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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

1.0 SUMMARY

The purpose of this experiment of reaction turbine was used to study the characteristics
curves that were obtained after done the experiments. It must run with a good
observation. The flow rate must be control very carefully so that it can give good result.
Turbines are determined by their characteristics curves based on the potential energy
available in the water and the amount of water to be generated. In this experiment,
demonstration the effect of load and flow rate with power output generate can be
achieved. The reaction turbine reacts with water flow rate to spin the impeller of the
turbine to generate electric power. By the results that were getting, a graph can be plot for
torque versus speed, pressure versus speed and efficiency versus speed. The curves were
plotted base for 4 different speeds which were 9000rev/min, 8000 rev/min, 7000 rev/min
and 6000 rev/min. The speed can be adjusted by slowly controlling the regulator valve.
Discussion was done to compare all the data that was obtained.

2.0 INTRODUCTION

A type of turbine that develops torque by reacting to the pressure or weight of a


fluid, the operation of reaction turbines is described by Newton's third law of motion
which state that action and reaction are equal and opposite.

In a reaction turbine, unlike in an impulse turbine, the nozzles that discharge the working
fluid are attached to the rotor. The acceleration of the fluid leaving the nozzles produces a
reaction force on the pipes, causing the rotor to move in the opposite direction to that of
the fluid. The pressure of the fluid changes as it passes through the rotor blades. In most
cases, a pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the turbine;
in the case of water turbines, the casing also maintains the suction imparted by the draft
tube. Alternatively, where a casing is absent, the turbine must be fully immersed in the
fluid flow as in the case of wind turbines. Francis turbines and most steam turbines use
the reaction turbine concept.

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

Main types of reaction turbine

Propeller
A propeller turbine generally has a runner with three to six blades in which the water
contacts all of the blades constantly. Picture a boat propeller running in a pipe.
Through the pipe, the pressure is constant; if it isn't, the runner would be out of balance.
The pitch of the blades may be fixed or adjustable. The major components besides the runner
are a scroll case, wicket gates, and a draft tube.

There are several different types of propeller turbines:

Bulb turbine
The turbine and generator is a sealed unit placed directly in the water stream.

Straflo
The generator is attached directly to the perimeter of the turbine.

Tube turbine
The penstock bends just before or after the runner, allowing a straight line connection to
the generator.

Kaplan
Both the blades and the wicket gates are adjustable, allowing for a wider
range of operation.

Francis
A Francis turbine has a runner with fixed buckets (vanes), usually nine or
more. Water is introduced just above the runner and all around it and then
falls through, causing it to spin. Besides the runner, the other major
components are the scroll case, wicket gates, and draft tube.

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

Kinetic
Kinetic energy turbines, also called free-flow turbines, generate electricity from the
kinetic energy present in flowing water rather than the potential energy from the head.
The systems may operate in rivers, man-made channels, tidal waters, or ocean currents.
Kinetic systems utilize the water stream's natural pathway. They do not require the
diversion of water through manmade channels, riverbeds, or pipes, although they might
have applications in such conduits. Kinetic systems do not require large civil works;
however, they can use existing structures such as bridges, tailraces and channels.

3.0 OBJECTIVE

To study the characteristics curves of a reaction turbine.

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

4.0 METHOD

Windows and the analysis software were started.

The interface module was switched on.

The regulator valve was fully opened. Pump was


switched on.

The required flow rate and pressure was set using the regulator valve.

The tensioning bolts for the turbine brake was fully undo and further
measurement points were recorded.

Finally, the load to the extent the turbine stalls was increased. The curve was
then recorded.

The turbine curves for 4 different set of different flow rates


which were 9000, 8000, 7000 and 6000 been recorded.

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

5.0 RESULTS / DATA


5.1 Experiment data sheet:

Table 1: Result for speed 6000 rev/min

Torque in Pressure in el. Power in Speed in


Time Flow in L/h Ncm bar W 1/min Efficiency
13.490899 0.80332028 301.367187 6067.8710
9:19:54 09 0 9 5 94 0
7.1502141 0.80332028 6068.3593
9:19:56 95 0 9 267.1875 75 0
6055.6640 3.37E+3
9:19:57 0 0 0.80859375 230.46875 63 7
10.309871 0.80976563 173.242187 6041.0156
9:19:57 67 0 7 5 25 0
18.530145 0.81328123 119.726562 6026.3671
9:19:59 65 0 8 5 88 0
23.658622 0.80976563 6027.8320
9:20:00 74 0 7 73.2421875 31 0
29.330099 0.80742186 6022.4609
9:20:00 11 0 3 45.1171875 38 0
36.868019 0.80917966 5995.1171
9:20:02 1 0 4 0 88 0
40.660961 0.81152343 5979.9804
9:20:03 15 0 8 0 69 0
39.381851 0.81093752 5975.0976
9:20:03 2 0 4 0 56 0
33.178405 0.80390626 5990.2343
9:20:05 76 0 2 0 75 0
28.224769 0.80214846 5991.2109
9:20:06 59 0 1 0 38 0
21.887199 0.80683594 5977.0507
9:20:06 4 0 9 0 81 0
13.854404 0.80976563 5959.9609
9:20:08 45 0 7 0 38 0
4.7221918 5959.4726
9:20:09 11 0 0.80859375 0 56 0
15.013650 0.80449217 5977.5390
9:20:09 89 0 6 0 63 0
24.301130 0.81328123
9:20:11 29 0 8 0 5960.9375 0
28.274618 0.82499998 5909.1796
9:20:12 15 0 8 0 88 0

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

34.213352 0.84140622 5826.6601


9:20:12 2 0 6 0 56 0
38.057598 0.5224609 0.86542969 155.664062 5677.7343 0.056589
9:20:14 11 38 9 5 75 46
40.862148 0.7910156 0.92050778 259.179687 5380.8593 0.071099
9:20:15 28 25 9 5 75 72
37.806465 0.8740234 1.00898432 4834.4726 0.069598
9:20:15 15 38 7 302.34375 56 77
34.254486 2.3681640 354.101562 3856.4453 0.146089
9:20:17 08 63 1.14667964 5 13 58
31.461215 1.24101567 400.585937 2926.7578 0.195020
9:20:18 97 4.140625 3 5 13 27
25.663887 5.9472656 385.742187 1873.0468 0.208068
9:20:18 02 25 1.31074214 5 75 42

Table 2: Result for speed 7000 rev/min

Flow in Torque in Pressure in el. Power in Speed in


Time L/h Ncm bar W 1/min Efficiency
15.01365 0.9826171 319.335937 6920.8984
9:18:52 089 0 99 5 38 0
9.304773 0.9814453 286.132812 6919.9218
9:18:53 331 0 13 5 75 0
0.9832031 6920.8984
9:18:53 0 0 13 246.484375 38 3.37E+37
16.23820 0.9884765 6902.8320
9:18:55 686 0 74 188.671875 31 0
26.20684 0.9890624 6894.0429
9:18:56 814 0 88 154.296875 69 0
33.62479 0.9873046 6896.9726
9:18:56 782 0 88 119.53125 56 0
40.17318 0.9808593 6912.5976
9:18:58 344 0 99 66.6015625 56 0
42.66701 0.9779297 6925.2929
9:18:59 508 0 11 21.6796875 69 0

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

44.64973 0.9779297 6927.2460


9:18:59 45 0 11 0 94 0
41.39986 0.9761718 6926.7578
9:19:01 42 0 51 0 13 0
34.48345 0.9744140 6910.6445
9:19:02 184 0 51 0 31 0
26.99161 0.9697265
9:19:02 911 0 63 0 6898.4375 0
15.74613 0.9720703 6876.4648
9:19:04 476 0 36 0 44 0
11.81494 0.9785156 6860.8398
9:19:05 808 0 25 0 44 0
0.20996093 0.9996093 6759.7656
9:19:05 0 8 51 0 25 3.37E+37
2.13378906 1.1220703 6080.0781
9:19:07 0 3 13 0 25 3.37E+37
5.589744 5283.2031 1.456641
9:19:08 091 3.046875 1.2421875 0 25 674
12.24191 4.32617187 1.3804687 4253.9062 0.684219
9:19:08 57 5 26 0 5 778
23.46526 1.5046875 2791.9921 0.258127
9:19:10 527 5.1953125 48 0 88 302
31.81727 6.51367187 1.5720703 1627.9296 0.133200
9:19:11 791 5 6 0 88 66

Table 3: Result for speed 8000 rev/min

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

Flow in Torque in Pressure in el. Power Speed in


Time L/h Ncm bar in W 1/min Efficiency
45.50786 1.2867187 224.60937 7986.3281
9:17:23 972 0 26 5 25 0
41.55364 1.2849609 315.03906 7971.1914
9:17:23 609 0 85 25 06 0
31.96533 1.2773437 369.92187 7986.3281
9:17:25 012 0 5 5 25 0
18.52567 1.2726562 360.54687 7999.5117
9:17:26 482 0 02 5 19 0
14.57695 1.2785155 322.85156 7993.6523
9:17:26 103 0 77 25 44 0
21.39341 1.2931640 258.78906 7928.7109
9:17:28 354 0 15 25 38 0
28.72512 7817.3828
9:17:29 436 0 1.3125 216.40625 13 0
37.17678 1.16210937 1.3447265 180.27343 7600.0976 0.111004
9:17:29 07 5 63 75 56 42
42.19065 1.4437500 115.82031 6893.5546 0.223599
9:17:31 094 3.14453125 24 25 88 48
45.70222 8.40332031 1.5339844 45.507812 6174.8046 0.465045
9:17:32 092 3 23 5 88 84
41.73068 7.76367187 1.6283203 5354.0039 0.384353
9:17:32 237 5 36 0 06 1
34.89654 7.17773437 1.7068359 4490.2343 0.339986
9:17:34 922 5 85 0 75 77
23.27741 4.03808593 1.7642577 3791.5039 0.234244
9:17:35 814 8 89 0 06 88
15.76190 1.8251953 2836.9140 0.398138
9:17:35 853 6.42578125 13 0 63 2
10.90340 9.73632812 1.8955078 1365.7226 0.404249
9:17:37 9 5 13 0 56 73
17.81449 11.0351562 1.9265625 499.02343 0.100814
9:17:38 509 5 48 0 75 42

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

Table 3: Result for speed 8000 rev/min

Torque in Pressure in el. Power in Speed in


Time Flow in L/h Ncm bar W 1/min Efficiency
9:13:5 38.229160 1.26093745 289.257812 9057.1289
4 31 0 2 5 06 0
9:13:5 34.447399 1.26503908 341.210937 9060.5468
5 14 0 6 5 75 0
9:13:5 29.180030 0.0244140 1.26445317 345.507812 9059.0820 0.003766
6 82 63 3 5 31 31
9:13:5 21.489994 0.0439453 349.804687 9062.0117 0.009199
7 05 13 1.265625 5 19 74
9:13:5 9.9750194 1.25917971 9069.3359
8 55 0 1 342.96875 38 0
9:13:5 11.240081 1.26269531 9080.0781
9 79 0 3 327.34375 25 0
9:14:0 16.238206 9083.0078
0 86 0 1.265625 292.1875 13 0
9:14:0 22.944082 1.26914060 9083.0078
1 26 0 1 273.828125 13 0
9:14:0 32.776508 1.27089846 258.789062 9075.6835
2 33 0 1 5 94 0
9:14:0 39.428096 1.27207028 9047.3632
3 77 0 9 227.734375 81 0
9:14:0 44.489898 9001.4648
4 68 0 1.27558589 183.59375 44 0
9:14:0 43.890056 0.4101562 1.31660151 8690.9179 0.038759
5 61 5 5 101.171875 69 16
9:14:0 45.602424 1.5185546 1.48125004 7561.0351 0.106800
6 62 88 8 15.234375 56 99
9:14:0 42.727157 2.0019531 1.57792973 6751.9531 0.125971
7 59 25 5 0 25 27
9:14:0 37.799892 2.1728515 1.62597656 6274.4140 0.139372
8 43 63 3 0 63 87
9:14:0 24.746986 2.9882812 1.67753911 0 5661.1328 0.256041

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

9 39 5 13 11
9:14:1 13.330302 4.3945312 1.76074218 4871.0937 0.573037
0 24 5 8 0 5 68
9:14:1 7.0920529 5.7666015 1.86972653 3739.7460 1.021861
1 37 63 9 0 94 08

Data was recorded during experiment was running. All the data were use to plot graphs
for torque versus speed, pressure versus speed and efficiency versus speed. The curves
were plotted base for 4 different speeds which were 9000rev/min, 8000 rev/min, 7000
rev/min and 6000 rev/min
5.2 Graph
Graph for torque versus speed, pressure versus speed and efficiency versus speed for
different speed can be identifying straightly from data that was gained. The graphs were
shown below:

Graph of 6000 (rev /min)


Graph shows different efficiency, pressure and torque vs speed at 6000 (rev/min).

Figure 1: Torque versus Speed for 6000 rev/min.

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

Figure 2: Pressure versus Speed for 6000 rev/min.

Figure 3: Efficiency versus Speed for 6000 rev/min.

Graph of 7000 (rev /min)


Graph shows different efficiency, pressure and torque vs speed at 7000 (rev/min).

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

Figure 4: Torque versus Speed for 7000 rev/min.

Figure 5: Pressure versus Speed for 7000 rev/min.

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

Figure 6: Efficiency versus Speed for 7000 rev/min.

Graph of 8000 (rev /min).


Graph shows different efficiency, pressure and torque vs speed at 8000 (rev/min).

Figure 7: Torque versus Speed for 8000 rev/min.

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

Figure 8: Pressure versus Speed for 8000 rev/min.

Figure 9: Efficiency versus Speed for 8000 rev/min.

Graph of 9000 (rev /min).


Graph shows different efficiency, pressure and torque vs speed at 9000 (rev/min).

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

Figure 10: Torque versus Speed for 9000 rev/min.

Figure 11: Pressure versus Speed for 9000 rev/min.

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

Figure 12: Efficiency versus Speed for 9000 rev/min.

6.0 DISCUSSION

In this experiment, reaction turbine practiced to learn the characteristics curves of


a reaction turbine by using laboratory scale. The reaction turbine, as the name implies, is
turned by reactive force rather than by a direct push or impulse. In reaction turbines, there
are no nozzles as such. Instead, the blades that project radially from the periphery of
the rotor are formed and mounted so that the spaces between the blades have, in
cross section, the shape of nozzles. Since these blades are mounted on the
revolving rotor, they are called moving blades. Fixed or stationary blades of the same
shape as the moving blades (figure 13) are fastened to the stator (casing) in which the
rotor revolves.

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

Figure 13: Reaction turbine blade movement.

The fixed blades guide the gas into the moving blade system and, since they
are also shaped and mounted to provide nozzle-shaped spaces between the blades, the
freed blades also act as nozzles. A reaction turbine is moved by three main forces
which at the first, the reactive force produced on the moving blades as the gas increases
in velocity as it expands through the nozzle-shaped spaces between the blades. Then, the
reactive force produced on the moving blades when the gas changes direction and lastly,
the push or impulse of the gas impinging upon the blades. A reaction turbine is moved
primarily by reactive force but also to some extent by direct impulse.

A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts the thermal energy from
pressurized steam. It also in a form of heat engine that thermodynamically efficiency
through their multiple stages in the expansion of steam. There are 6 major parts in steam
turbine such as governor valve, strainer, throttle valve, nozzle, bucket (blade) and
exhaust. Commonly, steam turbine used to drive centrifugal pumps, generator, fans and
compressor. The major purpose of steam turbine is to convert the compress air or steam
to mechanical energy to operate plant equipment. Besides, steam turbine also converts the
motive gas flowing from high pressure to low pressure to increase the velocity.

The experiment was performed in varying speed at appoximately 2000 rpm, 3000
rpm, 4000 rpm and 5000 rpm. The data was recorded as the experiment of reaction
turbine was running.

Torque is the rate of change of angular momentum, just as force is the rate of
change of linear momentum. When a fluid exerts a torque on a turbine runner, the
reaction is a change in angular momentum of the fluid. By referring to the graph of
efficiency, pressure and torque versus speed at 2000 rpm, it can be see that torque is
inversely proportional to speed. These mean that as the speed decreased, torque number

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

will be bigger. This happen because when the torque is 0 Ncm, there is no force applied
to pull the braking belt on the belt pulley but when the torque is high, the force is applied
to stop the belt slowly. As for efficiency versus speed, initially the efficiency increased
but as the speeds slowly decreased the efficiency drop drastically. These mean that the
efficiency for speed 2000 rpm was short. The main reason this incident happen because
initially the reaction turbine flow was smooth without any disturbance but as the brake
pulley was turned, it disturbed the flow thus causing the efficiency to drop.

By referring the graphs of efficiency, pressure and torque versus speed at


3000 rpm, it can be see that torque is inversely proportional to speed. These means that as
the speed decreased, value of torque will be much greater. It can be seen clearly that the
flow of torque for this speed was better if compared to speed of 3000 rpm. This happen
because the speed was high and it took more minutes for this speed to stop. As for
efficiency versus speed, at the initial, when speed at about 2001 (1/min) the efficiency
increased as the speeds slowly decreased but then suddenly dropped drastically. This was
because of initially the reaction turbine flow was smooth without any disturbance but as
the brake pulley was turn, it disturbed the flow and caused the efficiency to drop.

For speed 4000 rpm, it can be seen that the torque versus speed graph seems to be
more steady and smooth. The torque started to increase when speed at about 3121 (1/min)
and then increased till the speed is O (l/min). This shows a smoother process in braking
the reaction turbine. This shows that the process is much more longer than 2000 rpm and
3000 rpm thus showing a smoother results to discuss. Besides that, efficiency versus
speed also showed a much smoother graph, this time the efficiency increased as the speed
decreased more gradually than other speed. Initially when the speed was at about 3121
(1/min) the efficiency started to increase then steady for short period and then suddenly
decreased. This occurred because the speed flow was longer and the reaction turbine
became more comfortable to functioning thus achieving good efficiency readings.

For speed 5000 rpm, it can be seen clearly that for the torque versus speed, the
torque value became more comfortable to increase as the speed decreased. The flow is

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

smooth and its continuity towards 0 l/min is excellent. Furthermore, as for the efficiency
versus speed, the efficiency start to increase when the speed was 4446 1/min. The
increasing flow of the efficiency seems to be very smooth and steady and it increased
until one point where the turbine is beginning to stop. Compared to the other speed, it
seems that the efficiency flow at this speed is much more steady and smoother. This can
be proved as the higher the speed, the torque and the efficiency became more steady and
smooth thus making the speed much more appropriate to use in the future.

7.0 CONCLUSION / RECOMMENDATIONS

From the experiment which had done, the objectives of the experiment were
achieved which to study the characteristics curves of a centrifugal compressor at different
speeds which were at appoximately 9000rev/min, 8000 rev/min, 7000 rev/min and 6000
rev/min. It can be conclude that the torque, pressure and efficiency proportional as the
speed decreased. More high the speed, more efficient the process. This because as it have
receive more forces, more steady the reaction turbine flow will be. Besides, more high
the speed, more high the value of pressure and torque as the speed start to decreased.

For recommendation, proper maintenance for the equipment needs to be provided


so that the device will be in good condition. The regulator valve of the reaction turbine
need to be good in lined up so that the desired flow of speed can be achieved. Besides
when running this experiment, it was noisy. This was a noise pollution and can affect he
ear of the person that running this experiment. For safety caution, the students need to be
supplied with ear plug to prevent any undesired consequent. Or the pump can be isolated
in a box or change the pump so that it not gives the loud noise. Besides, trained and
skilled technicians need to be monitoring and guide students during experiments. Lastly,
all the user of equipments in the lab must ensure that the equipments are in optimum
conditions. This will make the learning outcome become more productive and save the
cost because avoid from repairing any damages.

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Experiment 3: Reaction Turbine CLB 20704

8.0 REFERENCES

1. http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/R/AE_reaction_turbine.html
2. http://www.tpub.com/content/engine/14105/css/14105_164.htm
3. Lab Manual Experiment 3; Centrifugal Compressor, Thermodynamics, CLB
20403, by Miss Suhaini Bt. Mamat.

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