. soil wMn the intensity of = 16.37 = 17
'lit loading is 2 kg/em'. What will be tM settlement of a prototype For square arrClngcment keep n ::: 16 and in~re~~e to 11 m.
~
".
footillg 1 m square under the same intensity of lOading.
Check for group action
:1 (C.E.8. 1981)
B=38+d
= 3 x 150 + 50 = 500 em = 5 m
:l..
i
Solution. bp = size of the plate = 0.3 m
. . 8 p = settlement of the plate = 15 mm :. Load taken by group action
~. B = width of the footing = 1.0 m = 4BLC + A. CN,Z
~! 8 = settlement of the footing required
r A. =B' = 5' = 25 ro

. '1"" 8 r= 8 P [B Q, =
"'" (be + 0.3)r
b;(B 0.3)
! .. N, = 94 x 5 x 11.0 x 3.5. + 25 x 3.5 )( 9
= 770 + 787.5

.:,: ,,~d(li..:~; '" ~-:' . .,--- ....' :~:~1:'3(.~;:0~)_b ._ ::.--:-: _~~_. _ , _. .. '" ;:::~ ... :__ !,,,,s:: .. ~ e_-, -_~ ~. 1~~~~~>.~OOt
... .An
., . _.. 9 . __ .
"'"'1
. ':# :' . .. ~.~ ". ';!:~_ '_.;_' "" :~_ "e.,~'. ~- : :' .;:. " .J:. J"!]~~:;:, -t:',..~":~~."'':'~_'Y-~.>
.. , .... ... ,_. ....
- .- '. _'_ "_-_'_~_'I.!"'; ~;:;':~ ' ..... ...;..
-- "~~ - . -,--"', - ' ..- ' ..
.- ;...:. .. - ' .' A -" - .-. - -

__ .~. t