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. ..

544.032.65

01.04.07

:
- ,
..

2011
2

.4

1.
20
1.1. .20
1.2. .21
1.3. ...26
1.4. .39
1.5. ,
......44
1.6. ..48
1.7. .53

2.
.56
2.1. .56
2.2. 57
2.3. .67
2.4. 69
2.5.
....74
2.6. ..81
2.7. ..87
3

3.
.89
3.1. .....89
3.2.
- 89
3.3.
...91
3.4.
......99
3.5. -
.106
3.6. 117

4.
.....118
4.1. .......118
4.2.
- ...118
4.3.
.......122
4.4.
...............129
4.5. ...137
4.6. 141

.144
.146
4


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[4], [58], [65], [85], [133].

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[7], [13], [54], [59], [70], [78], [123].

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[7], [11], [12], [74],
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[48], [60],
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1011 107 c ( -
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1014 1011 c . CaF2
[85].
-

1,
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,
, 2005;
, , 2007;
, , 2009;
Fundamentals of Laser Assisted Micro- & Nanotchnologies
(FLAMN-10), St. Petersburg Pushkin, 2010;
. .. , , 2011.
8 , 6
, 3 :
1. .., .., ..

// . 2011. .139. . 184
198.
2. .., .., ..

16


// . .: , 2011.
. 64-78 ( ; . 67).
3. ..
//
. .. . . 2010. 4.
. 48 59.
4. .., ..

- // . . .. ,
. 3, .: . .. , 2010. . 98 115.
5. ..

// . . ..
, . 3, .: . .. , 2010. . 91 97.
6. .. -

// :
-
, .: . ..
, 2010. . 76 77.
7. ..
//

( 1), .: . .. , 2009. . 196
200.
17

8. .., .., ..
//
:
24-26 2005. .: , 2005. . 144 146.


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160 , 20 , 10 , 15
, 135 .


1.

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1.

1.1.

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1.2.


,
(. [46] ) (. [39]
).
[8], [42], [46]. ,

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6-7
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50- , .
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22

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.
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10 (.,
[60], [118]). ,
(
) [125]. (
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0.5 ) ,
, , ,
.)
: ,
23

.
.
,
, .

ni ~ 108 109 c3 . ,
.
,

[30].
n0 ~ 1010 1012 c3 2, ,
.
3
2 2
2
n0VQ 109 107 1 ( VQ 1019 3
me k BTe
), ..
.
~ 5 109 c [10],
( ,
) .
--
,
.
,

2
[10]

1011 1012 c3 .
24

, , .
~ 1 Pi
[24]
2
I e4 m I
Pi 2
V
I I
(V , , I
),
[24]:

I .
2
e4 m
Pi V
I
3

dt
dt ,

n t n0 exp E t , (1.1)

E ,

(, ,
1

). ,
,
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,
.
25

3 -

. ;
- .

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100 [87].
,
4 nth ~ 1018 1022 c3 .
,
.
.

, ,
(
).

3
,
1017 c3 .
4
- ,
, ,

[114], [115].
26

(
).
,
[125].

. E

.
(.
1.4.1) [14], [16], [120], [124]. 4

(. ).

1.3.


,
, .

.
. ,
,
.

:

, , -
27

( 30kBT ), .

(. , [67], [94],
[108], [135]).



[76], [77].
-
.
,

.

[61], [76], [77], [81].
( ),
,
, .
( )
(
).


t lose
cr ~ 0.1 0.2 .
-
.
28

,
,
.
,
( )
( , ).
, , . [76] ,

~ E 2
3
,

2

t gain

1
2 .

~
t lose t gain t lose
(
, , ,
). ,
. , I I . ,
I
I .
,
( ).
, cr , I ,

: ,
.

I ,
:
29

0 4 I e2 E 2 I .
ln
I 2 N 1 0 m

0 N , p

, E
.
, .
[24] [76].
, ,
-
1
B k k 0 , k 1 2 N k , N k

k ,
[81].

(. , [120]) ,
I.

t gain t lose

dp eE exp it .
p 1 p eE exp it p
dt p 1 i

Re j E *

t gain 2

( j ep* , )
m
1 e2 p
E 2 , . (1.2)
t gain 6 m 1 p
* 2 2

. ,

30

- .


1 , (1.3)
t lose
,

. (1.2) (1.3),

6 m*
, E
e p
2 1 2 p 2 .

,
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(
, ),

.
,
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, ,


- , ,
. [5], [6].


31


[67], [84], [93], [94], [102], [135]:

dn t dn t dn t .
E n t
(1.4)
dt dt PI dt loss
(1.4) .

, .

[23]. (1.4) -

.
n 2 (. [103]),

n t [94], [102], [135],



( ~ 100 ). ,

1
( , E 2 ) [16].
(
,
[80]). ,
:
, , ,
.
, [116].
32



5,
[117]. ,
,
[58], [87],

. (1.4)
:
, [93], [128]
, [106]
, (
).


- .
[87]
.
,

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5
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, .
33

[108]
,
, .
,
,
( [87]
,
). -
[108] . [107] ,
, , -

,
,
.
[108]
n t

ni t ,

, :
n0 nPI
2nk W1 pt 0 n0
t t
n1
W1 pt 0 n0 W1 pt 1 n1
t
n2
W1 pt 1 n1 W1 pt 2 n2
t
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
nk 1
W1 pt k 2 nk 2 W1 pt k 1 nk 1
t
34

nk
W1 pt k 1 nk 1 nk . (1.5)
t
W1 pt i i

, i 0, k , k , cr , cr

, ,
( ). (1.5)

n nPI nk ,
t t
.

nk t
n t

nk t .
n t

[107], [108]

. [107] , (1.4)

; ,
100
.
[108] ,
[87], , ,
(1.5) (
) .
, ,
35

,
, . ,
, [107], [108]

.

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[75], [122],
,

( , ,
).
,
[75], [122].
.
[33], [47] ,

f ( p, t ) ,
-
p 1 .
36

f p, t 2 eE k
t
Bk J 2
2

m
l *
k l

f
p k , t N 1 f p, t N
k k pk
p k l (1.6)

f p k , t N f p, t N 1 p k l
k k pk
p , k , p

p , k k , B k

- ,
[21], J l (...)
, l 0, 1, 2..
, N k

k , m* 6.
[47]
(1.6).
c
1 p ,

p ,

p .

p ; c ,
.

6
. ,
, , ,
, (

, , ,
).
37

,
,
-
, ,
. (1.6)
- (
)
.
[16] ,
-
,

eE k eE k p
, (1.7)
m2 m 1 2 p 2

p
-- .

, ,
:
eE k p 1 eEk p
Jl Jl 2 d l k , (1.8)
m 1 2 2
2

m 1 2 2
p 1
p

E k .

(1.6)
f p, t f p , t (1.7), (1.8)
38


[16]:
f p , t 2
g p B k l k
t k l


g p k f p k , t N k 1 g p f p , t N k p k p k l (1.9)


g pk f , t N g p f p , t N k 1 p k l
pk k
pk

g .

F , t f , t g .

Vdk
(1.9) k : ... (
2
3
k

V ) J l
(., , [1])
1 eEk p
l k d J

2,
l
2

m 1 p
2 2
l l
1


F p , t
t

2
Vm
4
p

kB k dk 2 F p , t 2 N k 1
(1.10)


l k F p l k , t N k 1 F p l k , t N k
l
,
,

,
.
3.
39

(1.9),
: -,
, -
.
--
,
l .

1.4.

,
:


k
S a0 F , t N k d a0 F , t N k 1 d
k
k

a1 F , t N k d a1F , t N k 1 d
k k
(1.11)
k k


a1 F , t N k d a1F , t N k 1 d


ai .
(1.11) ,
dS
d

a0 F , t F k , t N k a0 F k , t F , t N k 1
k

a1 F , t F k , t N k a1 F , t F k , t N k 1 (1.12)
a1 F k , t F , t N k a1 F k , t F , t N k 1
40


, k 7
. (1.13)
(1.12)
8,
-
S , t F , t
a0 2a1 k
FP k
. (1.14)
k 2 F , t
2

a0 a1 k 2 N k 1
2 2


2 2


, -:
S , t f , t
g . (1.14)
FP t

7
(1.13) (1.14)
f , t , ,
, ,
.
8

f p , t g p
f p , t , g p .
p p

f p , t g p
f p , t , g p .
p p
41

- :
(1.11)
,
F , t
S , t FP D Q F , t

Q a0 2a1 k
k

k
2

D a0 a1 k 2 N k 1 ,
2 2

(1.14)
k
2

D , Q
[22].

[15] , -
,
. ,
, , [12]: -
, ,
- (- ),

--
. (1.9)

F , t k 2 F , t
2

F k , t F , t k ,
2 2
F , t k 2 F , t
2

F k , t F , t k
2 2
42

- (
, , ,
.):
S , t f , t
g , (1.15)
DD t

S , t



a1 2 F , t F , t F , t 2 N k 1
DD k
F , t F , t F , t
k a0 a1
. (1.15)

k 2 F , t 2 F , t 2 F , t
2

a a1 2 N 1
2 2 2
0 k
2
n

2 N k 1 a1
2 F , t F , t F , t

k

2 F , t F 2 , t F 2 , t
a2 ...
2 F , t F n , t F n , t
... an
F , t F , t F , t
k a0 a1 a1 ...

F n , t F n , t
... an an

k 2 F , t 2 F , t 2 F , t
2

a a a ...
2 2 2
0 1 1
2

2 F n , t 2 F n , t

... an an
2
2


43

, -
n :
dF , t n

dt
2 N k 1 al F F l
l n
k
.(1.16)
F l 2 F l
2
n n

al 2Nk 1 al
2 2
l n l n

mB k
al al l k (1.17)
p k

al , l ,
, l 0 ; l 0 al .
0, l
(1.16) - n
, n
dF , t n F
k al
dt k l n
2Nk 1 F . (1.18)
2
n n

k al l al 2
2 2 2

2 l n l n

(1.15) (1.16)
, [12].
.
-
,
, -
-- .

.
44



.

: ,
;
;
.

,

.

1.5. ,


(-).
(. , [43], [52], [53], [63], [105],
[110] ),
, [27], [44], [57].

: ,
;
.

,
45

. [55] -
.
( )
( 0.5 ),
( ~ 1 M ). ,

,
o
25 100 A .
,

.


.


.
[55] [56],

: ,
, .
[73] -
,
. [73],
,
-
SiO2 [71], [72].
46

, -
,
.

.
, , ,
,
[71].
,
, [51],
SiO2 1 .

,
[71], [72].
,
102 .
.
:
(1 ).
, [71], [72]

,
, , [51]. ,

:
,
47



.
[51]

.
, ,
,
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,
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,
[51] .
,
.
[51]
[51], -
, 5
; -,

, (
2.5 5
LO-).
,
[51] ,

48

.
.
[51]
.
[51], ,
,
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0.5 .
[53],

. [53]

, [51]. ,

.


, .


.

1.6.

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49

, .
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.

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, (.
, [109], [111], [121], [132]). -

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[131], ,
( )

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.

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50

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-
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. ,

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.
,
.
[67], ,
t p 10 :

Fcr tp .

100 10 Fcr ~ t p (.

, [62], [99], [100]). , , Fcr ~ t p X ,

X 0.2 0.8
.
[67], , ,
. ,
, ,
51


, [67]
, ,
Fcr ~ t p 1 . ,
.
.
[68] , -

. ,
[67] ,
, [129], [130].
Fcr t p t p 10

[67] [93], [124], [125],


, tp ,

, , [67].
[124] , -
.

, :
(
,
, )
.
[125]
-
, . [132]
52

,
, (5 ,
50). .
, Tien et al. [128]
, , ,
[67] [93], [124], [125]. [128]
[67] [93], [124], [125] t p 10 :

,
.
[128]
, , [67], ,
,
(.. [129], [130]). [128]
, [67],
[93], [124], [125], [128]. , [128],
, ,
,
. ,
~ 1015 c3 , ,
[67], 3-5
( [10]
), ,

.
(.
2.2), ,
53

t p 10 . ,

, [128]
. , [67]
, [124],
[125], [124], [125]

. ,
,
, 2
.

1.7.

,
,
.
,
.
,

.


-,
: ,

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54

,
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,
.


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-
.

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1. ;
2.
;
3.
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;
55

4.
;
5. ( )
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,
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56

2.

2.1.

1 ,

.

-
,

.
.
, ,

, .

(., , [20], [26]) .

, ,
, ,
.
57

2.2.


,
. ,
,
, ,

(., [85], [124]). ,
(.
1), ,
,
.


3.

[14],
[16], [32], [41], [120], [124], [129].
.

.
.

, ,
,
. ,
58

,
(. , [103]),
. , ,


[16].
. 2.1 ()
.
(
) , ,
().
.
. -
(. 3)
.

3
1

. , [51]
-
,

, , ,
( ).
,

,
1

. ,
[51] , -
59

.
1


,
.
1
, 1015 c 1 .

. 2.1. ()
- --
().

,
,
(. . 2.1()).
60

,
.
, ,
.

(

. 2.5).
[51], [53], ,
. ,
,
.
,
. I , ,
. (.
, [124]) ,
( I ) / 2 .
. ,
,
, ,
.
, , .

,
.

61

,
, .
-
.
, ,
, ,
:

.
. 2.1() (
-- ,
),
.
:

P
phon

N 1 q1
1
W , P
phon

N 1 1 q1
1
W ,
N q1 N 1 q1 W ,
1
W ,
1
P P . (2.1)
phon , phot phon , phot

N q1 N 1 q1 W
1
W ,
1
P P
phon , phot phon , phot

N , W 1 ,
- 9, q11

9
, ,

, . .
ti ln( p) ,
0 p 1 . ,
,
Ncol (. . 64) ti ,
62

. 2.5 , q11 q , q
, ( )
.
[1]

z2
J z 1,
l
l
2
l Jl z 2 ,
l
2 2

, --

ek
2

2q
p 2
E , (2.2)
6 m 1
2 2 2
p

q .
(2.1),
:

P
phon

N 1 2q1 2q2
2 2
W , P
phon

N 1 1 2q1 2q2
2 2
W ,
Nq1 W , P N 1 q1 W ,
2 2
P
phon , phot phon , phot

Nq1 W , P N 1 q1 W ,
2 2
P
phon , phot phon , phot


Nq2 W , P N 1 q2 W ,
2 2
P

phon , phot phon , phot

. (2.1)
P Nq2 2W , P N 1 q2 W
2

phon , phot phon , phot

Ncol ti 104 ,
1
ti ln( p)dp .
0
63

ql 2 l (
2.5). , l

l 2 al eEk p
1
2ql 2 l Jl 2 2 d
. (2.2)
m 1 2 2
la
l
1
p

,
W 2 N 1 . ,


P ; P ; P ; P

phon , phot phon , phot phon , phot phon , phot

P ; P . , ,
phon phon


.
. 2.2() , ,
( (2.1))
- -
- ( ).
,
,
l .
(.
, [120], [125]). , , .


64


.
, .
, ,
, , :
,
( , ,
)
. ,
( )
.
.
. 2.2(),
,
.


. (. 2.3)
100 .

t

n t n0 2 td
, (2.2)

n0 ,

td , N col
N ion
N col
65

( ), Nion
.

. 2.2. () ,
().

(2.2),
Nion
W ln 2 .
N col

, - :
66

Nion
ln 2 . (2.3)
W N col
,
:
, q
1 -- (. 2.5)
Ie2
q E2
3m 2 4


q W ,
-

q .

(2.3),
,
. ,
q ( ,
) ,
-
.
.
Ncol 2 109 . ,
,
, N col ,
.
67

,

( ).
,
q , (. 3.3),
.
(
10) ,
.

2.3.


. , [9]


: , ..
,
~ 3 1020 c3 . ,

, .
. 2.3
,
.

.
68

. 2.3. ,
(
),
(), () () .

. 2.3()

. . 2.3()
69

,
, . , .
2.3(),

:
,
.
I
,
, , -
-
, , ,
.

2.4.


. ,
. , ,
:
.

3.
, ,
,
.
-
70


.
.
.
abs , ,
,
. ,

, (. , [50], [124],
[125]). -
1014 1016 c 1 ,
.
phon ,
. ,

,
.

, ,
.

.
0 ,
1

- N exp 0 k T 1 . ,
B

,
71

: -
.
0 . , ,

f :

N 1 f 0 N f 0 , 0 0 ,

N f 0 N 1 f 0 2 N 1 f 0 , 0 .

f A exp .

k B
T

,
.


.
,
st , k BT ,

.
st kBT ,
.
, ,
,
el abs phon , ( )

phon ,

. R
el
phon

, : R
72

,
, R 1,
. ,
, , , .
( ~ 108 107 c ),
,
. 4
.
.

,
,
,
. ,

(
).
.

,

N 1 N , N
2 N 1 2 N 1
-. , ,


.
q .
73

4
.
, ,
. ,
(
) R , .
N max , .
, ,
( 32
), N ,
N max N 0
N , n0
n0


, ,
.

( ,
N N 0 ,
).

N : N N N n , n
.
74

2.5.

,
-, -.
n ,
, .
,
. ,
.

n dF , t F , t 2 N 1 2 F , t
1 2

al 2 q
2 n

l n dt 2 2 .(2.4)

-- n


n
2q n
q
l n
l
n
, (2.4)

n l 2 al
ql n (2.4)
al
l n

l ( )
n . l 0 [1]

C2l l k2 k C2kl 2 k z
2l 2k
z
Jl z 1
2 k

2 k 0 2l 2k ! 2
75

m
( CM ) (1.8)
,

2 k l

C2l l k2 k C2kl 2 k r
l 2 1
k

2l 2k 1! 2
, (2.5)
k 0

eEk p
r . (2.5)
m 1 2 p 2
2n
n 2 r
n 2
2n 1 n! 2
n l n
kmax n l 1 . . 2.1 ,


n . l n n
, n 1
, . . 2.1
l l ( [1] J l z 1 J l z
l

, l ), ,
n mB k n 2 mB k
al n
l n p k
l n
l n p k
(2.6)

n .
(2.6) (2.4) (2.5),
n
r2
2q
n
l 2 l
l 1
n

6
. (2.7)
76

, (2.7)
( n ) ,
n -
- (n 0) ,
.

2.1
n
l

n0 n 1 n2 n3

r2 3r 4 5r 6
l 0 1
6 160 4032

r2 r4 5r 6
l 1 0
12 80 5376

r4 r6
l2 0 0
320 2688

r6
l 3 0 0 0 16128

q
. 2.1,
,

11 1 2 422 13 423 933 q1 q 2 q3 .

, q n ,
, ,
( ) . ( q n
n .) , ,
77

,
, ,
, ,
, .
(2.4) F , t exp t , ,

2 N 1 kBT
(2.6)
2
(2.7),
pk d d
2 2

k BT 1 2 q (2.8)
2 m B k d d
2


:
1. -.
,
:
1
2

2 N 1 q . ,
2 I I

- .

kBT 1 2q k BT
2
10
.
I

2. -
,
S ,
S 0 2S I

10
, (

).
78

F I 0.
(
), , ,
, .
3.
( [69]).
-

,
.
. 2.4 ,
, ,
, .
( 1),
, - ( 2).

,
, .
3, , ,
.
. ,
,

(
).
79

. 2.5()
:
FP ,

. 2.4.
: 1

; 2
, -; 3
(,
, ).
80

. 2.5. ()
: 1
- FP ; 2 -

- MC . () ,
. 2.5().
81

-, [69];
MC ,
- - .

,
, FP
, , ,
, .
,
,
: -,
.

. 2.5() . 2.5().

2.6.

,
.
,
.

.

70-80-

,
82

.
.

,
.

(, , ,
).
, ,
,
.

,
.
, ,
.

,
.

, ,

( ) ,
.
.
,
(
83

).
11 .

,

(,
).

(, , Delphi,
), ,
. ,
, ( ,
, , R250, ).

12. , ,
, , ,
2 109 ,
.

11
.. - ,

( ,
, ).
12
( ,
) .
, ,

(
), ( , ,
, ) .
84


,
. -, ,
,
10 . -, -
-- .
, (
, -
210 9 ).
, ,
, , 8-10 .

; ;
,
.
R250
,
.
, [83] , ,
R250 .
,
-
R250 ,
[83]. ,
k=147 (250-103).
, R250
-
85

. R250
.
R250 ( 2249 )
,
R250
, R250,
.
R250,
2249
663608941 69069 ( . ,
" 32- ").
,
, ,
. , ,
ISAAC (Indirect, Shift, Accumulate, Add, Count),
[82]. , , 2 40
( 28295!),
. , ,
(18.75 32-
), ISAAC , , 2 R250. ,
(q) 10-15 .
, ,
R250 .
R250

. .
86

2.2 . 2.3 phon ( phon -


k BT

) 10-5.

.

2.2
,
R250 ISAAC, phon/kT =3
=1.06 =0.53 =0.27
q=1.9510-2 q=4.510-3 q=7.310-4
,-1, R250 (9.80.2)10-6 (1.070.02)10-5 (1.020.02)10-5
, -1, ISAAC (9.70.2)10-6 (1.060.02)10-5 (1.020.02)10-5

2.3
,
R250 ISAAC, phon/kT =0.3
=1.06 =0.53 =0.27
q=3.810-3 q=1.010-3 q=2.310-4
,-1 , R250 (9.340.15)10-6 (1.070.01)10-5 (1.050.01)10-5
,-1 , ISAAC (9.270.15)10-6 (1.070.01)10-5 (1.050.01)10-5

0.01..0.02 ,
, ,
( )
ISAAC R250. ,
87

,
(E).

2.7.


,

.
,
.

.

,
.
,
,
.
, -
- .

-, ,

,
.
88


.
,

R250
( ).
,
R250 ISAAC.


.
89

3.

3.1.


, . 2
,
.

:
-
,

.
.


.

3.2.
-

,
,
. ,
1 2 . ,
90

k1 k2 k . (3.1)

. 3.1 . ,
, ,
.

. 3.1.
.

-

p1 1 , p2 1 ,

(3.1) (. (2.5))
eEk
r1 r2 r . (3.2)
m2
(3.2), --
1 2 n
n

n
l 2
a1l n
r 2
2q1 n
l n
1 (3.3)
a1l n n 6
a2l
l n
91

n
l 2
a2l n
r 2
2q2 n
l n
2 (3.3)
a1l n n 6
a2l
l n

-- n

n r 2
2q . (3.4)
6
1 2

B1 k B2 k
1 , 2
B1 k B2 k B1 k B2 k


. (3.3), (3.3)
, ,

.

.

3.3.

- ,
(., [85]),
.
,

92

p 1 ,
.
( PO ),
( DO ),
( PA )
( DA ); -
[21]
B1 B B
BPO k , BDO k 2 , BPA k 3 , BDA k B4k . (3.5)
k 2
k

dp 2 n

dt
B k p p k l
k l n , (3.6)
N k p p k l N k 1 p p k l

p p ' . (3.6)

p . --
dp
p ' p k p p 1 ,
dt
(3.6) [16]
n
Vm
p 2 p 1 d cos k
2
dkB k cos l k
2 4 l n

k 2
k2 .
l k l k
Nk cos 2m N k 1 cos 2m
kp kp

m m

, ( n 1)
,

93

Vm max k A,0
p 1
4 3
N k k 2 2m k B k k 0 k dk
4 p min k A,0

max kE ,0 max k A ,1

N 1 k 2m k B k k 0 k dk N k 2m k 2 2m k B k k 1 k dk
2
k
min kE ,0 min k A ,1

max kE ,1

N
min kE ,1
k 1 2m k 2 2m k B k k 1 k dk

max k A ,1 max kE ,1

N k 2m k 2m k B k k 1 k dk
2
Nk 1 2m k 2 2m k B k k 1 k dk (3.7)
min k A ,1 min kE ,1

A ( E ) ( ) ,
, .

k , Nk N ;

k sk ( s ),

k BT
kBT sk N k . (3.7)
sk

1 EMF
1
0 p
p p
1 1 , (3.8)
1 0
p

0
p 1 ,
EMF
p 1 .

~ ,

k :

k A,0 2m 1 1 ; 2m 1 1 ,

94


kE ,0 2m 1 1 ; 2m 1 1 ,


k A,1 2m 1 1 ; 2m 1 1 , (3.9)


kE ,1 2m 1 1 ; 2m 1 1 ,


k A,1 2m 1 1 ; 2m 1 1 ,


kE ,1 2m 1 1 ; 2m 1 1 .


:
k A,0 0;2

2m ms , kE ,0 0;2

2m ms ,



2 2
k A,1 2m ms 2m ms 2m ; 2m ms 2m ms 2m ,



2 2
kE ,1 2m ms 2m ms 2m ; 2m ms 2m ms 2m , (3.9)



2 2
k A,1 2m ms 2m ms 2m ; 2m ms 2m ms 2m ,



2 2
kE ,1 2m ms 2m ms 2m ; 2m ms 2m ms 2m .

(3.9)
, :
(3.9) p ms
:
95


k A,1 , kE ,1 2m 1 1 ; 2m 1 1 , (3.10)


k A,1 , kE ,1 2m 1 1 ; 2m 1 1 .

-
m
k A,0 , k E ,0 ; 2 2m (3.10)
2


k A,0 , kE ,0 0; 2 2m (3.10)


(3.7)
. (3.10), (3.10), (3.10),
0 EMF
p 1 p 1 :
max k
0
A ,0
Vm
p 1
2 2 N k 1 k 2 2m k B k kdk , (3.11)
4 p
4 3
min k A ,0

EMF Vm max k A,0


p 2 2 N k 1 k 2m k B k k dk
1
2 3

4 4 p 3 min k A,0
max k A , 1

2 N k 1 k 2 2m 2m k B k k 3 dk

min k A , 1

max k A ,1



2 N k 1 k 2
2 m 2 m
k B k k 3
dk , (3.11)
min k A ,1

2


1 eE
p 1 . (3.7)
6 m 2

0 V 2m 1 4
p 1 B 2 N 1 1 ln , (3.12)
2 4 2 N 1 2
PO 1
96

0 V B2
p 1 2 2m m 2 N 1 , (3.12)
DO 4

0 V kBT 1
p 1 B3 2 m , (3.12)
PA 4
s
0 V kBT
p 1 4 B4 m 2m . (3.12)
DA 4
s

: i (3.12)-(3.12)
0
p 1 i ,
.
0
p 1 T .
0 0
, p 1 i p 1 T ,

- ,
,
, .

. ,
(3.12)-(3.12)

.
0
p 1
PO
. 3.2 0
0.15

p 1
PO
0.05

1
kBT . , -
40
3 ,
0.05 , , 0.15
97

.
0
p 1
DO
DO : 0
0.15

p
1
DO
0.05

0.26 .
, :
(3.12)-(3.12), (3.11)

EMF EMF
p 1 p 1 m
8 1 8 1 16 5 1 1 , (3.13)
DO DA
0 0
p 1 p 1
3
DO DA

EMF EMF
p 1 p 1
PO
0
PA
0
2 m
1 1 2 . (3.13)
p 1 p
1

PO PA

, ,
- ,
DO- DA- (3.13),
(3.13) . (3.12)-(3.12) ,

.
. 3.3 (3.13) (3.13)
1 E 109 1 ( N 1 ,
):
EMF
p 1
0
~ 103 .
p
1

, ,
p 1 .
98

0
p 1
PO
. 3.2. 0
0.15

p
1
PO
0.05


:
p 1016 1014 c [124]. p 1 1014 c1

(3.12), (3.12),
- ,
, : ,
, ,

.
99

EMF
p 1
. 3.3. 0
1
p 1

E 109 1 .

3.4.


,
,
,

. ,

- : , -
100

[120] SiO2 [71], [72] DA- PO-


. SiO2
,
( , -
, - ).
[51], SiO2
, ,
,
. , -,
0.03 [124],
[125]. o 0.153 ,

0.063 [72]. PO-


[21], [72],
2.4
(. (3.12)),
j k . , .
1 1



( o 1 k 2 ,

) . ,

;
,
,
.
101

v jk
N jk N jk 1 . N jk
N jk

jk , N jk v jk .

v jk
, 1 .
N jk

j1k1 :

v j k t
I col (3.14)
1 1 i

t i

I col i , i
(
N ). - I col i ,
, v j k t , .
1 1

[35]
vj k
I col
i 1 1 , (3.14)
i

i , i .
(.-.)
. . . . .

, , , ,
,
(3.14), :

2 j1 , j2 , j3 , k1 , k2
1

kBT
j2 k2 s j2 k2 1
2
3

j k1 j k2 j k1 k2 , (3.15)
102

j3k3 , j k .
1 1

j k
.
. . j k
2 2 j k
1 1

, j k
3 3
1 1
: ~ . ,


.
, . ,
. , ,
,
. 3.5.
,
(.-.):
. . . . .

, , , , ,

. .

, .


v j1 k1 , t . ,
103

. .
. :
1. j k
2 2
, jk 1 1 ( 0 0.153 ), j k , j k
3 3 4 4

; ,
. .,

2 1

1 2
1
k BT j1 , j2 , j3 , j4 , k1 , k2 , k3
1 s j3 k3 s j k1 k2 k3 (3.16)
j3 j4 k2 k3
4

j1 k1 j2 k2 j3 k3 j4 k1 k2 k3 ;

2. j2 k2 j k
3 3 , j k
4 4

( j k4 0.027 ); 4

2
j1 , j2 , j3 , j4 , k1 , k2 , k3
1

2

2 j2 j3 j4 k2 k3


j1 k1 j2 k2 j3 k3 j4 k1 k2 k3
(3.16)
1 N j k k k N j k N j k .
4 1 2 3 2 2 3 3

. . j k
2 2 , j k ,
1 1

j k , j k
3 3 4 4 ;

1 2 j2 , j1 , j3 , j4 , k2 , k1 , k3
kBT
2

j3 j4 k2 k3 s j3 k3 s j4 k2 k1 k3 . (3.17)

j2 k2 j1 k1 j3 k3 j4 k2 k1 k3

104

. . , j3k3

, j1k1 , . j2 k2

j k ,
4 4

1 2 j1 , j2 , j3 , j4 , k1 , k2 , k3
kBT
2

1 j2 j4 k2 k3 s j2 k2 s j4 k1 k2 k3 , (3.18)

j1 k1 j2 k2 j3 k3 j4 k1 k2 k3

,
2
1

2
j1 , j2 , j3 , j4 , k1 , k2 , k3 Nj k
2 j2 j4 k2 k3
2 2
. (3.18)

j1 k1 j2 k2 j3 k3 j4 k1 k2 k3

. : I col M 0 .
3 ph
1 1 1
3 ph ,

4 ph :
1 1 1 1 1 1
4 ph 1 2 1 2 .

(3.15)-(3.18) 3 ph ~ 1013 1012 c , 2


.
t
4 ph
, ,
,
. 4 ph t 3 ph

, , .

.
105

4 ph t p 3 ph ,

. ,

.

, ,
. ,
2.6 SiO2
4 ph t p 3 ph
,
2.4 ,

. t p 4 ph ,
,

4 ph .
,
, ,
,
. 3 ph
4 ph ,

.
106

3.5. -

,


,
.
[28], [45], [104]
, ,
13
. -,

,
.
14
, . -,
,
, .

13
,
,
, ,
( , ,
).
14
(. [80]) ,

.
107

10 . ,

( 500 ),
.
t p
. ,
, ,
[87].
(3.10)-(3.10) ,
- [87] (

200). :
( )
, --
? ,

. , ,
-
,
,
.


.
,
, .
108


T .
-
,
.

, ,

.
,
. ,
, ,
,
.

, -
,
.
- ,
:

HI V
3 B B B 4 B B B B
V (3.19)
kk k kjk jk j kk k k kjk jk j k j
kj k j k j kj k j k j k j

jjj jjjj


B b b ,
kj kj kj

b jk b jk
, , j

k .
109


(3.19)

. -, ,
,
.
,
, . ,


,
.
, (
),
-
D
( ...

T ) [2], [31]:

1
p

d d ... d T H H ...H B k j, B kj,0


p!
1 2 p I 1 I 2 I p


p 0
D k , k ,
0 0 0
(3.20),
1
p

p 0 p! d d ... d T H H ...H
0
1
0
2
0
p I 1 I 2 I p


1
, T ... - , O -
k BT


. ,
(3.20):
110


M 0 T Bk Bk
2 2 1 1


M1 T H I Bk Bk
2 2 1 1

M1 V k k k k T Bk Bk Bk Bk Bk Bk
4
2 2 1 1


M 2 T H I H I Bk Bk
2 2 1 1
M 2
3,3
M 2
4,4


V k lmV k lmT Bk Bl Bm Bk Bl Bm Bk Bk
2 2 1 1


V k lmnV k lmnT Bk Bl Bm Bn Bk Bl Bm Bn Bk Bk
2 2 1 1

M 3 M 3
3,3,4
M 3
4,4,4

M 4 M 4
3,3,3,3
M 4
3,3,4,4
M 4
4,4,4,4

.
M ,
, ,

. M 1 ,

M 1 ,

, .. M1 0 . M 2
4

, .
, M 2
4
,
4
M 2 . ,
4
, M 1

,
3 4
, , M 2 M 1 . ,
- ,
M 1 M 2 (,

M1
4
M 2 M 2 ). ,
3 4
111

,
.
,
,
, , , .

,
, .
,
,
.
,
, ,
:
M0 M1 M2 ... . , ,

. , ,
,
.
, M 3334 , M 43344
-
.


.
i ,
i

,
112

i -
i .
( [2], [3]),
(3.20)
:

(3.21)

- -

, - -
[2]:
2k BT kj
D
0
s
kj
kj
2
s 2 ,
2k BT
s s
- , s .
[31]
, (3.21) , ,


(3.20).
(3.21),
:
113

. (3.22)

- ,

,
:

. (3.22)
,
.
(3.22) .
(3.22)
. ,


.
,
:

12
kB T
V k j
k1 j1k1 j2k jk j
4

1 k j . (3.23)


1 k j D
0
k j
s 2
N kj 1 .
1 k j ,
s


2 k jk j , 3 k jk j k j , 4 k jk j k j ,

(3.23)-(3.23)
114

lim g s res g m ctg z


- g z .
zp p
N s N zp
p
,
, , ,
-
, , (3.23) ,
- .

. ,
(3.22),
.
, , :
2

18 V k1 j1k jk j
3
Vk
1 j2 k j k j
3

2 k j k j , (3.23)
k BT k j
k j


2 k jk j D
ss
0
k j
s D0kj s s s s




2k BT 2 N k j 1 k j s k j k j
2 2
2

s k j k j
2 2 2
4k j s
2 2


2
N k j 1 k j s 2 k j 2 k j 2
.


2
s 2 k j 2 k j 2 4k j 2s 2
,
:
115

2

96 V k1 j1k jk jk j
4

Vk j k jk jk j 3 k j k j k j , (3.23)
4

k BT
1 2
k j
k j
k j


3 k jk jk j D sss
0
k j
s D0kj s D0kj s s s s s
3

k jk jk j B s .
2 2
k BT
, B s ,

k j k j k j
r , r , r .
2 k BT 2 k BT 2 k BT

B s


2 2 N kj 1 2 N kj 1 Re 1 1
r r s ir ir ir s ir ir ir
2

1 1

s ir ir ir s ir ir ir

2 N k j
1 2 N kj 1 Re 1 1
r r s ir ir ir s ir ir ir


1 1

s ir ir ir s ir ir ir

2
N kj 1 2 N kj 1 Re 1 1
r r s ir ir ir s ir ir ir


1 1

s ir ir ir s ir ir ir
116



2
3s r r r 2s r r r 2 r r r r r r
4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

4
s 4 r 4 r 4 r 4 2s 2 r 2 r 2 2r 2
2

8sr r r 2
2 r 2 r 2 r 2 r 2 r2 r2

2

24 V k1 j1k jk jk1 j2
4 4

V k j k jk jk j 4 k jk jk j , (3.23)
kBT
1 1
k j
k j
k j


4 k jk jk j D
ss
0
k j
s D0 kj s D0kj s

2k jk j k BT 2 N k j 1 2 N k j 1 2 N k j 1
.
k j k j
2 2
k j k j

(3.23)-(3.23)
, -
. , ,
1
( kj
s kj i kj

, kj ,

kj ). ,
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.
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I

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.
,
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, .
I

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, ,
.

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I
,
1.78 1015 c 1 , NaCl , I 9 ,
" CO2 + ", 10
.
q
. 4.1. ,
-
,
, .
. 4.1() , ,
.
120

. 4.1. q
0.1 (), 0.05 (), 0.15 ():
I
-
;
, ;
() , . 4.1().

, . 4.1(), (), (), ,



121


I
, ,

.
t p

t p 15..20 . ,
q ,
.
2.2 ,
.

q
I
.

,
. 4.1 ,
.
q (
),
(
)
.

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D (
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, , ,
, ,
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122


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( "" ).
, [25]


~ exp q ,

0 q , q

, q 1 .


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, , ,
)
.

4.3.

Ecr
T
- . [16] , p 1

1
Ecr ~ T 2 ,

p 1
1
Ecr ~ T 2
.

123

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, , ,
-
. ,
,
- [16].


,
, ,
t p 3 30 .
. 4.2()
0.27
t p t0 1012 c
NaCl , 300K , 400K , 500K , 600K .

q t ,
.
0.53 1.06 , .
4.2() ().
, ,
.
, ,
. 4.2
.
124

. 4.2.
t p t0 1012 c 0.27 (), 0.53 (),

1.06 () 300K ( 1), 400K (2), 500K (3), 600K (4).

dt -
- d ~ n t dt .
t1
125

exp 1t1 1
1 ~ n0 ,
1
t2

exp 2 t2 1
2 ~ n0 .
2
t ~ 15..20 ,

2 ,
2t2 1t1 ln (4.1)
1
2 .

0 21 21 t1
2 1 , .
2 0 1 t2

(4.1) 2 :

1 t2
2 2 1t1 ln .
t2 t1
. 4.2 ,
,

.
,
.
, .
, ,
1
, Ecr ~ T 2

p 1 .
126

. 4.3. . 4.2()
1.06 300K ( 1), 400K (2), 500K (3), 600K (4).
127

. 4.4.
tp t0 1012 T 300K (), 400K (), 500K (), 600K ()

: 0.27 ,
0.53 , 1.06 .
128

, ,
. . 4.3()
. 4.2()

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Fcr t p tp ,
2
, 0 . . 4.3()

. :
10 , ,
107
103 .
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,
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,
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[93] [128].
129

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4.4.

,

.
,
.
,
.
. 4.1 4.2 R

( 107
130

) , , 0 k T , 0
B

. . 4.1 4.2
, . 4.6-4.10.

4.1

0 3
k BT

=1.06 =0.53 =0.27


=10-7 0.59 0.79 1.42
=10-6 0.70 0.88 1.51
=10-5 0.89 1.11 1.70

4.2

0 0.3
kBT

=1.06 =0.53 =0.27


=10-7 0.47 0.56 0.86
=10-6 0.59 0.67 0.97
=10-5 0.89 1.01 1.31

. 4.6 :
1. R
;
131

2.
R ;
3. R,
, . ,

,
.

. 4.6. , . 4.1 4.2.


132

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1. R
;
2.
R ;

3. R
;
4. R , 107
106 , R , 106 105 .

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. 4.7(); . 4.7() 4.1,
.

. 4.8 4.1 4.2.


,
R .
133

,
.

. 4.8.
() 0.27 ; () 0.53 , () 1.06 .


R , 1.06 0.53 ,
R , 0.53 0.27 . .
134

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.

. 4.9. . 4.2, ,
. 4.9(); 4.1,
, . 4.9().

, . 4.6-4.9,

. ,

.
(. , [50]), ,
t p ~ 1012 c . ,

,

135

. . 4.3 4.4
R

.

4.3

R 0 k T 3 , 105
B

=1.06 =0.53 =0.27


q=1.9510-2 q=4.5010-3 q=7.310-4

R, 0.89 1.11 1.70


R, 3.61 3.08 1.98

4.4

R 0 k T 3 , 107
B

=1.06 =0.53 =0.27


q=1.7410-3 q=3.3010-4 q=3.1010-5

R, 0.47 0.56 0.87


R, 3.25 2.43 0.99

. 4.3 4.4

.
. 4.10:
136

R , ,
.
,
.
, R ,
:

, .
, R .

. 4.10.
() ; ()
.

,
,
137

, ,
, , .
,
.
LO-
, ,
, . ,

.

4.5.

,
:
( ) ( H ).
. 4.5-4.7;
, . 4.11,
. 4.12.
5%.
,
, .
0.27 ,

.

: , ,
(. 2),
138

4.5

0 k T 3 ,
B

105

=1.06 =0.53 =0.27


q=1.9510-2 q=4.5010-3 q=7.310-4

C 9.810-6 1.0710-5 1.0210-5


H 1.5510-5 1.5610-5 1.3010-5

4.6

0 0.5 , 105
kBT

=1.06 =0.53 =0.27


q=3.8110-3 q=1.0010-3 q=2.310-4

C 9.310-6 1.0710-5 1.0510-5


H 1.3410-5 1.4310-5 1.2810-5

4.7

0 k T 3 ,
B

107

=1.06 =0.53 =0.27


q=1.7410-3 q=3.3010-4 q=3.1010-5

C 1.0110-7 1.0010-7 9.610-8


H R=0.47
2.1510-7 1.610
R=0.56
-7
1.2910
R=0.87
-7

R=3.25 R=2.43 R=0.99


139

.
. 4.11() ()
.
. ,
-
-- .

. 4.11.
.
140

,

0.27 0.53
0.53 1.06
, .

(. 4.2),
.
H C
. 4.12
H

. , (
, ) ,

, ,
.

, .
. 4.12() ,
.
. 4.12() ,

.
,
. 4.11 .
141

. 4.12. () ; ()
.

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-
q ,
.
,
,
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,
.

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;
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3 108 )
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;
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; ,
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;
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.



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146

[1] ., . .
.: , 1979. 830 .
[2] .., .., ..
. .: , 1962. 444 .
[3] ..
// . 1961. .73. . 41 85.
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// . 2002. .172. . 301 333.
[5] ..
// . . 2003. 1(18). . 21 26.
[6] ..
// . . 2003. 1(18). .
14 20.
[7] .., .., .., ..
NaCl //
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[8] .., .., .., ..
( ): . / : -
, 2003. 244 .
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.

// . 2003. .33.
. 758 764.
147

[10] .., .., .., ..,


.. -
// .
1987. .45. . 399 402.
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.., .. -
// . 1977. .72. . 1171 1181.
[13] .., .., .., ..
//
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[14] ..

// . 1974. .67. . 1805 1817.
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// . 1976. .70. . 728 737.
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..
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. 1966. .6(1). . 33 43.
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// . 1966. .6(2). . 233
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[23] .. //
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// . 1959. .37. . 713 727.
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[27] .., ..
. .: , 1978. 256 .
149

[28] .. //
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[29] .., ..
// . 1973. .111. . 203
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// . 1986. .148. . 179 211.
[31] . . .:
, 1969. 366 .
[32] .., ..

// . 1972. .62. . 812 819.
[33] ..
// . 1969. .9. . 204 206.
[34] ..
// . 1970. .12. .
954 956.
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- .
// . 2005. .128. . 411 421.
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. .: , 2007. 122 .
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// . 1965. .87. . 29 64.
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