3 views

Uploaded by umair35

milk

milk

© All Rights Reserved

- نموذج تقرير مختبر.doc
- Theoretical Distribution
- JURNAL INTERNASIONAL 1
- Motor Fitness of Rural Primary School Girls In Comparison To Boys
- Education and Human Capital Externalities: Evidence from Colonial Benin
- Bukit Mertajam 2014(q)
- Cusum Charts
- ANOVA_1_Minitab
- ies 2015
- CCP303
- Profanity.pdf
- Engineering Physics II
- Comparison Large Small Stm
- 1-s2.0-S187704281402429X-20
- Uncertainty From Sampling - NORDTEST Report - TR604
- Bi 348 Chapter 02
- Misuse of Data From Mist-net Captures to Assess Relative Abundance in Bird Populations
- Thermo Ch 19
- To Improve The Student Conceptual Understanding Using Thermal Radiation Experiment Tool..docx
- Output

You are on page 1of 10

Printed in Brazil

Engineering www.abeq.org.br/bjche

Vol. 22, No. 02, pp. 293 - 302, April - June, 2005

EMULSION DRYING IN SPRAY DRYERS

V. S. Birchal1 and M. L. Passos1,2*

1

Programa de Ps-Graduao em Engenharia Mecnica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,

Av. Antnio Carlos 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte - MG, Brazil

E-mail: vbirchal@matrix.com.br

2

Centro de Secagem, Departamento de Engenharia Qumica, Universidade Federal de So Carlos,

P.O. Box 676, 13565-905, So Carlos - SP, Brazil

E-mail: merilau@microplanet.com.br

Abstract - This work aims at modeling and simulating the drying of whole milk emulsion in spray dryers.

Drops and particles make up the discrete phase and are distributed into temporal compartments following

their residence time in the dryer. Air is the continuous and well-mixed phase. Mass and energy balances are

developed for each phase, taking into account their interactions. Constitutive equations for describing the drop

swelling and drying mechanisms as well as the heat and mass transfer between particles and hot air are

proposed and analyzed. A set of algebraic-differential equations is obtained and solved by specific numerical

codes. Results from experiments carried out in a pilot spray dryer are used to validate the model developed

and the numerical algorithm. Comparing the simulated and experimental data, it is shown that the model

predicts well the individual drop-particle history inside the dryer as well as the overall outlet air-particle

temperature and humidity.

Keywords: Spray dryer operation; Particle distribution; Drying model; Numerical simulation.

evaporator system, increases the milk solids content

The industrial process for producing powdered from 12 % to about 50 %. The following step

milk comprises the basic steps shown in Figure 1. comprises a single-, two- or multi-stage drying, in

Receipt of raw milk from farms or cooperatives which the concentrated milk emulsion is dried and

involves its inspection based on legal regulation of powdered until reaching the residual moisture

chemical, sensorial and bacteriological compositions. content required for storage and/or further

After approval in this initial control, milk emulsion application.

is clarified in centrifugal separators or filters, cooled Spray drying is a well-known industrial technique

in heat exchangers and stored in tanks at 4C. In the used on a large scale for drying and powdering very

standardization step, the ratio of milk fat to total thermally sensitive materials. For milk emulsion, this

solids is adjusted, as required for the final product. technique transforms this emulsion into a large

Heat treatment, which includes pasteurization, number of small droplets that fall into the spray

sterilization and ultrahigh temperature heating, chamber concurrently with hot air. As water is

destroys pathogenic microorganisms and produces evaporated, these droplets become solid particles. In

physicochemical changes in raw milk to improve its single-stage drying, using a spray dryer with a

shelf life. The evaporation step, usually carried out pneumatic conveying system, removal of the last

294 V. S. Birchal and M. L. Passos

fraction of moisture from powdered milk occurs products have characteristics crucial to its acceptance

slowly and is costly, and the final product is fine and commercialization. The quality of powdered

nonagglomerated particles (30-50 m) that do not milk is greatly affected by the operational conditions

readily disperse in water. A spray dryer attached to a of this process. Therefore, the knowledge of the

vibrating fluid bed system, as shown in Figure 1, spray-drying technology is essential for controlling

comprises the two-stage drying. In this method, these operational variables in order to obtain a high-

agglomerates are preserved at the exit of the spray quality product (King et al., 1984; Nath and

chamber and, thus, feed into the vibro-fluidized bed Satpathy, 1998).

system where they are gently dried and cooled. Based on the previous mathematical model

Nonagglomerated particles can be recycled into the presented by Clement et al. (1991), which focuses on

spray chamber, enhancing the quality of powdered Euler and Lagrange approaches for developing mass

milk by control of the particle size distribution. and energy balances, this work aims at modeling and

Three-stage drying, in which a stationary fluid bed of simulating the drying of whole milk emulsion in

powdered milk is added at the conical base of the spray dryers.

spray chamber to better control particle As shown by the results, a more detailed study of

agglomeration and drying, is an improvement of this the mass transfer model and the particle residence

method. After drying and cooling, the final time distribution has improved the original Clement

powdered milk product must be packaged in suitable et al. model. A new and more efficient method for

containers and stored, when necessary, under the numerical model solution was implemented.

conditions specific to its safe preservation. Simulations allowed evaluation of model

Of all these steps, drying is the one in which applicability, study of operational parameter

powdered milk properties are defined. As is well- sensitivity and prediction of the dryer outlet conditions

known in the literature, powdered milk and its by- at several levels of operational parameters.

MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR DRYING hot gas and milk suspension are continuously

MILK EMULSION IN SPRAY DRYERS injected into the top of the dryer chamber at

uniform rates;

Initial Assumptions the gas phase, formed of air and vapor, behaves

as an ideal mixture and flows inside the dryer as a

The mathematical formulation is based on the perfect mixture;

following assumptions (Clement et al., 1991): the suspension is properly atomized forming

Modeling and Simulation of Milk Emulsion Drying 295

which are well mixed inside the chamber without h = Nu G ; k = Sh v ;

dp

interacting with one another; dp

heat flows from hot air to drops or particles and

temperature gradients inside the particles are f = 0 Wp > Wc and

negligible;

1 / 3

( )

the individual drying rate is described by water

Wp W * Pwg ,Tp

evaporation transfer from a single particle to the f= 1 Wp Wc

gas phase;

the overall drying rate is a weight sum of (

Wc W * Pwg ,Tp

)

individual rates of all particles that remain in the

dryer; Mean particle diameter dp

the drying kinetics is represented by two distinct

( )

1/3

periods: the first one, in which free water is 6 ms W0 Wp

evaporated from drops until a thin semipermeable dp = dp0

3

Wp > Wc (3a)

water

crust is formed on the particle surface, and the

second one, characterized by the thickening of

this crust as predicted by the shrinking core 6 ms ( W0 Wc )

1/3

model. d p = d3p0 Wp Wc (3b)

water

Model Development

Mass of dry solids inside the drop ms

The model comprises a set of constitutive

algebraic equations that describes mass and heat susp d p03

transfer between gas and single particles, the drying ms = (4)

kinetics of a single particle surrounded by gas and (1 + W0 ) 6

functions of the particle residence time distribution

inside the chamber; a group of differential equations Equilibrium moisture content W*

that expresses the mass and energy balances for a

single particle and a continuous gas phase and a set

( )

0.621

of algebraic equations that express the overall W* = (0.109 Tp ) 2.02 104 ln UR (5)

distributed balances of particles inside the chamber.

In this work, only the main model equations are

where particle temperature, Tp, is expressed in K.

presented; complete information about the entire Equations (1) and (2) respectively describe the

model is given by Birchal (2003). Constitutive

heat and the mass transfer between a particle and

algebraic equations concerned with a single particle

gas. For estimation of the convective heat and mass

can be summarized as transfer coefficients, h and k, Nusselt (Nu) and

Heat and mass transfer rates per unit of the Sherwood (Sh) numbers are supposed to be equal to

particle surface area q& and m &v 2, since the relative velocity between particle and gas

is nearly zero. The f factor in Equation (2) represents

(

q& = h Tg Tp ) (1) the resistance of the crust to water vapor diffusion

through it, and this value arises only in the second

drying period (Wp < Wc). Right at the beginning of

P Mw 2Diff

&v=

m the first drying period, even when the particle

Tg + Tp 2Diff temperature, Tp, becomes greater than the wet-bulb

R d p f + temperature, the drying rate is adjusted by an

2 kd p

(2) additional term to make the vapor pressure in the

PP bulk air, Pwg, equal to the saturated vapor pressure at

ln

wg wet-bulb temperature, Pw*(TBU). This additional

*

( )

P Pw Tp

drying rate per particle area, m & vap , is thus included

in the modified model, as shown in Equation (11).

with Equations (3a) and (3b) describe the particle/drop

diameter during drying. The initial drop diameter,

Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol. 22, No. 02, pp. 293 - 302, April - June, 2005

296 V. S. Birchal and M. L. Passos

dp0, a function of atomizer design parameters and the models for the particle residence time distribution

suspension flow rate, is estimated by the specific can be easily incorporated into the model program.

correlation for the rotary disc atomizer (Masters, Based on this assumption, particles fed into the

1985). chamber at the initial time (t = 0) are distributed

According to the model assumptions, in the along different routes in the dryer and are removed at

second drying period this diameter becomes different times, as predicted by

constant. The mass of dry solids inside a particle, ms,

constant throughout the process, can be obtained E ( / r ) = exp( / r ) or

from Equation (4). Equation (5) describes the (6)

particle equilibrium moisture content, W*, as a t

function of particle temperature, Tp, and relative

humidity of the air, UR. This sorption curve, specific (

Fc ( t ) = exp rp

0

) d

rp

(

= 1 exp t rp )

for the whole powdered milk used in this work, was

obtained from experiments carried out under Since particles take different routes inside the

dynamic conditions (Birchal, 2003). This curve is drying chamber, it is necessary to distinguish, at any

also used to specify the critical particle moisture operating time t, that particle fraction of ages less

content, Wc, by making UR close to 1. Note that Wc than or equal to t, which is removed from the dryer

depends on Tp because of the crust formation on the and that particle fraction of ages greater than to t,

particle surface. which is kept inside the chamber. It is also necessary

To determine the mass and energy balances of the to differentiate, in these fractions, the correct particle

particle population in the dryer (discrete phase), it is age in order to determine the water evaporation rate

necessary to specify the effective contribution of and the rate of heat exchanged with the gas phase.

each particle or particle group to the overall drying This requires combining same-age particles into n

and heat exchange rates. This contribution is directly temporal compartments, which can simplify

related to the residence time of the particle in the identification during the operating time, the

dryer. Hence, a detailed and clear description of the remaining and removed fractions of particles

residence time distribution function is extremely according to age. This approach of temporal

important. compartmentalization is justified, since in the drying

The residence time distribution function of model, particles of the same age have the same

particles in the dryer is expressed as a function of the diameter, moisture content and temperature. Note

cumulative fraction of particles which leaves the that, in the model assumptions, drop coalescence and

dryer at time t, Fc(t), or even as a function of the age drop breakage are both neglected. Therefore,

distribution of these particles, E(/rp), in relation to particles of the same age, belonging to the same

the mean particle residence time, rp. In this work, temporal compartment, can be found in different

the particle residence time distribution is based on spatial positions in the drying, as represented in

the perfect mixture model; however, different Figure 2.

Modeling and Simulation of Milk Emulsion Drying 297

Using this approach, the disperse phase is thus fraction of particles fed in at t = 0 leaves the dryer. If

supposed to be comprised of particles that are there is no perturbation in this dryer system, the

distributed into n temporal compartments by age. permanent regime is established at t = n. The Np,1,j

Under inlet condition = i > 0 (i = 2 to n), the (= F/ms) compartment is composed of particles of

particle fraction that remains in the chamber at a age 1 = 0 at t = (j -1) for 1 = j = n; Np,2,j (= r1 Np,1,j-

time t > i is expressed by 1) by particles of age 2 = at t = (j -1) for 2 = j <

n; Np,3,j (= r2 Np,2,j-1) by those of age 3 = 2 at t = (j

-1) for 3 = j = n and so on consecutively until Np,n,j

1 Fc ( t i ) = exp d =

t i

rp rp

(= rn-1 Np,n-1,j-1) is reached at t = (n-1). For any i

(7) value, ri = exp (-/rp) is constant. From this matrix

( t i ) scheme in Figure 3, compartments composed of

= exp particles fed into the dryer at t = 0 are on the

rp principal diagonal (i,j = i) corresponding to Np,i,j=i.

Compartments with particles fed into the dryer at t =

Equation (7) allows calculation of the fraction of are located on the diagonal (i, j = i + 1),

particles of an age between i and (i + d), which corresponding to Np,i,j=i+1 and so on successively. In

remain in the dryer at operating time t. Figure 3 each compartment, there are two outlet currents of

illustrates the model compartments corresponding to particles: one formed by the particle fraction Np,s =

the particle age at any time t = i t (0 i n). Note (1-ri)Np,i,j that leaves the dryer at (j -1) = t = j

that at t = (n-1), the n compartments are all filled and the other by the particle fraction Np,r = riNp,i,j that

with particles of ages varying from 0 to n. remains in the dryer and feeds the next time

Moreover, at this operating time, the remaining compartment, Np, i+1,j+1.

Moreover, this scheme, different from the one Overall water evaporation rate

suggested by Clement et al. (1991), allows easy

identification of the particle fraction that leaves the t

F

exp & v d

dp m

2

dryer at t > . Based on this, water evaporation and ms rp

0 t

the heat transfer rates can be determined during the n

N ( t ) &v= &v

2

p,i,j

entire operating time, since the individual mass and d p2 m (8)

heat transfer rates estimated in each i of the Npi,j d p m

i =1

compartments in the j column of a given operating

time, can be summed up as follows: Overall heat rate

Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol. 22, No. 02, pp. 293 - 302, April - June, 2005

298 V. S. Birchal and M. L. Passos

t

F

exp d p q& d

2

comprises (2n+2) differential equations.

ms rp

0 t (9) Overall rates of mass and heat transfer between

n phases, the mean particle moisture content, Wp , and

N ( t ) q& = q&

2

p,i, j

d p d 2p

i =1 temperature, Tp , can thus be calculated at a given

operating time, t, as

Np,i,j is the particle fraction in the i,j compartment

(1 = i = n) with j = constant corresponding to a given Overall heat rate supplied by gas

operating time and expressed as

n

N p,i,j = N p,i ( t ) = ri

(10)

& =Q

Q & (t) = Q

& =

j N p,i,j d p,i,j 2

q& (15)

i =1

F t i

N p,i 1,, j1 = exp Overall heat rate used for water evaporation

ms rp

t i

n

with i = ( i 1) .

&

Q &

evap = Qevap,j = + ( C pv )(

Cpw Tp,i,j Tref

)

i=1

(16)

Based on Equations (8) and (9), mass and energy

&v

2

Np,i,j dp,i,j m

balances for both solid and gas phases were

developed as follows:

Mass balance for a single particle (applied to n Overall mass transfer rate for the solid phase

compartments) & & &

M evap = M evap ( t ) = M evap, j =

(17)

dW p

= d p ( t )

2 n

ms

dt = N p,i,j d p,i, j 2

( m& v + m& v ap )

(11) i =1

( m& v + m& v ap ) Mean particle moisture content in the dryer

Energy balance for a single particle (applied to n n

compartments)

W p,i, j (1 ri ) N p,i,j

W p ( t ) = Wp , j = i =1

=

d

(

dp ( t ) q& = ms Cps + WpCpw Tp ( t ) Tref + )( )

2 n

dt

(12) (1 r ) N

i =1

i p,i, j

( )

+ + Cpv Tp ( t ) Tref dp ( t ) m

& v +m

& vap ( )

2

(18)

n

W p,i, jri N p,i, j

i=1

n

dY G Y0 Y + ( ) &v

d 2p m r N i p,i,j

= (13) i =1

dt Gr

Mean particle temperature in the dryer

Energy balance for the gas phase

Tp ( t ) = Tp,j =

d

dt

(

Gr C vg + YCvv + VCp ) ( T T ) =

g ref n

(19)

wall

ps + Wp,i,jCpw

(

= G Cpg + Y0Cpv Tgo Tg )( ) (14)

= i=1

+ Tref

n

&

M ( & &

evapC pv Tg Tp Q wall Q ) (Ci=1

ps + Wp,i,jCpw ) (1 ri ) Np,i,j

Modeling and Simulation of Milk Emulsion Drying 299

This modified model has two adjustable equilibrium data on both phases linked to the main

parameters, which are Diff, the effective coefficient program.

of water-vapor diffusion through the particle crust, In this model solution, the convergence problem

and hwall, the overall coefficient of heat transfer was solved by using different discretization times

between dryer walls and the ambient air. These during the simulation. Since, in the first temporal

coefficients are estimated from experimental data, as compartment (1,1), values and tendencies of

discussed later. temperature and gas humidity are unknown, problems

with the DASSL initialization can emerge. Besides, at

the beginning of the drying process, there are fast and

NUMERICAL METHOD FOR SOLVING abrupt changes in the particle temperature and

MODEL EQUATIONS moisture content profiles. Therefore, it is necessary to

implement a large number of compartments (n >

Due to the complexity of the differential-algebraic 1000) in the first drying period. However, once

equation system (DAE), its solution requires the use of convergence is achieved, this large number becomes

numerical methods. Transforming this system into one unnecessary. To optimize the model solution

of ordinary differential equations (ODE) would involve algorithm, a time refining in the first temporal

a series of algebraic operations, such as the one used by compartment is proposed, subdividing it into nr

Clement et al. (1991). Besides, these authors reported temporal subcompartments with a time interval of

serious convergence problems while simulating the /nr. Simulations have shown that setting the number

beginning of the drying process. These arguments are of compartments at n = 500 and nr = 50 is the

sufficient to support the proposal of a new method to minimum required to guarantee convergence. In this

solve directly this DAE system, in which the DASSL work, n = 600 and nr = 200 were adopted. The results,

code (Petzold, 1989) is applied. By using the as shown in Figure 4, are a good description of

backward-differential formula in each integration particle history inside the dryer.

step, the DASSL code transforms DAE system into a To estimate the two adjustable model parameters,

set of algebraic equations, whose solution is obtained Diff and hwall, the weighty least square method was

by Newton methods. The code, developed in the used to represent the residue or error function. An

FORTRAN language, has been incorporated into a optimization subroutine, based on the PSO (particle

computational FORTRAN program, containing the swarm optimization) heuristic method (Kennedy and

initial conditions; the sequential order of equations to Eberhart, 1995) was implemented, resulting in a

be solved with the corresponding code callings and rapid convergence to the overall minimum of this

the solution feedback to the program. In addition, error function. As a result, Diff was estimated as

there are specific subroutines for calculating the air, 4.1x10-9 m2/s and hwall as 7.3 W/m2K.

Figure 4: History of particle drying inside the spray dryer (n = 600; nr = 200).

Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol. 22, No. 02, pp. 293 - 302, April - June, 2005

300 V. S. Birchal and M. L. Passos

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION combining low (-1), medium (0) and high (+1) levels of

three operational variables: F, vatom and Tg0, as shown in

To analyze and validate results from the model Table 1. More details of these experiments can found in

developed, experimental tests were conducted at the work of Birchal (2003).

IEN/CNEN in an APV-ANHIDRO model PSD 52 Results obtained with the model by using the

pilot spray dryer made of stainless steel with a 1 m of computer program developed are presented in Table

diameter and a 0.6 m of height (cylindrical part) and a 2 together with experimental data, deviation and

7.5 kg/h of evaporation capacity. Drying air at a rate of fitted error (model fit to experimental data). In

0.041 kg/s and a humidity of 0.010 to 0.020 and whole figures 5-a, 5-b and 5-c, the agreement between

milk emulsion with a 49% solids concentration at 51C experimental and simulated data can easily be

are fed in concurrently, reproducing the industrial observed. In these figures, vertical bars on the

conditions of dryer operation. The atomizer is of the experimental data points represent the experimental

rotary disc type. Nine inlet conditions were tested by error given in Table 2.

Order

# (kg/h) (C) (rpm) (F, Tg0, vatom)

1 10 1.4 160 42000 (-1.-1.-1)

2 5 2.4 160 42000 (+1.-1.-1)

3 11 1.4 190 42000 (-1.+1.-1)

4 7 2.4 190 42000 (+1.+1.-1)

5 8 1.4 160 50000 (-1.-1.+1)

6 3 2.4 160 50000 (+1.-1.+1)

7 1 1.4 190 50000 (-1.+1.+1)

8 9 2.4 190 50000 (+1.+1.+1)

9 6 1.9 175 46000 (0.0.0)

10 4 1.9 175 46000 (0.0.0)

11 2 1.9 175 46000 (0.0.0)

# experimental simulated experimental simulated experimental simulated

1 113 113 0.016 0.018 0.042 0.037

2 102 104 0.019 0.020 0.047 0.043

3 120 120 0.021 0.021 0.045 0.037

4 98 95.5 0.018 0.020 0.038 0.039

5 95 94 0.024 0.024 0.038 0.040

6 94 94 0.013 0.019 0.036 0.045

7 123 124 0.012 0.020 0.033 0.038

8 102 102 0.018 0.020 0.041 0.044

9* 94 92 0.020 0.020 0.031 0.035

10* 98 98 0.016 0.019 0.037 0.038

11* 99 99 0.018 0.019 0.030 0.039

SD 2.8* 1.2** 0.002* 0.003** 0.004* 0.005**

Error 6.9* 0.8** 0.005* 0.002** 0.009* 0.004**

(*) replications at the central point, generating experimental error and standard deviation;

(**) standard deviation (SD) and error for the model fitted to experimental data.

As shown in Figure 5-a, all values of Tg are experimental and simulated data, which is explained

predicted well by the model within the experimental by the considerable measurement errors obtained

uncertainty range. This variable is one of the most with instruments. The model predicts satisfactorily

important in the spray drying operation, since it is an nine out of eleven data. Larger and no predictive Wp

indirect measurement of solids properties, such as deviations obtained in experiments 3 and 7 may be

the outlet powder moisture content and temperature related to the severe inlet conditions imposed on the

in the industrial production of powdered milk. From milk drying (higher temperature and lower emulsion

this, it is also possible to calculate thermal dryer feed rate), which resulted in a burned product with a

efficiency and to analyze particle temperature history possible loss of some volatile components.

and possible alterations in properties of the In Figure 5-c, Y is also predicted well,

powdered milk. considering the experimental uncertainty involved in

Figure 5-b indicates a larger deviation between measurement of this variable.

Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering

Modeling and Simulation of Milk Emulsion Drying 301

(a) (b)

(c)

Figure 5: Comparison between experimental and simulated data for a) Tg, b) Wp and c) Y.

CONCLUSIONS NOMENCLATURE

following conclusions are drawn: Cp, specific heat at constant J/(kg K)

the modified model satisfactorily describes its Cv pressure and at constant

response variables, Tg, Wp and Y, under volume

continuous operation; dp particle diameter m or m

although the particle residence time distribution dp0 initial or inlet drop diameter m or m

can be improved by testing other functions, the Diff coefficient of vapor m2/s

perfect mixture approach seems to describe diffusion through the particle

reasonably well particle motion inside the pilot crust

spray dryer used in the experiments; Dv coefficient of vapor m2/s

Tg, one of the most important process variables, diffusion through an

has the lowest model predicted error; stagnant air layer

Y is also predicted well; nevertheless, the E(/ particle age distribution (-)

associated experimental uncertainty is high due to rp) fraction

the time required for getting trusty on-line results; F milk emulsion dry solids kg/s

Wp is satisfactorily predicted by the model in the flow rate

usual range of inlet air temperatures ( 180 C); Fc(t) cumulative fraction of (-)

however the model cannot predict the thermal particles, which leave the

degradation of powdered milk, as observed in the dryer at t

experiments, at a high level of inlet air f function defined in Equation (-)

temperature. (2)

Studies are in progress to improve this modified G dry air flow rate kg/s

model by designing control strategies for safely h convective heat transfer W/(m2K)

drying milk emulsion in spray dryers. coefficient

Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol. 22, No. 02, pp. 293 - 302, April - June, 2005

302 V. S. Birchal and M. L. Passos

transfer between wall dryer content (dry basis)

and ambient air

k convective coefficient of m/s Greek Letters

mass transfer

kG thermal conductivity of air W/(m K) heat of water vaporization at J/kg

Mw molar mass of water kg/kmol Tref

ms mass of dry solids in the kg particle age inside the s

drop (= constant) chamber

m& v individual water evaporation kg/(s m2) rp mean particle residence time s

rate per unit of particle area in the dryer

m& vvap additional water evaporation kg/(s m2) density kg/m3

rate per unit of particle area susp milk emulsion density at kg/m3

M& evap overall water evaporation kg/s inlet

rate water water density kg/m3

(I,j) temporal compartment

n number of temporal (-) Nu = h dp/kG (Nusselt number) (-)

compartments Sh = k dp/Dv (Sherwood number) (-)

P pressure Pa

Pw vapor pressure Pa

Pwg vapor pressure in the bulk air Pa REFERENCES

P w* equilibrium vapor pressure Pa

q& gas-particle heat transfer J/(s m2) Birchal, V.S., Modelagem e simulao da secagem

between per particle area de leite em secadores spray. Ph.D. diss.,

Q& overall heat transfer rate J/s Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo

Q& evap overall heat evaporation rate J/s Horizonte (2003).

Clement, K.H., Hallstrm, A., Dich, H.C., Le, C.M.,

Mortensen, J. and Thomsen, H.A., On the

R ideal gas constant (= 8314) J/(kmol K) Dynamic Behavior of Spray Dryers. Transactions

t operating time s Inst. of Chemical Engineers, 69, 245 (1991).

T temperature C or K Kennedy, J. and Eberhart, R.C., Particle Swarm

Tamb room temperature C or K Optimization, International Conference on Neural

Tg air temperature C or K Networks. Perth, Australia (1995).

Tp particle temperature C or K King, C.J., Kieckbusch, T.G. and Greenwald, C.G.,

Tref reference temperature ( = 273.15) K Food-Quality Factors in Spray Drying, Advances

UR relative humidity of bulk air (-) in Drying, 3, 71 (1984).

V volume m3 Masters, K., Spray Drying Handbook. Longman

vatom atomization speed rotation rpm Scientific and Technical, New York (1985).

Y air humidity (dry basis) (-) Nath, S. and Satpathy, R., A Systematic Approach

Wc critical particle moisture (-) for Investigation of Spray Drying Process, Drying

content (dry basis) Technology, 16, No. 6 1173 (1998).

Wp particle moisture content (-) Petzold, L.R., DASSL: a Differential-algebraic

(dry basis) System Solver, Computing and Mathematics.

W0 inlet particle moisture (-) Research Division, Lawrence Livermore National

content (dry basis) Laboratory, Livermore, California (1989).

- نموذج تقرير مختبر.docUploaded byAnwaar
- Theoretical DistributionUploaded byAtul Jhariya
- JURNAL INTERNASIONAL 1Uploaded bykelompok10ipm3ehhhhh
- Motor Fitness of Rural Primary School Girls In Comparison To BoysUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Education and Human Capital Externalities: Evidence from Colonial BeninUploaded byjohn
- Bukit Mertajam 2014(q)Uploaded bySTPMmaths
- Cusum ChartsUploaded byrohitvan
- ANOVA_1_MinitabUploaded byrtyagami
- ies 2015Uploaded bymanidev
- CCP303Uploaded byapi-3849444
- Profanity.pdfUploaded byroyalcasino3
- Engineering Physics IIUploaded byNeco Carlo Pal
- Comparison Large Small StmUploaded byYazin Azad
- 1-s2.0-S187704281402429X-20Uploaded byFelicia Mariana Lupu
- Uncertainty From Sampling - NORDTEST Report - TR604Uploaded byAnonymous LEVNDh4
- Bi 348 Chapter 02Uploaded byRajnish Kumar
- Misuse of Data From Mist-net Captures to Assess Relative Abundance in Bird PopulationsUploaded byAlejandra Gomez
- Thermo Ch 19Uploaded byFatimah Azzahrah
- To Improve The Student Conceptual Understanding Using Thermal Radiation Experiment Tool..docxUploaded bysyifa
- OutputUploaded byJ R
- Criterion for Concrete Acceptance-Rajamane_Nataraja_Ganesan-ICJ Apr 2012Uploaded byRaja Rajan
- Phy C&a Guide Updated eUploaded byhahaha43210
- UntitledUploaded bysree2728
- Statistics and GraphUploaded byrache99
- Test 1 CIE225 2015.docxUploaded byNat
- “Attitude of PG students’ towards using e-resources in learning”Uploaded bysushma
- EffectsofRootCanalPreparationonApicalGeometryassessedbymicro-CTPaqueetalUploaded bySiva Kumar
- Quantitative Methods NotesUploaded byDavide Rossetti
- A distributed parameter model for particles in the spray drying process.pdfUploaded bymarmaduke32
- nzy0nzq1oqUploaded byapi-266986914

- 64 Interview QuestionsUploaded byshivakumar N
- Open Foam FinalUploaded byumair35
- Wall FunctionsUploaded bySharat Chandra
- openfoamFinal.pdfUploaded byumair35
- 2008 Int ANSYS Conf Particulate Modeling in Ansys CfdUploaded byrongweius
- Spray Dryers Aspen PlusUploaded byAtalayÇalışan
- Project 06Uploaded byEngr Nayyer Nayyab Malik
- Simple MixturesUploaded byumair35
- Non-linear Transformations Oliver JamesUploaded bySandra Branzaru
- chap3Uploaded bySasidhar Jannu
- Evaporation CalculationUploaded byumair35
- Moisture CalculatorUploaded byumair35
- B-290_Scale-up_B-290_Niro_MOBILE_MINOR_en_01.pdfUploaded byumair35
- True-history of IslamUploaded byadil
- Importance of glass transition and water activity to spray drying and stability of dairy powders.pdfUploaded byumair35
- AM_120_Ch03.pdfUploaded byumair35
- AM_120_Ch02.pdfUploaded byumair35
- AM_120_Ch01Uploaded byumair35
- fluent totorail.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari
- Quality criteria for LES simulations.pdfUploaded byumair35
- Autodesk University Workshop - Metrics and the Basics of Fluid Flow - 2015-04-06Uploaded byumair35
- Effect of particle size on spray dried product of choclate.pdfUploaded byumair35
- Effects of Drying Techniques on Milk Powders Quality and MicrostrUploaded byumair35
- Determination of Volume of Gas Contained in Particles of Milk PowderUploaded byumair35
- Analysis of transport phenomena in a rotary-kiln.pdfUploaded byumair35
- Influence of Processing Variables on the Physiochemical Properties of Spray Dried Fat Based Milk PowdersUploaded byumair35
- L1_L2_L3_L4_ReaderUploaded byumair35
- ID016Uploaded byumair35

- Thesis TopicsUploaded byacestrider1023
- Synopsis ReportUploaded byAnkit Agrawal
- Autotrack MasterUploaded byEduardo Alexander Napan Cuenca
- lec14.pdfUploaded byVanitha Shah
- Epson_PX710_TX710_PX720_TX720_PX730_TX730_PX810_TX810_PX820_TX820_PX830.pdfUploaded byIon Ionut
- Engr 2110 Introduction to Material Science --Ch1Uploaded byFieAuliyah
- Multiplicative InverseUploaded bydearbhupi
- ASTM A1010-A1010M E-2001Uploaded byJorge Toribio
- Helical Gears FormulasUploaded byRagava Moorthy
- Early weaning food for infants (0-6 months old) in madurese people based on transcultural nursing theoryUploaded byFerry Efendi
- 27 - In the Coils of the Coming ConflictUploaded byskalpsolo
- chap4_SUploaded byDavid Nicolae
- Prof. Clifford Hughes ISQuaUploaded byTri Widiastuti
- Sapphire crmUploaded byvinay_vadrevu
- cpu-05-2011Uploaded byMehdi Khajeh
- The Egyptian Heritage in the Ancient Measurements of the EarthUploaded bykhafre
- G55 Operator's Manual 2012Uploaded byFoo
- Etc Expression 3Uploaded byKing Houston
- 32_chapter 02 DftUploaded byaanbalan
- SAES-W-017Uploaded bytimam
- How Sensors Work - PH MeasurementUploaded byAnonymous J8bMqYsYRe
- Addressable FACP Monaco_227 885 MNUploaded byimran_212
- v82i05Uploaded byAntonio Eleuteri
- DESIGN OF A 90⁰ SWITCHED LINE PHASE SHIFTER FOR PHASED ARRAY ANTENNASUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Wall Thickness Calculation - ASME B31.8 2007Uploaded bySomi Khan
- SKF 4781_E BUploaded byWayu
- BaudUploaded byMurali Mohan Reddy
- Strength of MaterialsUploaded byEkajara Josh
- halteman-ontotheology websiteUploaded byapi-313638165
- Underwater Explosins By ColeUploaded byxiaotaoscribd