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My Courses Course Settings

Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 3e

Knight

Course Home Assignments Roster InstructorItem

Gradebook Resources

Library eText Study Area

Ch 01 HW [ Edit ]

Ch 01 HW

Due: 11:59pm on Tuesday, January 28, 2014

You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Description: Knight Tactics Box 1.1 Vector Addition is illustrated. (vector applet)

Learning Goal:

To practice Tactics Box 1.1 Vector Addition.

Vector addition obeys rules that are different from those for the addition of two scalar quantities. When you add two

vectors, their directions, as well as their magnitudes, must be taken into account. This Tactics Box explains how to add

vectors graphically.

1. Draw A .

2. Place the tail of B at the tip of A .

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vector A + B .

Part A

Create the vector R = A + B by following the steps in the Tactics Box above. When moving vector B , keep in

mind that its direction should remain unchanged.

The location, orientation, and length of your vectors will be graded.

ANSWER:

Part B

Create the vector R = C + D by following the steps in the Tactics Box above. When moving vector D , keep in

mind that its direction should remain unchanged.

The location, orientation, and length of your vectors will be graded.

ANSWER:

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Description: Knight Tactics Box 1.3 Finding the Acceleration Vector is illustrated. (vector applet)

Learning Goal:

To practice Tactics Box 1.3 Finding the Acceleration Vector.

Suppose an object has an initial velocity v n at time tn and later, at time tn+1 , has velocity v n+1 . The fact that the

velocity changes tells us the object undergoes an acceleration during the time interval t = tn+1 tn . From the

definition of average acceleration,

v n+1v n v ,

a = tn+1tn

= t

we see that the acceleration vector points in the same direction as the vector v . This vector is the change in the

velocity v = v n+1 v n , so to know which way the acceleration vector points, we have to perform the vector

subtraction v n+1 v n . This Tactics Box shows how to use vector subtraction to find the acceleration vector.

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3. Draw v = v n+1 v n = v n+1 + (v n ) . This is the

direction of a .

4. Return to the original motion diagram. Draw a vector at

the middle point in the direction of v ; label it a . This is the average acceleration at the midpoint between

v n and v n+1 .

Part A

Below is a motion diagram for an object that moves along a linear path. The dots represent the position of the object

at three subsequent instants, t1 , t2 , and t3 . The vectors v 21 and v 32 show the average velocity of the object for the

initial time interval, t21 = t2 t1 , and the final time interval, t32 = t3 t2 , respectively. Draw the vector

v 21 and the acceleration vector a representing the change in average velocity of the object during the total time

interval t = t3 t1 . Assume for this problem that t = 1 s.

The orientation and length of the vectors will be graded. The location of the vectors will not be graded.

First, draw v 21 . Draw v 21 starting at the tip of v 21 and ending at its tail. Then, move v 21 , with the same

orientation, so that its tail is at the tip of v 32 . Use the vector info button to make sure that the lengths of v 21

and v 21 are equal. The acceleration vector, a , starts at the tail of v 32 and ends at the tip of v 21 .

ANSWER:

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Part B

Below is another motion diagram for an object that moves along a linear path. The dots represent the position of the

object at five subsequent instants, t1 , t2 , t3 , t4 , and t5 . The vectors v 21 , v 32 , v 43 , and v 54 represent the average

velocity of the object during the four corresponding time intervals. Draw the velocity vectors v 21 and v 43 and the

acceleration vectors a 31 and a 53 representing the changes in average velocity of the object during the time intervals

t31 = t3 t1 and t53 = t5 t3 , respectively. Assume for this problem that t31 = t53 = 1 s.

The orientation and length of the vectors will be graded. The location of the vectors will not be graded.

ANSWER:

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Problem 1.11

Description: (a) Figure shows two dots of a motion diagram and vector v_vec_2. Draw the vector v_vec_3 if the

acceleration vector a_vec at dot 3 points to the right. (b) Figure shows two dots of a motion diagram and vector

v_vec_2. Draw the vector v_vec_3 if...

Part A

Figure shows two dots of a motion diagram and vector v 2 . Draw the vector v 3 if the acceleration vector a at dot 3

points to the right.

Draw the vector with its tail at the dot 3. The orientation of your vector will be graded. The exact length of

your vector will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded.

ANSWER:

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Part B

Figure shows two dots of a motion diagram and vector v 2 . Draw the vector v 3 if the acceleration vector a at dot 3

points to the left.

Draw the vector with its tail at the dot 3. The orientation of your vector will be graded. The exact length of

your vector will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded.

ANSWER:

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Description: The figure shows the motion diagram of a drag racer. The camera took one frame every 2 s. You may

want to review Motion in One Dimension . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Plotting Points on a

Graph (a) Make a...

camera took one frame every 2 s.

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Part A

Make a position-versus-time graph for the drag racer.

Based on Table 1.1 in the book/e-text, what two observables are associated with each point? Which position

or point of the drag racer occurs first? Which position occurs last?

If you label the first point as happening at t = 0 s, at what time does the next point occur? At what time does

the last position point occur?

What is the position of a point halfway in between x = 0 m and x = 200 m? Can you think of a way to

estimate the positions of the points using a ruler?

ANSWER:

Description: Knight Tactics Box 1.5 Drawing a Pictorial Representation is illustrated. (vector applet) (sorting applet)

Learning Goal:

To practice Tactics Box 1.5 Drawing a Pictorial Representation.

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You will find that motion problems and other physics problems often have several variables and other pieces of

information to keep track of. The best way to tackle such problems is to draw a pictorial representation of the problem

that shows all of the important details. This Tactics Box explains how to draw a pictorial representation of a motion

problem.

1. Draw a motion diagram. The motion diagram develops your intuition for the motion and, especially

important, determines whether the signs of v and a are positive or negative.

2. Establish a coordinate system. Select your axes and origin to match the motion. For one-dimensional

motion, you want either the x axis or the y axis parallel to the motion.

3. Sketch the situation. Not just any sketch. Show the object at the beginning of the motion, at the end, and

at any point where the character of the motion changes. Show the object, not just a dot, but very simple

drawings are adequate.

4. Define symbols. Use the sketch to define symbols representing quantities such as position, velocity,

acceleration, and time. Every variable used later in the mathematical solution should be defined on the

sketch. Some will have known values, and others are initially unknown, but all should be given symbolic

names.

5. List known information. Make a table of the quantities whose values you can determine from the problem

statement or that can be found quickly with simple geometry or unit conversions. Some quantities are

implied by the problem, rather than explicitly given. Others are determined by your choice of coordinate

system.

6. Identify the desired unknowns. What quantity or quantities will allow you to answer the question? These

should have been defined as symbols in step 4. Dont list every unknown, only the one or two needed to

answer the question.

Follow the steps above to draw a pictorial representation of the following problem: A light train is traveling on a straight

section of track at a constant speed of 15 m/s. As it approaches the next station, it starts to slow down at a rate of

5 m/s 2 until it stops at the station. From the moment the train starts to slow down, how long does it take for the train to

reach the station? Note that you are not expected to solve this problem, only to draw the pictorial representation.

Part A

Draw a motion diagram for the train. Assume that the train is moving toward the right and starts to slow down at

t = 0 . The separation of each dot represents an elapsed time of one second. Include velocity vectors and the

acceleration vector in your drawing. Keep in mind that the acceleration of the train has a magnitude of 5 m/s 2 .

The orientation and length of the velocity vectors will be graded. Only the direction of the acceleration

vector will be graded. The location of the vectors will not be graded.

Draw each velocity vector between the corresponding two black dots. To draw the acceleration with the

correct length, click on the vector info button; adjust the vector until the length displayed in the properties

window has the desired value.

ANSWER:

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Part B

Draw the coordinate system that is most appropriate for the train's motion. Since this problem deals with one-

dimensional motion, you need only the x-axis. Note that x i , x f , ti , tf , (vx ) i and (vx ) f are the initial position, final

position, initial time, final time, initial velocity, and final velocity of the train, respectively.

The orientation of the vector will be graded. The location and length of the vector will not be graded.

ANSWER:

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Keep in mind that the choice of coordinate system is arbitrary. However, in problems involving one-dimensional

motion it is often convenient to select the x-axis to match the motion. Thus, in this case the positive end of the

x-axis is chosen to be to the right. It is also convenient in this problem to place the origin at the location where

the train starts to slow down.

Part C

To complete your pictorial representation of the problem, you should compile two lists: one of known quantities and

one of the unknown quantities that will allow you to answer the question in the problem. Below are all of the relevant

quantities in this problem. Sort them accordingly.

Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins.

ANSWER:

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Now that you have identified the list of known and unknown quantities, you can add this information to your

pictorial representation in the form of a table. The actual sketch that you draw might look like this:

Description: Several unrelated order-of-magnitude calculations.

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Learning Goal:

To be able to make order-of-magnitude calculations.

Imagine that a company wants to build a new factory. Such a complex project would involve significant investment in

terms of both time and money. Consequently, before construction can start the company asks for an estimate of the total

cost. Although estimate figures are not exact, they are still helpful: For instance, if the projected cost is three times the

amount of money that the company is willing to spend, the project will be canceled or substantially changed.

Individuals make such estimates all the time. For instance, when you need to drive somewhere for a meeting, you can

roughly predict how much time you will spend on the road and depart accordingly. Of course, the actual travel time is

unlikely to be exactly the same as the estimated onebut it still helps to make an estimate so that you can decide when

to leave.

Physicists must frequently make such estimatesknown as order-of-magnitude calculationsas part of their job.

Depending on the results of the estimate, a potentially lengthy and costly research project may be postponed, canceled,

or redesigned. Being able to make a quick calculation and get a "ball-park figure" of the expected result is an important

skill for a scientist, involving processes such as identifying relevant information, searching for this information, and using

your experience or background knowledge.

It is impossible, of course, to give an accurate answer to this question. However, it is quite possible to find the order of

magnitude of the answer. All one needs to do is to use some common sense and, possibly, search for relevant reference

information. The calculation can proceed as follows:

There are about 7 109 people on earth. An average adult male weighs, say, 75 kg ; an average adult female weighs

about 60 kg , and an average child will weigh considerably less than 60 kg . Figuring roughly one child per adult, we can

reasonably say that an average person's mass is about 50 kg , which gives the total mass of all humans on our planet as

Of course, we may be off in our estimates of the average mass or number of people. While it would be unreasonable to

say that we know the total mass is 3.5 1011 kg , we can be reasonably sure that we have the correct order of

magnitude; that is, we have the correct exponent to which the number 10 is raised.

In each of the following problems, you will be asked to make similar estimates.

Part A

How many people can fit into the Pentagon, which was once the largest office building in the world? Assume that

everybody must be standing on the floor.

Round the answer to the nearest power of 10 and then express your answer as the order of magnitude. For

instance, if your estimated answer is 3 105 , enter 5. If your estimated answer is 8.7 105 , you should

enter 6 (rounding up to the next power of 10).

What information should you be looking for?

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ANSWER:

What is the most massive building in the world?

What building in the world has the largest floor area?

In which country is the largest building in the world located?

How many people can be found in the largest building in the world on a typical day?

Only the floor area matters here; height, mass, and location are irrelevant. The number of people

working in the building on a typical day probably does not matter: One would hope that, on a normal day,

this building is not "standing room only."

What numeric quantities do you need to estimate?

Check all that apply.

ANSWER:

the height of an average person

the amount of space the average person needs to work efficiently

the the area that an average person takes up while standing

the volume of an average person

ANSWER:

Your process for solving this problem might have been something like this:

First, a simple library or Internet search would tell you that the largest building in the world (in terms of the total

floor area) is the Pentagon, the main building of the U.S. Department of Defense. Its total floor area is about

6.5 106 ft 2 but only 3.8 106 ft 2 can be occupied; it would be hard to stand inside a wall! Assuming that

an average person occupies about 2.0 ft 2 when standing (a conservative estimate), we can see that about

1.9 106 people (more than three times the entire population of Washington, DC) could fit into the Pentagon

assuming the floors held up!

Your own answer may have been different from ours or used different details; however, the order of magnitude

was, hopefully, the same.

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Part B

If the entire population of the United States forms a human chain by holding hands, how many times can such a

chain be wrapped around the earth's equator?

Round your answer to the nearest integer.

ANSWER:

There are about 300 million people in the United States. The distance between the tips of a person's

outstretched hands is roughly equal to the height of the person. Counting children, we estimate the average

palm-to-palm distance as one meter. Since the equator is about 40 million meters long, division yields about

7.5. However, in this part any answer between 5 and 15 is considered correctafter all, we are just estimating.

Part C

How many times does your heart beat during your lifetime?

Round the answer to the nearest power of 10 and then express your answer as the order of magnitude. For

instance, if your estimated answer is 3 105 , enter 5. If your estimated answer is 8.7 105 , you should

enter 6 (rounding up to the next power of 10).

ANSWER:

On average, your heart beats about once every second. The number of seconds in the lifetime of an average

U.S. resident is

86, 400 day s 365 days 75 years = 2.4 109 s

year lifetime

assuming a lifetime of 75 years. Of course, we didn't account for leap years since this is just an estimate.

Part D

Legend has it that, many centuries ago, Archimedes jumped out of his bathtub and ran across town naked

screaming "Eureka!" after he solved an especially difficult problem. Though you may not have thought of things this

way before, when you drink a glass of water, the water that you are drinking contains some water molecules that

were in Archimedes' bathwater that day, because water doesn't get created or destroyed on a large scale. It follows

the water cycle, which includes rain, evaporation, flowing of rivers into the ocean, and so on. In the more than two

thousand years since his discovery, the water molecules from Archimedes' bathwater have been through this cycle

enough times that they are probably about evenly distributed throughout all the water on the earth. When you buy a

can of soda, about how many molecules from that famous bathtub of Archimedes are there in that can?

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Round the answer to the nearest power of 10 and then express your answer as the order of magnitude. For

instance, if your estimated answer is 3 105 , enter 5. If your estimated answer is 8.7 105 , you should

enter 6 (rounding up to the next power of 10).

Assume that the water from that bathtub is evenly mixed with the water throughout the surface of the Earth--

after all, it has had more than 2000 years to do so.

There are about 6.0 1023 molecules in 18 g of water; in other words, 1 kg of water contains about

25

3.3 10 molecules.

Estimate the mass of water in Archimedes' bathtub and the total mass of water on earth. (Note that most of

the earth's water is in its oceans.)

ANSWER:

Also accepted: 7, 5

We used the following assumptions: The total mass of water on the earth's surface is 1.4 1021 kg (reference

information available from many different sources); the mass of the water in the bathtub is guessed to be 200

kg ; the mass of the water in the can of soda is estimated to be about 0.33 kg; and 1 kg of water contains

about 3.3 1025 molecules .

Thus the total number of molecules in the can is roughly 1025 . The fraction of the bathtub molecules in the can

is 200/(1.4 1021 ) . Therefore, the number of bathtub molecules contained in the can is

2001025

21

1.4 106 .

1.410

Your answer is most likely different but it should still have the same order of magnitude, equal to 6. In case of

some "wilder" assumptions, we count 5 and 7 as correct too.

Description: Problems in unit conversion: one based importing goods and another on the Mars Climate Orbiter .

Unit conversion problems can seem tedious and unnecessary at times. However, different systems of units are used in

different parts of the world, so when dealing with international transactions, documents, software, etc., unit conversions

are often necessary.

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Here is a simple example. The inhabitants of a small island begin exporting beautiful cloth made from a rare plant that

grows only on their island. Seeing how popular the small quantity that they export has been, they steadily raise their

prices. A clothing maker from New York, thinking that he can save money by "cutting out the middleman," decides to

travel to the small island and buy the cloth himself. Ignorant of the local custom of offering strangers outrageous prices

and then negotiating down, the clothing maker accepts (much to everyone's surpise) the initial price of 400 tepizes/m 2 .

2

The price of this cloth in New York is 120 dollars/yard .

Part A

If the clothing maker bought 500 m 2 of this fabric, how much money did he lose? Use 1 tepiz = 0.625 dollar and

0.9144 m = 1 yard.

Express your answer in dollars using two significant figures.

To find how much money the clothing maker loses, you must find how much money he spent and how much

he would have spent in New York. Furthermore, since the problem asks how much he lost in dollars, you

need to determine both in dollars. This will require unit conversions.

2

If the clothing maker bought 500 m 2 at a cost of 400 tepizes/m , then simple multiplication will give how

much he spent in tepizes. Once you've found that, convert to dollars. How much did the clothing maker spend

in dollars?

Express your answer in dollars to three significant figures.

2

If the clothing maker bought 500 m 2 at a cost of 400 tepizes/m , then how much did he pay in total,

in tepizes ?

ANSWER:

2.00105 tepizes

ANSWER:

1.25105 dollars

You know that the price of the fabric in New York is 120 dollars/yard2 . Thus, you need only to find the

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number of square yards that the clothing maker purchased and then multiply to find the price in New York.

What would it have cost him to buy the fabric in New York?

Express your answer in dollars to three significant figures.

2

Hint 1. Determine how much cloth he bought in yard

You are given that 0.9144 m = 1 yard. Squaring both sides, you would get that

2

0.8361 m 2 = 1 yard . How much is 500 m 2 ?

ANSWER:

598 yard2

ANSWER:

7.18104 dollars

ANSWER:

5.3104 dollars

Here is a widely publicized, true story about how failing to convert units resulted in a huge loss. In 1998, the Mars

Climate Orbiter probe crashed into the surface of Mars, instead of entering orbit. The resulting inquiry revealed that

NASA navigators had been making minor course corrections in SI units, whereas the software written by the probe's

makers implicitly used British units. In the United States, most scientists use SI units, whereas most engineers use the

British, or Imperial, system of units. (Interestingly, British units are not used in Britain.) For these two groups to be able to

communicate to one another, unit conversions are necessary.

The unit of force in the SI system is the newton (N), which is defined in terms of basic SI units as 1 N = 1 kg m/s 2 .

The unit of force in the British system is the pound (lb ), which is defined in terms of the slug (British unit of mass), foot (

ft ), and second (s) as 1 lb = 1 slug ft/s 2 .

Part B

Find the value of 15.0 N in pounds. Use the conversions 1 slug = 14.59 kg and 1 ft = 0.3048 m .

Express your answer in pounds to three significant figures.

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When doing a unit conversion, you should begin by comparing the units you are starting with and the units

you need to finish with. In this problem, we have the following:

Starting unitsFinal units

kgm slugft

s2 s2

Notice that both have seconds squared in the denominator. You will only have to change the units in the

numerator. Match up the units that measure the same quantity (e.g., kilograms and slugs both measure

mass). Once you've done this, create a fraction (e.g., 1 hour/60 minutes ) based on conversion factors

such that the old unit is canceled out of the expression and the new unit appears in the position (i.e.,

numerator or denominator) of the old unit. In this problem, there are two pairs within the starting and final

units that must be converted in this way (i.e., kilograms/slugs and meters/feet).

The first step is to eliminate kilograms from the expression for newtons in favor of slugs. What is the value of

15 kg m/s 2 in slug m/s 2 ?

Express your answer in slug-meters per second squared to four significant figures.

ANSWER:

1.028

ANSWER:

15.0 N = 3.37 lb

Thus, if the NASA navigators believed that they were entering a force value of 15 N (3.37 lb ), they were

actually entering a value nearly four and a half times higher, 15 lb . Though these errors were only in tiny

course corrections, they added up during the trip of many millions of kilometers.

In the end, the blame for the loss of the 125-million-dollar probe was placed on the lack of communication

between people at NASA that allowed the units mismatch to go unnoticed. Nonetheless, this story makes

apparent how important it is to carefully label the units used to measure a number.

Consistency of Units

Description: Short quantitative problem on dimensional analysis. Requires that students manipulate physics

equations to find the units of certain unknown quantities. This problem is based on Young/Geller Quantitative

Analysis 1.3

In physics, every physical quantity is measured with respect to a unit. Time is measured in seconds, length is measured

in meters, and mass is measured in kilograms. Knowing the units of physical quantities will help you solve problems in

physics.

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Part A

Gravity causes objects to be attracted to one another. This attraction keeps our feet firmly planted on the ground and

causes the moon to orbit the earth. The force of gravitational attraction is represented by the equation

F = Gmr12m 2 ,

where F is the magnitude of the gravitational attraction on either body, m 1 and m 2 are the masses of the bodies, r

is the distance between them, and G is the gravitational constant. In SI units, the units of force are kg m/s 2 , the

units of mass are kg, and the units of distance are m. For this equation to have consistent units, the units of G

must be which of the following?

To solve this problem, we start with the equation

Gm 1m 2

r2

F= .

For each symbol whose units we know, we replace the symbol with those units. For example, we replace m 1

with kg. We now solve this equation for G .

ANSWER:

kg 3

ms 2

kgs 2

m3

m3

kgs 2

m

kgs 2

Part B

One consequence of Einstein's theory of special relativity is that mass is a form of energy. This mass-energy

relationship is perhaps the most famous of all physics equations:

E = mc2 ,

where m is mass, c is the speed of the light, and E is the energy. In SI units, the units of speed are m/s. For the

preceding equation to have consistent units (the same units on both sides of the equation), the units of E must be

which of the following?

To solve this problem, we start with the equation

E = mc2 .

For each symbol whose units we know, we replace the symbol with those units. For example, we replace m

kg E

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ANSWER:

kgm

s

kgm2

s2

kgs 2

m2

kgm2

s

To solve the types of problems typified by these examples, we start with the given equation. For each symbol

whose units we know, we replace the symbol with those units. For example, we replace m with kg . We now

solve this equation for the units of the unknown variable.

Problem 1.23

Description: Convert the following to SI units: (a) v1... (b) v2... (c) v3... (d) v4...

Part A

5.35ms

ANSWER:

= 5.35103

Part B

135km/h

ANSWER:

= 37.5

Part C

km

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37.1km

ANSWER:

= 3.71104

Part D

47m/ms

ANSWER:

= 4.70102

Problem 1.25

Description: Convert the following to SI units: (a) dc hours... (b) vc days... (c) ac year... (d) bc (ft)/s...

Part A

3.00 hours

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

= 1104

Part B

2.00 days

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

ANSWER:

= 2105

Part C

1.00 year

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ANSWER:

= 3107

Part D

249 ft/s

ANSWER:

= 75.9

Problem 1.27

Description: Using the approximate conversion factors in table below, convert the following SI units to English

without using your calculator. Approximate conversion factors 10 cm approx 4 in 1 m approx 1 yard 1 m approx 3

feet ...

Using the approximate conversion factors in table below, convert the following SI units to English without using your

calculator.

Approximate conversion factors

10 cm 4 in

1 m 1 yard

1 m 3 feet

1 km 0.6 mile

1 m/s 2 mph

Part A

20cm

ANSWER:

= 8.0 inches

Part B

20m/s

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ANSWER:

= 40 mph

Part C

5km

ANSWER:

= 3 miles

Part D

0.7cm

ANSWER:

= 0.28 inches

Description: The quantity called mass density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. Express the following

mass densities in SI units.You may want to review Unit and Significant Figures . For help with math skills, you may

want to review: Conversio...

The quantity called mass density is the mass per unit volume of a substance. Express the following mass densities in SI

units.

Part A

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What are the units of mass density in SI units?

ANSWER:

= 1.05104

Part B

Alcohol, 0.81 g/cm 3

Express your answer with the appropriate units.

How many grams are in a kilogram?

ANSWER:

= 810

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