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Green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally

preferable to others. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities,

including product modification, changes to the production process, sustainable packaging, as
well as modifying advertising.

Cause marketing or cause-related marketing refers to a type of marketing involving the

cooperative efforts of a for-profit business and a non-profit organization for mutual benefit.
The term is sometimes used more broadly and generally to refer to any type of marketing
effort for social and other charitable causes, including in-house marketing efforts by non-
profit organizations.


Cause marketing can take on many forms, including:

Transactional Campaigns: A corporate donation triggered by a consumer action (e.g.

sharing a message social media, making a purchase, etc.)

Point of Sale Campaigns: A donation solicited by a company at the point of sale but made
by the consumer

Message-Focused Campaigns: Business resources are used to share a cause-focused

message. For example a campaign that encourages behavior change .


A characteristic or feature of a product that is thought to appeal to customers. Attributes

usually represent a manufacturer's or a seller's perspective and not necessarily that of a
customer. Attributes of instant coffee, for example, may include its aroma, flavor, color,
caffeine content, packaging and presentation, price, shelf-life, source, etc. Attributes have
only two possible ratings (negative or positive) expressed as acceptable or unacceptable,
desirable or undesirable, good or bad, etc.

Difference between Customers,Consumers and Consumerism:

A customer buys products from businesses, while a consumer uses the business products.
You can actually be both a customer and a consumer in a business transaction.
Comparison Chart


Meaning The purchaser of goods or services is known The end user of goods or service
as the Customer. is known as a Consumer.

Resell A customer can be a business entity, who No

can purchase it for the purpose of resale.

Purchase of goods Yes Not necessary

Purpose Resale or Consumption Consumption

Price of product or Paid by the customer May not be paid by the consumer

Person Individual or Organization Individual, Family or Group o


Comparison Chart


Meaning Price is the amount paid Cost is the amount incurred Value is the utility of a
for acquiring any product in producing and good or service.
or service. maintaining something.

Ascertainment Price is ascertained from Cost is ascertained from the Value is ascertained
the consumer's producer's perspective. from the user'
perspective. perspective.

Estimation Through Policy Through Fact Through Opinion

Impact of variations Prices of product increase Cost of inputs rise or fall. Value remain
in market or decrease. unchanged.

Money It can be calculated in It can also be calculated in It is not calculated in

terms of money. monetary terms. terms of money.

Comparison Chart


Meaning A person or a business organization A person or business organization who i

who is engaged in buying and selling involved in supplying goods to dealers and
of a particular kind of goods is known other businesses is known as Distributor.

Function Dealer purchases products for their Distributor purchase products directly from
own account and trades them to the the company and distributes it in th
customer from his own stock. market to several vendors.

Who are they? Principal Agent


Creates links Distributor and Consumer Manufacturer and Dealer


Deals in Products which fall under a particular Variety of products


Competition Extreme Moderate

Serving area Limited Large

Comparison Chart


Meaning Demand is the desire of a buyer and his Supply is the quantity of a commodity
ability to pay for a particular commodity which is made available by the producer
at a specific price. to its consumers at a certain price.

Inter-relationship When demand increases supply When supply increases demand

decreases, i.e. inverse relationship. decreases, i.e. inverse relationship.

Effect of Variations Demand increases with the supply Supply increases with the demand
remaining the same leads to shortage remaining the same leads to surplu
while demand decreases with the supply while supply decreases with the demand

remaining the same leads to surplus. remaining the same leads to shortage.

Impact of Price With an increase in price the demand Supply increases along with the increase
decreases and vice versa i.e. indirect in price. So it has a direct relationship.

Who represents Demand represents the consumer. Supply represents the firm.

Comparison Chart


Meaning Goods are the material items that can be Services are amenities, facilities
seen, touched or felt and are ready for sale benefits or help provided by othe
to the customers. people.

Nature Tangible Intangible

Transfer of ownership Yes No

Evaluation Very simple and easy Complicated

Return Goods can be returned. Services cannot be returned back

once they are provided.

Separable Yes, goods can be separated from the seller. No, services cannot be separated
from the service provider.

Variability Identical Diversified

Storage Goods can be stored for use in future or Services cannot be stored.
multiple use.

Production and There is a time lag between production and Production and Consumption o
Consumption consumption of goods. goods occurs simultaneously.

What is a 'Market Portfolio'

A market portfolio is a theoretical bundle of investments that includes every type of asset
available in the world financial market, with each asset weighted in proportion to its total
presence in the market. The expected return of a market portfolio is identical to the expected
return of the market as a whole. Because a market portfolio is completely diversified, it is
subject only to systematic risk (risk that affects the market as a whole) and not
to unsystematic risk (the risk inherent to a particular asset class).

A market analysis studies the attractiveness and the dynamics of a special market within a
special industry. It is part of the industry analysis and thus in turn of the global environmental
analysis. Through all of these analyses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
(SWOT) of a company can be identified. Finally, with the help of aSWOT analysis, adequate
business strategies of a company will be defined

The Importance of Doing Market Analysis Specifically, you will be able to see:

What products and services your target market is already using

Which businesses are using the best marketing mix to provide these products and
If there are any shortcomings in these products and services that you can fix to gain
the attention of customers
What external factors apart from competition and demand can affect the success or
failure of your business (e.g. government economic policies)

Tools Used for Market Analysis: SWOT and PEST

While there are several tools for doing market analysis, but two of the most common ones
are SWOT andPEST.
SWOT Analysis
The abbreviation stands for:

Strengths: The competitive advantage you have in the marketplace (e.g. customer
service, better access to raw materials)
Weakness: All things with which your competitors are able to grab your market share
Opportunities: Unexplored market trends and untapped market niches that waiting to
be taken advantage of
Threats: Political, climatic, technological, and other external factors that can cause a
problem for your business and get in the way of its long term goals
The benefit of SWOT is that it can be done by your business managers and you do not
necessarily have to hire an analyst. And once the analysis is done, you can straight to the
action and address the complex situation at hand.

PEST Analysis
Political: Government legal factors that can affect the success and profitability of a
business. Examples include political stability, employment laws, safety regulations and
trade regulations.
Economic: This encompasses all the economic aspects that can play a role in the
success of a business. Examples include economic growth, unemployment policies,
business cycle of the country, as well as economic, interest and inflation rates need to be
taken into consideration.
Social: These are all the cultural and demographic aspects that determine whether the
business can compete in the market. Examples include age distribution, lifestyle
changes, population growth, demographics, environmental, health and educational
Technological: This factor analyzes the factors which affect the means it can bring its
product or service to the market. Examples include government expenditure on
technology, technological advancements, life cycle of technology available, as well as
the role of internet.
PEST provides a simple framework for market analysis, and also helps reduce the impact and
effects of potential threats to your business.

7 Ways To Sell Anything

1. Grow to Know Your Customers

2. 2. The First Impression Counts A lot

3. Get the Statistics

4. Let the Buyer Meet The Seller

5. Begin the marketing

6. Be Ready To Alter your Prices at a Whim

7. Sealing the Deal

Sales Challenges Management Questions Creative Solutions

1. Longer decision What are the causes? What Create a more attractive selling proposition.
time frames would accelerate the lead Improve lead scoring and prospect
pipeline? engagement. Create a lead-nuturing process.
Accelerate lead flow.
2. Need to win What technology can cut Explore such vendors asBig
more proposals proposal writing time? What Machines and Sant.
process can improve win
3. Competing with How can we educate
Collect authentic customer testimonials that
a lower-priced customers to justify an
focus on value. Ask independent expert to
competitor whose investment in quality? How
create a white paper. Use social networking
promises won't do our best salespeople sell
to promote long-term value.
hold up over time value over price?
4. Finding more How do we define a
Explore online lead sources, such as Inside
qualified leads qualified lead? What are our
View, ZoomInfo,Hoovers, Jigsaw,LeadDogs.
best lead sources? What new
Explore outsourcing lead qualification.
lead sources can we tap
Check out, InsideSales, andConnectAndSell.
5. Weathering What are our customers
budget cuts buying today? How can we Price more aggressively. Allow customers to
encourage them to consider defer payments. Alternate financing options.
fresh ideas? What impact Explore high cost of doing nothing. Better
can we have on our justify ROI.
customers' bottom lines?
6. Deals lost to How do we transform our
Review the lead-scoring process. Improve
delays sales funnel into a buy-cycle
the sales process to gain a specific
funnel? How well do we
commitment at the conclusion of every call.
understand how our
Gain commitment at a higher level.
customers buy?
7. Too many What is the best way to Improve the quality of each customer
competitors differentiate our solution? interaction. Improve the collaboration
How can we improve our between sales and marketing, and create
sales message? How can we integrated social-media campaigns. Present
deliver more value? more customer testimonials.
8. Little customer What changed? How do
Bring the customers voice back into the
interest in our add- customers think about our
company. Align customer priorities with
on services product? What are the top
product development and marketing.
three customer priorities?
9. Fewer staff How can we improve our Invest more time in training sales support.
members to help sales support? What are the Streamline the sales process. Create better
hit sales targets underserved needs of our metrics to understand what really drives
sales team? productivity.
10. Getting through What is the current process? Train and coach salespeople on C-level
to the C-level How do we train our team?
selling techniques. ReadWhale Hunting by
decision makers What is our big-game
Tom Searcy. Set up CEO-to-CEO calls.
hunting strategy?

10 Characteristics of Successful Salespeople

1. They are persistent

2. Successful sales people are avid goal setters.

3. Great sales people ask quality questions

4. Successful sales people listen

5. Successful sales people are passionate

6. Successful sales people are enthusiastic

7. Successful sales people take responsibility for their results

8. Successful sales people work hard

9. Successful sales people keep in touch with their clients

10. Successful sales people show value


What is the difference between Shopping and Marketing?

Shopping involves the actual buying of goods and services. Marketing involves the actual
promotion and advertising of goods and services.

Does Corporate Social Responsibility Increase Profits?

It is generally held that corporate social responsibility (CSR) could increase company profits
and thus most large companies are actively engaged in it. But few executives and managers
are aware of the research on this important subject. And as I review here, the research does
show that it may improve profits. However, linking profit growth to abstract variables that are
frequently difficult to define is a challenging task.

Most executives believe that CSR can improve profits. They

understand that CSR can promote respect for their company in the marketplace which can
result in higher sales, enhance employee loyalty and attract better personnel to the firm. Also,
CSR activities focusing on sustainability issues may lower costs and improve efficiencies as
well. An added advantage for public companies is that aggressive CSR activities may help
them gain a possible listing in the FTSE4Good or Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes, or
other similar indices. This may enhance the companys stock price, making executives stock
and stock options more profitable and shareholders happier.
Substantiating some of these beliefs is a study, Corporate citizenship: Profiting from a
sustainable business, by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) published in November
2008. Corporate citizenship is another term roughly equivalent to CSR.

The study of CSR and its relation to corporate profits is growing. The most recent study on
this subject is by Cristiana Manescu. In her thesis, "Economic Implications of Corporate
Social Responsibility and Responsible Investments, at the University of Gothenburg's
School of Business, Economics and Law, Sweden, she wrote on December 6, 2010 that, the
results [of her thesis] reveal that CSR activities do not generally have a negative effect on
profitability, but that in the few cases where they have a positive effect, this effect is rather
small. Other studies add further perspectives.

Summing up their results, the researchers said, we conduct[ed] a meta-analysis of 52 studies

(which represent the population of prior quantitative inquiry) yielding a total sample size of
33,878 observations. The meta-analytic findings suggest that corporate virtue in the form of
social responsibility and, to a lesser extent, environmental responsibility, is likely to pay
off CSP [corporate social performance] appears to be more highly correlated with
accounting-based measures of CFP [corporate financial performance] than with market-based
indicators, and CSP reputation indices are more highly correlated with CFP than are other
indicators of CSP. This meta-analysis establishes a greater degree of certainty with respect to
the CSP-CFP relationship than is currently assumed to exist by many business scholars.

So the research generally indicates that CSR/CC/CSP, no matter how you define it, does offer
potential benefit to corporate profits. But there is another unanswered problem, and that
relates to causation.
Do high profits enable greater spending on CSR, or is it that CSR itself creates higher profits?
Referring again to the study, "The Economics and Politics of Corporate Social Performance,"
the researchers write that, the direction of causation remains an open question. That is,
good CSP could cause good CFP, but good CFP could provide slack resources to spend on
CSP. As the Economist wrote, ...whether profitable companies feel rich enough to splash out
on CSR, or CSR [activity itself] brings profits. Hopefully, future research will be able to
answer this question.

On balance, surveys and the research literature suggest that what most executives believe
intuitively, that CSR can improve profits, is possible. And almost no large public company
today would want to be seen unengaged in CSR. That is clear admission of how important
CSR might be to their bottom line, no matter how difficult it may be to define CSR and link it
to profits.

Brand is not branding

The difference between brand and branding is that one is a marketing tool and the other is an

A brand is a thing (noun). Branding is an action (verb). This is more than just persnickety
semanticsits about fundamental understanding of a core marketing tool.

What is branding?

Branding is the act of creating a brand. The process involves positioning your company or
product in the market (carving out your own place), devising brand strategy (how you will
reach your goals), creating your name (your verbal identity), designing corporate identity or
product identity (your visual identity), writing brand messaging (verbal and written tone), and
setting brand standards (how you keep your brand consistent and strong).
When branding (also called brand development) is completed, most businesses (when theyve
worked with an experienced professional) will not have to undertake the branding process for
roughly 10-20 or more years. In the life of a 50-year business, branding the company occurs
only 2-3 times total.

What is your brand?

Your brand is the result of the branding effort. Your brand describes who you are and what
you do by use of visual identity, verbal dialog and tone of actions. It is utilized for virtually
all of your marketing communications. It is how people identify, know and remember you.

How knowing the distinction helps your business

A critical branding concept to embrace is that we are not creating a made-up story or spiel.
Were creating a real marketing communication tool which, when wielded articulately, can
empower your entire organization to communicate with greater purpose and clarity. Knowing
this enables people to be well-informed, and to impart better understanding, which leads to
less confusion, clear communication, and better customer service.

Understanding the difference between brands and branding helps you net a stronger brand
because you will be more personally invested the brand development process. Your
understanding also helps your employees grasp the full significance of the brand, so they
learn how to best utilize it in marketing, selling, and supporting your goals and initiatives.
The Difference between Marketing and Branding
Branding is strategic. Marketing is tactical.
Marketing unearths and activates buyers. Branding makes loyal customers, advocates,
even evangelists, out of those who buy.
Branding is as vital to the success of a business or nonprofit as having financial
coherence, having a vision for the future, or having quality employees.

1. Be unique.

2. Grow your community

3. Build great products and services.

4. Have a good name and logo

5. Find your voice

6. Be consistent

7. Keep your promises

8. Stand for something

9. Empower your customers

10. Deliver value.\

What is Brand Positioning?

Put simply, brand positioning is the process of positioning your brand in the mind of your
customers. Brand positioning is also referred to as a positioning strategy, brand strategy, or a
brand positioning statement.
7-Step Brand Positioning Strategy Process

In order to create a position strategy, you must first identify your brands uniqueness and
determine what differentiates you from your competition.

There are 7 key steps to effectively clarify your positioning in the marketplace:

1. Determine how your brand is currently positioning itself

2. Identify your direct competitors

3. Understand how each competitor is positioning their brand

4. Compare your positioning to your competitors to identify your uniqueness

5. Develop a distinct and value-based positioning idea

6. Craft a brand positioning statement (see below)

7. Test the efficacy of your brand positioning statement (see 15 criteria below)

How to Create a Brand Positioning Statement

There are four essential elements of a best-in-class positioning statement:

1. Target Customer: What is a concise summary of the attitudinal and demographic

description of the target group of customers your brand is attempting to appeal to and attract?
2. Market Definition: What category is your brand competing in and in what context
does your brand have relevance to your customers?
3. Brand Promise: What is the most compelling (emotional/rational) benefit to your
target customers that your brand can own relative to your competition?
4. Reason to Believe: What is the most compelling evidence that your brand delivers on
its brand promise?

Examples of Positioning Statements

Amazon.com used the following positioning statement in 2001 (when it almost exclusively
sold books):
For World Wide Web users who enjoy books, Amazon.com is a retail bookseller that provides
instant access to over 1.1 million books. Unlike traditional book retailers, Amazon.com
provides a combination of extraordinary convenience, low prices, and comprehensive

Services marketing is a sub-field of marketing, which can be split into the two main areas of
goods marketing (which includes the marketing of fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) and
durables) and services marketing. Services marketing typically refers to both business to
consumer (B2C) and business to business (B2B) services, and includes marketing of services
such as telecommunications services, financial services, all types of hospitality services, car
rental services, air travel, health care services and professional services.

Philip Kotler (born May 27, 1931 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American marketing author,
consultant, and professor; currently the S. C. Johnson Distinguished Professor of
International Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University.
He is the author of over 55 marketing books, including Principles of Marketing, Kotler on
Marketing: How to Create, Win, and Dominate Markets, and Marketing 3.0: From Products
to Customers to the Human Spirit. Kotler describes strategic marketing as serving as "the link
between society's needs and its pattern of industrial response."[1]

Using the BCG Matrix (Growth Market Share Matrix) to review your product

What is the BCG Matrix?

The Boston Consulting groups product portfolio matrix (BCG) is designed to help with long-
term strategic planning, to help a business consider growth opportunities by reviewing its
portfolio of products to decide where to invest, to discontinue or develop products.

The Matrix is divided into 4 quadrants derived on market growth and relative market share,
as shown in the diagram below.
1. Dogs: These are products with low growth or market share.

2. Question marks or Problem Child: Products in high growth markets with low
market share.

3. Stars: Products in high growth markets with high market share.

4. Cash cows: Products in low growth markets with high market share

How to use the BCG Matrix?

To look at each of these quadrants, here are some tips:

Dogs: The usual marketing advice is to remove any dogs from your product portfolio
as they are a drain on resources.

However, some can generate ongoing revenue with little cost.

For example, in the automotive sector, when a car line ends, there is still a need for
spare parts. As SAAB ceased trading and producing new cars, a whole business has
emerged providing SAAB parts.
Question marks: Named this, as its not known if they will become a star or drop
into the dog quadrant. These products often require significant investment to push
them into the star quadrant. The challenge is that a lot of investment may be required
to get a return. For example, Rovio, creators of the very successful Angry Birds game
has developed many other games you may not have heard of. Computer games
companies often develop hundreds of games before gaining one successful game. Its
not always easy to spot the future star and this can result in potentially wasted funds.

Stars: Can be the market leader though require ongoing investment to sustain. They
generate more ROI than other product categories.

Cash cows: Milk these products as much as possible without killing the cow!. Often
mature, well established products.The company Procter & Gamble which
manufactures Pampers nappies to Lynx deodorants has often been described as a cash
cow company.

Use the model as an overview of your products, rather than detailed analysis. If market share
is small, use the 'relevant market share' axis is based on your competitors rather than entire

BTC Matrix Example: How it can be applied to digital marketing strategies?

The BCG Model is based on products rather than services, however it does apply to both. You
could use this if reviewing a range of products, especially before starting to develop new

Looking at the British retailer, Marks & Spencer, they have a wide range of products and
many different lines. We can identify every element of the BCG matrix across their ranges:


Example: Lingerie. M&S was known as the place for ladies underwear at a time when choice
was limited. In a multi-channel environment, M&S lingerie is still the UKs market leader
with high growth and high market share.

Question Marks/Problem Child

Example: Food. For years M&S refused to consider food and today has over 400 Simply
Food stores across the UK. Whilst not a major supermarket, M&S Simply Food has a
following which demonstrates high growth and low market share.

Cash Cows
Example: Classic range. Low growth and high market share, the M&S Classic range has
strong supporters.


Example: Autograph range. A premium priced range of mens and womens clothing, with
low market share and low growth. Although placed in the dog category, the premium pricing
means that it makes a financial contribution to the company.


1. Emphasis is on the product

2 .Company Manufactures the product first

3 .Management is sales volume oriented

4 .Planning is short-run-oriented in terms of todays products and markets

5. Stresses needs of seller

6. Views business as a good producing process

7. Emphasis on staying with existing technology and reducing costs

8. Different departments work as in a highly separate water tight compartments

9.Cost determines Price

10. Selling views customer as a last link in business


1 Emphasis on consumer needs wants

2 Company first determines customers needs and wants and then decides out how to deliver a
product to satisfy these wants

3 Management is profit oriented

4 Planning is long-run-oriented in todays products and terms of new products, tomorrows

markets and future growth

5 Stresses needs and wants of buyers

6 Views business as consumer producing process satisfying process

7 Emphasis on innovation on every existing technology and reducing every sphere, on

providing better costs value to the customer by adopting a superior technology

8 All departments of the business integrated manner, the sole purpose being generation of
consumer satisfaction

9. Consumer determine price, price determines cost

10. Marketing views the customer last link in business as the very purpose of the business

Difference between marketing mix and promotional mix?

marketing mix is-the combination of product, pricing, promotion, and distrobution stratagies
used to market products.
Promotional mix is-combination of tools used to promote a product.
Personally i don't then there is much difference, marketing focuses on strategies and
promotion is actually promoting the product. so one is on paper, the others in motion

What is the Difference between Public Relations and Publicity?

The goal of PR and publicity is similar and that is to attract the attention of media
towards the products of the company but publicity is just a part of the whole PR
exercise that is undertaken to generate goodwill and credibility for the company in the
eyes of the public (potential customers).

The principle of perception is reality is at work when effective PR exercise is

undertaken, and a good PR strategy can create an aura around a product or person that
leads to amazing success.

What is the difference between Advertising and Public Relations?

Advertisement is a paid form of promotion whereas public relations (PR) is more or less a
free promotional tool.

Advertisement buys time slots on electronic media and space in print media, to carry the
message across. On the other hand, there is no such buying in public relations.

Company has control over the content of advertisement whereas it can only hope for a
totally positive point of view from the media.

There is a difference in public perception as public relation is not seen as a deliberate effort
of the company whereas public knows that the company has paid for time on electronic
While advertisements can be repeated many times for as long as the company desires, PR
releases are a onetime affair only.

Advertisements can be more creative than PR items.

There are differences in writing styles of advertisements and PR releases.

Difference between Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning

A market refers to a set up where two or more parties are involved in transaction of
goods and services in exchange of money. The two parties here are known as sellers and

It is the responsibility of the marketers to create awareness of their products amongst the
consumers. It is essential for the individuals to be aware of the brands existence. The USPs
of the brands must be communicated well to the end-users.

An organization cant afford to have similar strategies for product promotion amongst all
individuals. Not every individual has the same requirement and demand.

The marketers thus came with the concept of STP.

STP stands for:

S- Segmentation
T- Targeting
P - Positioning

The first step in the process of product promotion is Segmentation

The division of a broad market into small segments comprising of individuals who think on
the same lines and show inclination towards similar products and brands is called Market

Market Segmentation refers to the process of creation of small groups (segments) within a
large market to bring together consumers who have similar requirements, needs and interests.

The individuals in a particular segment respond to similar market fluctuations and require
identical products.

In simpler words market segmentation can also be called as Grouping.

Kids form one segment; males can be part of a similar segment while females form another
segment. Students belong to a particular segment whereas professionals and office goers can
be kept in one segment.

Once the marketer creates different segments within the market, he then devises various
marketing strategies and promotional schemes according to the tastes of the individuals
of particular segment. This process is called targeting. Once market segments are created,
organization then targets them.

Targeting is the second stage and is done once the markets have been segmented.

Organizations with the help of various marketing plans and schemes target their products
amongst the various segments.

Nokia offers handsets for almost all the segments. They understand their target audience well
and each of their handsets fulfils the needs and expectations of the target market.

Tata Motors launched Tata Nano especially for the lower income group.


Positioning is the last stage in the Segmentation Targeting Positioning Cycle.

Once the organization decides on its target market, it strives hard to create an image of its
product in the minds of the consumers. The marketers create a first impression of the product
in the minds of consumers through positioning.

Positioning helps organizations to create a perception of the products in the minds of target

Ray Ban and Police Sunglasses cater to the premium segment while Vintage or Fastrack
sunglasses target the middle income group. Ray Ban sunglasses have no takers amongst the
lower income group.

Garnier offers wide range of merchandise for both men and women.

Each of their brands has been targeted well amongst the specific market segments. (Men,
women, teenagers as well as older generation)

Men - Sunscreen lotions, Deodorant

Women - Daily skin care products, hair care products
Teenagers - Hair colour products, Garnier Light (Fairness cream)
Older Generation - Cream to fight signs of ageing, wrinkles

A female would never purchase a sunscreen lotion meant for men and vice a versa. Thats
brand positioning.

Pricing Strategy
. One of the four major elements of the marketing mix is price. Pricing is an
important strategic issue because it is related to product positioning.
Furthermore, pricing affects other marketing mix elements such as product features, channel
decisions, and promotion.

Types of Pricing Strategy

Definition Example
Here the organisation sets a low price
to increase sales and market share.
Penetration A television satellite company sets a low price to get
Once market share has been captured
Pricing subscribers then increases the price as their customer base increases.
the firm may well then increase their
The organisation sets an initial high
price and then slowly lowers the
A games console company reduces the price of their console over
Skimming price to make the product available
5 years, charging a premium at launch and lowest price near
Pricing to a wider market. The objective is to
the end of its life cycle.
skim profits of the market layer by
Setting a price in comparison with Some firms offer a price matching service to match what their
competitors. Really a firm has three competitors are offering. Other firms may take this further
options and these are to price lower, by refunding the customer more money than the difference
price the same or price higher than between their product price and the lower price offered
competitors. by the competitor firm.
An example would be a DVD manufacturer offering different
DVD recorders with different features at different prices e.g.
Pricing different products within the
Product Line A HD and non-HD version.. The greater the features and
same product range at different price
Pricing the benefit obtained the greater the consumer will pay.
This form of price discrimination assists the company
in maximising turnover and profits.
The organisation bundles a group of This strategy is very popular with supermarkets who often
products at a reduced price. Common offer BOGOF strategies.
methods are buy one and get one free
Bundle promotions or BOGOFs as they are
Pricing now known. Within the UK some
firms are now moving into the realms
of buy one get two free can we call
this BOGTF i wonder?
The seller here will consider the The seller will therefore charge 99p instead 1 or $199 instead of $
Psychological psychology of price and the why this methods work, is because buyers will still say they purchas
Pricing positioning of price within the under 200 pounds or dollars, even thought it was a pound or d
market place favourite pricing strategy.
Premium The price set is high to reflect the Examples of products and services using this strategy include Lon
Pricing exclusiveness of the product. store Harrods, first class airline services and Porsche.
The organisation sells optional extras
Optional This strategy is used commonly within the car industry as I f
along with the product to maximise
Pricing purchasing my car.
its turnover.

Cost plus pricing sets the price of the

product by adding a set amount
(mark up) to the production costs.
The mark up is based on how much
profit that the firm want to make. For example a product may cost 100 to produce and as the firm h
Cost Plus
Cost plus pricing ensures that the their profit should be 20% they set the product's price at 120
costs of production are covered but it 100/100*20)
could place the company at a
competitive disadvantage as it fails to
consider consumer demand or
competitor pricing.

Cost based pricing is similar to cost

plus pricing as it is based on costs of
Cost Based Cost based pricing can be useful for firms who want to base their p
production and marketing but it will
Pricing but operate in an industry where product pricing changes regularly (v
build in additional factors such as
market conditions to set pricing.

Marketing concepts or a philosophy that determines what type of marketing tools are used
by a company. Marketing concepts are driven by a clear objective that takes into account cost
efficiency, social responsibilities, and effectiveness within a particular market.
Concepts of Marketing

Production Concept Consumers prefer products that are widely available and inexpensive.
The production concept is more operations oriented than any other concept.

Product Concept Consumers favor products that offer the most quality, performance, or
innovative features. The product concept believes in the consumer and it says the consumers
are more likely to be loyal if they have more options of products or they get more benefits
from the product of the company.

Selling Concept Consumers will buy products only if the company aggressively promotes
or sells these products. Off course, in this era of marketing, we know that selling is not the
only tactic to sell your product. You have to focus on marketing as well.

Marketing Concept Focuses on needs/wants of target markets & delivering value better
than competitors. The marketing concept believes in the pull strategy and says that you need
to make your brand so strong that customers themselves prefer your brand over every other
competitor. This can be achieved through marketing.
What Is a Marketing Communication Mix?

Marketing is a broad business function that includes product research and development,
merchandising and distribution processes and pricing, as well as communication or
promotion. The communication mix refers to specific methods used to promote the company
or its products to targeted customers. Some depictions of the promotional mix include five
elements, while others add a sixth -- event sponsorship.


Advertising is often the most prominent element of the communication mix. In fact,
marketing and advertising are often misconstrued as the same thing. Advertising includes all
messages a business pays to deliver through a medium to reach a targeted audience. Since it
involves the majority of paid messages, companies often allocate significant amounts of the
marketing budget to the advertising function. While it can be costly, the advertiser has
ultimate control over the message delivered, since it pays the television or radio station, print
publication or website for placement.

Personal Selling

Personal selling is sometimes integrated with the direct marketing element. However, many
companies make such extensive use of a sales force that it is important to consider this
component distinctly. Distribution channel suppliers use salespeople to promote products for
resale to trade buyers. Retail salespeople promote the value of goods and services to
consumers in retail businesses. Selling is more emphasized by companies that sell higher-end
products and services that require more assertive efforts to persuade customers to buy.

Discounts and Promotions

Sales promotions or discounts are similar to advertising in that they are often promoted
through paid communication. However, sales promotions actually involve offering a
discounted price to a buyer. This may include coupons, percent-off deals and rebates. Along
with ads to promote deals and coupon mailers, companies use exterior signs and in-store
signage to call customer attention to the discounts. Goals of this communication tool include
increasing revenue and cash flow, attracting new customers and clearing out extra inventory.

Public Relations

Public relations are sometimes somewhat similar to advertising in that much of it involves
messages communicated through mass media. The major difference is you don't pay for the
time or space for the message. A television or newspaper feature story mentioning a business,
for instance, isn't paid for and can provide brand exposure. The downside of PR is that you
don't always control the messages. You can try to influence them through press releases and
invites for media coverage, but the media could put a negative spin on the story.

Direct Marketing

Direct marketing includes some aspects of both sales promotions and personal selling. It is
interactive communication with customers where the company's message seeks or implores a
response from targeted customers. E-mail and direct mail are common formats. These
messages are sent to customers with special offers or calls to action, often promoting limited-
time deals or new product launches. Mail-order clubs, online or print surveys and
infomercials are other examples of direct marketing communication.

Event Sponsorship

Event sponsorship is the element sometimes left out of the five-element communication mix.
Many models include it within advertising. Event sponsorship occurs with a company pays to
have a presence at a sports, entertainment, nonprofits or community events. The sponsorship
may include a mix of benefits including booth representation during the event to hand out
samples, gifts and literature, name mention during the event and ad spots connected to the

10 Ps of Marketing

1. Product Discuss and review needs and opportunities pertaining to design,

technology, usefulness, convenience, value, quality, packaging, branding, sizing etc.

2. Price Discuss price strategies such as cost-plus, loss leader and more. See How to
Get Your Pricing Right. And, discuss potential cost increases (cost of goods, labor,
insurance, taxes) and sales impact.

3. Place Discuss and review needs and opportunities with regard to retail operations,
wholesale, mail order, internet, direct sales, multi-channel, USA vs. Europe,
headquarters etc.

4. Promotion Review special offers, BOGOs, advertising, endorsements, direct

marketing, free gifts, Groupon etc. See Think and Plan for Christmas in July.

5. Promise / Process Discuss and review whether or not youre truly delivering on a
unique brand promise. And, if you dont even have one get one.
6. Positioning / Physical Evidence: Discuss and review ways in which your customers
position you (its all about them and their beliefs not yours), where you want to be
positioned (e.g., low cost provider) and plans to get there.

7. People Review needs and opportunities regarding culture, employees, interns,

management, customer service etc.

8. Performance (Proof) Discuss and review ways you can prove your brand promise.
Are you using testimonials, have you won meaningful awards. Success begs Trust
how to you prove your trustworthiness?







Product Life Cycle Stages

Product Life Cycle Stages Explained

The product life cycle has 4 very clearly defined stages, each with its own characteristics that
mean different things for business that are trying to manage the life cycle of their particular

Introduction Stage This stage of the cycle could be the most expensive for a company
launching a new product. The size of the market for the product is small, which means sales
are low, although they will be increasing. On the other hand, the cost of things like research
and development, consumer testing, and the marketing needed to launch the product can be
very high, especially if its a competitive sector.

Growth Stage The growth stage is typically characterized by a strong growth in sales and
profits, and because the company can start to benefit from economies of scale in production,
the profit margins, as well as the overall amount of profit, will increase. This makes it
possible for businesses to invest more money in the promotional activity to maximize the
potential of this growth stage.

Maturity Stage During the maturity stage, the product is established and the aim for the
manufacturer is now to maintain the market share they have built up. This is probably the
most competitive time for most products and businesses need to invest wisely in any
marketing they undertake. They also need to consider any product modifications or
improvements to the production process which might give them a competitive advantage.

Decline Stage Eventually, the market for a product will start to shrink, and this is whats
known as the decline stage. This shrinkage could be due to the market becoming saturated
(i.e. all the customers who will buy the product have already purchased it), or because the
consumers are switching to a different type of product. While this decline may be inevitable,
it may still be possible for companies to make some profit by switching to less-expensive
production methods and cheaper markets.

Product Life Cycle Examples

Its possible to provide examples of various products to illustrate the different stages of the
product life cycle more clearly. Here is the example of watching recorded television and the
various stages of each method:

1. Introduction 3D TVs
2. Growth Blueray discs/DVR
3. Maturity DVD
4. Decline Video cassette

Definitions of ATL, BTL and TTL

ATL Marketing

'ATL Marketing' stands for 'Above The Line Marketing'. This kind of marketing is the kind of
marketing that has a very broad reach and is largely untargeted. Think about a national TV
campaign, where viewers across the nation see the same advert aired across the various

This kind of marketing is mostly used for building brand awareness and goodwill.

BTL Marketing

'BTL Marketing' stands for 'Below The Line Marketing'. This kind of marketing is the kind of
marketing that targets specific groups of people with focus. For example, a leaflet drop in a
specific area, a Google Adwords campaign targeting a certain group or a direct telemarketing
campaign targeting specific businesses.

This kind of marketing is best for conversions and direct response.

TTL Marketing

'TTL Marketing' stands for 'Through the Line Marketing'. This kind of marketing is really an
integrated approach, where a company would use both BTL and ATL marketing methods to
reach their customer base and generate conversions. It might seem obvious, although not all
marketing campaigns are like this - some are ATL only and some are BTL only (it would be
much more common to see a BTL-only marketing campaign in practice though).

This kind of marketing delivers both a wide reach and a focus on conversions.

Examples of ATL, BTL and TTL Marketing

An Example Of an 'Above The Line Marketing' Campaign

An example of Above the Line marketing would be a television campaign run by a cereal
company. The ad would be aired across the nation, with every viewer seeing the exact same
message. As mentioned above, this kind of marketing would be used to build general brand
awareness of the business and/or it's products over the long term as well as goodwill.

An Example of A 'Below the Line Marketing' Campaign

The same cereal company could also run a direct marketing campaign in a large city,
targeting commuters on the way to work. They might offer free cereal samples along with
vouchers that could be used in a local store. This would be a strategy designed to target a
specific group of people and to try and encourage quick purchases, or conversions.

A similar example of this that you might have seen before is the Red Bull Mini (shown

An Example of A 'Through the Line Marketing' Campaign

Again, the same cereal company could launch a nationwide Youtube campaign, which would
show different video ads to different users according to where the users lived and what their
interests were, along with a promo code for a discount on purchases made online through
their website.

As you can see, this is a combination of both of the other forms - ATL in terms of it's
wide reach, BTL in terms of its targeted nature and conversion focus.

Marketing Plan

A marketing plan is a comprehensive blueprint which outlines an organization's overall marketing efforts.
A marketing process can be realized by the marketing mix, which is outlined in step 4. The last step in the
process is the marketing controlling.

Step 1: Begin with a snapshot of your companys current

situation, called a situation analysis.
Step 2: Describe your target audience.

Step 3: List your marketing goals.

Step 4: Develop the marketing communications strategies and

tactics youll use.

Step 5: Set your marketing budget.

Eight Simple Steps For New Product Development

Actually developing the tangible product or service is only a small part of the new product
development process, which includes the complete journey from generating the initial idea to
bringing the product to market.

#1. Idea Generation

The development of a product will start with the concept. The rest of the process will ensure
that ideas are tested for their viability, so in the beginning all ideas are good ideas (To a
certain extent!)

#2. Idea Screening

This step is crucial to ensure that unsuitable ideas, for whatever reason, are rejected as soon
as possible. Ideas need to be considered objectively, ideally by a group or committee.

#3. Concept Development & Testing

#4. Business Analysis

Once the concept has been tested and finalised, a business case needs to be put together to
assess whether the new product/service will be profitable. This should include a detailed
marketing strategy, highlighting the target market, product positioning and the marketing mix
that will be used.

This analysis needs to include: whether there is a demand for the product, a full appraisal of
the costs, competition and identification of a break-even point.

#5. Product Development

#6. Test Marketing

Test marketing (or market testing) is different to concept or consumer testing, in that it
introduces the prototype product following the proposed marketing plan as whole rather than
individual elements.

This process is required to validate the whole concept and is used for further refinement of all
elements, from product to marketing message.

#7. Commercialisation

When the concept has been developed and tested, final decisions need to be made to move
the product to its launch into the market. Pricing and marketing plans need to be finalised and
the sales teams and distribution briefed, so that the product and company is ready for the final

#8. Launch

A detailed launch plan is needed for this stage to run smoothly and to have maximum impact.
It should include decisions surrounding when and where to launch to target your primary
consumer group. Finally in order to learn from any mistakes made, a review of the market
performance is needed to access the success of the project.

360 degree branding is a marketing activity which takes into account brand identity and take
an inclusive approach so as to ensure that the brand is in contact with the customers at all
point of time. Its all about creating a distinctive brand philosophy which is centred on
consumers. It helps to anticipate all aspects of consumer needs. Especially when brand is
fairly new it needs to be present everywhere to build a brand image


2.social media

3content creation

4.grassroot marketing

5.events & sales

6.co branding