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.., ..

Ansoft HFSS

2009

HFSS Ansoft v. 9-11


1. HFSS Ansoft




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,
.
.
Ptolemy1,
ADS Advanced Design System (
Agilent).
VSS,
MWO
Microwave Office2.
,
,
( ,

1
www.agilent.com
2
www.moffice.com

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, MWO,
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IE3D3
. IE3D , ,

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. (Zeland) Fidelity
FDTD (Finite
Difference Time Domain).
, .
FDTD,
(, , ..).
High
Frequency System Simulator (HFSS) AnSoft,
, ,
, . ,
Hewlett Parcard
Agilent, .
Ansoft HFSS :
- ,
;
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;
-
(eigenmode solver);

3
www.zeland.com
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5 HFSS,
Hewlett Packard, Agilent Ansoft,
. ,
IE3D, Microwave Office, Microwave
Studio . HFSS

.
. -1. HFSS,
Ansoft Designer ,

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HFSS
(Finite Element Method, FEM).
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HFSS
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Microwave Office, Serenade Ansoft ADS. HFSS
Ansoft Designer,
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Ansoft Designer Ansoft Serenade.

. -3.

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.3.

, AutoCAD,
:
- 3D , ,
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- 2D 3D 3D 2D
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. -4.

.4.

HFSS
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(. -4).
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. -5. HFSS AnSoft



.5.

HFSS ,
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- 3D ,
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HFSS ,
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HFSS.

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.9.

HFSS
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Optimetrics,
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. B-9.


S-, ,
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GPS.
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HFSS. ,
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HFSS .
Optimetrics,

-
.

.10. Ansoft Designer

Ansoft Designer -
.

. -10. Ansoft Designer ,


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Solver on Demand
Ansoft Designer Ansoft HFSS. Ansoft Designer
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Ansoft AnSoft Designer.

. -11.


: Nexxim ( ), Q3D
Extractor ( ).
Ansoft Designer ,
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. -12. S-
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,

, Ansoft Designer
,
- . Ansoft Designer

.

Ansoft Designer
: Motorola ( LDMOS ), Murata (,
-, .), NEC (
), TDK ( ) ,
.
. -13. ,
, ,
,

Ansoft Designer

,
, HFSS Ansoft.
, 10 11,
.
,
HFSS Hewlett Parcard [3].

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.
1.

Ansoft HFSS v.9-11

HFSS - ,
.

, ,

.


, ,
. HFSS

S- .

HFSS

Eigenmode.

, .

HFSS
.

1.1.

HFSS
. :

: Pentium III, 500 MHz,


( HFSS v.9): 200
Mb,

(RAM): 256 MB.

, ,
:

: Pentium IV, 1 GHz,

( HFSS
): 500 MB,

(RAM): 2 GB.

HFSS Ansoft 9-
11:

Windows NT 4.0 Workstation,

Windows NT 4.0 Server,

Windows 2000 Professional,

Windows XP Professional.

1.2. HFSS Ansoft


HFSS , ,
, (. 1.1).

1.3.
( . 1.1)
, ,
.

Shift+F1.

.
. 1.1. HFSS Ansoft 911

HFSS ,
:

File File
HFSS .
Edit Edit
,
.
View View
,
3D Modeler, .
Project Project HFSS
, ,
.
Draw Draw -, -,
, -
.
3D 3D Modeler ,
Modeler , Ansoft 2D Modeler 3D
Modeler, ,
3D Modeler,
,
, . .
HFSS HFSS
. .
Tools Tools :
,
, (),
,
,
().
Window Window 3D
Modeler .
Help Help -
.

1.4.

.

,
:

Tools (), Customize ().

,
Customize (. 1.2).
. 1.2. HFSS

,
. ,
, 3D Modeler,
Project Manager.



(Toolbar)
,
.
, 3D Modeler ,

(3D Modeler)
( , ..),
, ,
, ,
.

(Project Manager)
;
,
(Project , ;
Manager) ,
; ;
;
,
, Ansoft Maxwell
SPICE.

1.6.

- . ,
:
.
. 1.3. . 1.4. Customize


HFSS

,
, (. 1.3). ,
Project Manager, Project Manager
.
Customize, Customize
(. 1.4),
.

1.7. 3D Modeler
3D Modeler , ,
( , ..)
, , ,
, ,
(. 1.5).
3D Modeler:

3D Modeler (
).
. 1.5. 3D Modeler

(.
1.5) . , ,
.

1.8. Project Manager


, , (. 1.1)
, .
, Boundaries,
(. 1.6),
, ,
, ,

PML .
. 1.6.

(. 1.7).
,
.

. 1.7.

,
Status Bar View. :
X, Y, Z;
,
,
;
.

1.9.
Project Manager ,
(. 1.8).
. 1.8.

Project Manager HFSS,


. ,
,
(
).

, .
Projectn, n - ,
HFSS.

.
:
1. Tools Parameters, General Options.
Options.
2. Project Options, Expand Project Tree on Insert (.
1.9).
. 1.9.

. ,
TEMP .

1.10.
,
. HFSSModelN
, N .
,
, ,
.

Definitions
, .

1.11. Properties

Properties , ,
, , 3D Modeler.
Properties
(. 1.1).

. 1.1.
,
Boundaries
Excitations ,

Mesh ,
Operations .
-
Analysis

Optimetrics
Results
Port Field
Display
Field Overlays ,


Radiate

, :
, ,
. .
Properties (. 1.10).

. 1.10. () ()

Properties, View, Property


Window. , Properties
.
, Properties .
, Properties .
1.12.
Properties
,
: Attribute Command.
, :

1. ,
.

. 1.11.

2. Attribute,
(. 1.11).

, ,
:
, ; ,
.
,
ENTER.
OK .
1.13.
Properties
Command (. 1.12) Properties
, , .
, Draw>Box,
, Edit>Duplicate>Mirror.

. 1.12.

Command . ,
, (, , ..),
, . :
1. , ,
.
2. Command Properties,
.

1.14.
3D Modeler
3D Modeler (. 1.13).
Project Manager ,
HFSS . 3D
Modeler
.
3D Modeler,
Insert HFSS Design,
.

. 1.13.

. , ,
, File > Save.
3D Modeler.
, Draw,
(1D) , ,
.
3D Modeler
, .

1.15.
(. 1.14) 3D Modeler
, ,
.
,
. ,
.
.1.14.

,
.
Properties.

Model ,
.
Coordinat ,
e Systems .
Planes .
, xy,
yz xz.
Points ,
.
Lists .
-
, ,
.

1.16. HFSS


: , ,
. HFSS Ansoft
. 1.15.

, HFSS:

.
.
.
.
.
.
S-.
.
.

. 1. 15. HFSS


(Optimetrics).
. :

.
.
, S-.
.
.
, .
,
.
.
,
.
.

1.17. HFSS
HFSS - ,
() HFSS. ,
,
.
Project n ,
. File > New.
File,
.
,
.

HFSS

HFSS, .hfss
. ,
.
HFSS :

. 1.1 . HFSS


.hfss HFSS 9.0
Design_name.hfssresults HFSS 9.0,

Project_name.hfssresults HFSS 9.0,

.asol HFSS 9.0.
,
.
project_name.hfssresults
.pjt HFSS 8.5
.anfp Ansoft PCB

File New.
.
Project_n, n - ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
File>Save, File>Save As.

. :

1. File Open.
2. , .hfss.
, ,
HFSS.
3. , .
4. OK. .

1. File Multiple Open.


2. , HFSS 9.0
.adsn.
3. , .
4. OK. .

,
1. File, Open.
2. Ansoft Legacy EM Projects (*.cls) .
3. Look in, .
, , , .
4. , .

1.18. HFSS

HFSS , Ansoft HFSS 8.5


,
. ,
,
.

(. 1.2).

. 1.2.


; ,
,
Properties. , ,
9.0.
, 9.0,
, ;
,
.

HFSS 9.

, ,
.
,
.

Driven Terminal ,
Driven Modal.
,
, .
,
, HFSS 9.0

.

, ,
9.0; ,
.

30
10 .
,
,
.
,
,
9.0.
.

Mesh ,
Operations , .

Optimetrics , ,
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
Driven Terminal
9.0.



9.0;
.

9.0
.
.
S-
. S-
9.0;
.

, Number of
Steps, Step Size 9.0.


Maximum
Number of Passes 9.0. , 3
, 2
, Maximum Number of Passes = 5
9.0.

Solutions ;
() 9.0.

1.19.

1. File, Save As.


2. , , .
3. File name.
4. .
5. Switch to saved, :
, ,
.
Switch to saved
.
6. OK.


File, Save .

.
HFSS auto-save,
-.
HFSS .

,
:

1. File Save As.

2. , , .

3. File name.

4. .

5. Switch to saved, :
, ,
.
Switch to saved,
.

6. OK. HFSS
, .

HFSS ,
, ,
.

Projectn.hfss.auto , n - ,
. HFSS
- , .
, HFSS 10
. ,
, ,
, , .

1. Tools, Options, General Options.


Options (. 1.16).

. 1.16.

2. Project Options, Do Autosave.


.
3. Autosave interval, ,
. ,
10.

4. OK, .
,
. , HFSS
undo/redo.
HFSS ,
.auto. , Project1.hfss
Project1.hfss.auto.

1.20.


.

1. HFSS.

2. File Open,
Projectn.hfss, ,
Projectn.hfss.auto. Crash Recovery
(. 1.17),
, .

3. Open project using autosave file (. 1.17),


, OK.
HFSS -
. HFSS
.
. 1.17.

. , HFSS
, ,
.
, , HFSS
. HFSS ,
, .
, ,
;
, ,
.

,
;
.

Undo Edit,
, .

1. Project Manager, :
,
,
( ).
,
, ,
.
2. Edit, Undo, Undo
. .

. HFSS > Analyze.


, , HFSS
undo/redo .

Redo

Redo Edit, ,
, , ,
. ,
, .

1. Project Manager :
,
,
, .
,
, ,
.
2. Edit Redo, Redo
.
.

, , HFSS
undo/redo .

1.21.
, ,
.
:
1. HFSS, Validation Check . HFSS
, Validation Check (. 1.18).

2. Validation Check.

. 1.18.

3. , Message
Manager (. 1.19).
. 1.19. : PerfE2
Imped1, PerfE3 PerfE4

4. ,
, .

, .

, .
, ;
-, .

5. HFSS, Validation Check ,


,
.

6. Close.

Progress ( . 1.20
Progress,
).
Progress, :
View, Progress Window. ,
, Progress .

. 1.20.
,
Progress . ,
Progress .

1.23.

HFSS_ 9:

Ansoft 2D Modeler;
3D ;
;
.

Ansoft 2D Modeler
Ansoft 2D Modeler (.sm2),
, x-y.

.sm2 :

1. 3D Modeler, Export,
Ansoft 2D Modeler.

2. , ,
.

3. File name.

4. Ansoft 2D Geometry Files (*.sm2) Save as type.

5. Save.
.sm2.

, ,
x0y,
.
3D Model
HFSS
(. 1.21):

.sat ACIS
.sm3 HFSS 3D Modeler ACIS 2.0

. 1.21. ,

:
1. 3D Modeler, Export
3D model.
2. , , .
3. File name.
4. ( ) Save as type.
5. .sm3, Select Version (.
1.22). ACIS,
ACIS SM3 Version, OK.
. 1.22.

6. Save.
.

1.24.

,
,
:

.bmp Batch Message Processing.


.gif Graphics Interchange Format.
.jpeg Joint Photographics Experts Group.
.tiff Tagged Image File Format.
.wrl Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML).

:
1. 3D Modeler, Export,
.
2. , , .
3. File name (. 1.23).
4. Save as type.
5. Save.
.
.1.23.

1.25.
1. Report2D, Export to File.
, Export to File
. Export plot data to file.

2. , , .

3. File name.

4. Save as type:
.txt
.csv
.tab
.dat
5. Save.
.
1.26.

,
AutoCAD. ,
, 3D Modeler. HFSS
:

2D
3D

1.26.1. 2D Model

3D
Modeler :

.gds GDS-II 2D

.sm2 Ansoft 2D Modeler.

2D :

1. 3D Modeler, Import.
2. , , .
3. 2D model, .
4. Open. 3D Modeler
(. 1.24).
. 1.24.

3D Modeler,
,
(. 1.24). Ansoft 2D
Modeler (.sm2), ,
xy. ,
xy,
.

1.26.2. 3D Model

, 3D Modeler:
.dxf AutoCAD
.geo Agilent HFSS.
.iges, .igs Initial Graphics Exchange Specification
(IGES).
.sat ACIS
.sm3 HFSS 3D
.step, .stp AP203 STEP
, 3D Modeler,
,
; (. 1.25).

. 1.25. dxf ,

:
1. 3D Modeler, Import.
2. , ,
.
3. , (
, . 1.26).
4. Open. 3D Modeler.
. 1.26.
1.26.3.
,
, , , ,
, S-
. :

1. HFSS, Results, Import Solutions.


Imported Data (. 1.27).

. 1.27.
2. Import Solution. S Parameter
Import.

3. File Name, ,
,
(. 1.28).

. 1.28. S-

4. Load File. , .

5. , Source Name.

6. , Available
Solutions, Import.
Imported Data.

7. , ,
OK.

1.27.
,
:
Table Tab. HFSS ,
.
Table Comma. HFSS ,
.
1. HFSS, Results, Import Solutions.
,
Import Solutions .
Imported Data.

2. Import Table. Table Import (.


1.29).

3. File Name, ,
,
.

. 1.29.

4. , Real/Imag,
Mod/Phase.
5. Load File. ,
.

6. , Source Name,
.

7. Table Name,
, .

8. All Columns
. , ,
:
a. All Columns, , .
Column Name.
b. Column Name, Set Column
Name. ,
Imported Data.

9. Independent Data Columns,


. Dependent Data Columns,

. , ,
, .

10. Dependent Data Columns


, Matrix Data. ,
Field Data.

11. Import. Imported Data.

12. , Current
Imports, OK.
.

1.28.


. :
1. File, Print. .

2. ( dpi
,
), .prn.

3. :
OK, .
Cancel, .
Setup, .

1.29.

,
.
.

1. HFSS, Edit Notes. Design Notes.


2. .
3. OK, .

Notes . Design Notes,
.

,
HFSS v.9 [1,2]. ,

, , ,
.
, .
2

HFSS ,
.
,
.
,
.

,
,
,
, .

HFSS:

Project
Variables HFSS,
. HFSS
,
$. $
, HFSS
, .
Design Variables
HFSS,
.
. -
, ,
,
.
2.1.

1. Project, Project Variables.


, Project Variables
. Properties.

2. Project Variables Add (. 2.1).


Add Property.

. 2.1.

3. Name .
$.
-
(_).
() .

4. Value, . ,
.
, ,
.
(current), (default), (value).

5. OK. Properties.
.
6. Description.

7. Read Only. ,
( ).

8. Hidden ( ).
Hidden,
Properties.

2.2.

,
HFSS.

1. HFSS Design Properties. ,


,
Design Properties . Properties (. 2.2).

. 2.2. dlina lengh,


33
2. Local Variables, Add (. 2.2).
Add Property (. 2.3).

3. Name, .
, -
(_).
pi () .

. 2.3. W_project,
21

4. Value, , .
, .
,
. ,
( Value), ,
.

5. OK. Properties.
- .

6. ,
Description (. 2.2).
,
.
.
.

2.3.
- ,
, sin(x), , +, -, *, /,
.
pi (), .
.
.
, 5 x 107 5e7.

2.3.1.

, ,
. . 2.1.
,
( ).

. 2.1. , HFSS Ansoft


! 1
- 2

** 3

* 4

/ 5

% 6

+ 7
- 8

<< 9
>> 10

== 11
!= 12
> 13
< 14

>= 15

<= 16
& 17
| 18
^ 19

~ 1- 20

2.4.

HFSS
, ,
. (. 2.4) ,
.

. 2.4. ,

,
:
. 2.2. ,
abs abs(x)

sin sin(x)

cos cos(x)

tan tan(x)

asin asin(x)

acos acos(x)

atan ( atan(x)
90
90)

atan2 ( atan2(y,x)
-180
180)

pow pow(x,y)=x y

sinh sinh(x)

cosh cosh(x)

tanh tanh(x)

if if(cond_exp,true_exp,
false_exp)

pwlx - pwlx(variable, form_exp,


dataset_exp)
x
pwly - pwly(variable, form_exp,
dataset_exp)
y
dset dset((x 0 , y 0 ), (x 1 , y 1 ),
... (x n , y n ))

sqrt sqrt(x)

exp exp (x)=e x

ln ln(x)

lg lg(x)
2
log log(x)

round round(x)
(
)
floor Floor ( floor(x)
)
ceil Ceiling ( ceil(x).
)
deg Degrees deg(x)
(
)
rad Radians rad(x)
(
)
sign sign(x)

rand rand(x)
( 1)

,
. ,
. ,
,
Constants (. 2.5).
. 2.5. , : ,
..

-
:

pwlx (dataset_expression, variable),


pwly (dataset_expression, variable).

pwlx x
y. pwly y
x.

dset ((x0, y0), ..., (xn, yn)).


pwlx
pwly.
pwly pwlx.

, Datasets.
,
. ,
,
.
- .

2.4.

, :

1. Project, Datasets. Datasets.


2. Add. Add Dataset (. 2.6).
3. , , ,
Name.

4. x- y- , , 1.

5. x- y- .
, , ,
.

6. , OK.
,
.
. 2.6. Add Dataset

1. Project, Datasets. Datasets.

2. , ,
Edit. Edit Dataset.

3. ,
Name.

4. . ,
. , OK.
2.6.

,
.
. , 2.3 2.4.
.
X, Y, Z, Phi, Theta, R
. X, Y, Z -
, Phi, Theta, R - .
,
.

2.7.

HFSS (. 2.7),

Value. ,
, Add Variable to DesignName,
.
. 2.7. ,

, $,
, Add Variable to
Project, (. 2.8).

. 2.8. Add Variable to Project $dlina_2

, , ..
,
Properties (. 2.9).

1. - , :
HFSS, Design Properties. - ,
Project, Project Variables.
Properties.

2. , ,
.

3. , ,
($dlina_2 . 2.9).
4. Optimization.

. 2.9. $dlina_2

5. , ,
Include.
, .

6. ,
, Optimetrics
.
, HFSS ,
.

2.8.

,
, ,
Properties (.
2.10).

1. - , HFSS Design
Properties.
, HFSS.
2. , .

3. , ,
.

4. Sensitivity.

. 2.10.

5. , ,
Include.
.

6. ,
,
.
,
.
2.9.

, , ,
Properties
(. 2.11).

1. - , HFSS,
Design Properties. - , Project,
Project Variables. Properties.

. 2.11.

2. , .

3. , , .

4. Tuning.

5. , , Include.
.

.
2.10.

, ,

Properties (. 2.12).

. 2.12.

1. - , HFSS,
Design Properties.
- , Project, Project
Variables. Properties.

2. , ,
.

3. , ,
.

4. Statistical.
5. , ,
Include.
.

6. (Tolerance),
.
,
.


.
, ,
, , ,
.
3


,
(. 3.1).
: ,
. ,
.
,
, ,
, .
3D Modeler.

. 3.1. .
, ,


() . ,
Project Insert HFSS Design. ,
, . HFSS
Design_N , N - ,
.
3D Modeler.
(. 3.2).

"" ,
,
, , .

3D Modeler, :
HFSS Project ->
Insert Design HFSS.
Insert Design HFSS .

3D Modeler , :
HFSS, 3D Model Editor.
,
3D Model Editor .

. 3.2. , 3D Modeler
HFSS
, ,
Draw. ,
, (. 3.2).
(1D) HFSS - , , -
.
; ,
. , .
2D
.
(2D) ,
, , .
;
. 2D ,
Cover Lines.
(3D) - , ,
, , , .
. ,
,
Draw.
, 3D Modeler,
: ,
Properties.
, (. 3.3).
, , ,
.
. 3.3.
cavity Cylinder1


. ,
,
. :

1. 3D Modeler, Units. Set


Model Units.

2. .

3. , :
Rescale to new units ,
. , (cm),
, 10 10 c.
Rescale to new units ( )
. , cm
, , 10
1 c.
4. OK, .

3.1.1.


, Draw>Line.

1. Draw, Line.

2. , ,
X, Y, Z HFSS.
, , Undo Previous Segment
.

3. ,
X, Y, Z.
.
, ESC
Escape Draw Mode .

4. :

.
Done .
Enter.
. 3.4.

, Properties (. 3.4),
.

5. OK.

3.1.2.

HFSS, Draw>Arc>3
Point,
.

1. Draw, Arc, 3 Point.

2. , ,
X, Y, Z.
3. ,
X, Y, Z (. 3.5).
, ,
Undo Previous Segment .
, ESC
Escape Draw Mode .

4. ,
X, Y, Z.

.

. 3.5.

5. ,
, Done
.
Properties (. 3.5),
.

6. OK.

, , HFSS
.
, ,
, , Set Edge Type
, .

3.1.3.

, ,
. Draw>Arc>Center Point,

.

1. Draw Arc, Center point (. 3.6).

2. ,
X, Y, Z.

3. , ,
X, Y, Z.

. 3.6. , xy

4. , ,
- X, Y, Z.

5. ,
, Done
. Properties,
.

6. OK.

3.1.4.

- , . HFSS
, ,
, . Draw>Spline ,

.

1. Draw, Spline.
2. ,
X, Y, Z. Enter.

3. ,
X, Y, Z.

4. ,
X, Y, Z (. 3.7)

. 3.7. ,

, ,
, ,
Set Edge Type .

.
5. , ,
Done , Enter.
Properties, (. 3.7).

3.1.5.

, ,
, , (.
3.8).
. , ,
, Set Edge Type
. :

1. Draw, Line.

2. 3D Modeler,
, Set Edge Type.

3. Straight, Spline, 3 Point Arc, Center Point Arc


, .

. 3.8.
4. Straight, :
Set Reference Point.
x, y, z Enter.

Spline, .
3 Point Arc,
.
Center Point Arc,
.

5. 2 3 .

.

6. ,
, Done (. 3.8).

, Close
Polyline .
. , ,
, ,
.

3.1.6.

, .
:

1. Draw, Circle.

2. , ,
X, Y, Z.

3. , ,
dX, dY, dZ, d -
.
Properties, .

4. OK.
3D Modeler Options Automatically cover closed
polyline, ,
. 1D .

3.1.7.

, , ,
(. 3.9).

1. Draw Ellipse.

2. , ,
X, Y, Z.

3. .
xy, x - .
yz,
y. xz, z -
. :
. HFSS
.

dX, dY, dZ,


d - .

4. .
:
. HFSS
, .
dX, dY, dZ.
. 3.9.

Properties (. 3.9), .
Ratio
.

5. OK.

3D Modeler Options Automatically cover closed


polyline, , .
.
, ,

. ,
,

.
, , .

3.1.8.
( ) ,
. :

1. Draw, Rectangle.

2. , ,
X, Y, Z.

3. , ,
- dX,
dY, dZ, d - .

4. OK.

3D Modeler Options Automatically cover closed


polyline,
. 1D .

3.1.9.

-
.
.

1. Draw Regular polygon.

2. ,
X, Y, Z.

3. ,
, :
.
dX, dY, dZ,
d - .

4. ,
OK (. 3.10).
. 3.10.

5. OK.

3.1.10.

, .
.

1. Draw, Sphere.

2. ,
X, Y, Z (. 3.11).
. 3.11.

3. , ,
dX, dY, dZ, d -
.
. ,
, .

4. OK.

3.1.11.

, , .
(true surfaces) HFSS. ,
. :

1. Draw Cylinder.

2. , ,
X, Y, Z.
. 3. 12.

3. , ,
xy ( ).

4. ,
(. 3.12). ,
dX, dY, dZ.

5. OK.

3.1.12.

, , ,
, .
:

1. Draw, Box.

2. ,
, X, Y, Z.
3. , ,

dX, dY, dZ, d - .

. , , HFSS
.

. 3.13.

4. ,
. ,
dX, dY, dZ. Properties
(. 3.13).
5. OK.

3.1.13.

HFSS, -
;
.
(. 3.14).

1. Draw, Regular Polyhedron.

2. , ,
X, Y, Z.
. 3.14.

3. ,
, ,
dX, dY, dZ, d -
.

4. Segment number, Number of segments,


OK.

5. OK.

3.1.14.

(. 3.15), ,
. ,
.
. :

1. Draw, Cone.

2. , ,
X, Y, Z.

3. , ,
dX, dY, dZ,
d - .

. 3.15 .

4. , .
, dX, dY, dZ.
, .

5. ,
dX, dY, dZ.
Properties, (. 3.15).

3.1.15.

, , , . HFSS
.
(. 3.16) :
1. Draw Torus.

2. , , ,
X, Y, Z.

3. , :
.
dX, dY, dZ,
d - .
(. 3.16).

. 3.16.

4. ,
. .
Properties, .

3.1.16.

- , ,
() (.
3.17).
.
.

1. ,
, .
2. Draw Helix.

3. , :
a. ,
X, Y, Z.
b. ,
dX, dY, dZ.

Helix.

4. Right hand, -
Left hand, .

5. Pitch, ,
.

6. Turns, ,
.
. 3.17.

3.1.17.

- , ,
(. 3.18).
.
.
:

. 3.18. ,
1. ,
, ,
, .

2. Draw Spiral.

3. , :
a. ,
X, Y, Z.
b. ,
dX, dY, dZ.
Spiral.

4. Right hand, -
Left hand, .

5. Radius Change,
- .
,
.

6. .

7. Turns, ,
.
, . ,
, .

3.1.18.

Bondwire - ,
.
:

1. Draw Bondwire.

2. ,
X, Y, Z.
3. ,
X, Y, Z. Bondwires (. 3.19).

4. Type, Bondwire:
JEDEC 4-point JEDEC 5-point.

. 3.19.

5. No. of Facets.
3.

6. h1 (.
3.19). .

7. h2 -
. HFSS , .
h2, .
, h2
.
8. JEDEC 5-point, :
a.
alpha.
b.
beta.

9. OK.
3.1.19.



. .

1. Draw Point.

2. , ,
X, Y, Z (. 3.20).

Point .

. 3.20.

3.1.20.

.

.
HFSS.
1. Draw Plane.

2. , ,
X, Y, Z.

3. ,
,
dX, dY, dZ d - .
. ,
,
(. 3.21). Planes .

. 3.21.

3.2.

,
, (non-model).
;
.
, ,
,
, .

:
1.
. ,
, , 100
. ,
, Edit Sweeps.
2. ,

.
3. ,
, .
4. , ,
.
5. , ,
.

,
, (non-model).
,
.

3.2.1.

- :
1. 3D Modeler, New Object Type, Non
Model.
, Non Model
3D Modeler.
, ,
xy, yz, xz.
xy, yz, xz
,
.
2. .
3.2.2.

,
:
1. , .
2. Properties, Model.
.
,
.

3.3.

,
- , 3D Modeler,
:

.
.
.
(Delete).
(Move).
(Rotate).
(Mirror) .
( ).
(Duplicate).
.
(Sweep).
.
.
.
.
, .
(Connect).
(Move).
(Unite).
(Subtract).
.
.
(Split).
.
.

3.3.1.

(. 3.22)
. :

1. , .
2. Properties, Attribute.
3. Edit Color. .

4. Color, OK.
.

. 3.22. ,

1. Tools, Options 3D Modeler Options.


2. Display.
3. Object Default color.
4. Color Default color.
.
5. , OK.
, ,
, .

3.3.2.

1. Tools, Parameters, 3D Modeler.


2. Display.
3. Object Wire Default color.
4. Color Default color .
.
5. , OK.
, ,
, .

3.3.3.

,
, .
:

1. , .
2. Properties, Attribute.
3. Transparency. Set
Transparency (. 3.23).
4. , .
, .
5. OK.
. 3.23.

1. Tools, Parameters, 3D Modeler.


2. Display.
3. Default transparency ,
, ,
. , ,
, .

3.3.4.


, Edit>Copy Edit>Paste.
:

1. , .
2. Edit, Copy . .
.
3. , .
, .
4. 3D Modeler.
5. .
.
6. Edit, Paste.
.
. , ,
, .

3.3.5.

1. , .
2. Edit, Delete .
, , Delete. .

, ,
, ,
.

- ,
, , .
,
Delete. :

1. , ,
, .
.
2. , .
3. Edit, Delete. ,
Delete. , , .
,
.
.

3.3.6.

1. , .
2. Edit, Arrange, Move.

3. , ,
X, Y, Z.

4. , ,
dX, dY,
dZ, d - .
,
.

3.3.7.

x-, y-, z,
Edit>Arrange>Rotate. :

1. .

2. Edit Arrange, Rotate.


Rotate.

3. , : X, Y, Z.

4. Angle. -
.
.

5. OK. .

,
Edit>Duplicate>Around Axis.

3.3.8.
Edit>Arrange>Mirror
. ,
.

1. , .
.
2. Edit, Arrange, Mirror.
3. ,
.
, ,
.
4. , ,
dX, dY, dZ, d -
.
,
.
,
Edit>Duplicate>Mirror.

3.3.9.

Edit>Arrange>Offset
.
.

.
,
Surfaces>Move Faces>Along Normal.

:
1. , .
2. Edit Arrange, Offset.
Offset.
3. ,
.
4. OK.
3.3.10.

,
Edit>Duplicate.
, ,
.
,
,
( )
( ). ,
,
,
. ,
,
, .
, . ,
- , ,
, .
,
. ,
- (. 3.24).
:

Edit>Duplicate>Along
Line .

Edit>Duplicate>Around .
Axis

Edit>Duplicate>Mirror

.

,
Edit>Copy Edit>Paste.
. 3. 24. Z

,
, ,
.

,
Edit>Duplicate>Along Line. , ,
, , .

1. , .

2. Edit, Duplicate, Along Line .

3. , :

a. ,
X, Y, Z.
; ,
, .
b. , ,
dX, dY, dZ, d -
.
, .
Duplicate Along Line (. 3.25).

. 3. 25.

4. , , Total
number.

5. OK.
, .

x-, y-, z,
Edit>Duplicate>Around Axis.

1. , .
2. Edit Duplicate, Around Axis.
Duplicate Around Axis.

3. , : X, Y, Z.

4. Angle.

.
.

5. , , Total
Number.

6. OK.
, .

,
Edit>Duplicate>Mirror.
, .

1. , .

2. Edit Duplicate, Mirror.

3. ,
. , ,
.

4. , ,
dX, dY, dZ, d -
.
, ,
, .
, .
Edit>Arrange>Mirror, , .
3.3.11.

,
Edit>Scale.

. ,
,
- .
, 2 X,
,
(. 3.26). , ,
.
, .

. 3.26.

1. ,
.

2. , .

3. Edit, Scale. Scale.

4. .

5. OK.
.
3.3.12.

, 2D , ,
, . ,
, , , ,
, , 3D
Modeler. ,
.
1D ,
. .

()
x-, y-, z-, ,
Draw>Sweep>Around Axis (. 3.27).
-
.
, :
, ,
. , z,
, z, .. xz yz.

, .
, .

. 3.27. , X
:

1. , .

2. Draw, Sweep, Around Axis.


Sweep Around Axis.

3. , : X, Y, Z.

4. , , Angle of
sweep. -360 360.

5. .

6. Draft Type . Draft Type


HFSS, ,
.

7. OK. .
.

,
Draw>Sweep>Along Vector.

1. , .

2. Draw, Sweep, Along Vector.

3. , ,
,
X, Y, Z, ,
, dX, dY, dZ, d
- . Sweep
Along Vector.

4. ,
.
5. Draft Type:

Extended
, .
.
Round
Natural
, .
,
,
.

.
.

,
,
Draw>Sweep>Along Path.
, ,
, ,
. c,
.

1. , .

2. , ,
.

3. Draw, Sweep, Along Path.


Sweep Along Path.

4. . ,
, .
5. ,
.

6. Draft Type .

.
, , .
.

3.3.13.

,
3D Modeler>Surface>Cover Lines.
.
:
1. , ,
.
2. 3D Modeler, Surface, Cover Lines.

.
, ,
.

3.3.14.

,
3D Modeler>Surface>Cover Faces (. 3.28).
:
1. , .
2. 3D Modeler Surface, Cover Faces.
.
. 3.28.

, HFSS
, , , ,
, Automatically cover closed.

3.3.15.


.
3D Modeler>Surface>Uncover Faces.

:
1. : Edit, Select,
Faces.
2. , .
3. 3D Modeler, Surface Uncover Faces.
,
.

.
. ,
.

3.3.16.

3D Modeler>Surface>Detach Faces
,
.
:
1. : Edit, Select,
Faces.
2. , .
.
3. , 3D Modeler> Surface> Detach
Faces. ,
.
3.4.

.
3DModeler>Surface>Section.

,
xy, yz, xz.
(. 3.29).

. 3.29. YZ

1. , ,
.
2. , .
3. 3D Modeler Surface, Section.
4. , ,
: XY, YZ, ZX.
5. OK.
3.5.

3D Modeler>Surface>Connect,
:
1D . HFSS
, , ,
,
.
.
. HFSS
, ,
, ,
.
.

:
1. , .
2. 3D Modeler, Surface, Connect.
, , .
, , , ,
.

3.6.

3D ,
3D Modeler>Surface> Move Faces.
, (.
3.30).
. 3.30.

3.6.1.


,
3D Modeler>Surface>Move Faces>Along Normal.
, ,
, . ,
.

,
, , . 3. 31.

. 3.31. ,

,
:

1. Select Faces .
2. , .
3. 3D Modeler>Surface>Move Faces>Along Normal.
4. Move Faces Along Normal.
5. ,
.
6. OK.
, .
,
Edit>Arrange>Offset.

3.6.2.


, 3D Modeler>Surface>Move
Faces>Along Vector.
, (. 3.32).

. 3.32. ,

, ,
, .
.

:
1. Select Faces .

2. , .
3. 3D Modeler>Surface>Move Faces>Along Vector.

4. , :
a. , ,
X, Y, Z.
; ,

.

b. , ,
dX, dY, dZ , d -
.
,
. Enter.
, .

, Edit>Arrange>Offset.

3.7.

,
3D Modeler>Boolean>Unite.
, , , .
.

1. , .

2. 3D Modeler, Boolean, Unite .


(. 3.33).
, . ,
, .
. 3.33. ,

, , ,
.
, ,
:
,
.
Clone before unite 3D Modeler Options.
HFSS
.

3.8.

1. , .
2. Ctrl, , .
3. 3D Modeler, Boolean, Subtract .
Subtract. ,
Tool Parts ,
Blank Parts.

4. , ,
, (.
3.34).
,
Tool Parts, ,
, Blank Parts.

. 3. 34. Box4 Box3

5. , Clone tool objects before subtracting.


HFSS
.

6. OK. , ,
.
, ,
, .
3.9.

,
, 3D Modeler>Boolean>
Intersect.
:
1. , .
2. 3D Modeler, Boolean Intersect .
, ,
(. 3.35).
, , ,
.

. ,
.

. 3. 35.

,
. ,
, ,
;
Clone before intersect 3D Modeler Options.
, HFSS
, .

. , ,
, . , ,
Clone before intersect 3D Modeler Options.
Modeler>Boolean>Intersect, ,
(. 3.36).
.

. 3.36. xy

3.10.

3D Modeler>Surface>Create Object from Face


, .
:

1. Select Faces .

2. , .
, .
3. 3D Modeler Surface, Create Object from
Face.
,
.

3.11.

, xy, yz,
xz, 3D Modeler>Boolean>Split.

1. , .
.

2. 3D Modeler, Boolean, Split .


Split.

3. Split plane, .

4. ,
,
, (. 3.37).

5. OK.

. 3.37.


(.3.38).
. 3.38. ,

1. , .

2. 3D Modeler, Boolean, Separate


Bodies.
xy. (. 3.39).
. 3.39.

,
, , .
,
. :
.
.
.

1. , ,
, .
(. 3.40).
2. ,
, , Properties.

3. Properties, Value
Segment Type.

4. .
, , .

,
;
,
.

. 3.40. ,
.

3.12. 3D Modeler

,
- . , ,
, - .
?
.
.
.
.
.

3.12.1.

, HFSS .

, .
.
,
, , ,
. , Display
3D Modeler Options.
HFSS ,
, :
O.
,
Select Objects (. 3.41).
Edit, Select Objects.
Object
Selection 3D Modeler.
. 3. 41.

3.12.2.

1. , HFSS ,
O.
2. :
CTRL ,
.
CTRL ,
, .
Edit>Select All, ,
, .
CTRL+A Edit>Select All Visible
.
3.12.3.

1. , HFSS ,
O.
2. Edit, Select, By name.
Select Object.

3. Name, , .
Ctrl, .
, ,
(. 3.42).

. 3.42.

4. OK. .

3.13.

HFSS ,
, .
, CTRL,
. ,
.
,
, , ,
.
, Display 3D Modeler Options.
.
:
F.
,
Select Faces.
Edit, Select, Faces.
Face
Selection 3D Modeler.

3.13.1.

1. , ,
.
2. , F.
3. , .
4. Edit, Select, All Object Faces.
, ,
All Object Faces .
.

3.13.2.

1. , HFSS ,
F.

2. Edit Select, By name .


Select Face (. 3.43).

3. Objectn Name, ,
.
Face ID.
4. , Face ID.
.

. 3.43.

5. OK.

3.13.3.


.

.

:
1. , HFSS
F.
2. ,
.
3. 3D Modeler>List>Create>Face List.
.
Lists.

.
Geometry ,
Surface.

3.13.4.

HFSS ,
, .
, CTRL, .
, -
, , , .
, Display
3D Modeler Options.
.
,
:
Edit, Select Edges.
Edge 3D
Modeler Selection.

3.13.5.

HFSS ,
. ,
CTRL, .
,
, , ,
. ,
Display 3D Modeler Options.
.
,
:
Edit, Select, Vertices.
Vertex 3D
Modeler Selection.

, , ,
:
,
.
,
.
Edit, Deselect All.
Shift+Ctrl+A.
.

3.13.6.


, :
Edit, Select, Next Behind.
Next
Behind.
B.
Ctrl+B.
, ,
,
, .

3.14.

,
x, y, z X, Y,
Z, . ,
x, y, z dX, dY, dZ,
.

1. , Cartesian
.
2. x-, y-, z- X, Y, Z.
, .

3. , ,
, , .

x, y, z dX, dY, dZ Enter.

, ,
, , R,
X Theta, z
Z. ,
dR, dTheta,
dZ. :

1. , Cylindrical
.

2. r-, Theta -, z- R, heta, Z.


, .

3. , ,
.
dR, dTheta, dZ.

,
, R, x Theta,
Z Phi. ,
dR, dTheta, dPhi.
1. , Spherical
. Tab,
. Ctrl+Tab,
.

2. r-, theta -, phi - R, heta, Phi.


, .

3. , ,
.
dR, dTheta, dPhi.

,
.

(0, 0, 0). ,
.
,
.

:
1. .
2. Absolute Absolute/Relative
.
3. ,
.

,
.
, .
(0, 0, 0).
Tab,
. Ctrl+Tab,
.
, , -
, ,
; Relative
Absolute/Relative . ,
Absolute Absolute/Relative .

3.15.

,
. xyz-
:

,
, Ctrl+Enter.
X, Y Z,
:
, (
).
( ).
,
.

3.15.1.

,
:
1. .
2. :
3D Model, Movement Mode, In plane.
In Plane
Draw 3D Modeler.
, ,
, .

3.15.2.

,
Movement Mode 3D Model,

. 3.44. , , ,
,
.

Out of Plane.
,
(. 3.44).

3.15.3. 3D


:
1. .
2. :
3D Model Movement Mode, 3D.
3D Draw 3D
Modeler.
,
,
.

,
.
, ,
, (.
3.45).

. 3.45.

X-

,
- X:
1. .
2. :
3D Model, Movement Mode, Along X
Axis.
X.
Along X Axis
Draw 3D Modeler.

, ,
,
X.
,
, , (0.5, 0.5, 1.0)
.

Y-

,
Y:
1. .
2. :

3D Model, Movement Mode, Along Y


Axis.
Y.
Along Y Axis
Draw 3D Modeler. ,
, , ,
y.

Z-

Z:
1. .
2. :
3D Model, Movement Mode, Along Z
Axis.
Z.
Along Z Axis
Draw 3D Modeler:
, ,

Z.

3.16.

, , snap
to ( ) , ,
. ,
. ,
.

:
1. 3D Modeler, Snap Mode. Snap Mode.
2. , ,
Grid.
3. , Vertex.
4. , Edge Center.
, ,
.
5. , Face
Center.
6. ,
Quadrant. ,
:

Grid ( )
Vertex ( )
Edge Center ( )
Face Center ( )
Quadrant ( , )
Arc Center ( )

, (Grid),
, , , .

, Drawing 3D Modeler Options.

, ,
Snap Mode. ,
,
, .

3.17. ,

HFSS ,
: ,
, .
(CS) X,
Y, Z, xy.
(0,0,0) CS x-, y-, z-.
(CS) - ,
CS .
.
.

CS.
,
.
CS, ,
CS .
CS, CS,
CS, ,

CS.
CS .
.
,
.
,
, , CS. CS,
. CS
W,
CS . Properties (. 3.46)
CS, .

. 3.46.


(. 3.47).

. 3.47.

3.17.1.

CS,
. CS
CS CS. CS
, ,
:

1. 3D Modeler, Coordinate System, Set


Working CS. Select Coordinate System.

2. CS .

3. Select.

W CS
, , CS.
, , CS,
.

3.17.2.

,
:
CS,
,
CS.
CS,
, -
.

, CS,
CS. CS,
,
.
CS,
- .

,
CS:
1. CS ,
CS, CS.
2. 3D Modeler>Coordinate System>Create>Relative CS.
3. Relative CS, Offset.
4. , ,
X, Y, Z.
, ,
Movement Mode .
CS.
CS, .
Coordinate Systems
CS; ,
, CS.
xy, yz, xz.

CS
, CS:
1. , CS,
CS, CS.
2. 3D Modeler>Coordinate System>Create>Relative CS.
3. Relative CS, Rotated.

4. X, , ,
X, Y, Z.

, ,
Movement Mode .

5. xy , , ,
dX, dY,
dZ, d - .
Z,
Y.
CS .
CS, .
Coordinate Systems
CS; , ,
CS.

,
CS:

1. , CS,
CS, CS.
2. 3D Modeler>Coordinate System>Create>Relative CS.
3. Relative CS, Both.
4. , ,
X, Y, Z.
, ,
Movement Mode .
5. X, , ,
, dX,
dY, dZ, d - .
6. xy ,
:
.

dX, dY, dZ.
Z .
Y.
CS
Coordinate Systems. CS; ,
,
CS. xy, yz,
xz .
3.17.3.

1. ,
CS.
2. 3D Modeler>Coordinate System>Create>Face CS .
3. , ,
X, Y, Z.
4. X, , ,
,
dX, dY, dZ, d -
.
X-, Y- Z- . HFSS , Z
Y
Z.
CS Coordinate
Systems. CS; ,
, CS.
xy, yz, xz .
,
CS,
CS, CS.
CS, , ,
, , .
, , , CS
, CS.
Properties,
. ,
Edit>Arrange>Rotate, ,
, .

CS, ,
. :
1. Tools Options, 3D Modeler Options.
3D Modeler Options.
2. Automatically switch to face coordinate system.
3. OK.
, ,
,
. HFSS CS
CS. , ,
CS. (.
3.47).

. 3.48. HFSS

3.17.4.

1. 3D Modeler, Coordinate System, Edit.


Select Working CS.
2. CS, .

3. Select.

, , CS,
:
, CS.
,
CS.
, ,
CS.

3.17.5.

1. , ,
.
2. Edit, Delete, Delete.
, , ,
. , ,
CS, ,
CS, .

, ,
HFSS .
, .
, ,
, .
, HFSS ,
.
4


4.1. ,

,
, ..
, .
,
,
.

. 4.1.

Material Select Definition,


Assign Material (. 4.1)
(. 4.2). HFSS , 100
( .1).

. 1. HFSS Ansoft v.9 (


).

tg tg MS LG H
Air 1.0 1.0000 0 0 0 0 2 0
06 04
AI2_03_ceramic 9.8 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
AI_N 8.8 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
Alumina_92pct 9.2 1 0 0.08 0 0 2 0
Alumina_96pct 9.4 1 0 0.06 0 0 2 0
Aluminium 1 1.0000 3.8E7 0 0 0 2 0
21
Arlon_25FR 3.4 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
3



Arlon_25N - 3.2 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
8
Arlon_270 - 2.5 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
Arlon_AD 270 - 2.7 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
Arlon_AD 295 - 2.9 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
5
Arlon_AD 300 - 3.0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
Arlon_AD 320 - 3.2 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
Arlon_AD 360 - 3.6 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
Arlon_AD 1000 - 10. 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
0
Arlon_AR 350 - 3.5 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
Arlon_AR 450 - 3.0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
Arlon_AR 600 - 3.0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
Arlon_CL - 3.0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
TE/LC
Arlon_Cu Clad - 2.1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
217 7
Arlon_Cu Clad - 2.3 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
233 3
Arlon_Cu Clad - 2.5 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
250 5
Arlon_Cu Clad - 2.5 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
250 GT 5
Arlon_Cu Clad - 2.5 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
GX 250 5
Arlon_Di Clad - 2.5 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
250 5
Arlon_ Di Clad - 2.5 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
250 5
Arlon_ Di Clad - 2.5 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
250 5
Arlon_ Di Clad - 2.5 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
250 5
Arlon_ Iso Clad - 2.5 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
250 5
Arlon_ Iso Clad - 2.5 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
250 5
bakelite 4.8 0 0 2 0
Be_O 6.8 0 0 2 0
bensoziclobuten 2.6 0 0 2 0

Berillium 1 1.0000 0 0 2 0
0079
Brass 0 0 2 0
7
Bronze 1E 0 0 2 0
S/m
BT_systems 3.9 1 0 0 0 2 0

Cast_iron 1 60 0 0 2 0
Chromium 1 1 0 0 2 0
Cobalt 0 0 2 0
Cooper 0 0 2 0
Corning_glass 5.7 1 0 0 0 2 0
5
Cyenate_ester 3.8 1 0 0 2 0
Diamante 16. 1 0 0 0 2 0
5
Diamante_hi_pre 16. 1 0 0 0 2 0
ss 5
Diamante_pl_cv 16. 1 0 0 0 2 0
d 5
Dupont Type100 0 0 2 0
HN Film
Duroid 0 0 2 0
Epoxy_Kelvar_x 0 0 2 0
y
ferrite 12 1000 0.01 0 0 0 2 0
FR4_epoxy 3.8 0 0 2 0
Gallium_arsenid 0 0 2 0
e
GE GETEK 3.9 1 0 0 0 2 0
ML200/RG200
GIL GML1000 3.1 1 0 0.05 0 0 2 0
2
Glass 5.5 1 0 0 0 2 0
Glass_PTFEreinf 2.5 1 0 0 0 2 0
Gold 1 0.9999 4.1e7 0 0 2 0
6 S/m
Graphite 1 1 7e5 0 0 2 0
Indium 1 1 6.44e 0 0 2 0
6
Iron 1 4000 1.03E 0 0 2 0
7
Isola Gigaver 3.7 1 0 0 0 2 0
210 5
Krempel Akaflex 3.4 1 0 0 0 2 0
KCL
Lead 1 0.9999 5e7 0 0 2 0
83
Magnesium 1 1 2.25e 0 0 2 0
7
Marble 8.3 1 0 0 0 2 0
mica 5.7 1 0 0 0 2 0
Modified_epoxy 4.3 1 0 0 0 2 0
Molybdenum 1 1 1.76e 0 0 2 0
7
Nelco N4000-13 3.5 1 0 0 0 2 0
Nelco N4000-13 3.4 1 0 0 0 2 0
SI
Neltec NH9294 2.9 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
4
Nickel 1 600 1.45e 0 0 2 0
7
Palladium 1 1.0008 9.3e7 0 0 2 0
2
Pec 1 1 1e30 0 0 2 0

Perfect . 1 1 1e30 0 0 2 0
conductor
Plexiglass 3.4 1 0 0 0 2 0

Polyamide 4.3 1 0 0 0 2 0
Polyester 3.2 1 0 0 0 2 0
Polyethylene 2.2 1 0 0 0 2 0
5
Polyflon Cooper- 3.0 1 0 0 0 2 0
Clad ULTEM 5
polyimide 3.5 1 0 0 0 2 0
PolyimideQuarz 0 0 2 0
Polystyrene 2.6 1 1e-16 0 0 2 0

Porcelain 5.7 1 0 0 0 2 0
Quartz_glass 3.7 1 0 0 0 2 0
8
Rhodium 1 1 2.22e 0 0 2 0
7
Rogers RO3003 3 1 0 0 0 2 0



Rubber_hard 3 1 1e-15 0 0 2 0
Sapphire 10 1 0 0 0 2 0
Sheldahl 2.6 1 0 0 0 2 0
ComClad HF
Silicon 11. 1 0 0 0 2 0
9
Silicon_dioxide - 4 1 0 0 0 2 0
Silicon- - 7 1 0 0 0 2 0
NITRITE
Silver 1 0.9999 6.1e7 0 0 2 0
8
Solder 1 1 7e7 0 0 2 0
Steel_stainless 1 1 1.1e7 0 0 2 0
Taconic CER-10 10 1 0 0 0 2 0
Tantalum 1 1 6.3e7 0 0 2 0
Tantalum Nitride 1 1 7400 0 0 2 0
Teflon 2.1 1 0 0 0 2 0
Tin 1 1 8.67e 0 0 2 0
7
Titanium 1 1.0001 1.82e 0 0 2 0
8 7
Tungsten 1 1 0 0 2 0
Vacuum 1 1 0 0 0 2 0
Water_distilled . 81 0.9999 0.000 0 0 0 2 0
91 2
Zinc 1 1 1.67e 0 0 2 0
7
Zirconium 1 1 2.11e 0 0 2 0
7

(. 4.2)
.

.
. 4.2. HFSS Ansoft.

Add Materials ,
(. 4.3).
. 4.3.


,
. :

1. Adding a New
Material.
2. Options, ,
- .
3. Functions, ,
.
4. (. 4.4).
. 4.4.

HFSS
(. . 4.5),

, ..
. 4.5.


Edit Material (. 4.6) Simple.
(. 4.6):

,
Anisotropic Material.
,
,
,
.. (. . 4.6).
. 4.6.

,
, ,
,
.
, .
, ,
.
,

(. 4.7):

(Magnetic saturation)
G (Lande G factor)
H (Delta H)
. 4.7.

,
.
, . 4.7. . 4.7. ,

,
, , ..

4.2.

,
,
,
HFSS.

(Relative Permeability) -
.
, :

= '+ j ' ' , ( 4.1)

''
= ' 1 j
'
( 4.2)

/
.

= '+ j ' ' ( 4.3)

''
= ' 1 j ( 4.4)
'

/ .
- ,
,
,
c
r r r
rotH = ( + j ) E = j c E , ( 4.5)


= 1 j tan j
. ( 4.6)

Relative
Permittivity.
c - ,
r.

(Bulk Conductivity)

HFSS
,
, ,
.
Solve Inside Properties.
Solve Inside,
() .
.
.

.
, ,
- . ,
,
. , -,
,
. ,
:

1
rot rotE = ( j + ) E . ( 4.7)
j

, , ,
.
, ,
, .
.

1 0 0 0
[ ] = 0 20 0 , ( 4.8)
0 0 3 0

1 -
.
2 - .
3 - .
0 .
H
B:

Bx H x
B = [ ] H
y y ( 4.9)
B z H z


, 1, 2, 3 Value T (1,1), T (2,2), T
(3,3), (. 4.7).
,
1, 2, 3.
.

1 0 0 0
[ ] = 0 2 0 0 , ( 4.10)
0 0 3 0

1 -
.

2 - .
3 - .
0 - .

D:

Dx Ex
D = [ ] E
y y ( 4.11)
Dz E z


, 1 , 2 , 3 T (1,1), T
(2,2), T (3,3). .

1 0 0
[ ] = 0 2 0 ,
(4.12)
0 0 3

1-
.
2 - .
3 - .

J
E :
J x Ex
J = [ ] E
y y ( 4.13)
J z E z
,
1, 2, 3 T (1,1), T (2,2), T (3,3), .
.

tan 1 0 0
[T ] = 0 tan 2 0 ,
( 4.14)
0 0 tan 3

1 , 2 3 - .
[T ]
[ ] , D E
:

Dx Ex
D = [ ] E
y y , ( 4.15)
D z E z

[ ] = [ ](E i[T ]) ,
E - , [ ] (4.10).

, tan 1 , tan 2 tan 3 .
Value T (1,1), T (2,2), T (3,3) .

[Tm ]
[ ] :

tan 1m 0 0
[Tm ] = 0 tan 2 m 0
( 4.16)
0 0 tan 3m

1m , 2 m 3m - .
B H :

Bx H x
B = [ ] H
y y ( 4.17)
B z H z


, tan M 1 , tan M 2 , tan M 3 T(1,1), T(2,2),
T(3,3). .


:
:
- .

.


,
.
, -.
:

t jk 0
= 0 jk t 0
(4.19)
0 0 1
(4.19) ,
0z. :

0 m
t = 1 +
02 2
(4.20)

0 m
k= 2
0 2 (4.21)

0 = m 0 H 0 (4.22)

m = m 0 M S (4.23)
m- ,
H 0 - ,
M S - ,
0 - .
.

(4.19) ,

.
(4.19) (, ,

). 0 :
0 = 0 (1 + j ) , (4.24)

:
0 H
=
2 , (4.25)

H - ,
. H
Delta H.
.

.

.
,
.



(Magnetic Saturation). ,

. ,
. s
.
. 4.10, , B-H
.

. 4.8. .

g , ,
,
.
-, g = 1.99 2.01. g
.

4.3.

.
-
,
,
. 4.9.

. 4.9 :
epsrlower -
20 - 50 GHz.
epsrupper -
20 - 50 GHz.
f lower - ,
.
f upper - ,
.

,
Piecewise Linear Material Input,

. , HFSS
,
.
- , ,
( DC)
( ).
Loss Model Material Input.

.
, 10 ,
.
:

( rstatic roptical )
rcomplex = roptical + ( 4.18)
1 + j

= .
rstatic = .
roptical =
.
HFSS ,
Loss Model Material Input (4.18),
.
.
,
.

4.4.

,
, (Magnetic Bias
Source). ,
.
.
.
,
.
.
,
Maxwell 3D Field Simulator.

,
- 0z
,
.
;
.
, ,

( ). ,
, .
Magnetic
Bias Source :

1. X
(X Angle).

2. Y
(Y Angle).

3.
(Z Angle).
. 4.10.

X. y '
( Y).
z '' ( Z).
(x" y" z")
.
. 4.10.

, X,
, z-
X . , X
Angle= 0, Y Angle=90, Z Angle=0.

, ,
.
, ,
.
Maxwell 3D Field Simulator
Ansoft .
, HFSS.

1. 3D ,
.

2. HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Magnetic Bias.

Magnetic.

3. Name .

4. : Uniform
Non-uniform, Next.

5. Uniform, :

a. Internal Bias /.
.
b. ,
,
X Angle, Y Angle, Z Angle.
.

Non-uniform, Maxwell 3D
Field Simulator Project, Browse .
HFSS
.

6. Finish.

MaxwellEminence

MaxwellEminence - ,
Ansoft,
.

.
Maxwell Eminence

.

,

, S-
.
.
.
,
. S-
,
.
.

HFSS, ,
,
,
, , . HFSS
, .

,

.
5

HFSS Ansoft
, ,
,
.

. HFSS 9 :

Perfect E .

Perfect H ,
H- .

Impedance .

Radiation ,
.

PML ,
,

Finite
Conductivit
y
Symmetry ,
E H

Master , E-
E- (
slave)
Slave , E-
, E-
( Master)

Lumped
RLC , , -

Layered ,
Impedance

E ,
,
(infinite ground plane), ,
.
.

5.1. Perfect E

E
(). , :

1. ,
E .

2. HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Perfect E. Perfect E
Boundary (. 5.1).

. 5.1.

3. Name,
PerfE.
4. Infinite Ground Plane, ,

.
.

5. OK. Boundary
.

5.2. Perfect H

Perfect H ,

. :

1. ,
H (. 5.2).

2. HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Perfect H. Boundary
Perfect H.

3. Name,
.
. 5.2. Perfect H
( dra_diel Projects)

4. OK. Boundaries
.

5.3.

.
.
. :

1. , .

2. HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Impedance.
Impedance Boundary (. 5.3).

3. Name,
.
. 5.3.
50 / 50 /

4. Resistance / Reactance /.

5. Infinite Ground Plane, ,



.

, Zs,
/. / , , Zs,
Z,
.
, L W
I, . V.
Z [].
. 5.4.

J, , ,
, ,
r r
n E Z s n J ,

E = Zs J (5.1)

r r
E = E J = J (. 5.4).

:
L
r r
V = EdL = EL
(5.2)
x =0

r w
I = y J xdy = JW
(5.3)
y =0

V EL
Z= = (5.4)
I JW
(5.1) (5.4)
:

L
Z = Zs (5.5)
W
, L = W,
. .

5.4.

( Driven Modal
Driven Terminal)

Radiation , ,
,
. HFSS Radiation,
, .
,
,
, , ,
.
, ,
Radiation, .

1. , ,
.

2. HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Radiation.
Radiation Boundary (. 5.5). ,
(. 5.6).

3. Name.

4. OK.
Boundary.

. ,
.
.
. 5.5.

. 5.6. , .
5.5

HFSS Radiate: PML.


(PML)
, ,
. .
PML:
, .
, PML
,
. PML ,
Radiate, PML
,
.
PML ,
, ,
. ,
, , . PML
, ,
.
5.5. PML

(Perfect Material Layer - PML)


, ,
. PML
Radiation: ;
, Radiation ,
PML, .
HFSS PML .
PML , , PML,
. PML :

1. PLM .
2. PML, PML.
, , ,
.

3. HFSS, Boundary, PML Setup Wizard.


PML Setup (. 5.7).
. 5.7. PLM

4. Create PML Cover Objects on Selected Faces ( ,


- ).

5. Uniform Layer
Thickness. .

6. Create joining corner and edge objects.


PML ,
PML , .

7. Next.
HFSS PML , .
, PML,
HFSS, PML.

8. , PML,
(. 5.8):
a. PML Objects Accept Free Radiation, PML
. Min Frequency
.

b. PML Objects Continue Guided Waves, PML


.
.

9. PML
Minimum Radiating Distance.
, ,
PML . ,
.
PML
PML.

. 5.8. PML

10. Next. HFSS PML


- ,
PML. (. 5.9),
.

11. Finish.

PML :

1. PML , .

2. Properties PML.
, PML, HFSS,
PML.

3. HFSS Boundaries, PML Setup


Wizard. PML Setup (. 5.7).

4. Use Selected Object as PML Cover.


. 5.9. PML

5. Corresponding Base Object,


PML, .

6. Uniform Layer Thickness.


- .

7. PML, ,
-, .

8. Next.
9. , PML ,
:
a. PML Objects Accept Free Radiation, PML
. Min Frequency
.
b. PML Objects Continue Guided Waves, PML
.
.

10. PML
Minimum Radiating Distance.

11. Next. HFSS PML,


,
PML.

12. Finish.

PML

PML
:

PML. HFSS
PML.
PML z,
.

HFSS PML . PML


, ,
PML (
/20).

, PML .
HFSS PML,
. ,
. PML
,

.

. PML
.
. 45.
, PML.

PML:

1. , 3D Modeler.

2. HFSS, Boundaries, PML Setup


Wizard. PML.

3. PML ,
PML, .

4. PML.

5. Recalculate. HFSS
PML .

6. Finish.

, PML ,
PML
PML Setup Wizard. ,
PML, PML PML Setup
Wizard.

, PML

PML . PML
. 5.10.
.5.10. PML,

,
PML/ , x-, y- z- PML
(PML_X, PML_Y, PML_Z) .

PML_X:

[ ] = 1
C C (5.6)
[ ] = 1
C C
0 C 0 C
(5.7)

PML_Y:

[ ] = 1
C (5.8)
[ ] = 1
C
0 C 0 C
(5.9)
PML_Z:

[ ] = C
1 [ ] = C
1
0 C (5.10) 0 C (5.11)

C = a - jb.
, PML_X, PML x-
, PML yz . ,
PML_Y PML_Z PML y- z-.
PML ,
PML . ,
PML , PML,
, PML_X PML_Y,
PML_XY:

[ ] = [1 1 C2 ] [ ] = [1 ]
1 C 2 (5.13)
0 (5.12) 0

PLM x-
z- y- z- .
PML_XYZ:

[ ] = [ C]
[ ] = [ C]
0 (5.14) 0 (5.15)

PML,
- . ,
(PEC)
(PMC). PEC
.

5.5.4.


. ;
HFSS .
,
- ,
- , -
.
1. , ,
.

2. HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Finite Conductivity.
Finite Conductivity Boundary (. 5.11).

3. Name.

4. :
Simens/m, .
Use Material, ,
.
- , ,
.

. 5.11.

5. Infinite Ground Plane, ,


- ,
.
, , Infinite Ground Plane,

, ,
- .

6. OK. ,
- .



.
:

E = Z s ( n H ) (5.20)
:

E , ,
ZS - , ZS =( 1 + j ) / ( ) ,
n - , ,
H ,
- - ,
, = 2 /( ) ;
- ,
- ,
. .


.
,
.
,
.
, E-
, ,
.
,
,
. , HFSS ;

.
,
,
,
.
,
- ,
.

5.6.

E H
-.
, .
Driven Modal Eigenmode.
:
1. ,
(. 5.12).

2. HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Symmetry.
Symmetry Boundary.

3. Name,
-.

4. : Perfect E Perfect H.
. 5.12.

5. Impedance Multiplier.

,
,
. Port Impedance
Multiplier (. 5.12).

6. Impedance Multiplier, OK.

7. OK.

, :
.
, 3D
Modeler.
.

.
E
H

, , ,
: E H:
, E-
, E .
, E- ,
H .

, . 5.13,
. E-
(TE10). ,
.

. 5. 13.

Perfect E. E-
, H- .
Perfect H. E- , H-
.
, , .
, - , E
; , E-
,
.

, ,
E- H- .
H E
.

5.7. Master Slave


, E- E-
(. 5.14).
E- Slave,
E-
Master.
.
0 90
. 5.14. Master Slave 90
, ,

, E
. ,

( ).

, :

.
.

. , Master -
, Slave
.
(. 5.15)
, . HFSS
; ,

. ,
,
,
,
.
()
,

. 5.15.

,
, ,
. HFSS ,
.
, HFSS Slave ,
. ,
Slave, . , ,

, .

, . 5.16.
. 5.16. ,

,
90 ;
, , . 5.17.

. 5.17. Master Slave

. 5.17
, .

, u v,
.

5.7.1. Master


, E-
E- Master
. E-
Master Slave, ,
.
1. , .

2. HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Master.
Master Boundary.

3. Name.

4. , -
. U . HFSS
U,
, V-. V (.
5.18).
a. New Vector ( U).
Master Boundary , U.
b. U ,
, ,
X, Y, Z.
c. u-. Master
Boundary.
d. V, Reverse Direction.

. 5.18. UV

5. OK. HFSS E-
- , ,
.
5.7.2. Slave

Master Slave
. E- Slave,
E- Master
. :

1. , Slave.

2. HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Slave.
Slave.

3. Name.

4. Master.
, ,
.

5. ,
. U .
HFSS U,
, V-.
V.

a. New Vector U Vector.


Boundary Slave , U.

b. U ,
, ,
X, Y, Z.

c. u-. Boundary
Slave.
d. V, Reverse direction.

6. Next.

7. , E- Slave E-
Master :

Phi
Theta.
; ,
,
Phase Difference.
Field Radiation, ,
, E- Phase Difference. HFSS
E- Master, ,
Slave Master.
, phi, ,
.

E- Slave

E- Slave E-
. E- ;
.
, , ES,
, EM, ,
. ,
.
, (, )
.

= k ' r0 (5.21)

k' ,
r0 - ,
- .
, HFSS
.


. :

E S = e j E M (5.22)

, ES EM.
. ,
, .

5.8. RLC

,
, / , ,
, Lumped RLC boundary.
- R, L, C (. 5.19).

. 5.19. RLC

, lumped RLC
- :

E tan = Z S (n H tan ) (5.23)

Zs Rs + jXs,
Rs / .
Xs /.
n
Htan H-, .

, ,
- , R, L,
C. HFSS
RLC .

RLC
, , - ,
. - R, L,
. ,
RLC
: ,
,
, , .
:

1. , ,
RLC .

2. HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Lumped RLC.
Lumped RLC Boundary (. 5.20).
. 5.20. RLC

3. Name.

4. :
, Resistance,
.
, Inductance,
.
, Capacitance,
.
, .

5. ,
. :

a. New Line Current Flow Line.


Lumped RLC Boundary ,
.

b. , ,
X, Y, Z.

c. , .
. ,
, , ,.
, Swap End Points Current Flow Line.

5.9.

,
.
,
, , HFSS
, , .

.

.
HFSS -
.
HFSS
,
.

,
.

1. ,
- .

2. HFSS>Boundaries>Assign>Layered Impedance.
Layered Impedance Boundary (.
5.21).
3. Name.

4. Surface Roughness .
,
- .
.

5. Next.

. 5.21. . 5.22.
1
2

6. :

Infinite, Perfect E, Perfect H Thickness/Type.


, HFSS ,
; .

,
:
a. Internal ( . 5.22).

b. Thickness/Type.
.

7. , vacuum,
.

8. :

a. New Layer (. 5.22). .

b. Thickness/Type.
.

c. , Vacuum
.

9. , ,
.

10. ,
- , :

a. , Test Frequency
.

b. Calculate.
, HFSS.

11. Finish.
.

,
,
Z inputk +1ch( k d k ) + Z wk sh( k d k )
Z inputk = Z wk (5.24)
Z inputk +1 sh( k d k ) + Z wk ch( k d k )

Zinputk k- ,

0 rk
Z wk = - (5.25),
0 rk
ch ,
sh .

k = k 0 rk rk - (5.26),
k0 ,
rk k- .
rk k- .


rk = k j + epsr tan (5.27)
0

rk = murk j (murk tan m k ) (5.28)

dk k .

surface roughness
.
. Ansoft
HFSS
:


= (5.29)
K w2

,
1.6
s
K w = 1 + exp , (5.30)
2h

h .
s -.

5. 10.

(),
Infinite ground plane E,
, .
.

.
, ,
, ,
, ,
. , ,
.

Infinite
ground plane,
.
,
, .

, :

.
.

.

.

.
:

- (Frequency-Dependent Boundaries)
(Default Boundary Assignments)

,
. - Freq.
,
Freq:
Impedance - Resistance Reactance.
Finite conductivity - Conductivity.
, .
Slave - Phase.
RLC R, L, C.
- ,
, .

, Freq
Discrete Interpolating.
Fast sweep, ,
.

, ,
:

smetal Perfect E ,
Solve Inside Properties
.

i_<object , ,
name> Solve Inside
Properties
. <object name> ,

outer ,
.

, HFSS ,
.

5.13.

, :

.
, .

,
Properties . ,
.

HFSS, List. Design List,


.

1. , ,
.

2. Edit Delete.

, HFSS Boundaries,
Delete All.

Design List:

1. HFSS List. Design List.


2. Boundaries, ,
.

3. Delete.

. ,
, .
, ,
,
. ,
. :

1. , ,
.
2. HFSS>Boundaries>Reassign. Reassign
Boundary.
3. , OK.
.
, , ,
(. 5.23).

, Reassign .
. 5.23. WavePort LumpPort

. ,

WavePort, Lumped Port.
,
HFSS .

, ,
, Reprioritize.

, .

, ,

. ,
.
1. HFSS>Boundaries>Reprioritize,
. HFSS>Excitations>Reprioritize,
.
Reprioritize Boundaries and Excitations (. 5.24).
, ,
.
. ;
.

. 5.24.

2.
.

, ,
.
,
.

1. HFSS Options: Tools,


Options, HFSS Options.

2. Duplicate boundaries with geometry.



, .

1. , .

2. 3D Modeler, Surface, Create Object


From Face.

3. .

4. ,
Paste.

5.14.

, .
,
.

5.14.1.

1. View, Visibility. Visibility (. 5.25).


. 5.25.

2. Boundaries,
. Excitations,
.

3. Visibility ,
. , .

4. Visibility ,
.
,
.

5.14.2.

1. HFSS>Boundaries>Visualization,
. HFSS>Excitations>Visualization,
.
2. View Geometry, View
Name, View Vector, .
. .

5.14.3.

,
,
HFSS.

.

1. HFSS, Boundary Display (Solver View). HFSS



.
Solver View of Boundaries (. 5.26),
,
Reprioritize Boundaries and Excitations.

. 5.26.

2. Visibility .
3D
Modeler .
, Solver
Visibility Visible to Solver.
,
-
, Solver Visibility
Overridden.

3. , ,
.

4. ,
.

5.15.

,
" ".
" " HFSS,
.
" ",
:

1. .

2. " ".

3. .

4. .
Defaults (. 5.27).
. 5.27.

5. Defaults, Save Defaults. ,


, " " ,
.

6. , Revert to Standard Defaults.


" ",
, " ",
HFSS.

5.16.

HFSS ,
- , , ,
.
Driven:

Wave Port ,

.
Lumped ,
Port
.
Incident ,
Wave .
Voltage
Source .

Current
Source .
Magnetic ,
Bias

,
:

.
.
.
.

5.16.1.

,
. ,
.

, .. (modal)
(terminal).

,
E ,
.
, ,
.
. 5.28.

HFSS , , ,
,
, . S-, HFSS ,
(),
. ,

.
(. 5.28).
HFSS , .

. 1 ,
. , , 2
,
..
,
Lumped Port.
S- . S-
Y- Z-.

.

5.16.2. modal

, ,
,
, E-, .
, , E-
, ,
. .
, Polarize E Field, HFSS
(. 5.29).

. 5.29.

E-. E-
t = 0 .
, ,
Polarize E Field. ,
, .

E-, ,
:
E- .
, (
).
E-, .

.

1. , .

2. HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Wave Port.
Wave Port (. 5.30).

3. Name,
, Next.
. 5.30.

4. , ,
Number of Modes, Update. mode
, (. 5.31).
. 5.31.

5. ,
:

a. .
b. , , Zpi,
Zpv, Zvi Characteristic Imp.
c. Polarize E Field, E-
( 1) .

6. Next.

7. ,
Renorm, (. 5.32).

8. , Deembed,
.
. , Get Distance
Graphically, .
. 5.32. S-

9. Finish.

. ,
,
.
,
, - .

.

5.16.3. Terminal

1. ,
(. 5.33).

2. HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Wave Port.
Wave Port.

3. Name, ,
Next.

4. ,
Number of Terminals, Update.
,
. ,
.

5. ,
Next.

6. ,
, Next.

7. ,
Reference Impedance.
8. , Deembed,
, .
, Get Distance Graphically,
.

9. Finish.
.
.

. 5.33. (
). 4 : H11 , H11
E01 H21

5.17.

,
,
(. 5.34). S-
. ,
.
modal terminal.

.

. 5.34. ,


.
terminal, ,
.

.
Zs,
S-. Zs
; ,
V I, .
S-,
Zs

.
, S-
- 1, .
, (.
5.35), ,
,
.
. 5.35. ,
Bluetooth,

5.17.1. Terminal


: , .
,
, .
Ansoft Designer, , MWO ,
S- ,
. ,
,
:

1. ,
.

2. HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Lumped Port.
Lumped Port (. 5.36).

. 5.36.

3. Name .
4. :
a.
Resistance.
b. Reactance,
- Next. .

5. , :
Zpi, Zpv Zvi Characteristic Imp, Finish.

5.17.2.

,
,
; ,
Zpv Zvi (. 5.37).

1. Wave Port Lumped Port, Modes.

2. New Line Integration Line.


, .
. 5.37.
Terminals

3. , ,
X, Y Z.

4. , (.
5.38).
.
Wave Port Lumped Port.
. 5.38. ,

5.17.3.

- , :

,
.
, ;
.

, Zpv Zvi .
, , ,
, . , ,
,
.
, .

5.17.4.
, ,
.
, .

1. Wave Port, Modes.

2. , ,
.

3. Duplicate Line Integration Line.


, ,
.

4. , :

a. ,
, X, Y, Z.

b. .
, . Duplicate Port
Line.

5. , ,
Number of Duplicates. ,
,
, .

6. , Assign to existing modes.


, ,
, .

7. OK.
, .

5.17.5.
Modes
Wave Port Lumped Port.

:

Swap Endpoints Line Integration.


.
:

Copy from Moden Line Integration.



.

,
None Line Integration.

5.17.6.


- .
1. Wave Port Lumped Port,
Terminals.

2. New Line Terminal Line.


, .

3. ,
X, Y, Z. Enter.

4. , .

, :


, ,
.

- .
.
.
, 1 ,
2.

, .


. ,
.
, ,
,
,
.

, ,
+ - .
; +,
- .

5.17.7.

, ,
.
.

1. Wave Port, Terminals (. 5.39).

2. , ,
.

3. Duplicate Line Terminal Line.


, ,
.
. 5. 39.

4. , :
a.
, X, Y, Z.
b. , .
,
. Duplicate Port Line.

5. Number of Duplicates.
, ,
.

6. Assign to existing terminals.


, ,
, .
, .

7. OK. , .

Swap Endpoints Terminal Line.
.

None Terminal
Line.

5.18.

,
, ,
- .
,
.

- ,
Zo ,
.

, (. 5.41).
,
.

.
, HFSS,
.

vd v
,
v1 v2,
Wave Port (. 5.40).
. 5.40. Differential Pairs

vd vC

v1 + v 2
v d = v1 v 2 vc = (5. 31)
2

,
, id iC
,

i1 i2
id = ic = i1 + i2 (5. 32)
2

(5.14) (5.15)

v = Qe (5. 33)
i = Q T u

v i1 v i
v = 1, i = , e = d , u = d
v 2 i2 vc ic

-Q - , ,

1 / 2 1
Q= (5.34)
1 / 2 1

Q T - , Q ,

1 1 / 2
Q T = (5.35)
1 1 / 2
(5.35),
.

. 5.41.
, L/4


,

.

(Y) (Z) ,
, .
e u,
(5.31, 5.32), Y Z ,
.
, i= Yv, (5.35),

Q- Tu = YQe (5.36).

u = QTYQe (5.37)

Y ', e u,

Y ' = QTYQ (5.38)

Z.

S-

, S-
,
. S-

, .
.

,
,
() ,
v1 zref 0 i1
(1)

v = 0 ( 2)
zref (5.39)
2 i2

(1) ( 2)
zref z ref - . ,
,

vd z ref 0 id
(d )

v = 0 (c) (5.40).
c z ref ic

(d ) (c )
, z ref z ref
, .

,
, .
(. 5.42):

1. Wave Port Lumped Port,


Differential Pairs.

2. New Pair.

3. .

4. .

5. Differential Mode,
Name,
Ref. Z.

6. Common Mode, :
a. Name.
b.
Ref. Z.

. 5.42.

, HFSS ,
- S-
Matrix Solution Data.

5.19.

() ,

. :

1. HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Incident Wave.
Incident Wave (. 5.43).

2. Name,
.
3. k, E-,
E0, Cartesian Spherical ,
Next.

. 5. 43.

4. Cartesian, :
a. x-, y-, z- k X, Y, Z (. 5.43).
b. E0 Vector X, Y, Z.
.

5. Spherical, (. 5.44):
a. Phi, Start, Stop, Points ( ).

View, .
b. Theta, Start, Stop, Num Points.
c. E0 Phi Theta.
. 5. 44.

, .
,
. , ,
, Num Point.

6. Finish.

,
:
k E .
phi Theta .
phi Theta E .

k, E-, E0,
, :

, z
, (0, 0, 1) k vector.

E0 .
k E0; , k E0
, .

E-,
, :

Points . ,
0 180 10, 19 18
.

,
.

5.20.

,
- .
, , ,
,
. , HFSS
,
.

1. ,
.

2. HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Voltage. Voltage
Source (. 5.45).

3. Name, .

4. , , Magnitude.
.
. 5.45.

5. , .
New Line E-Field Direction.
Voltage Source , .
, ,
X, Y, Z. ,
. .

6. OK.

, , (v i)
(. 5.46).
. 5.46.

, ,
:
1. Excitations
. Voltage Source.
2. .
3. E- Swap Endpoints
E-Field Direction. E-
; .

5.21.

,
. ,
,
, (.
5.47).

1. ,
.
2. HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Current.
Current Source.

. 5. 47. ,

3. Name.

4. , ,
Magnitude. .

5. , :
a. New Line Current Flow Direction.
Current Source , .
b. , ,
X, Y, Z.
c. , .
.

6. OK.
, , (v i)
.
5.22.

,
, , ..
.
, (. 4).

1. ,
.

2. HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Magnetic Bias.
.

3. Name.

4. Uniform
Non-uniform, Next.

5. Uniform, :
a. Internal Bias / .
.
b. xyz-
X Angle, Y Angle, Z Angle.
.

Non-uniform, :

Maxwell 3D Field Simulator Project,


Browse . HFSS
.

6. Finish.
.
5.23.

, :
Excitations .
,
(. 5.48).
,
Properties .
, .
HFSS, List. Design List.
Excitations,
.

. 5. 48.

1. , ,
.

2. Edit Delete.

:
HFSS Excitations, Delete All.

Design List:
1. HFSS, List. Design List.

2. Excitations, ,
.

3. Delete.

. ,
,
. ,
,
,
. ,
.

1. , ,
.

2. HFSS>Excitations>Reassign. Reassign
Excitation.

3. , OK.
.

5.24.


,
, .

1. HFSS>Excitations>Edit Impedance Mult.


Port Impedance Multiplier (. 5.49).
. 5.49.

2. Impedance Multiplier.
.

3. OK.

5.25. S-

,
S- (
Wave Port.).
Wave Port, Wave port
, Post Processing.
S-
:

1.
, .
Wave Port.

2. Post Processing.

3.
50 . Renorm,
Value.

4. OK, . ,
,
.
,
- , ..
. ( Wave Port.).
,
Wave Port, ,
Post Processing.

S-:

1. ,
.
Wave Port.

2. Post Processing.

3. Deembed, ,
Distance.
.
.
.

4. OK, .
, S-.
,
S-.

HFSS, ,
,
. .
, .

.
6

HFSS

,
HFSS, .
,
. , .

, HFSS :

1. .

2. .

3. .

4. , .

5. ,
.

6. Driven solution, -
, ,
.

, , .
, , ,
.

1. HFSS, Solution Type. Solution Type


(. 6.1).
2. :

Driven S-
Modal ,
, ,
() .
Driven S- ,
Terminal ,
,
.

.
Eigenmode ,
. Eigenmode

.

. 6. 1. General HFSS
Options

6.1. HFSS Ansoft v.9


Driven Modal, HFSS
S-
, , .

,
.
Driven Solution Ansoft HFSS
( ):

Sx + k o2Tx = b (6. 1)

:
S T - , .
x .
ko .
b - , .

Driven Terminal , , HFSS


S- ,
. S-
,
.

Eigenmode
. Eigenmode
, ,
.
, Eigenmode
(6.1) b =0 :

Sx + ko2Tx = 0 . (6.2)

x - , ko
, .
ko :
ko c
f = (6.3)
2
.

Eigenmode :
: , ,
, , .
.
.
S-.
.

6.2. HFSS

S- , HFSS :
.
.
, ,
.
S-
.

(. 6.2)
:

1. HFSS .
.

2. (lambda
refinement), HFSS ,
.

3. , .
4. , HFSS
.

. 6.2. ,
.

6. , HFSS
,
. (. 6.3).

7. HFSS , .

8. HFSS , (
) ,

(. 6.3).
9. , HFSS
.
.
, HFSS ,
. ,
(. 6.5, 6.6).

. 6.3. General . 6.4. Advanced




. 6.5. . 6.6.

.
. 2.1349
2.116
6.3.

HFSS .
, , .
, ,
, . ,
,
.
, ,
, . HFSS
.
, , ,
,
(. 6.7).
(), ,
, .
10 , .
, ,
(background). ()
, ,
.
,
.
. 6.7. ()

6.4. . Meshmaker

HFSS -
, HFSS
, ,
.
( )
,
. ,
, , -
,
, .
HFSS
. , Mesh Operations
HFSS (. 6.8).

. 6.8.

,
(, )

(, - -).
.
, ,
,
.
, .
, ,
.
.


, HFSS
Meshmaker.
, .

Meshmaker
,
. Meshmaker
.
,
.

.
:
,
(
). ,
,
.

,
.

.
6.4.1.

,
,
.
.
.
,
.
, , .

6.4.2. -

-
, HFSS
.
.
- ,
(. 6.9).
6.9. -

-, HFSS
, ,
-.
, (P0, P1, P2, ...,
Pn) , n . P0 - ,
P0 Pn -.
, ,
, Pn P0.
, :

-: 12 mm
: 4
[P0,P1]: 0.8 mm.
[P1,P2]: 1.6 mm.
[P2,P3]: 3.2 mm.
[P3,P4]: 6.4 mm.
[P0,P4]: 0.8 + 1.6 + 3.2 + 6.4 = 12 mm.
-
,
.
,
:
,
-.
,
,
, .
,
.

Plot Mesh. (. 6.10).


, , ,
.
. 6.10.

6.5.

HFSS ,
-, , , .
true surfaces ( ).
, HFSS
-.
,
(. 6.11).
. 6.11.

,
;
. ,

. ,
.
.
,
(
).

.
,

.
,
(. 6.12).
,
, (surface
deviation), ,

Surface Approximation
( HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>Surface Approximation).
.
, ,
(true surfaces). ,
,
.

. 6.12. ,


, :
,
,
.
.
.
,
,
, .
HFSS ,
1,

. 1
- . HFSS
4 1.2
.

6.5.1.

1. ,
. , , HFSS
.
. 6. 13.

2. HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>On Selection>Length-Based.


Element Length Based Refinement (. 6.13).

3. Name,
.

4. , :
a. Restrict Length of Elements.
b. ,
, Maximum Length of Elements.
" " 20 %
.
HFSS ,
,
, .

5. ,
:
a. Restrict the Number of Elements.
b. Maximum Number of Elements, .
c. OK.

(. 6.14),
. ,

.

. 6.14.

6.5.2.

1. , .
2. HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>On Selection>Length-Based.
Element Length-Based Refinement (. 6.15).
3. Name.
4. :
a. Restrict Length of Elements.
b. Maximum
Length of Elements.
" " 20 %
,
. HFSS ,
.

5. ,
:
a. Restrict the Number of Elements.
b. Maximum Number of Elements, .
c. OK.

. 6.15.
6.5.3.
-

1. , .
.

2. HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>On Selection>Skin-Depth-


Based. Skin Depth-Based Refinement (. 6.16).

3. Name.

4. Skin Depth.
, , ,
, ,
. :
a. Calculate Skin Depth. Calculate Skin Depth.
b. Relative Permeability Conductivity .
c. Frequency,
.
d. OK. HFSS
Skin Depth.

5. Number of Layers of Elements ,


. HFSS
. , HFSS 10 ,
Surface Triangle Length, 10
.

6.
Surface Triangle Length. " " 20
% ,
.
. 6. 16.
-

7. ,
:
a. Restrict the Number of Surface Elements.
b. Maximum Number of Surface Elements,
, .
c. OK.
,
, .

6.5.4.

HFSS ,
.
HFSS , ,
.

1. ,
. ,

.
2. HFSS>Mesh Operations>Assign>Surface Approximation.
Surface Approximation (. 6.17).

. 6. 17.

3. Name,
.

4. Surface Deviation Ignore,


, Set maximum
surface deviation (length),

.
6. Normal Deviation, :
Ignore,
.
Use defaults,
,
22.5 .
Set maximum normal deviation (angle),

, .

6. Aspect Ratio, :
Ignore,
.
Use defaults,
,
10 200 .
Set aspect ratio, .
.
. , 1 ,
.

7. OK. ,
.
Mesh Operations.

6.5.5.

,
, .
,
.

,
. HFSS Analysis Setup,
Revert to Initial Mesh. ,
, ,
.
6.5.6.

,
, :

HFSS, Analysis Setup, Apply Mesh


Operations. , HFSS
, .
, HFSS
.
, HFSS
.

, .



. ,
, .

6.6.

HFSS , Setup Solve


,
. :

, ,
.

,
.

:
1. .

2. HFSS, Analysis Setup, Add Solution


Setup . Analysis ,
Add Solution Setup . Solution Setup.
:

General .

Advanced

.

Ports
( ).

Default


HFSS

3. General (. 6.18).
. 6.18. General

4. Driven, :
a. Solution Frequency .
b. , Solve Ports Only ( ).
Eigenmode, :
a. Minimum Frequency .
b. .

5. , 2
Maximum Number of Passes,
.
, 0

. 1 ,
, .

6. OK.
7. , .

6.6.1.

( Driven)

Driven,
. ,
. ,
.

General Solution Setup,


Solution Frequency . , Fast
sweeps, HFSS ,
(, ,
).

.

6.6.2.

( Eigenmode)

Eigenmode, ..
,
, . HFSS
,
Minimum Frequency, .

General Solution Setup, Minimum


Frequency . ,
, ,
, HFSS -
, .
, , 0.01 ,
, Minimum Frequency.
Eigenmode,
, . 5,
5
. Eigenmode 20
.
General Solution Setup, Number of
Modes.

6.6.3.

,
General Solution Setup:

Maximum number of passes


Maximum delta S per pass ( )
Maximum delta E per pass ( ,
)

,
.
Advanced Solution Setup,
:

Lambda refinement

Percent refinement per pass

Minimum number of passes

Minimum number of
converged passes
Matrix convergence
Reduced solution basis
. 6.19. ,

6.6.4.

Maximum Number of Passes -


, .
- ;
, .
, ,
.
:
General Solution Setup,
Maximum Number of Passes.
3 6.
2 .

6.6.5. Maximum Delta S Per Pass

( )
Delta S S-
.
, Maximum Delta S Per Pass -
.
S-
,
.
,
, ,
.

,
, .

Maximum Delta S Per Pass :

General Solution Setup,


Maximum Delta S Per Pass.
Delta S , HFSS
. , Delta S
S- - - ,
S- .

6.6.6. Maximum Delta E Per Pass

( , ,
, . 6.19. )

Delta E - ( E ),
.
, Maximum Delta E Per Pass -
. Delta E
,
. , ,
.

Delta E
:
General Solution Setup,
Maximum Delta E Per Pass.
Delta E , HFSS
.

6.6.7. Real Frequency

( Eigenmode)

Converge on Real Frequency Only


;
.
General Solution Setup, Converge on Real
Frequency Only.

6.6.8.

Lambda Refinement

Lambda Refinement
, ,
. .

, HFSS
:

1. Advanced Solution Setup, Lambda


Refinement.

2. Target.
0.33, , HFSS ,

.
3. ,
, Use free space lambda.
Lambda, , .
Percent Refinement Per Pass

Percent Refinement Per Pass ,


.
.
:
Advanced Solution Setup, Percent
Refinement Per Pass.

Minimum Number of Passes

, ,
, , .
Advanced Solution Setup, Minimum
Number of Passes.

Minimum Number of Converged Passes

, ,
.
Advanced Solution Setup, Minimum
Converged Passes.

, .

6.6.9.

( )

,
S-.
Matrix Convergence. ,

, ,
.

1. Advanced Solution Setup, Use


Matrix Convergence (. 6.20).

. 6. 20.

2. Edit Matrix. Matrix Convergence.

3. Entry Selections:


All
Diagonal
.
Off-Diagonal ,
.
Selected
Entries
All .
All, Diagonal, Off-Diagonal
Dominant .
Only All, Diagonal, Off-Diagonal,
Off-Diagonal.

Higher
Order Only . All, Diagonal,
Off-Diagonal. ,
, 100,000 ,

.

4. All, Diagonal, Off-Diagonal ,


,
Mode Selection (. 6.21).

6. Selected Entries, :
a.
.
b.
.
. 6.21.

6. Magnitude ,
.

7. Phase, , ,
,
.

8. Insert Entries. .

9. OK.

6.7.

HFSS
:
Advanced Solution Setup,
Use Low-Order Solution Basis.

, Use Reduced Solution Basis,


1/20
. ,
Lambda Refinement.

6.8.

HFSS ( ),
, .

.

(. 6.22):
Port.
.
.

. 6. 22.
Min/Max.

, General Solution Setup, Solve
Ports Only.

( )

HFSS ,
,
Port Field Accuracy.
, Ports
Solution Setup, Port Field Accuracy
. , " ".

,
.
,
.

:

1. Ports Solution Setup,


Automatically Set Min/Max Triangles.
Automatically Set Min/Max Triangles, HFSS

, .

2. Minimum Number of Triangles.


25
90
.

3. Maximum Number of Triangles.


400.
6.9.

6.9.1.

( Driven)

,
.
HFSS .
,
.

:
1. HFSS Analys Setup, Add Sweep.
2. OK.
Edit Sweep.
3. :

Sweep type - ,

Error tolerance ( )
Maximum (
number of )
solutions
Frequency .
points
Frequency , .
points

4. SPICE,
Full-Wave SPICE Calculation ( Time Domain Calculation),
.

6. OK.

6.9.2.
:

Fast
.
,
. Fast
.

Discrete
.


Interpola .
ting , ,
,
Fast .

6.9.3. (Fast Frequency Sweeps)


.
Fast sweep ,
.
Fast sweep
.
HFSS ,
, ..
, Fast
sweep.
Lanczos-Pade (ALPS)
.
HFSS ,
(,
, ).
.
, HFSS ,
,
,
, . ,
. ,
, Fast
sweeps (. 6.23).

, S- ;
, Fast sweeps
.
, Fast sweep ,
, .
. Fast sweep,
. ,
, , .

Fast sweep .

. 6.23. , Fast Sweep


.6.24.Fast

6.9.4.

( Interpolating sweeps)

Error Tolerance
.
0.5 .
Interpolating:
Edit Sweep, Error Tolerance.

Max Solutions ,
.
Edit Sweep, Max Solutions.
6.9.5.

Discrete sweep
. ,
1000 2000 , 2.5,
1000, 1250, 1500, 1750, 2000 .
,
, 2000 . Save Fields,
. S-
.

Discrete sweep ,
.
HFSS ,

, , ,
.
.
, ,
, .
,
. , ,

.

6.9.6.

1. Edit Sweep, Linear Step Type.

2. Start, .
HFSS , Start ,
Stop.

3. Stop, .
4. Step Size, . HFSS
,
.
, 10 , 20 ,
2.5 , HFSS 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5,
20. ,
,
.

6. Fast, Save Fields,


,
.

Linear Step Linear ,



Linear Count

Single Points .

, Save Fields (All Frequencies),


,
.
,
Single Points Type, Save Fields
.

6.9.7.

1. Edit Sweep, Linear Count


Type.
2. Start .
3. Stop .

4. Count .
Count . HFSS
Count.
6. Discrete Fast, Save Fields (All
Frequencies),
,
.

, Single Points Type , Save
Fields .

6. (Fast sweeps), Save Fields,


,
.
, Save Fields (All
Frequencies),
, .
,
Single Points Type Save Fields
.

6.9.8.


. HFSS ,
,
( . 6.24 |S11|>1).
,
.
, ,
.
. 6.25.

, ,
, Fast sweep
. ,
, .

. ,
- , ,
. ,

.

6.9.9.

1. Edit Sweep, Single Points Type.


2. Single, ,
.
3. Save Fields,
,
.
4. Insert.
Frequency . Save Fields
, .

5. 2 - 4 .

1. Single Points Type.


2. , .
3. Delete.

,
. ,
. :

1. Single Points Type.

2. , .

3. Single,
.

4. Save Fields, ,
.

6. Insert.

6.9.10. SPICE
SPICE,
Full-Wave SPICE Calculation,
.
:

1. Edit Sweep, Full-Wave SPICE Calculation.


Full-Wave SPICE Calculation.

2.
Signal rise time.
, Ansoft
Designer.

3. Time Steps Per Rise Time (. 6.26).


,


t =
N

t - ,
- ,
N - .

4. Number of Time Points.

6. Calculate.
. 6.26.

HFSS Maximum Frequency


. Frequency Step Size.

6. OK,
Edit Sweep.

SPICE

,
:


, .
,
. ,
.
, ,
, , .
, , 500 .
SPICE,
. ,
1000
.
.
,
.

, HFSS

- .
, ,
.
, ,
.

6.10.


- .

,
.
2 4 .

,
HFSS Options. ,
1.

1. Tools, Options, HFSS Options.

2. Solver (. 6.27).

3. Number of Processors.
HFSS.
,
, .
. 6. 27.

Soft Memory Limit (RAM)

Memory Limit, Soft ,


HFSS , "
"
.
,

, .
, HFSS ,
"
" 60 % 256 (262,144 ),
.
, HFSS :
1. Tools, Options HFSS Options.
2. Solver.
3. Memory Limit, Soft (MB).
4. , .
HFSS.

,
, . Memory Limit Hard
,
HFSS.
, , ,
.
, HFSS :
1. Tools, Options, HFSS Options (. 6.28).

2. Solver.

3. Memory Limit, Hard (MB).

4. , . HFSS
, .
HFSS. ,
, ,
, .

6.11.

, ,
. ,
,
.
(remote machine) , ,
(local machine).

6.11.1.

:
HFSS Ansoft .
(Configure
Distributed COM -DCOM) .
.

. 6.28.

6.11.2.
1.
.
2. Start>Run dcomcnfg.
3. OK, DCOM.
, ,
- Windows NT /2000 Windows XP.

Windows NT/2000

, :

a. Default Properties , Enable Distributed


COM on this computer .
b. Applications , HFSSEngineclass.
Properties.
c. General , Authentication Level
None.
d. Location , Run application on this computer
.
e. Identity Interactive User,
, ,
.

, HFSSEngineClass :
Start/Run, command ,
.
<installation directory>\hfss9.
hfsscomengine RegServer,
HFSS COM.

. Launching user This user


. .

f. Security, Permissions,
, Interactive . ,
, ,
, .
:

1. Use custom access permissions.

2. Edit , Interactive
,
, . (
Everyone, ,
).

Add , .
List Names From, ,
.
,
Show Users.
, ,
, Type of Access .
OK, Add Users.
user/group Registry Value Permissions.

3. OK, .
g. OK, DCOM
HFSS COM.
h. OK, DCOM.

Windows XP

, :

a. Console Root>Component Services>Computers,


My Computer, Properties.
b. Default Properties, , Enable Distributed COM
on this computer . OK, .
c. Console Root>Component Services>Computers>My
Computer>DCOM Config, , HFSSEngine Class .
, HFSSComEngine.
, HFSSEngine
Class, Properties.

, HFSSEngineClass :
Start/Run, command,
.
<installation directory>\hfss9.
HFSScomengine -RegServer, HFSS COM
Engine.

d. General , Authentication Level


None.

e. Location, , Run application on this computer


.

f. Identity, Interactive User,


,
.

g. Security, ,
, Interactive . ,
,
- , .

Customize.
Edit
- ,
, .
Everyone, ,
.

h. OK, DCOM
HFSS COM Engine.
6.11.3.

HFSS
DCOM,
, , .

HFSS:

1. ,
HFSS Engine DCOM.

2. HFSS.

3. HFSS , Tools/Options/General Options.

4. , . C:\Temp.
, .

6. , , ,
. ,
, .
, HFSS.

6. Windows,
Everyone Temporary HFSSBin.
,
.

.
CLSID HFSS, OK, CLSID.
. Launching user This user
. ,
.
Permissions ( Permissions Sharing).
Security ( Security).

6.11.4.

:
1. HFSS ,
HFSS v9 (local machine).

2. HFSS ,
.

3. , Tools/Options/General Options.

4. Analysis Options.

6. Show the Remote Analysis Dialog.


,
remote machine .

6. OK, Options.

7. , .
8. , HFSS>Analyze.
Remote Analysis.
9. , ,
OK.

6.12.

, ,
.

1. .

2. HFSS Analyze.

HFSS .
, ,
. ,
.
:

1. , , , Analysis.

2. HFSS, Analyze.
, .

6.12.1.

,
Progress.

(. 6.29):
, HFSS>Analysis Setup>Convergence.
S-,
, , HFSS>Analysis
Setup>Profile.
,
, HFSS>Results>Browse Solutions.
. 6.29. Convergence
Solution Data

6.12.2.

,
.
HFSS,
, , HFSS
.
:

1. ,
Progress, Change Priority .

2. Change Priority, :

Lowest Priority
Below Normal
Normal
Above Normal
Highest.

,
,
. , RAM
24 , .
.

6.12.3.

, :

Progress, Abort. HFSS .



, . ,
, .
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
.

:
Progress, Clean Stop
.
HFSS
.

, .
, , ,
.

6.12.4.

,
, .
X
Results.
,
, Analyze
HFSS.
Analyze.

,
, ,
,
,
, .
,

. ,
, , ,
,
.
7

T-

,
- . , HFSS
:

.
.
.
.
.
HFSS.
S-.
.
.

7.1.

, , -
1.
. 7.1. -

1,
1 2 3. S21, S31
0.7. 1
.


S21 S31
1. , ,
,
.

,
:

.
- .
. ,
,
Properties.
.
. ,
.
.
Ctrl+D,
.
. ,
.

. HFSS Ansoft ,
.
. , ,
,
.

,
(Optimetrics).
,
. ,
,
.

7.2.

,
*.hfss.
, HFSS. HFSS,
.

1. HFSS.
Project Manager Projectn . ,
.. .

. 7.2.

2. File, Save As.

3. , ,
, C:\Ansoft\HFSS9\Projects,
.

4. Tee , Save.
Projects Tee.hfss.

HFSS ,
, HFSS: File
New.
HFSS

HFSS .

1. Project, Insert HFSS Design.


.
. (. 7.3) 3D
Modeler.

2. :
HFSSModel_n , Rename .

3. TeeModel, Enter.
. 7.3.

.
,
. , Driven Modal
, S-
, .

1. HFSS, Solution Type (. 6).

2. Solution Type, Driven Modal,


OK (. 7.4).
. 7.4.

, ,
Tools>Options> General Options (. 7.5).

. 7.5.
Expand Project Tree on Insert. Project
Manager , ,
View > Project Manager.

. 7.6.

1. 3D Modeler, Units.

2. Set Model Units, Select units, mm


OK (. 7.6).

. , 1 1 inch
(. 7.7).
. 7.7.

7.3.

T-
:

T- - .
.
, -
.
,
- .
.
.
-.

- .
, . ,
, .
,
. ,
-.

,
.
1. Draw, Box .

2. (0, -0.45,
0):
a. Tab, X -.
b. 0 X (. 7.8) , Tab,
Y.
c. -0.45 Y, Tab.
d. 0 Z, Enter.

. 7.8.

3. ,
: (2, 0.9, 0) dX, dY, dZ.
Enter.
4. , Z
. (0, 0, 0.4) dX, dY, dZ,
Enter.
, Shift+Tab.
, TeeModel ,
Undo Edit, . HFSS
, .
Properties, Command.
(. 7.9) .
. 7.9. ,

Properties ,
, .

1. Properties, Attribute.
2. Tee: Tee Value
Name, Enter.

, Properties, ,
, Tools>Options>3D Modeler Options.
Options 3D Modeler, Drawing,
Edit Property of new primitives.

, , - . ,
-. , vacuum -
Materal.
. 7.10. ,


, .

1. Transparent. Set
Transparency.
.7.11.Tee

2. 0.4 (. 7.12),
OK.

. 7.12.

3. OK, Properties.

3D Modeler Tee. ,
, .

,
yz x = 2. , ,
.
.
HFSS
.

1. , F.

2. , YZ X =
2, . 7.13.

. 7.13. ,

3. 3D Modeler
Assign Excitation>Wave Port . Wave Port.

4. Port1 Name, Next.

5. New Line Integration Line (. 7.14).


. 7.14.

7. 3D Modeler (2, 0, 0),


. ,
.

7. (2, 0, 0.4)
(. 7.15). Wave Port.

. 7.15.
WavePort1
8. ,
Next.
, Alt+Shift,
. ,
.

9. , Finish.

,
-.
. , ,
,
HFSS
Options ( Tools). , Duplicate
boundaries with geometry (. 7.16).
. 7.16.

, T-

1. EE ,
Edit>Duplicate>Around Axis .

2. 90 , .

Duplicate Around Axis , Z (.


7.17).
. 7.17.

3. 90 Angle.
.

4. 2 Total Number. - ,
, .

5. OK. ee ,
Tee_1, . Z 90 (.
7.18).
, , ,
, , ,
(. 7.19).
. 7.18.

, Port1 .
Port2 , Exitation
.

7. Ctrl+D,
.
. 7.19. WavePort1

, Tee
Tee_1.

, ,
-90 Angle (. 7.20).
(. 7.21).

. 7.20.

,
.
: Save File.
. 7.21.
-

,
-.

, , HFSS
,
clone before unite
Options 3D Modeler (. 7.22).
. 7.22. Operation

1. Tools, Options, 3D Modeler Options.

2. Operation 3D Modeler Options,


, Clone tool objects before uniting , OK.

3. , O.

4. , .

5. Ctrl .

7. 3D Modeler, Boolean ( ),

Unite .
(.7.23). (. 7.24) ,
.
. 7.23. 3 ,

. 7.24. 3-


,
-. ,
y.

,
Properties.

1. Draw, Box .

2. 3D Modeler:
, ,
.
, Properties,
Command.
(. 7.25).
(-0.45, 0, 0), ( 0.45,
0.1, 0), ( 0, 0, 0.4).

. 7.25.
. 7.26. -

Tee Box1 (. 7.26).


3D Modeler -> Boolean -> Substract
. . 7.27.

1. Tee , -.

2. Ctrl Septum ,
.

3. 3D Modeler, Boolean, Subtract.

Subtract. Box1
Tool Parts, Tee Blank Parts, ,
(. 7.27).

4. , Clone tool objects before subtracting .


5. OK. .
Tee, .

. 7.27. ToolParts Blank Parts

T-
(. 7.28).

. 7.28. -
7.4.

,
y: offset - 0.05, offset ,
(. 7.29). offset , ,
, Add
Variable, offset.

. 7.29. offset

,
.

1. Position, -0.45in, offset - 0.05in, 0in,


Enter. Add Variable (. 7.30).
. 7.30. offset Tee

2. 0in Value, OK.


Properties.
.


1. Properties, Command, 0.45 Xsize.

2. 0.1 Ysize.

3. 0.4 Zsize.

, ,
.
Properties (.
7.31), ,
, Design Properties.
. 7.31.


1. Properties Attribute (. 7.32).

2. Septum Value Name.

3. OK.

. 7.32. .
4. , , .
Alt, ,
-.

7.5.

.
.
.
.
.
.

7.5.1.

HFSS
10 GHz. , HFSS
-,
.

1. , TeeModel,
Analysis, Add Solution Setup .
Solution Setup (. 7.33).

2. General , 10 Solution Frequency,


GHz.
. 7.33.

3. Adaptive Solutions, Maximum Number of Passes = 3. -


, HFSS.

Analysis.
Setup1 .
,
.

7.5.2.

,
Interpolating. , HFSS
, ,
.
, HFSS
.
, .

1. Setup1 , Add
Sweep. Edit Sweep.

2. Interpolating.

3. Error Tolerance Max Solutions.

10 GHz.
, HFSS
.

4. Linear Step Type.

5. : Start 8 GHz, Stop 10 GHz,


Step Size 0.05 GHz. HFSS
,
(. 7.34).
. 7.34.

Setup1
Sweep1 .

Display, , .

7.5.3.

, , ,
, .

1. HFSS, Validation Check .


HFSS , Validation
Check (. 7.35).
. 7.35.

2. Close . .

7.6.

,
1.

HFSS, Analyze.
HFSS
. , Setup1 - .
1 - 5 .
, Message Manager.

, Message Manager
.
View>Message Manager,
.
Progress,
Progress , Tools>Options>HFSS Options.
.
, Tools>Options>HFSS Options.
General, Save bevore solving.

7.6.1.

, ,
offset.
1. TeeModel ,

Design Properties. Properties.

2. Local Variables , Value.

3. 0.2 Value offset.

4. OK.

:
, 2.

,
-, 2.

.

Analysis ,
Analyze. HFSS .

, , 1 - 5
.

,
x-y S-. :

S-.
T-.
.
,
.

7.6.2. S-

, S-
.
1. Results ,
Create Report. Create Report.
2. Modal S Parameters Report Type (. 7.36).

. 7.36.

3. Rectangular Plot Display Type, OK.


Traces.

4. Y, Y:
a. Category, S parameters.
b. Quantity, Ctrl S (Port1, Port1), S (Port1, Port2), S
(Port1, Port3), . 7.37.
c. Function, mag.
. 7.37. S-

5. X, Use Primary Sweep.


, Sweeps c
X (. 7.38). .
. 7.38.

6. Sweeps. Freq,
, (. 7.39).

7. Sweep Design and Project variable values.


.

offset.
. 7.39. Primery Sweep
( Freq) X

8. Add Trace, .
, .
.

9. Done. S-
x-y,
. 7.40.

Result .
. 7.40. -

S-,
offset = 0.
S- offset = 0.2
. Traces
Properties .

, S110.2 1,
offset = 0,
1.
0.7 2 3.
, 1
, offset = 0.2 ,
0.2 2. 2
3 .
,
.

, Trace
Properties, .
:
. Trace Properties
Line Style, Show Symbols On All Trace,
2 . , ,
,
.
Under the Color ,
, RGB.

7.6.3.

-
(. 7.41). E-
- . ,
1.

. 7.41. -

offset = 0. :

1. , Property . View>
Property Window.

2. TeeModel .
3. Variables Properties, offset= 0 Value
, Enter.

,
.

1. 3D Modeler: HFSS, 3D Model Editor.

2. :
, Select Faces .

3. T- .

4. HFSS>Fields>Plot Fields>Mag_E.
Create Field Plot.

5. Setup1:LastAdaptive ,
.

7. Done.
- E-,
2 3.
Field Overlays.
Mag_E1, Create Field Plot .

Mag_E1 E-,
1. .

3D Modeler
, ,
. ,
,
Modify Log Scale.
7.6.4.

,
,
. ,
, ,
. :

1. Mag_E1 ,
Animate. Setup Animation.

2. Swept Variable, Phase Swept Variable.

3. , :
a. Start =0deg .
b. Stop =160deg.
c. Steps= 8.

4. OK.
.
2 3.
Animation ,
, ,
.
8
0 160.

5. Animation, .

GIF
Audio Video (AVI), Export
Animation.

2,
E- .
1. TeeModel .
Animation,
.

2. Variables Properties, 0.2 Value


offset, Enter. E-
. , 3
.

HFSS

, !
, TEE,
.

1. Animation, ,
Close.
2. .
3. File, Close.
4. File, Exit.

, 13 ,
. HFSS
,
. , ,
HFSS , Hewlett
Pacard Agilent.
8


, , , ..,
( )
.
( ),

( ).
,
, :

,
, S-,

( Results->Solution Data).
(Eigenmode),

.
(. 8.1).

. 8.1. . 8.2.
Eigenmode ( ) .
10x23 7.1388


Optimetrics.

-
(. 8.2).

S- ,
.

(.
8.3).

,
.

. 8. 3.
Solution Data,
,
:
HFSS, Results, Solution Data.
Results ,
Solution Data (. 8.4). ,
, ,
. 8.5.

. 8.4. Results

. 8.5. Solution Data


8.1.

1. ,
, Convergence ()
. Solution Data Convergence
(. 8.6)
2. Simulation, ,
(Setup1). ,
.

. 8.6.

3. Convergence, ,
:

.
, .
Max Mag. Delta S .
delta E .
.
.
delta frequency .

4. , Table,
Plot (. 8.6).

8.2.

,
(
). ,
. ,
CONVERGED, NOT CONVERGED.

Solution Data Convergence.


Number of Passes.

8.2.1. S

( )

,
S-
.
,
.
, delta S
:
, ,
, Convergence
. Solution Data,
Convergence.
Max Mag. Delta S
S . Max Mag. Delta S
S
(Target urrent).
8.2.2. Delta Magnitude E
( , ,
. )

Delta S S-
, S-
.
,
, S-
E .



. Delta E
, .
Delta Magnitude E:
, ,
, Convergence
. Solution Data. Convergence.
Delta Mag. E E
.
Delta Mag. E Delta E
.

8.2.3. Magnitude Margin


( ,
S-)

,
S,
Matrix Convergence. ,
.
:
, ,
, Convergence
. Solution Data. Convergence.
Magnitude Margin
-.
8.2.4. Phase Margin
( ,
S-)

,
, Matrix
Convergence. ,
.
:
,
, Convergence
. Solution Data. Convergence.

. 8.7. S11

Phase Margin
(. 8.7).
8.3.
( Eigenmode)

,

, . -
.
, .
:
,
, Convergence
. Solution Data. Convergence.
Max Delta Freq. %
(. 8.8).
Max Delta Freq. %
(0.1)
(0.28596).

. 8. 8. (Max Delta Freq)



,

,
, HFSS .
(Profile).
,
.

, ,
, Profile .
Solution Data. Profile.
(. 8.9).

. 8.9. Profile,

:

Task
(, ),
Real Time .

, .
CPU Time
Memory
. ,
; HFSS.

, .
Information ,
, .

S-

S-, Z-, Y-
, ,
:

1. , ,
, Matrix Data .
Solution Data. Matrix Data(. 8.10).
. 8.10. Solution Data

2. Design Variation (. 8.10), ,


. ,
,
Set Design Variation, .

3. Simulation,
; ,
, .

4. , : S-matrix, Y-matrix,
Z-matrix, Gamma ( ), Zo
( ).

5. Magnitude/ Phase, Real/ Imaginary, dB/ Phase,


Magnitude, Phase, Real, Imaginary, dB.

6. ,
All Freqs. ,
All Frequencies, .
, ,
Solution Setup. ,
.
, Edit Freqs.
Fast Interpolating. Edit
Frequencies, ,
Matrix Data. .

8.4.

. 8.10 Export,
. :

1. ,
, Matrix Data .
Solution Data. Matrix Data.

2. , : S-matrix, Y-matrix,
Z-matrix, Gamma, Zo.

3. Export. .

4. , , File
name.

5. Save as type.

6. Save. .
. 8.11.

8.4.1.

S-, Driven
Terminal PSpice, HSPICE, Maxwell Spice.
PSpice, HSPICE, Maxwell Spice
.

1. , Solution Data,
Matrix Data .

. Interpolating
Fast Matrix Data ( Edit Freqs
Edit Sweep),
.

. ,
,
.
,
.
2. Equivalent Circuit Export. Equivalent Circuit
Export Options.
3. , .
4. Format:

Data Table .
(spreadsheet) S-, ,
(*.tab) .

Touchstone S Touchstone/Libra,
(*.sNp) n. ,
Touchstone, ,
.s1p.

PlanarEM/HFSS , Ensemble
v6+ (*.szg) Planar EM v. 6 , Ansoft HFSS
v. 6 , Maxwell Strata v. 1.1.

Neutral Model , MAFET


Format (*.nmf) Consortium.

MATLBAB (*.m) MATLAB, S-, Y-, Z-


.
Citifile (*.cit) Citifile

5. Lumped element Export (Low Bandwidth)



(, , ,
).
6. , Combine Sweeps,
.
, .
8. OK. S-
.

8.5.
(Eigenmode)


Q, :
1. , ,
, Eigenmode Data
. Solution Data. Eigenmode Data.

2. Simulation,
.

.
Frequency (
) .
Eigenmode Q,
() ,
.

1. HFSS Results, Clean Up Solutions.


Clean Up Solutions.

2. Data Deletion Options, :


, , .
(All Solution Data)
, ,
Variation Selection Options.

3. Variation Selection Options,


, :
Non Current Variation Options,
, .
All Variations, .
. 8. 12. Create Report

4. Do Deletions. , ,
. , ,
, X . ,
.
, , !

8.6.

. 8.13.

, ,
:
, Optimetrics,
, View Analysis
Result (. 8.13).
Post Analysis Display.
. 8.14.

,
, ,
,
Set Design Variation.
Solution Data (. 8.15).
. 8.15.

1. HFSS, Results, Solution Data.


Solution Data.

2. Design Variation.
Set Design Variation (. 8.15).

3. Use nominal design.

4. ,
, OK.
.

8.6.1.

,
,
(. 8.16).
, .
:
1. , Optimetrics,
, View Analysis Result
. Post Analysis Display.

2. Profile.

3. Optimetrics ,
.

4. ,
, :
a. .
b. Solver Profile.

Solution Data.
.

. 8.16. General

8.6.2.
1. ,
, ,
View Analysis Result .
Post Analysis Display.

2. ,
, .

3. , Table .

.

4. , Show complete output name.


-, ,
.

5. ,
Apply. , 3D Modeler ,
.

8.6.3.


(x - y) :

1. ,
, ,
View Analysis Result . Post Analysis Display.
. 8.17. ,

2. ,
.

3. , Plot .

4. ,
x-, X.

5.
. ,
,
.
, ,
:

a. Set Other Sweep Variables Value.


Setup Plot.
.
b. ,
, OK.

6. , y-
Y. x -y (. 8.18).

. 8.18.

Traces
(. 8.19).
. 8.19.

8.6.4.
.

. :

1. Setup Optimization,
,
View Analysis Result .
Post Analysis Display.

2. ,
, .
. 8.20.

3. Results, Table ().


(. 8.20).

4. , ,
Apply. , 3D Modeler, ,
.
Revert,
.

8.6.5.

:

1. ,
, ,
View Analysis Result. Post
Analysis Display.

2. ,
.
3. Results, Plot .
(. 8.21).

. 8.21.

8.7.

:

1. ,
, ,
View Analysis Result . Post
Analysis Display.

2. , ,
.

3. Result, Table .
:
, Func. Value.
1st D.
2nd D.

4. Apply.

3D Modeler ,
.
Revert,
.

1. ,
, ,
View Analysis Result .
Post Analysis Display (. 8.23).
. 8.23.

2. ,
, .

3. Result, Plot .

4.
x, ,
X.

5. ,
, Y.
x y Post Analysis Display (. 8.23).


.
, .
-
, .
8.8.


(. 8.24)
.
:

1. ,
, ,
, View Analysis
Result . Post Analysis Display.

2. ,
, .

3. Table .

.

4. , ,
Apply ( ).
, 3D Modeler ,
.

. 8.24.

1. , ,
,
, View Analysis Result .
Post Analysis Display.

2. ,
, .

3. Plot .

4. ,
X.

5. ,
Y, Y.
Post Analysis Display.

(. 8.33).
. 8.25.

8.9.

, ,
,
HFSS -> Field ->Edit Sources.

. 8.26.

Edit Sources (. 8.26):

2. , ,
. Terminal, ,
.

3. Magnitude, ,
.

4. Phase, .
.

5. Terminal,
. Terminated,
/
Resistance /
Reactance.
. 8.27.

6. (. 8.28)
:

Scattered ,
Fields .

Total Fields ,
.
Incident
Fields .

. 8.28.
8. OK.
.

, .
, ( )
180.
, ,
.

, ,
:
, .
,
t = 0,
.



.
,
. ,
, 0.5
1 ;
, 0.25
1 , ..
" " 1.
E- H- ,
1 .
, .
.
. 8. 29.


.

, , 0.
,
.

E- \.
E-, E-
.

8.10.

,
,
.
, , ,
- , -
. ,
.

Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) (AVI) Audio Video
Interleave.

8.10.1.

:
1. .
2. HFSS Fields Animate.
3. ,
Select Animation. New. Setup
Animation.

. 8.30.

4. Name,
.

5.
Description.
6. Swept Variable, Phase Swept Variable.

8. , :
a. Start.
b. Stop.
c. . , Start = 10,
Stop = 160, 10, 10
10 160.
,
11.
8. OK.

.
,
, ,
.

8.10.2.

1. , () .
Create Field Plot, ,
Solution.

2. HFSS Fields, Animate.

3. , Select
Animation. New. Setup Animation.

4. Name, .

5. Description.

6. Swept Variable, Frequency Swept Variable.

8. ,
.
Shift, , Ctrl,
, .
8. OK:
.
, .
(. 8.31),
,
.

. 8.31.

8.10.3.

,
.

1. , View
Animate. Select Drawing (. 8.32).
. 8.32.

2. , .
Setup Animation.

3. Name,
(. 8.33).

. 8.33.

4. ,
Description.
5. Swept Variable Swept Variable
.
, , Swept
Variable.

6. ,
:
a. Start.
b. Stop.
c. Steps. , 0.15
, 0.45 15,
15 0.15
0.45 .

8. OK.

:
(. 8.34).

. 8.34.

8.10.4.

,
Animation. ,
,

.

1. .
2. , Export. Save As.

3. Animated GIF File


(.gif) AVI. Animation Options (. 8.35).

4. 256 ,
Grayscale.
, .

. 8.35.

5. Compression factor.

,
. Speed ,
, .

8.11.


,
.

1. , , ,
. , .
2. HFSS Fields, Plot Fields.

3. Plot Fields ,
.
,
. ,
. ,
, , ,
. Create Field Plot.

4. ,
, Specify Name
Name.

5. Solution.

6. , ,
, Specify Folder
Plot Folder. Field Overlays
.

8. Intrinsic Variables, ,
.

8. Quantity.

Auto
.
Use
Limits .
, , ,
.
Linear
Log

9. In Volume.

.
10. Done.

,
, .
, Plot Attributes (. 8.36).

. 8.36.

8.11.1.

,
.

1. , , ,
.

2. HFSS Fields Plot Calculated Expression.

3. , ,
OK. Create Field Plot.

4. , ,
Specify Name Name.
5. Solution.

6. , , Specify Folder
Plot Folder.
Field Overlays .

8. Intrinsic Variables ,
.

8. Quantity .

9.
In Volume.
.

10. Done.

,
, .
Field Overlays.

8.11.2.


,
.

1. ,
. , ,
.

2. HFSS Fields Plot Fields.

3. Plot Fields ,
. Create Field Plot.

4. .
, Plot
Attributes.
.

. 8.37.

8.11.3.

, x-, y- z-
.
(. 8.37).

1. , ,
.
, , .

2. HFSS Fields Plot Fields.

3. Plot Fields ,
.
8.11.4.

1. HFSS Fields Modify Plot.


Select Field Plot.

2. , Select,
OK.

3. Solution.

4. , Plot Folder, .

5. Intrinsic Variables ,
.

6.
Quantity. , Calculator
Category.
, Standard Category.

8. In
Volume.
.

8. Done.
, .
.
, Plot
Attributes.

8.11.5.


,
Plot Attributes.
,
.
1. HFSS Fields Modify Plot Attributes.
Select Plot Folder.

2. , , OK.
.

.

3. ,
:

Color map
Scale
Marker/Arrow ( ).
( ).
Plots ( ).

.
, (
.)
.

4. Save as default, ,
,
(. 8.38).
. 8.38.

5. Real time mode, ,


. , Apply,
.

6. Close, .

8.11.6.

1. HFSS Fields Modify Plot Attributes.


Select Plot Folder.

2. , , OK.
.

.

3. Color map.

4. Number of colors
.
5. Real time mode, ,
. , Apply,
.

6. Close .

8.11.7.

(Color Keys)
,
. .

1. View Visibility. Visibility.

2. Color Keys. :

Uniform .
Color.
Ramp
. Color.
.
Spectrum .
.

.

3. Visibility ,
.

4. Done .
, ,
Hide .
8.11.8.

.
:
1. HFSS, Fields, Modify Plot Attributes.
Select Plot Folder.

2. , ,
OK. .

.

3. Scale (. 8.39).

. 8.39. Scale ,

4. : Auto User Limit.

5. Use Limits,
, .

6. :
Range of Plotted,
Field Values,
Color Map,
Plot Title.

8. Real time mode, ,


. ,
Apply, .

8. Close, .

8.11.9.

1. HFSS Fields, Modify Plot Attributes.


Select Plot Folder.

2. , ,
OK. .
.

3. Marker/Arrow.

4. Arrow Options, :

Line
Cylinder . -

Umbrella , .

5. Size, ( )
( ) .
.

6. Map Size, ,
.
7. Arrow tail, .

8. Plots.

9. HFSS ,
, . Vector plot
Spacing, ( ) (
) ( )
Uniform, .

10. Real time mode, ,


.

11. Close.

8.11.10.

,
:

1. HFSS Fields Modify Plot Attributes.


Select Plot Folder.

2. , , OK.
.
.

3. Plot.

4. Add Grid, .

5. Color.

6. Real time mode, ,


.

8. Close, .
8.11.11.
(Isovalues)

1. HFSS Fields Modify Plot Attributes.


Select Plot Folder.

. 8.40.
(-)

2. , ,
OK. .

.

3. Plots.

4. , :
a.
IsoValType:

Line (. 8.40)
Fringe , isovalues
Tone isovalues
Gourard
b. Fringe Tone, Outline,
(isovalues).

5. - , :
a. :

isovalues
IsoValSurface
Cloud ,
.
, .

b. Cloud, Cloud density,


.
c. Cloud, Point size
.

. 8.41. Fringe

8.11.12.

1. HFSS, Fields Modify Plot Attributes.
Select Plot Folder.

2. , , OK.
.
.

3. Plots.

4. Map transp, ( )
( ) .
Map transp.,
.

8.11.13.

,
. (
.)

1. HFSS Fields, Modify Plot Attributes.


Select Plot Folder.

2. , ,
OK.

.
.

3. Marker/Arrow .

4. Marker options ,
:





5. Size, ( )
( ) .

6. Map size,
.

8.11.14.

.

. ,
.

1. HFSS Fields, Modify


Attributes(. 8.41). Select Plot Folder.

2. , ,
OK. .
.

. 8.42.
3. Plots (. 8.42).

4.
IsoValType:

Fringe (.8.41)
Ton

Gourar
d

5.
:

6. Line width, ( )
( ) .

8. 100
. ,
.

8. Real time mode, ,


.

9. Close, .

8.11.15.

3D Modeler:

1. View Visibility. Visibility.

2. FieldsReporter.

3. Visibility ,
(. 8.43). ,
. .
. 8.43.

8.11.16.

(.adsn);
HFSS
(.dsp) HFSS.

.dsp:

1. Plot, .

2. HFSS, Fields Save as.


Select Field Plot (. 8.44).

. 8.44.
3. Select, , ,
OK. .

Cylinder
.
Solid .
Dash-Dash
.
Dot-Dot .
Dash-Dot
.

4. , Field Plot Files (.dsp), - .

5. .dsp .

6. Save. .dsp .
, , HFSS 9
. HFSS>Fields>Open.

8.11.17.

,
HFSS (.dsp), HFSS 9 :

1. HFSS Fields Open.


.

2. , Field Plot Files (.dsp) -

3. .dsp .

4. Open. .
Field Overlays .
8.11.18.

1. HFSS, Fields Delete Plot.


Delete Plots (. 8.45).

2. , , Delete .

. 8.45.

3. OK. .
Delete.

8.11.19.

,
Set Plot Defaults.
:

1. , Field Overlays
.

2. HFSS, Fields, Set Plot Defaults .


Set Plot Defaults (. 8.46).
. 8.46.

3. Solution.

4. , ,
Quantity type.

New Folder

Automatic ,
HFSS
. ,
E .
An existing ,
folder .

5. Intrinsic Variables ,
.

6. OK.

, ,
. Auto ,
.
8.12. SAR HFSS

, (SAR
Specific Absorption Rate)

2
E
SAR =
, (8.1)
- , /,
, /,
- , /3.

HFSS (SAR)
SAR SAR.
- , :

1. HFSS Fields SAR Setting.


Specific Absorption Rate Setting (. 8.47).

. 8. 47. SAR

2. Material Density
g/cm3.

3. Mass of Tissue ,
. 1 10.

4. OK. , SAR
. SAR
,
, ,
SAR .
. 8.48. SAR

SAR, Quantity = Average_SAR (.


8.48),
. , -
,
.

,
(. 8.49),
.
, , ,
, ,
.
,

, .
,
,
.
SAR 1.6 /.
. 8. 49.
,
(),


(.1).

.1. ( 1.9 )
tg
, [6]
, / /3


48 53 (0.9 ) 1.1 0.415 1030
46 (1.9 ) (1.7) (0.369)
3 9 0.06 0.133 1800
(8) ( 0.1 ) (0.125)
1 59 1.3 0.44 1100
(46) (1.9) (0.41)

.
HFSS

.

, ,
HFSS SAR
(. 8.50) ,
. SAR
.

. 8.50. SAR (
)


. . 8.50 ,
, . -

, -
.
,
. ,
, ,
,
!
,
: ,
.
,
. 10 ,
.
, HFSS ,

.

,
-.
9

,
, , .
,
, .

. - , .
,
, phi
theta. ,

. 9.1. :
. ,
.
. , HFSS
. HFSS
(. 9.1),
, , , .
, HFSS ,
, E-
.

9.1.

,
. Sphere Geometry
Traces. :

1. HFSS>Radiation>Insert Near Field Setup>Sphere.


Near Field Radiation Sphere Setup (. 9.2).
. 9.2. 20

2. Sphere, Name .

3. Radius,
,
Coordinate System.

4. Phi Theta (. 9.2).


a. Phi, (deg) (): 0, 360,10.
b. Theta, (deg) ():-180, 180,10


PML .
, HFSS
.
5. Coordinate System,
:
(CS),
Use global coordinate system.
CS,
Use local coordinate system (. 9.3), CS Choose
from existing coordinate systems.

. 9.3. Coordinate System,


,

6. , Radiate Surface PML


(
), :
a. Radiation Surface.
b. Use Custom Radiation Surface.
c. (. 9.4). HFSS
.
, PML.
. 9.4. ,

7. OK. .
Radiation. , , PML
, , ,
,
. ,
Near Field Radiation Sphere Setup.
. 9.5. , 20

, ,
.
- , ,
- . ,
,
.

9.2.

,
.
.
, Geometry
Traces, .
:

1. .

2. HFSS>Radiation>Insert Near Field Setup>Line.


Near Field Line Setup (. 9.6).
. 9.6.

3. Near Field Line Setup,


Name.

4. ,
Choose Line.

5. Number of points . -
.

,
.
. 9.7. , ,

. 9.8. E ,

6. , Radiate
PML, :
a. Radiation Surface.
b. Use Custom Radiation Surface.
c. .

. 9.9.

HFSS
.
,
PML.

7. OK.

9.3.

,
PML.

1. Sphere Line
Compute Max Parameters .
. 9.10.

. ,
, . ,
,
. ,
, , ,
.
Select Solution (. 9.10).

2. Select Solution, ,
.

. 9.11. -
3. Intrinsic Variables, ,
(. 9.11). Max Field Data (.
9.12), .

. 9.12. Line1

,
, .

, ,
.

. :

1. , ,
.

2. HFSS, Field Plot Mesh.


, (. 9.13).
. 9.13.
,

1. HFSS Fields, Modify Plot Attributes.


Select Folder (. 9.14).

. 9.14. ,

2. , (MeshPlots),
, OK.
.
.

3. , Plot.

4. Scale factor, ( )
( ) .
80 % 80 %
(. 9.15).
. 9.15.

5. Transparency, ( )
( ) .
.

6. :

7. Mesh color Line,


Color.

8. Mesh color, Filled,


Color.

9. Surface Only, ,
. ,
.

10. Save as default, ,


, , .

11. Real time mode, ,


. , Apply,
. .

12. Close .
,
, ,
,
.

, HFSS ,
. ,
,

. (. 9.16),
Traces (. 9.17).

. 9.16.

Traces
, .
. 9.17. E

1. HFSS Results, Create Report.


Create Report.
2. Target Design, ,
, .
3. Report Type, ,
.
4. Display Type, (,
, ).
5. OK. Traces.

6. Solution (. 9.17), , ,
.
7. Domain, .
S- (Time).

9. ,
, Output Variables.
Output Variables. ,
.

9. .

10. Done.
, (. 9.18).
.

. 9.18.
,
. ,
.


, :

1. , , .

2. Report2D Report3D, Modify Report.


(. 9.17).

3. Traces.

4. Done.
.

, ,
Report Type, Create Report.
Create Report:

Modal S S-
Parameters , Y-, Z-,
,

(VSWR).
Terminal S S- , Y-, Z-
Parameters ,
,
,
(VSWR).
Fields ,

.
Far Fields .
, :
E, , ,
, ,
, .
,

PML.

Near Fields , .


PML,
.

Rectangular (x-y).
Plot
3D (x-y-z).
Rectangular
Plot
Polar Plot ,
.

3D Polar Plot ,
.
Smith Chart ,
.
Data Table , , ,

.
Radiation .
Pattern

2D
,
, , ,
.
,
. .

1. HFSS, Results, Create Report.


Create Report.
2. Target Design, ,
.

3. Report Type, .

4. Display Type, Rectangular Plot, OK.


Traces.

5. Y, , Y:
a. Category, , .
b. Quantity, , .
c. Function, ,
.

6. X , X
:
Use Primary Sweep. ,
Sweep, X.
Use Primary Sweep, Category, Quantity,
Function, X.
,
Sweeps.

7. Sweeps, , ,
.

9. Add Trace.
, .
Traces.
,
.

9. , .

10. Done.
,
x -y. Results
.

x-y-z
. :

1. HFSS Results, Create Report.


Create Report.

2. Target Design, ,
.

3. Report Type, .

4. Display Type, 3D Rectangular Plot,


OK. Traces.

5. Z , z:
a. Category, , .
b. Quantity, , .
c. Function, ,
.

6. Y, , Y
:
Use Secondary Sweep. () ,
Sweeps, Y.
Use Secondary Sweep, Category,
Quantity, Function, Y. ,
, ,
Sweeps.

7. X , X
:
Use Primary Sweep. ,
Sweeps X.
Use Primary Sweep, Category, Quantity,
Function, X. ,
, ,
Sweep.

9. Sweep , ,
.

9. Add Trace.
- , .
Traces.
,
.

10. , .

11. Done.
- , x-
y-z. (. 9.19) Results .

. 9.19. S11 ()

- ,
R Theta, R - ,
, Theta - X.
:

1. HFSS, Results, Create Report.


Create Report.

2. Target Design, ,
.

3. Report Type, .

4. Display Type, Polar Plot, OK.


Traces. Polar
.

5. Polar, , :
a. Category, , .
b. Quantity, , .
c. Function, ,
.

6. Sweeps, ,
, 5.

7. Add Trace.
, .

Traces. ,
.

8. , .

9. Done.
, .
Results .

,
R, Theta, Phi, R - ,
, Theta - X, Phi -
z .
.

1. HFSS, Results, Create Report.


Create Report.

2. Target Design, , ,
.

3. Report Type, ,
.

4. Display Type, 3D Polar Plot, OK.


Traces. Mag
.

5. Mag, , R-
, :
a. Category, , .
b. Quantity, , .
c. Function, ,
.

6. Theta, ,
:
(
Sweeps) Theta, Use
Secondary Sweep.
Theta, Use
Secondary Sweep, Category, Quantity, Function,
.
, Sweeps.

7. Phi, , phi-
:
(
, Sweeps) phi, Use Primary
Sweep.
phi, Use Primary Sweep,
Category, Quantity, Function, .
phi
, Sweeps.

8. Sweeps, , ,
5, 6, 7.

9. Add Trace.

10. Done.
R-, phi-, Theta-
.

- S-,
.
:

1. HFSS Results, Create Report.


Create Report.

2. Target Design, ,
, .

3. Report Type, ,
.
4. Display Type, Smith Chart, OK.
Traces. Polar .

5. Polar, , :
a. Category, , .
b. Quantity, , .
c. Function, ,
.

6. Sweeps, ,
, 5.

7. Add Trace.
,
- .

9. ,
.

9. Done.

- , ,
,
.

1. HFSS Results, Create Report.


Create Report.

2. Target Design, ,
, .

3. Report Type, .

4. Display Type, Data table, OK.


Traces. Y .
5. Y, ,
:
a. Category, .
b. Quantity, , .
c. Function, ,
.

6. X, ,
:
Use Primary Sweep.
, 5,
, Sweeps.
Use Primary Sweep, Category, Quantity,
Function, ,
5.
, Sweeps.

7. Sweeps , ,
.

9. Add Trace.
,

.
Traces.

9. , .

10. Done.
, 5,
, ,
. Results .

HFSS .
,
.
,
FDTD. :

1. 1 - 4 .
2. Traces, Domain, Time.
3. TDR Options. TDR Options (.
9.20).
4. , Step Impulse.
5. Rise Time.
6. Maximum Plot Time.

. 9.20.

7. Delta Time ,
(. 9.21).
.
. 9.21. S11

9. , TDR Window .

10. OK.

11. , :
a. Category, TDR Impedance.
b. Quantitiy, TDRZ, .
c. TDRZ ,
. Z 0 * (1_Re (S11) / (1-Re (S11)).
d. Function, ,
.

12. Done. .
,
,
.

:
,
, Remove Trace.
:
Remove All Traces.

1. Traces, ,
.
2. , .
3. Replace Trace. , ,
, ,
.

HFSS, - ,
, .

.

(. 9.22):

1. Sweeps Traces,
:

2. - (primary
sweep). ,
- (secondary sweep ).

.
:
Name ,
, .

, .

3. ,
:
a. .

.
b. All Values.
.
All Values, ,
.
. 9.22.

, ,
, Function
Traces. ,
( ), .
, ,
, HFSS ;
.
.
Function:

Abc
Acos
Acosh
Ang , + /-180
Ang_rad
Asin
Asinh
Atan
Atanh
Conjg
Cos
cosh
dB(x) 20*log10 (|x |)
dBm(x) 10*log10(|x|) +30
eve 1, ; 0

exp
Im
Int

J0 (0 th )

J1 (1 C-).

S-,

,
. , HFSS
S11, ,
Theta.
, ,
:

log
log10
mag
nint
odd 1 ; 0

polar
re
rect

rem (Fractional part)
sgn
sin
sinh
sqrt
tan
tanh
y0 (0- )

S- :
1. Traces, :
2. , , Quantity.

,
, HFSS,
, ,
, Theta.
:
S- S- S-.
Y- ,
S- .
Z- , S-
.
S-.
Z o .
VSWR. ,

Variables , ,
,
.
Output Variables ,
,
,

,
.

, :

1. Traces, :
2. Category, ,
,
Quantity:

Variables , ,
,
.
Output Variables ,
.
rE ,
.
Directivity
Axial Ratio .
Polarization Ratio .
Antenna Params HFSS ,
, ,
, , , max U,
.
Normalized RCS ,


, 0 - .
2o
.
Radar Cross- (RCS), ,
Section
2
4r 2 E scat
= 2
Einc

Escat E-.
Einc E-.
, ,
,
Quantity:

Total E,H .
Phi Phi
Theta.
X x-.
Y y-.


,
phi Theta
. :

1. Sweeps Traces.

2. phi .
phi.
phi, .

3. All Values.

4. phi,
. HFSS
phi
Theta.

. 9.23 ,
:
. 9.23. ,

,

(phi).
:
1. Sweep Traces.

2. theta .
. ,
.

3. All Values.

4. ,
. HFSS
phi.

,
,
, HFSS,
,
Theta.
:
1. Traces, :

2. Near E,
,
Quantity:

Variables , ,
,
.
Output Variables
Near E
.
Max Near Field
NearETotal
NearEPhi phi E
NearETheta Theta E.
NearEX X- .
NearEY Y- .
NearEZ z- .
NearELHCP
.
NearERHC
.
NearECircularLHCP
.
NearECircularRHCP
.

NearEL3X. x-

NearEL3Y. y-

,
. Datasets
Projects (. 9.24).
. 9. 24.

1. Solution Traces,
, .
2. ,
Table Data Category.
3. .

,
.
, ,
, ,

.
10


10.1.

, , HFSS
,
.
.
,
,
. E (x, y, z)
, Radiate (. 10.1)

:

E ( x, y , z ) = ( j 0 H tan G + E tan G + E normal G )ds (10.1)


S

S ,
, 2f,
0 ,
Htan , ,
Enormal , S,
Etan , S,
G ,

jk0 r r '
e
G= (10.2)
r r'

k0 = 0 0 , - ,
2f;
r r ,
.

. 10.1. Rad1 ,

, r >> r' ( r >> 0),
:

e jk 0 r e jk 0 r '
G (10.3)
r
G (10.3) ,
, r:

e jkr
(10.4)
r
r
- TEM ,
:

E = 0 H r (10.5)

0 , r - -
.

, HFSS ,
(10.1). r,
,
(. 10.2, ).
.

, HFSS ,
, ,
.
,
, .
, .
. 10.2.

HFSS ,
, , ,
() . , HFSS
, E-
E- .
,
(. 10.2) PML.

, Radiation/Compute/Near Field,
(10.1).
r. ,
.
,
, .
,
.
Radiation/Compute/Far Field,
,
.
,
,
. ,
.
. .
,
.
.
(. 10.3).
,
.

. 10.3. . 10.4.

HFSS ,
, . ,
,
.
, -180 (deg)
180 (deg), (). deg,
rad, HFSS , .
(Phi) Near Field
Radiation Sphere Setup Far Field Radiation Sphere Setup.

Start , . Start ,
, .

Stop , . Stop ,
Start , 360. Stop Start ,
HFSS , Step Size
.

Step ( ) .
Size , 0 180 10,
18. Step Size=0 ,
, . Step Size=0, HFSS ,
.


Theta:
Start , Theta. Start , -
90.

Stop , Theta. Stop


, Start , 90. Stop
Start , HFSS ,
Step Size .

Step ( ) theta.
Size , -60 60 10,
10deg.
0 ,
Start. Step Size=0, HFSS ,
.



,
, .
, Sphere Geometry
Traces, .

1. HFSS>Radiation>Insert Far Field Setup>Infinite Sphere.


Far Field Radiation Sphere Setup (. 10.5).

. 10.5.

2. Infinite Sphere, Name.

3. , :
a. Phi, (deg) (rad),
b. Theta, (deg) (rad).
4. Coordinate System,
:
(CS),
Use global coordinate system.

CS, Use local coordinate system,
Choose from existing coordinate systems.

5. ,
, , PML,
Radiation Surface (. 10.6),
Use Custom Radiation Surface.

. 10.6.

c. Choose from
existing fase list. HFSS (. 10.7)
.
, PML.

6. OK.
. 10.7. Face List


Radiation.

10.2.

.
,
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
, .
F(, )
,
( )
, R
.
Ansoft HFSS :

- ,
- (),
- ,
- (),
- ,
- (),
- ( ),
- (),
- (
).

,
, ,
(. 10.8).
,
.

,
,
, E E .
. 10. 8.

() ,

,
.

D.

, :

4U
D= (10.6)
Prad

:
U
,
Prad - .

, Umax,
Antenna Parameters (. 10.9) -
.
. , -
, .
, .

. 10.9.

,
,
.
Max U
, U, , ,
, . HFSS

Max U.

2
E
U ( , ) = r2 (10.8)
0

U (,) .
|E| - E-.
0 - 376.7 .
r - , .


.
. ,
, ,
(. 10.10). ,
.
,
.
, ,
.
. 10.10.
- .
.10.10.

.
.

,
. ,
,
(. 10.11).

. 10.11. ,


,
.

-
,
Tetha phi. ,
E = (E, E).

. 10.12. ,
,

. [6]
. ,
(Ludwig-3),
. , E =
(Ex, Ey), :

E x = E cos E sin (10.9)


E y = E sin E cos (10.10)

- .
(.
10.13). , ,
.

. 10.13.

,
,
(L) (R) .
E = (ER, EL) :

ER =
1
(E
jE ) (10.11)
2
EL =
1
(E + jE ) (10.12)
2


.
:

1 AR (10.13)

, 1, ,
, , ,
, .

HFSS
:

EL
Circular / LHCP = (10.14)
ER

ER
Circular / RHCP = (10.15)
EL
E
Spherical / Phi = (10.16)
E
E
Spherical / Theta = (10.17)
E
Ex
Ludwig 3 / X = (10.18)
Ey
Ey
Ludwig 3 / Y = (10.19)
Ex

, ,
, .
, 10:1, 10 dB.
, , .
10.14 ,
.

.10.14. (Ludwig3/X
Ludwig3/Y) (
10 0.190)

Ludwig3/X Ludwig3/Y.
Ludwig3/X - -
,
X.
Ludwig3/Y - -
,
Y.
, . 10.15.

. 10.15.
(,)

, ,
,
.
:

Prad
A = (10.20)
U max

:
A - .
Prad - .
Umax - .

4
,
. Ansoft HFSS
, .
:
U
G = 4 (10.21)
Pacc

:
U -
.
Pacc - , , .

,
.
. 100%, .
, .
. - ,
, .


- 4
,
. ,
,
(.
10.16).

HFSS:
U
= 4 (10.22)
Pincident

U
.
Pincident .
. Antenna
Parameters,
, U max.
,
, LumpPort
.

. 10.16. (,)

,
.
:

Prad = Re E H * ds (10.23)
S
:
Prad
S -
E - .
H* - , H .


E H.
.

, .


( ), .

,
. ,
(,
).
HFSS
:

Pacc = Re E H * ds (10.24)
A

Pacc - ,
A ,
E ,
H , E,
ds - 3D
HFSS.

,
, :
2
(
Pacc = a 1 s11
2
) (10.25)

:
a - , Data/Edit Sources,
S11 ( ),
HFSS.

.
, .

(Incident Power) -
( ) .
Edit Sources (. 10.17).

. 10.17.

,
,
2
Pincident = a (10.26)
a (Magnitude), Edit
Sources.


( ):

Prad
= (10.27)
pacc

Prad -
Pac

,
,
.
,
.

HFSS ,
:


Total E-.

X E- x-.

Y E- y-.

Z E- z-.

Phi E- -.

Theta E- -.
LHCP
.

RHCP
.

Ludwig 3/X , Vmain, x-


dominant
-.
| E cos E sin | .
Ludwig 3/Y , Vmain, y-
dominant ,
-.
| E cos + E sin | .

,
r , E-. ,
.

HFSS Radiate ,
,
. HFSS ,
(. 10.18) .
,
:

j j
( E )tan = jk 0 E tan tan ( tan E tan ) + tan ( tan E tan ) (10.28)
k0 k0

Etan - E-, .
k0 - .
. 10.18.


.
, .

10.3.

HFSS ,
t = 0 ;
( ) .

. 10.19 t = 0 ,
, . ,
.
,
, .
. 10.19.

,
.
, ,
.
,
.

; , S-
.
,
,
. - ,
,
, ,
.

, :
1. Infinite Sphere
Compute Antenna Parameters .
Antenna Parameters.
2. Solutions, ,
.
3. Intrinsic Variables, ,
. Antenna Parameter
(. 10.20). ,
( ):

Maximum 0.30282
intensity (Max U) /

Peak directivity 3.8619

Peak Gain 3.9288
Peak realized gain 3.8054

Radiation power 0.96858
Accepted power 0.98537
Incident power 1
Radiation 0.9827
effeciency ()

, Max U Peak directivity


, .
,
.
. 10.20. ,
,
:
Maximum intensity (Max U)
Peak directivity
Radiation power

4. More,
(Maximum Far Field):
RE Field Phi Theta

Total 15.11 V () 360 0

X 15.11 V 360 0
Y 2.203 V 330 -90

Z 8.1642 V 0 -52

Phi 15.11 V 270 0

Theta 15.11 V 360 0

LHCP 10.685 V 360 0

RHCP 10.684 V 300 0

Ludwig 3/X dominant 15.11 V 300 0

Ludwig 3/Y dominant 0.59655 V 140 174

. ,
r E-. ,
(. 10.21).

. 10. 21. Phi,


Theta

10.4.
HFSS (regular)
(custom) , ,
. HFSS
, array
factor ( ) ,
.


,
. -

.

,

.


,
(. 10.22).

.10.22.

, ,
:

1. HFSS Radiation, Antenna Array Setup.


Antenna Array Setup (. 10.23).
. 10.23.

2. Array Type, Regular Array Setup.

3. Regular Array.

4. First Cell Position xyz-,


.

5. Directions, :
a. U Vector, X, Y, Z,
U-.
b. V Vector, X, Y, Z,
V-.
6. Distance Between Cells,
U- V-
.

7. Number of Cells, U-
V-.

8. Scan Definition,
:
Use Scan Angles,
, , Theta
Phi.
Use Differential Phase Shift,
, , In V direction In U
direction.

9. OK.


, ,
.

HFSS ,
.

:
regular uniform array ( ) -
,
.

.
, .. ,
Use Scan Angles,
.
..
,

.
HFSS
,
(. 10.24-10.32).

custom array ( )
.
,
.
,
, Master Slave.

, (. 13)
(. 14)
.
,
(. 13) (. 14) .

.10.24. 30 , . 10.25. ,
-
8 dB
. 10.26. . 10.27.
U (2 1) 5 dB

. 10.28. 4- . 10.29.
(2 2) 4 dB

. 10.30. 10 10 . 10.31.
10 10

. 10. 32.
10 10
()
, .. An = 1 n .
,
, (. 2)
jk0 r r '
e
G =
r r'

N
AF ( , ) = e jk o r ( rn r ') (10.29)
n =1

k0 , 0 0
rn r N-
, .

,
(lattice vectors) u v, rn
,
rmn = (m 1)u + (n 1)v (10.30)
m = 1, 2, ..., Nu n = 1, 2, ...., Nv.
N = NuNv.
( 6) Nu x Nv

N N
AF ( , ) = e jk o rmn ( rmn r ') (10.31)
m =1 n =1
( 10.31)
. , ,

.
. 10.33-10.38.
. 10. 33. .10. 34.

.10.35. U .10. 36. U


10 10 30 .
. 10. 37. . 10. 38.
V 30 , V
10 10

,
,
master slave.

, -

,
(, Master Slave
). ,
, ,
.

15.
,
. HFSS

.
. HFSS Ansoft
, ,
,

.
11

,
.
, ,
..
, .
Hewlett-Packard.
First Quantity ( ) ,
Second Quantity ( ) , .
top,
.
:
,
(. 11.1) ,
.
, , ,
(Plot->Fields) ,
!
, ,
.
, .

11.1.


.
, . , Vector ->Dot -
; Unit Vec
Normal Vector Surf.
,
, :

Vec Scl Vec,


Scal ,
Cmplx " Real Cmplx " Imag Scl CSc
CVc,
Cmplx " CmplxR Cmplx " CmplxI Vec
Scl
CVc CSc, .
,
. ,
, Scalar,

.

. 11.1.

11.2.

HFSS, Fields, Calculator. :


Field Overlays
Calculator .
(. 11.1), ,
(. 11.2).
.

Push ,
.
.
Pop .
RlUp ,
.
RlDn , -
.
Exch .
Clear .
Undo ,
, .

. 11.2.
,

11.3.

,
:
E H .
.
: , , , ,
.
, ,
. ,
:

, ,
.
, , ,
, ,
, , , ,
, Draw.
, , , .

,
, , , (.
11.3). Pop, Clear,
.
: Select HFSS > Fields > Calculator.

. 11.3.

,
.

HFSS > Field > Plot Field .

11.4.

, , ,
. ,
, .
, .


Vec ,

. X-, Y-, Z-
.

Scl , .

Cvc

Csc

Pnt
Lin

Srf

Vol
SclLin
VecLine

SclSrf

VecSrf

, :
,
.
, Write.

11.5.

,
:

Quantity E H,
, .
Geometry , , ,

Constant , , ,
.
Number ,
.
Function ,
.
Geom .
Settings

, Stack, General,
Scalar Vector. ,
Output.
. 11. 3. ,

11.5.1. Quantity

Input
.
, (peak
phasors). Poynting
.
E , E.

H , H.

Jvol , Jvol .

Jsurf
Poynting ,
0.5E x H*.

LocalSAR

AverageSAR

E: E
H: H
Poynting: ,
(E H*)
Jvol: ,
Jsurf: . Jsurf
.
, , ,
.

11.5.2. Geometry

Geometry .
:
, ,
.
.
,
(), Draw.

Geometry:

Point

Line

Surface

Volume

:
1. , Geometry.
Geometry (. 11.4).

.11. 4.

2. . .

3. OK .

11.5.3. Constant

Constant
:

Pi 3.14
Epsi0 ,
0 = 8.85418782 x 10 12 .
Mu0 ,
0 = 4 x 10 7
c ,
c = 2.99792458 x 108 /.

11.5.4. Number
Number
(. 11.5):

Scalar :
1. Number. Input Number.
2. Scalar.
3. Value.
4. OK, .
Vector :
1. Number. Input Number.
2. Vector.
3. x-, y-, z- .
4. OK .

Complex .
C=A+jB, A , B .
1. Number. Input Number.
2. Scalar Vector.
3. Complex.
4. .
5. OK .

. 11.5. . 11. 6.

11.5.5. Function
(. 11.6)
.

11.6.

,
, .

General

+ (Add) .

.
(Subtract) (
). ( ).
* .
(Multiply) ;
.

/ (Divide) .
;
.

Neg .

Scalar .
:
1. Function. Function.
2. Scalar.
3. .
4. OK .

Vector , x-, y-, z-


.
:
1. Function. Function.
2. Vector.
3. .
4. , SetX, SetY, SetZ.
5. OK .

, : X, Y, Z, RHO,
THETA, R, PHI , , ,
.

Abs

Smooth

.
,
. ,
.

Complex

, ,
, .
C .
,
.

Complex :

Real (A).
Imag (B).

CmplxMag (M).

CmplxPhase ().

Conj
. C = A + jB,
C* = A jB.
AtPhase , t,
.
.
CmplxReal

CmplxIImag

VecX x- .

VecY y- .

VecZ z- .

Domain

, .
,
.

:
1. ,
.
2. , Geometry.
3. Domain.

Domain ,
, .

Scalar

,
.

Vec
, .
:

Vec X X-
Vec Y Y-
Vec Z Z-
1/x (Inverse)
.

Pow

, .

:
1. .
2. .
3. Pow.

Square Root
.

Trig

:

Sin

Cos

Tan

Asin

Acos

Atan

Atan2

d/d (Partial Derivative)



:

d/ dx x.

d/dy y.

d/dz z.

Integral

,
, . ,
, .

:
1. ,
.
2. Geometry, ,
, , .

3.
. ,
Eval.

Iso


,
. ,
.

:
1. ,
.
.
2. ,
, Number.
3. Iso.
Min


, , .
:

Value .
Position ,

, Max.
Eval, ,
.

,
, ,
. HFSS
,
,
.

:
,
Plot.
.
.
.

Max

,
, . :

1. ,
. :
. ,
, - .
,
,
Cmplx/AtPhase Cmplx/Real.
2. , , ,
Geometry.

3. :
Max/Value .
Max/Position, ,
.
Eval,
, .

Gradient

Vector

Scal

, -
. :

Value .

Position ,
. :
,
Plot.
.
.
.

ScalarX x- .

ScalarY y- .

ScalarZ z-
Matl


.
.

1. Matl. Material Operation (. 11.7).


2. . :

Permittivity , r .
(epsi)
Permeability , r
(mu)
Conductivity ,
Omega () , = 2 f, f - ,

. 11. 7.

3. Multiply or Divide.
4. OK,
, Cancel, .
Mag

Dot

,
.

Cross

Divg

Curl

Tangent

.
:
1. .
2. , Geometry/Line.
3. Tangent.

Normal

:
1. .
2. ,
Geometry/Surface.
3. Normal.
Unit Vec

Output

Value

.
, :
.
x-, y-, z- .

:
1. ,
.

2. ,
Geometry/Point.

3. Value.
,
Eval.

11.7.


Output :

Draw.
Plot. ( )

Anim.
.
2D Plot. (XY)
Value. ,
.
Eval. -
Write Export

.

Eval


,
, , .. ,
, . Eval
, .
, ,

I = H dl .

H I - ,
H, I,
H, I.
:

1. H , Qty.

2. H, Cmplx/Real.

3. , Geom/Line.
.

4. Tangent, H .

Tangent
.
Normal ,
.

5. , Eval.

6. Eval . I
.

7. , H (
Cmplx/Imag) I.
Write

.
:

.

.

:
1. Write.

2. , .
.reg.

3. OK. ,
.

Export


(. 11.8). , ,
.
:

To File
. ,
, .
On Grid ,
x, y, z
, (
).
. 11.8.

Export/To File


.
:

1. , , .

2. ,
.

3. Export/To File.

4. Points File Name, ,


, .
,
, . ,
( .pts).

5. Output File Name,


. ,
. , .
.reg .
6. OK, Cancel,
.

:
.
HFSS, ,

(. 11.9).

,
,
, ,
,

,

,
.

. 11.9. ,

2x2 ,
'' , r = 11.8, 2 .
60, TM .


. ,
.

!
( )
,

, 60 2*tan
(60), 3.46 , l/10= 1.2 , 4.66 .
5 .

PML, 1.2 ,
,
PML_setup.

(0, ), =0 60,
Master/Slave (180, )
.

PML Perfect_H.

11.8.

, ,
thetaang,
.

master/slave.
'Write'
.
. 11.10.

Geometry (. 11.10).
X, Y,
Z 10.
.

,
, Pinc ,
(Incident).
, Pref , ,
(Scattered).
,

S - , .

mag = (Pref / Pinc )



,
,
.
, , ,
( ,

) ,
E H ,
.
12

, ,

,
. ,
- ,
,
, .

, , ,
(. 12.1).
.

. 12.1.
( 3D_Modeler-> Measure-> Length)


(. 12.2):

Parametric
; .
, ,

.
,
.

Optimizati
on . ,
.
, HFSS ,
, S-,
.
Sensitivity
,
.

Tuning
.

Statistical
, .

12.2.

12.1.


,
.
.

, .
, . HFSS
.
, ,
.
, ,
, L, C, R,
. ,
, .
,
.
, , ,
, , .
,
.
,
, .

,
.

1. HFSS Optimetrics Analysis, Add


Parametric (. 12.2) . ,
Optimetrics Add>Parametric .
Setup Sweep Analysis (. 12.3).

2. , Add...
. 12.3.
Add/Edit Sweep. ,
, Variable.

3. , , Variable.
,

.

4. . ,
.

5. Add, OK.
Setup Sweep Analysis.
.
, , Table
(. 12.4).
, , ,
.
. 12.4. Table Setup Sweep Analysis
$scan_angle,

12.1.1.

1. , Add/Edit
Sweep:

Single Value
Linear Step
.

Linear Count ,
,
.

Decade Count
Octave Count

Exponential Count
2. Single Value,
Value.

,
Start
Stop.

3. Linear Step ,
Step.
- .

. HFSS
, .
, ,
Count.
.

12.1.2.

,
.

, ,
1, 2, 3 , , ,
4, 5, 6 , HFSS 3 .

1 4;
, 2 5;
, 3 6.

1. Sweep Definitions Setup Sweep Analysis,


Add Add/Edit Sweep Dialog :
2. Sync (. 12.5).

,
Sync #.
, ,
Table.

. 12.5. ,
$width $length

12.1.3.

,
, ,
Tab Setup Sweep
Analysis.

1. Tab Setup Sweep Analysis (. 12.6).


,
, .
2. , .
, , ,
Delete. , Add.
,
.

. 12.6.


Setup Sweep Analysis Sweep Definitions.

12.1.4.

, HFSS
,
.
:

1. Setup Sweep Analysis, General


(. 12.7) Starting Point .
. 12.7. General

2. Value, ,
.

3. Value, Enter.
Override. , ,
,
.
.

4. , Units.
, Override.

12.1.5.

1. Setup Sweep Analysis, General.


2. , HFSS
(Sim.Setup . 12.7).
HFSS ,
. ,
.

,
,
Post Analysis Display.
, , S-
, .

.

1. Setup Sweep Analysis, Calculations.


2. Add (. 12.8).

. 12.8.

3. Solution, ,
.
4. Calculation,
:

, Calculation.
,
, :
a. Edit Calculation. Output Variables (. 12.9).

. 12. 9.

b. , ,
Done.
Calculation.
c. ,
Calculation (. 12.10).
,
. .
. 12.10. Calculations

12.1.6.

,
.

. ,
Override,
Value.

, , ,
, . Driven Modal
Driven Terminal, ,
.
,
.

1. Setup Sweep Analysis, Calculations.


2. Edit Cal. Range. Edit Calculation Range (.
12.11).
. 12.11.

3. Variable, .

4. Single Value . Value, ,


.

5. Update, OK.

12.2.

-
.
,
.

12.2.1.

:
Quasi Newton Pattern Search.

, ,
Quasi Newton.
.
HFSS ,
,
.

, Pattern Search.
. Pattern Search
, Quasi Newton.

1. ,
Properties (. 12.12).

12. 12.

2. HFSS Optimetrics Analysis, Add


Optimization . Setup Optimization (.
12.13).

3. Goals, : Quasi Newton, Pattern


Search Optimizer.
. 12.13. Quasi Newton
Goals

4. , HFSS
, Max. No.Iterations.

5.
, Save Fields.

6. Cost Function (,
).

7. , Acceptable Cost ,
.

8. (
) Noise.

12.2.2. :

starting variable value.


minimum and
maximum values of
variables
Exclude variables ,
values of fixed ,
variables
minimum and
maximum step size .

linear constraints. .

parametric sweep
before an optimization
analysis
parametric sweep
during an optimization
analysis
update optimized
variables

12.2.3.

Max. No. of Iterations - ,


Optimetric . ;
,
.
. 12.14.

,

, ,
, .


:
Goal Setup Optimization,
Max. No. Of Iterations.

12.2.4.

,
. ,
,
. ,
Wave Port 1 Wave Port 2
(S 21 = > 1), ag (S (WavePort2, WavePort1)),
.
Setup Optimization,
.
,
,
Calculation.
Output Variables.


. ,
,
.

1. Goal Setup Optimization, Add.


Cost Function.

2. Solution, ,
.

3. , .

4. Calc. Range ,
.

5. Condition, .

6. Goal ,
.
, ;
.
. 12. 15. ,

7. , ,
,
Weight.
. ,
; .
.
,
(0 . 12.15)
.

12.2.5.

,
.
,
, S-,
.
1. () :
a. Goal Setup Optimization, Add.
Cost Function.
b. Solution,
.

2. Solution, ,
.

. 12.16.

3. Calculation,
:

, Calculation.
,
, :
a. Edit Calculation. Output Variables
(. 12.16).

b. , , Done. HFSS

Calculation.
c. ,
Calculation. ,
.
Output variable .

12.2.6.

, ,
.
, .

1. Goal Setup Optimization, Edit


Calc. Range (. 12.17).

. 12.17.

2. Variable, .
,
,
Variables. ,
,
.
,
- S-, phi Theta,
.

3. ,
Variable,
:
a. Range.
b. Start, .
c. Stop, .

4. :
a. Single Value.
b. Value, ,
.

5. Update, OK.

12.2.7.

,
.
. - ,
.
Goal. ,
Edit Goal/Value Weight,
, ,
.

()
, ;

.
.

1. Goal Setup Optimization, Edit


Goal/Weight. Edit Goal/Weight.
2. Goal Value, Simple Numeric Value Type.
3. , real/imag
,
. , mag/ang,
.
4. Goal Value.
,
Goal Value. , 1, 1.
,
Goal Value.
5. OK. , ,
Goal

1. Goal Setup Optimization, Edit


Goal/Weight. Edit Goal/Weight.
2. Goal Value, Expression Type.
3.
,
Goal Value.
, ,
, :

a. Edit Expression. Output Variables.


b. , ,
Done.
HFSS
Goal Value.

4. OK. , ,
Goal.

1. Goals Setup Optimization, Edit


Goal/Weight. Edit Goal/Weight.
2. Goal Value, Variable Dependent Type.
3. .
4. .
5.
Goal Value.
6. Add .
7. 4, 5, 6, .
8. OK.
Goal.


, -
.
( ). ,
,
.
, , |S11| -
, |S11|, ,
.
|S11|, , 0.
(. 12.18) - ,
.
. 12.18.


,

.
.

. ,
, ,
.
, - 0. ,
.
:

Nj
G Wj
N e
j i
i
j

G - .
Wj - , j - -.
Nj - j - -.
ej - j - - i- .

e j ,
, .
- < =, =, > =.

ej , s j
, g j -
<= 0
ei =
si g
si g i
si > g i
= ei s i g i
>= 0
ei =
si g
si g i
si < g i

,
.

,
. -, ,
.

. , ,
. ,

,
, . ,

.
,
. :

.
,
,
.
i (i+1) :

si = xi +1 xi .

T
s i = s i s i ,
.

T
: s i D = s i D Dsi , D
T

. -
, D , ,
.
, si Dmin
< 1, D min
, , Min. Step.
Min.Step
.
, si Dmax
> 1,
Dmax , , Max. Step
.

12.2.8.

,
.

.
,
, ,
,
.
.
:

1. Setup Optimization, Variables.


, .
2. Starting Value ,
, Enter.
Override. , ,
, ;
.
, Override,
.
3. ,
Units.

12.2.9. Min. Max.

,
,
.
,
. ( -
.).
,
. , ,
, .

1. Setup Optimization, Variables.


, .
2. Min Max ,
, Enter.
Override. , ,
, ; Min
Max .
, Override,
Min Max.

3. ,
Units.

, Override.

- ,
. ,
,
, .
:

1. Setup Optimization, Variables (.


12.19).
2. Advanced. Min. Step and Max.
Step. " " ,
.
. 12.19. Avdaned, Min
Step Max Step

3. Min. Step .
4. Max. Step, .

12.2.10.


.
. 12.20. General

1. Setup Optimization, General (.


12.20).

2. Parametric Analysis,
, .

3. Solve the parametric sweep before optimization.


,
.
,
. ,
.

,
, ,
.
.
:
1. Setup Optimization, General.
2. Parametric Analysis,
, ,
.
3. Solve the parametric sweep during optimization.

,
,
.
:
1. Setup Optimization, General.

2. Update design parameters values after optimization.


,
.

12.3.

,
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
. ,
.
:
.
.
.
, ,
,
, , (-
) (. 12.21).

. 12. 21. $lenght


1

, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
Master Output ,
.

1. , ,

Properties.
2. HFSS, Optimetrics Analysis, Add
Sensitivity. Setup Sensitivity Analysis.

3. Calculations, ,
, HFSS , Max. No. of
Iterations/Sensitivity Variable.

4. ,
, Save Fields.

5. Output Parameters, .

6. ,
Approximate Error in Master Output.

12.3.1.

Max. No. of Iterations/Sensitivity Variable


,
. ;
,
(. 12.22).
, ,
, .
,
.
. 12.22.

Calculations Setup Sensitivity Analysis,


Max. No. of Iterations/Sensitivity Variable (.
12.22).

12.3.3.

1. Calculations Setup Sensitivity Analysis,


Add. Output Parameters.

2. Solution, ,
.

3. , .
4. Calc. Range, ,
.

5. ,
Master Output, ,
.

,
, .
,
, S-.

1. : Calculations
Setup Sensitivity Analysis, Add.
Output Parameters.

2. Solution, , .

3. Calculation,
:

, Calculation.
:
a. Edit Calculation. Output Variables.
b. , ,
Done. HFSS
Calculation.
c. ,
Calculation. ,
.
.
. , ,
.
. 12.23.


, .
,
. Driven Modal Driven
Terminal , .
,
. ,
,
.

1. Calculations Setup Sensitivity Analysis,


Edit Calc Range. Range Edit
Calculation.

. 12.24.

2. Variable, .

,
Variable.
, ,
.
,
S-; phi Theta,
.

3. Single Value . Value,


,
.

4. Update, OK.
12.3.4.

-
- ,
.
, .
.

1. Setup Sensitivity Analysis, Variables.


,
.

2. Starting Value ,
, Enter.
Override , , ,
;
. ,
Override,
Starting Value.

3. , Units.
,
Override.

12.3.5. Min. Max.

,
.
,
( -
),
, 1 1/2
. ,
, , .
Min. Max.

1. Setup Sensitivity Analysis, Variables.


,
.

2. Min Max ,
, Enter.
Override . , ,
, ;
Min Max
.
, Override,
Min Max.

3. ,
Units.

, Override.

Min. Max.

1. ,
.

2. - , :
HFSS, Design Properties.
- , Project, Project
Variables. Properties.

3. Sensitivity.

4. Min Max ,
, Enter.
. 12. 25.

-
.
,
,
.

1. Setup Sensitivity Analysis, Variables.

2. Advanced. Initial
Displacement, " "
.

3. Initial Displacement,
.
12.3.6.

,
.
,
, :

1. Setup Sensitivity Analysis, General.

2. , ,

Parametric Analysis.

3. Solve the parametric sweep before analysis.


, Optimetrics
. (
, Goal Setup
Sensitivity), ,
.
. 12.26.


, , Optimetrics

. ,
.

:
1. Setup Sensitivity Analysis, General.
2. , , Optimetrics
Parametric Analysis.

3. Solve the parametric sweep during analysis.

,
,
(. 12.27 12.28).

. 12.27.
length
. 12.28.

12.4.

,
, , , ,
.
.

1. , ,
,
Properties.
. 12.29.

2. HFSS, Optimetrics Analysis, Add


Statistical. Setup Statistical Analysis.

3. Calculations, ,
Maximum
Iterations.

. 12.30.
4. ,
Save Fields.

5. .

6. Calc. Range, .

7. , ,
.

Maximum Iterations
, .
;
, .
, ,
.

:
Calculations Setup Sensitivity Analysis,
Maximum Iterations.

12.4.1.



Post Analysis Display.
(. 12.31).
. 12.31.

- .
- .
- ,
.
-,
.


, S-; .
:
1. Setup Statistical Analysis,
Calculation.

2. Add.

3. Solution, ,
.

4. Calculation,
:
,
,
Calculation.
,
, :
a. Edit Calculation. Output Variables.
b. Done.

Calculation.
c. ,
Calculation. ,
.
.

12.4.2.


, .
, .
Driven Modal Driven Terminal, ,
,
, . ,
,
.

1. Calculate Setup Statistical Analysis (.


12.32), Edit Calc. Edit Calculation
Range.
. 12.32.

2. Variable, .
,
,
Variables. ,
,
,
.
,
S-; phi Theta,
.
, , ,
, ,
.
4. Update OK.
12.4.3.

,
-
10 % - .
.

. 12.33. ()

:
-
.
-
(. 12.34).
. 12.34.

12.4.4.

1. Setup Statistical Analysis, Variables.


,
.

2.
Distribution , .
,
Override. , , ,
; ,

. ,
Override, Distribution.

3. ,
Distribution Criteria , .
Edit Distribution.

4. , :
a. Std. Dev.
b. Cutoff.
c. High Cutoff.

5. Uniform, :
. HFSS
,
.

6. OK.

, Override.

1. ,
.

2. - , :
HFSS, Design Properties. - ,
: Project, Project Variables.
Properties.

3. Statistics.

4. Distribution ,
, Uniform Gaussian.

5. , ,
Distribution Criteria ,
.
Gaussian, Gaussian
distribution. Uniform,
Uniform Distribution.

6. - Gaussian, :
a. Std. Dev.
b. Low Cutoff.
c. High Cutoff.
HFSS ,
.

7. Uniform, :
.
HFSS ,
.

8. OK.

12.4.5.

- ,
.
,
.
.

1. Setup Statistical Analysis, Variables.


,
.

2. Starting Value ,
, Enter.
Override . , ,
, ;
.

, Override,
Starting Value.

3. , Units.
,
Override.
12.4.6.


, ,

.
:
1. Setup Statistical Analysis, General.
2. , ,
Parametric
Analysis.
3. Solve the parametric sweep during analysis.

. 12.35.
. 12.36.

12.5.

,
. ,
,
,
, ,
.
. 12.37.

,
,
, , Save Fields.

1. , ,
,
Properties.

2. HFSS, Optimetrics Analysis, Tune.


Tune (. 12.38).
. 12.38.

3. Real Time. ,
, .

4.
, , Save Fields.

5. Sim. Setups, , ,
HFSS ,
.
HFSS , , .
,
.

6. Nominal ,
, ,
HFSS, ,
.
, , HFSS ,
:

a. Sweep.
b. Step, .
c. , ,
Step.
. HFSS
, .
d. ,
.

7. Tune.

12.5.1.

,
:

Tune:

1. Close Tune.
Apply Tuned Variation.

2. , ,
OK.

.

12.5.2.

Tune,
,
.
; .

1. , Save Tune.
Save As.

2. .

3. Apply tuned values to design,


.
4. OK, Tune.


Tune, ,
.
;
.

1. Tune, Revert.
Revert.

2. ,
.

3. Apply tuned values to design,


.

4. OK, Tune.

. 12.39.
12.5.3.

,

Tune:
, Reset Tune.

.

12.6.

, HFSS

Optimetrics . ,

,
.
, .

,
:

1. Tools, Parameters, HFSS Options.


Options.

2. General, Save Optimetrics field solutions.


Save Fields ,
. : ,
, .

12.6.1.

,
, ,
.

Optimetrics :

1. :
Setup Optimization, Variables.
Setup Sensitivity Analysis, Variables.
Setup Statistical Analysis, Variables.

2. Set Fixed Variables. Setup Fixed


Variables (. 12.40). Fixed Variables,
.

3. Value ,
.

4. Value,
Enter.
Override . , ,
, ;
.

5. , Units.

, Override.
, Override ,
Value (. 12.41).

. 12.40.
. 12.41.

12.6.2.

,
.
:

1. :

: Setup
Optimization, Variables.
: Setup
Sensitivity Analysis, Variables.

2. Linear Constraint. Linear


Constraint.

3. Add. Edit Linear Constraint.

4. Coeff,
.

5. < ( ) > ( ),
(. 12.42).
6. ,
, .

7. OK.

. 12.42.

Linear Constraint.
LHS.
Condition, RHS.

12.6.3.

1. :
: Setup
Optimization, Variables (. 12.43).
: Setup
Sensitivity Analysis, Variables.
. 12.43.

2. Linear Constraint. Linear


Constraint.

3. , , ,
Edit. Linear
Constraint.

4. , Coeff,
.

5. < ( ) > ( ),
.

6.
, OK.
Linear Constraint.
,
LHS ( ), Condition, RHS.

12.6.4.

:
1. :
: Setup
Optimization, Variables.
: Setup
Sensitivity Analysis, Variables.

2. Linear Constraint. Linear Constraint


(. 12.43).

3. , , Delete.
.
13

T-

,
7 .

13.1. HFSS

, HFSS Ansoft,
.
, ,
, .
,
HFSS. , ,
, .
,
:

Parametric
,
. HFSS
.
Optimization .
,
.
Sensitivity
.
Tuning
.
Statistical
,
.
13.2.

, -
. 10
1 (. 13.1) 2 3.
.
offset
. 1
( 0 ),
2 3. 0.2 2,
2 , 3 .

. 13.1.

13.3. T-

, .
, 3
, 2.
.
,
.
, .
offset
. ,
, S-
.
offset, .

.

13.4.

,
1, 2
3. ,
2,
2 3.
2,
-
1, ,
.
, ,
S-
. ,
.
, ,
.

. ,
,
3, 2.
, .

, , S-,
().

13.5.

Tee.hfss . :
1. File, Open .
2 . Tee.hfss , .
3. Open. 3D Modeler.
.
4. File, Save As.
5. , ,
.
6. OptimTee File name, Save.
OptimTee.hfss.

, ,
10 .
, .
Analysis> Setup1. Sweep1
, Delete.
.

13.6.

,
, HFSS.
,
.

, .
Optimetrics ,

Add>Parametric , .
Setup Sweep Analysis.
,
Add (. 13.2).
. 13.2. ,

1. Sweep Definitions, Add. Add/Edit


Sweep (. 13.2).

2. offset Variable
. - , .

3. Linear step .

4. Start 0, in ().

5. Stop 1, in.

6. Step 0.1, in.



. HFSS ,
.

7. Add. . 13.3.
. 13.3.

8. OK. Setup Sweep


Analysis.

offset .

. 13.4. offset
HFSS
.
, , General Save
Fields (. 13.5).

. 13.5. General

Table,
offset, .
,
(.
13.6).
. 13.6. offset

.
variable sweep definitions
.

,
, Optimetrics
, Add>Parametric .
Setup Sweep Analysis.
.

3 , . HFSS

. 3 ,

1, 2 3.

1. Calculations, Add (. 13.7).


,
, .
. 13.7. Power11, Power 21 Power31
Calculations

2. Edit Calculation. Output Variables


(. 13.8).

3. , ,
:
a. Name, Power13.
b. Category, S Parameter.
c. Quantity, S (Port1, Port1).
d. Function, mag.
e. Insert Quantity Into Expression.
f. , Expression, *,
Insert Quantity Into Expression .
. 13.8. Power11= |S11|2 .

:
mag (S (Port1, Port1)) *mag (S (Port1, Port1)).

Add. Power11 ,
,
( ).

4. 3,
Power21, S (Port2, Port1) Quantity.
:

mag (S (Port2, Port1)) *mag (S (Port2, Port1)).


5. Power31,
S (Port3, Port1) Quantity.
:

mag (S (Port3, Port1)) *mag (S (Port3, Port1)).

,
, Tools>Options> General Options. Project
Options, Expand Project Tree on Insert.
6. Done.
, Power31,
Calculation. , Power31
10 . ,
.
7. Add.
8. Power21 Calculation,
Enter.
9. Add.
10. , Power11
Calculation, Enter.
. 13.9.

. 13.9. ( 10 )
Calculations
13. OK.

13.7.

,
-,
, .

ParametricSetup1 ,
Analyze .

HFSS
,
. , Progress
(. 13.10), HFSS 0 0.2 ,
.

.13.10.

Progress , Progress Window View.


, , 20 - 30 .
, Message
Manager.
13.8.

:
- S- .
-
.
- offset.

S-,

,
S- .

1. Results ,
Create Report. Create Report.

2. Modal S Parameters Report Type (. 13.11).

. 13.11.

3. Rectangular Plot Display Type, OK.


Traces (. 13.12).

4. Y , Y:
a. Category, S parameter.
b. Quantity, Ctrl, S (Port1, Port1), S
(Port1,Port2), S (Port1, Port3).
c. Function, - mag.

. 13.12. ,

5. X Use Primary Sweep.


, Sweeps, , X.
6. Sweeps.
7. , Freq, HFSS
.
offset, :
a. Sweep Design and Project variable values (. 13.13).
b. Freq, offset .
. 13.13. offset
Freq

8. Add Trace.
.
9. Done. S11, S12 S13
(. 13.14).

. 13.14. S- 1,
S 2,
S- 3

, 2,
,
3. , 0.3 2,
, 3.
1,
- . ,
, S11 , 0.3 .

13.9.
offset
,
.
,
S-.

1. Results ,
Create Report. Create Report (. 13.15).
2. Modal S Parameters Report Type.
3. Rectangular Plot Display Type, OK.
Traces.
4. Y, Y:
a. Category, Output Variables.
b. Quantity, Shift, Power11, Power21,
Power31.
c. Function, <none>.
5. X Use Primary Sweep.

6. Sweeps.

7. , x
offset. :
a. Sweep Design and Project variable values.
b. Freq, offset .

8. Add Trace.
. 13. 15. Power11, Power21 Power31

9. Done.

x-y, . 13.16.
Results .
. 13.16.

offset,
1,
2, 3.

,
, 3 ,
2. , offset= 0.1 ,
Power21 0.32, Power31 0.65,
. ,
offset=0.1 .

13.10.

,
. , E-
, ,
.

1. , Mag_E1,
.
2. Mag_E1 ,
Animate .

Select Animation.

3. New. Setup Animation.

4. Swept Variable, offset Swept variable.


, ,
(. 13.17).

.13.17. ,

5. OK.
View.
offset 0 1.0 ,
11 (. 13.18).

.13.18. E-
, 2

, 0 0.3 ,
3 .
offset > 0.3 , 1;
2 3.
, 0 0.3 .

6. Animation, ,
Close.
.

13. 11.

:
- offset .
- .
- .
- .
13.11.1.

, ,
.
Design Properties.

1. HFSS, Design Properties. Properties


(. 13.19).
2. Local Variables, Optimization.
3. offset, Include OK.

.13.19. , ,

13.11.2.

,

.

1. Optimetrics ,

Add>Optimization .
Setup Optimization (. 13.20).

2. Goal, Quasi Newton


Optimizer.
3. Max. No. of Iterations=1000.

4. Save Fields. ,
.

( )
,
Quasi Newton.
,
. HFSS ,
,
.
, TeeModel
, Design Properties .
, 0.2 .
.

13.11.3.

.
3
2. ,
3 - 2 * ( 2) = 0
.
, ,
. , ,
0.01, .
.13.20. ,
-, .

1. Goal Add. Cost


Function. ,
, .

2. , :
Calculation,

Power31-2*Power21,

Enter. , 10
GHz.

3. Condition = ().

4. Goal, 0, Enter.

5. Weight = [1].
6. Acceptable Cost, 0.01.
,
.

7. Noise = 0.0001. Weigt ,


,
.

13.11.4.

Quasi Newton Pattern Search.

,
Quasi Newton.
.
,
, ,
.
,
Pattern Search. -,
:
.
.
, ,
. ,
,
. , .
, ,
, . Pattern Search
.

13.11.5.

- ,
.

, 0.2 . 0.1
, , HFSS
, 3
, 2, offset =
0.1 .

1. Variables (. 13.21).
offset - ,
- , .

.13.21. offset, 0 0.3


in

2. Starting Value, 0.1, Enter.


Override. , , ,

.

,
,
.
,
.

1. Min, 0.
2. Max 0.3.
, ,
, 0.3 .

13.11.6.

,
.
, - , ParametricSetup1 ,
,
, .

1. General (. 13.22).
2. ParametricSetup1 Parametric Analysis.
3. Solve the parametric sweep before optimization.

.13.22. General

, HFSS T-
offset.
1. General, Update design parameter values after
optimization ( ).

2. . OK
Setup Optimization.
, ,
,
.

.
Optimetrics,
OptimizationSetup1, Analyze .
, , 2 - 4 .
,
.

13.11.7.

,
. ,
0.

1. OptimizationSetup1 ,
View Analysis Result .
Post Analysis Display.

2. Results, Plot.
.
.13.23.

11 ,
:
11 ,
.
,
, 0.01.

3. Table.
.
,
, 0.09 .

4. Close. , HFSS
- , 0.09
.

,
Apply, -.
Revert,
.
13.11.8.


offset; Mag_E1 .
,
offset.

Setup1 Analysis,
Analyze . 1 .

Mag_E1,
View.
E-, , 3
, , 2.
. 13.24 E-,
.

. 13. 24. -

OptimTee HFSS. :
1. .
2. File, Close.
3. File, Exit.

13.12.


, ,
.
, 8x8
, 1.

:
, ,
- ,
, .


-
,
;
-
;
- , -
.


: 1.71 1.99 GHz
: 7
: -53, -32, -15, 0, 15, 32, 53
1.71 GHz: 18 dB , 16 dB

:
1.71 GHz: 14.5 , 23.4
1
Shu Li Ansoft
Hsueh-Yuan Pao Lawrence Livermore National
Lab, University of California
: 9
: ,


: FR-408 ( r = 3.7, = 0.01)
: 0.03
8 X 8

. 13. 25. ,

. 13.26.




1.71GHz 23.65 dB 13.7
1.88GHz 24.44 dB 12.34
1.99GHz 24.92 dB 11.7

7 .
,
.
14

HFSS


, HFSS.
,
(),
HFSS.
,
,
HFSS. ,
,
,
, .

14.1.


. HFSS
.
, ,
(, ..)
:
r r
E ( x, y, z , t ) = E ( x, y, z )e it , (14.1)
r r
H ( x, y, z , t ) = H ( x, y, z )e it ,

x,y,z , t , i , -
.
, (14.1)
. ,
, ,

, , ,
..
.
,
HFSS ( Ansoft Designer,
S-, HFSS
).

r
r
E ( x, y, z ) H ( x, y, z ) .
,
,
, .

r
r
. E ( x, y, z ) H ( x, y, z ) ,
:
r r v
rotH = iE + j e ,
r r r (14.2)
rotE = i H j m .
v v
rot - , j e , j m -
, , -
.
(14.2)
. ,
(14.2) ,
:
)r
div E = e ,
)r (14.3)
divH = m ,

e , m - .
(14.2)-(14.3)
. ,
HFSS, . ,


() .

.

. , ,
, .
, ,
.
,
,
(, ..). ,
.

.
.
,
. , ,
,
.
.

14.2.

, ,
.

, .
,
. , a , a ,
,
. :

= a , = a ,
0 0

.
, .
, :
xx 0 0 xx 0 0
= 0 yy 0 = 0 yy 0 .
,
0 0 zz 0 0 zz

, ,
, ,
.
, ,
:

xx xy 0
= yx yy 0
.
0 0 zz


. ,
0z.
.
()
:

xx xy 0
= yx yy 0
.
0 0 zz

,

(
).
e , m :
e
a = a '+i a ' ' = a '+ ,
i
m
a = a '+i a ' ' = a '+ .
i


, , , e . ,
,
,
.

. ,
-
.
, -.
,
, ,
. ,
,
.
:

[Er nr ] = Z [nr [nr Hr ]] (14.4)

nr - , Z
,
.
:

ZS = (1 + j ) /( ) , (14.5)

- - ( ,
-).

14.3.
,
HFSS. , 5:

,
H = 0 , H -
.

,
, . ,
.
, , .
.


E = 0 , E -
.
( ).

,
.

, , .
,
, .

,
.
,
,
, .



.
(14.5).
.
,
. ,

.

,
.

:
r r
E = R(n H ) (14.6)
:

R .
(14.6) (14.5) , (14.5)
, (14.6)
R.

(
)
. ,
. , ,
,
, . ,

, , .
,
:

r r j r r j r
( E ) = jk0 E n ( E ) n + ( E ) , (14.7)
k0 k0
:
r
E , .
nr - , .
k 0 .


, , ,
. ,
, ,
.
. - ,
.

,
, . ,

(. .
14.1).

. 14.1.


() , S
.
, .
, ,
,
.
, , ,
,
, ,
. .

E n , H n , , ,
En , H n .

0, n m
([E
S
n H m ] [E m H n ])dS =
N , n = m
, , ,
E H,
, . ,
, E H
.

.
,
()
,
.
,
. 14.2.

. 14.2.
,
1-4. ,
. . 14.2 , 1-4
, ,
.
,
.

,
.
,
. ,
1 2 3 4 .
,

. ,
.

14.4.



.

, ,
- , . 14.3.
. 14.3.


. ,
z:
r r r r
E ( x, y, z ) = E ( x, y )e iz , H ( x, y, z ) = H ( x, y )e iz , (14.8)

- .
r r
E ( x, y ) H ( x, y ) ,
, , ,
, r
r
. E ( x, y ) H ( x, y )
(14.2),
, (14.2) , z
, (14.2) i .

-.
. ,
, -
.
.
, ..
,
. ,
( ;
( )
(14.8) ).

, ..
,
, ,
.

.
, ,
,
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
HFSS . HFSS
,
, .
() 2D simulator.
,

:


E= An En e i n z , H = An H n e i nz
, (14.9)
n = n =

E n , H n - E n, n -
, z ,
, An - ,
, n>0 ,
z, n<0 z,
n = n .
.

:

= i ,

- , - .
, = 0, 0 ,
0, = 0 . ,
.
0, 0 , >> ,
<< .

. .
,
.
( ),
,
,
( ,
: ;
):

E = A1 E1e i 1z + A1 E1e i 1z ,
(14.10)
E1 = E 1 ,
1 .
:
r r r
H = A1 H 1e i 1z + A1 H 1e i 1z ,
r r (14.11)
H 1 = H 1 ,
, ,
. , , ,
. ,
(14.10), (14.11) :
r r
E = A1 E1e i 1 z , H = A1 H 1e i 1 z . (14.12)
(14.12) , , ,

A1 .
,
, ,
:
r r
E1 = Z 1 H 1 , (14.13)
Z 1 -
1. (14.13) (14.12)

.
, A1
. ,
.

14.5.

,
HFSS,
.
,
,
(14.10), (14.11),
.

A1 , .
.

:

r r
E H

U= dS e i , (14.14)
S
2

,
.
.
, (14.14)
. ,
.
,
(. 14.1) . ,
, ,
- . ,
,
.

.
.
:

U = SU , (14.15)

U 1o U 1
. . S11 . . S1N
. . . .
U o = . , U = . , S = ,
. . . .
. .
U No U N S N1 . . S NN

N .

.

14.6.

, , ,
.
.
. ,
,
:

2
E = An E n e i n z + An E n e i n z .
n =1

.
,
. ,
NxN, N .
S- M,
( M N ).
,
.
,
.


.
,
,
:

N
S mn
2
1. (14.16)
n =1

(14.16)
. (14.16)
. ,
,
,
.

,
. .


, . ,
,
.
, S- -
:
U 1o S11 S12 S13 U 1
U = S S 22 S 23 U 2
2o 21 (14.17)
U 3o S 31 S 32 S 33 U 3
:

U i i, U jo
j,
.
, HFSS S-.
,
.
-
, S- 6x6. S-,
:

U 11o S11 11 12
S11 11
S12 12
S12 11
S13 12 1
S13 U 1
2 21 22 21 22 21 22 2
U 1o S11 S11 S12 S12 S13 S13 U 1
U 1 S 11 12
S 21 11
S 22 12
S 22 11
S 23 12 1
S 23 U 2
22o = 21 21 22 21 22 21 22 2 , (14.18)
U 2o S 21 S 21 S 22 S 22 S 23 S 23 U
2
U 1 S 11 12
S 31 11
S 32 12
S 32 11
S 33 12 1
S 33 U 3
32o 31 21 22 21 22 21 22
2
U 3o S 31 S 31 S 32 S 32 S 33 S 33 U 3

U ioj - j i- , U qp1 - q
p .
,
.

.
.
,
, .

. , ,
.
,
,
.

. , .
,
,
. ,

.

. ,
.

.

14.7 (de-embedding)

,

( , )
.
de-embedding .
.
, ,
.
S- ,
.

.
, , S-.
S ,
S0 .
:

[S ] = [eiL ][S0 ][eiL ], (14.19)

e i 1L1 ....0
i L
[e ]
i L 0e
=
2 2

..........
...0
.....

, (14.20)
00......e i N LN

Ln - n- , n -
n- .
S ,
n 2D , S0
(14.19). (14.19)
(. 14.4).

. 14.4. HFSS,
.
14.8. ,

S-

S-, ,

,
( , ,
,
, ).
,
(, ..),
, .

.
S Z :

Z = Z O ( I + S )( I S ) 1 Z O (14.21)
:

S S- n x n.

I n x n.

Z0 - ,
(Z 0) .
Z S ,
, S-
, , S :

S = Y ( Z Z )( Z + Z ) 1 Z , (14.22)

Z - ,
S - ,
Z Y - ,
.

HFSS ,
S-, Z-, Y-.
,
Zpi, Zpv, Zvi.
,
: Z pi, Z PV, Z vi [10].

Z PI
Z pi - , (P) (I):
2P
Z pi = . (14.23)
I2
.
, :

1
2 S
P= E Hds , (14.24)

.
,
I:

I = H dI (14.25)
I
I , (14.25)
. , , ,
,
. ,
. , I
, , ,
.
Z PV

Zpv - , (P)
(V):

V2
Z pv = , (14.26)
2P

.
,
Zpi. :

V = E dI (14.27)
I
, ,
, .
, ,
.
HFSS ,
, .

Z VI

Z vi :

Z VI = Z PI Z PV (14.28)

TEM , Z pi ,Zpv Zvi ;


Z pi ,Zpv
.

S-
Y- Z-, ,
, Z pi ZPV, ZVI.
TEM Z vi,
.

,
ZPI.

( finline )
ZPV.

(
),
.
,
ZPV.
, E- ,

. , ZPV
:

V2
Z pv = , (14.29)
2P
.

2.
, ,
,
. ,
,
, .
0.5.

14.9.


, ,
. :
, , ..
.


(. . 14.5).
,
r
E . , 0x
.
:
r r r r
r E ( x) + E ( x) E ( x) E ( x)
E = + . (14.30)
2 2

(14.30)
,

r r :
r E ( x) + E ( x)
E = . (14.31)
2
:
r r
r E ( x) E ( x)
E = . (14.32)
2
. 14.5.

,
. ,

.
.
,
, , ,

,
.
.
,
,
, ,
. ,

(. . 14.6 14.7).

. 14.6. . 14.7.

,
.

.

. ,
, . 14.8.
. 14.8.


1.
,
,
:
U 1 + U 2
U = ,
2
U1 U 2 (14.33)
U = .
2

,

(. 14.9),
. 14.10.

: S11 , S11 .
:
S11 + S11
S11 = ,
2 (14.34)
S11 S11
S 21 = .
2

. 14.9. . 14.10.

14.10.

HFSS ,
,
.


:

[
r r
] r
n E = jm, [nr Hr ] = rj e , (14.35)
r
: s , n - .

, (14.35):
r r
A e,m (V ) = j e,m G (V , V ' )dV ' , (14.36)
V

G (V , V ' ) - :
e jk 0 |r r '|
G=
| r r' | , (14.37)

k0 - , 0 0 , r r' -
, , (r)
(r) (. 14.11).

. 14.11. r S r

:
r r 1 r r
E = i a A e + grad (div ( A e )) rot ( A m ),
i a
(14.38)
r rm 1 rm re
H = i a A + grad (div( A )) + rot ( A ).
i a
. 14.12.


, . 14.12. r
:

e ik0 r ik0 (sin( ) cos( ) x '+ sin( ) sin( ) y '+ cos( ) z ')
G= e . (14.39)
r

,
. ,
. (14.39) (14.36)
:

r e, m e ik0 r r e,m ik (sin( ) cos( ) x '+ sin( ) sin( ) y '+ cos( ) z ')
A (V ) =
r j e 0 dV ' (14.40)
V

, (14.40)
.
14.10. Eigenmode

HFSS
.
Eigenmode. ,
.
, .

, ,
( ,
, ..).
.

.
:

f rn = f ' rn +if ' ' rn ,

n .
,
. .
, .
, ,
, .
,

.
,
:
f ' rn
Qn = .
2 f ' ' rn

HFSS.

14.11.


HFSS (Finite Element Method).
,
, .
Mesher.
,
.
, .

() .
.
,
. , , ,
.
,
,
.
. 14.13.

. 14.13. -


(. . 14.14).

. 14.14.

,
.
, ,
(). ,
, , ,
,
.
.
.

.
,

.

.
, HFSS
,
. ,
. ,
,
. S-
,
.
40000 .
RAM 2 .

.
Mesher.
. Mesher
,
. ,
, .
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
HFSS,
.

.
. ,
,
, , .
: , ..

.
, . ,
S-
. ,
,
.
/ 10 ( - ,
) .
HFSS
, .
Mesher
, .
.
,
.
.
,

. ,

.

. , Mesher

.


.
,
.
,
. 14.15.

. 14.15.
:
(2 1).
.
.
,
.
,
. ,
.
, ,
W. , W ,
.
. 14.15
.
, N1
, N1+1 N2
, N .

I ( ) :

2 2 2 2
I ( ) = + dx.dy =
2 + dxdy (14.41),
S .x
2
.y

S
. x . y

S , , ,
.
( x, y ) ,
(14.41) .
, , (1)
,
S.



.
:

N
( x, y ) = Ai f i ( x, y ) , (14.42)
i =1

Ai - , f i ( x, y ) - .
Ai (14.41),
.
,

Ai .
,
Ai ( x, y )

( ).
, ,
( x, y )
. ,
:

M
( x , y ) = U i f i ( x, y ) , (14.43)
i =1

U i - .
, (14.43)
.
:

= a + ax x + a y y , (14.44)

a, a x , a y - . (.
14.14), i,j,k.
(14.43) a, a x , a y
( x, y ) U i , j ,k . ,
:
a + a x xi + a y y i = U i ,
a + ax x j + a y y j = U j , (14.45)
a + a x xk + a y y k = U k .

(14.45) :

a = A 1U ,
a 1 xi yi U i
(14.46)
a = a x , A = 1 xj y j , U = U j .
a y 1 xk y k U
k

(14.43)
:

( x, y ) = t A 1U ,
1
(14.47)
= x ,
y

t .
:

f ( x, y ) = t A 1 . (14.48)

(14.48) ,
,
:

( x, y ) = f ( x, y )U , (14.49)

U -
, .

, , ,
. ,

. , (14.44) ,
.
:

a + bx + cy + dx 2 + exy + fy 2 . (14.50)

.
,
. ,
, . ,

,
, . 14.16.

. 14.16.

,
. .
. 14.17
.
. 14.17.

,
. ,
(14.43) ,
.
, , U i .
,
. ,
.

()
.
, ,
.
. ,
, ,
.
,
,
.

.


,
M.
(14. 41):

f ( x, y ) 2
f ( x, y )
2
I ijk ( ) = U ijk + U ijk dxdy , (14.51)

Sijk x y

i,j,k ,
i,j,k.
:

M f ( x, y )
2
M f ( x, y )
2
I ijk ( ) = n U ijk ,n + n U ijk ,n dxdy . (14.52)

Sijk n =1
x n =1 y


U ijk , n :

I ijk ( )
= 0, m = 1,2,....M . (14.53)
U ijk ,m

(14.53) (14.52)
:

M
f n ( x, y ) f m ( x, y ) f n ( x, y ) f m ( x, y )
x x
+
y y
dxdyU ijk ,n = 0,
n =1 Sijk (14.54)
m = 1,2,...M

f n ( x, y ) f m ( x, y ) f n ( x, y ) f m ( x, y )

ijk
Z nm = + dxdy . (14.55)
Sijk
x x y y

(14.54) :
Z ijk U ijk = 0 .

.
, :

ZU = 0,
U 1
(14.56)
U = ... ,
U N

N . Z
Z ijk .
, N2
. U ,
, :

U o
U = , (14.57)
U i

( outer )
, i ( inner
) , .
(14.56) :

Z oo Z io U o
Z Z = 0 . (14.58)
oi ii U i

, U o ,
:

U o,i = 0, 1 i N1
U o,i = W , N1 + 1 i N 2

U i
U o :
U i = Z ii1 Z oiU o . (14.59)

(14.59) .
,
. ,
,
(). ,
,
( ).
(. (14.59)). ,
,
.
, .
.
,
- . ,
- :
,
. ,
,
,
. ,
, .
, - ,
.
.
,
. ,
, . ,
( ).
, ,
.
, , .
, ,
.
, , ,
. ,

. ,
.
15.


() .
( ),
,
, .

15.1.

().
,
, .
,
. .
,
.

. , , ,
.
.
, .
. 15.1.
, ,
.
.15. 1. 9x10 ,
2 , 5 x 6

,
() .
,
(. . 15.2).

. 15.2.
,
.
, .
Z:

z11 . . z1N
. . .
Z = ,
. . .

z N1 . . z NN

zii
, zij .
.
, Zij ,
j , i.
, i- ,
.
, ,
.
Z .
.
,
.
, ,

. , ,
. . 15.1 ,
,
,
.
, ,

,
.
. ,
, ,
.

.
.
,
. ,
, .

"" , HFSS,
,
, (. 15.3, 15.4),
.
, , ,
,
.

. 15.3. . 15.4. 30
9 , , , ,

15.2.


.
. .
,
.

n m (. . 15.5).

. 15.5.
xy


, :

U n, m = V exp(inPx imPy ), (15.1)

, - ,
, Px, y - 0 0.

() .
, . 15.6,
, , :
. 15.6.

2 + 2
= arcsin ,
k0
(15.2)

= arctg .

,
.
,
:

x = Px ,
y = Py .


,
:
r r
E ( x + nPy , y + mPy ) = E ( x, y ) exp(inPx imPy ),
r r (15.3)
H ( x + nPy , y + mPy ) = H ( x, y ) exp(inPx imPy ).

(15.3)
, (15.3) ,

.
. 15.7
. , 1-4
.
,
:
r r
E 2 = E 1 exp(iPx ),
r r (15.4)
E 4 = E 3 exp(iPy ).


.
HFSS
, Master-Slave (-).
. 15.7. ,

(15.4)
. , . 15.7
: (.
15.8) (15.3) .

.15.8. ,
. -

.

(. 14), (. 14.3)
. ,
,
.

, , (perfectly matched
layer (PML)). PML :
, .
, .

. PML
.
PML
.
. ,

.
. 15.9.

. 15.9.

master slave, HFSS


.
(master),
(slave). , . 15.9 (15.4)
1,3 master, 2,4 slave.
,
.
, ,
XOZ YOZ. .
,
,
, ,
(. . 15.10).

. 15.10.

, . 15.10, ,
.
. ,
90 , .
, (
)
,
. ,
.
15.3.


. , .
- . ,
,
.

.
.

.
1, 2. ,
.
. ?
,
.
.

( ).
. , ,
.

.
,
, .
:

2 2
2n 2m
+ + + > k02 , (15.5)
Px Py

n,m , .
, , n=m=0.

2 + 2 < k02 , (15.6)


.
, ,
n=0, m=-1 n=-1, m=0 ( , ).
,

.
, .
Fe ( , ) . ,
. Fe ( , )
:

2n 2m
Fe ( , ) =
n,m
n,m
S21


( , )
Px
, ( , )
Py , (15.7)

( , ) = k0 sin( ) cos( ),
( , ) = k0 sin( ) sin( ).
(15.7) ,
:

2n
( , ) < ,
Px Px

2m (15.8)
( , ) < .
Py Py

(15.7) S21 ( , )
n ,m

1 2,
. n,m.
,

, .
, .
.
,
,
. ,
:

Fa ( , ) = AF ( , ) Fe ( , ) (15.9)

Fa ( , ) - , AF ( , ) - .
:

N
AF ( , ) =
n =1
Wn e ik 0 sin( ) cos( ) x n + ik 0 sin( ) sin( ) y n
, (15.10)

Wn - , xn , yn -
. . 15.11
.

15.11.
HFSS

(Optimetrics).
, .
,
, , ,
. ,

.
.
,
.
Optimetrics,

. . 15.12 ,
.

. 15.12.

15.4.

HFSS Ansoft
,
0.9"0.4" (22.87 x 10.16),
1.0"0.5",
. 15.13.
HFSS ,
.
0.9"0.4", .
. 1.0"0.5"1.0" PML,
.
Slave-Master
PML ,
.

. 15.13. , 625 (
)

0.9"0.4" (22.87 x 10.16),
, 1.0"0.5",
. 15.13. , HFSS
, . 15.14.

. 15.14. ,
( ). 10 x 23

(. 15.14)
.
,
PML.
HFSS ,
. Radiate
, PML.

Optimetrics
,
E = 0 80. ,
42:
-40dB.
. 15.15.

(. 15.15),
Master Slave
.
E slave = e i E master (15.11)

d
= sin cos( ) (15.12)

, , X,
Z.
=30 , . 15.16.
. 15.16. ,
Master
Slave

. =3.22 , d=2.54 .
Theta $scan_angle=30 Phi=0 (. 15.17).
Slave Master , (15.12) 142.

,
,
,
$scan_angle (. 15.17),
.
. 15.17. $scan_angle

Theta Slave
(. 15.11). $scan_angle Use Scan Angles
To Calculate Phase Delay (
), (15.2),

Master Slave (. 15.18).

. 15.18. Master Slave.

,
$scan_angle=30 . 15.19.
.15.19.
30


$scan_angle , . 15.12.


(. 15.13).
,
.
. .

E(x,y,z) ,

E ( x, y , z ) = ( j 0 H tan G + E tan G + Enormal G )ds
S
(15.13)

S ,
=2f ,
0
,
Htan , ,
Enormal , ,
Etan , ,
G ,
jk0 r r '
e
G= , (15.14)
r r'

k0 ,
r r
, .
, r >> r' ( r >> 0),

e jk0r e jk0rr '
G (15.15)
r
G ,
, , r
e jkr
(15.16)
r
r, ,
. -
TEM ,
:

E = 0 H r (15.17)

0 .
Earray(, )

Eelement (, ) ,
N , :
E array ( , ) = AF ( , ) Eelement ( , ) (15.18)
AF (, )

N
AF ( , ) = Wn e jkrn r (15.19)
n =1
:
(, ) .
Wn ( ),
n.
k = 2/ - . 9.25 k=
19.49/ (=3.22 ),
rn n- , <xn, yn, zn>.
r ( )
<sincos, sinsin, cos>.
Wn (15.7)
An n :
Wn = An e j n (15.20)

(0, 0),

n = krn r0 (15.21)

r0 = <sin0cos0, sin0sin0, cos0> (15.22)
() .

( An = 1 n). ,
ro ,
(15.7)
N
AF ( , ) = e jkrn ( r r0 ) (15.23)
n =1
,
u v, rn
,
rmn = (m 1)u + (n 1)v (15.24)
m = 1, 2, ..., Nu n = 1, 2, ...., Nv.
N = Nu x Nv.
Nu x Nv

Nu Nv
AF ( , ) = e jkrmn ( rr0 ) (15.25).
m =1 n =1

(15.9)
r0 . ,

. ,

Master Slave,
, .
3D , (15.9),
(15.12)
:
mn = krmn r0 = k (m 1)u r0 k (n 1)v r0 (15.26)
u -
u. v - v.

u m +1, n m , n = ku r0 (15.27)

v m , n +1 m , n = kv r0 (15.28)
(15.14)
u v
m ,n = ( m 1) u + (n 1) v (15.29)
, ,
, (u, v)
(0, 0).
(. 15.13)
(. 15.20), .
- ( Master-Slave),
, . 15.21.

. 15.21.
. 15.20.

,
.

,
,
-

.
.

PLM .
6
. 15.22
.


.

15.22.

, ,
Array Type : .
Regular Array. Regular
Array (. 15.23)
, Master Slave .
. 15. 23.
25x25
Scan Definition (. 15.23) 2
:
Use Scan Angles (Theta)
(Phi) .

,

Use Differential
Phase Shift
,
scan_angle : ,

Master-Slave,
.
, scan_angle 0
90 (. 15.24).

. 15. 24. 25 x 25
0 90 10

. 15.24
, ,
. 15.24 ,
, (. 15.21).
.
15.25.
Master
Slave . Master
Slave ,
. ,
.
,
HFSS
.

. 15.25. .

(. 15.23) ,

(.15.24), ,
,
. ,
.
, ..
.


2525 .15.26.
Ugol=BeamArea*54.
.

. 15. 26. ( )
25 25.


,
E = 0 80.
. -
S11 , . 15.27. ,

42:
-40 dB.
. 15.27. S11 scan_angle



.

. :

(. 15.23), Master-Slave (. 15.18);
Master Slave , ,
(15.1), ..
=scan_angle .
.1:
PickGain ( ,
Master-Slave).
1
Scan_angle 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
PickGain 2455.5 2412.5 2292.6 2102.3 1850 1545.2 1198 863.8 618.7
PickGain 2455.5 2376.7 2165.8 1865.6 1528.7 1201.1 912.5 662.5 522.2
,
, S11
, .

2
S11 Master-Slave
Scan_angle 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Master-Slave
|S11|, -15.02 -15.5 -17.22 -21.62 -38 dB -22.9 -14.6 -10.14 -2.1
11 22.5 21.9 21.1 21.7 45 175.2 171.8 155.6 162.3
Master-Slave
|S11| -15.02 -15.02 -15.02 -15.02 -15.02 -15.02 -15.02 -15.02 -15.02
11 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5

S11 , ,
70, .
.
S11 ,
.2, ,

Master-Slave. S11 ,
, 70,
.
(. 15.28).
. 15. 28. 25 x 25

15.5. ,

HFSS

.

, ,

N N
AF ( , ) = e jkr ( r r ') (15.30)
m =1 n =1

,
,
.
:
N
x_1 y_1 z_1 A_1 P_1
x_2 y_2 z_2 A_2 P_2
...
x_N y_N z_N A_N P_N
:
N ;
x_1 x- ,
.
y_1 y- .
z_1 z- .
A_1 .
P_1 .
3x3
.
x- y- 0.6729
():
9
0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0 .0
0.6729 0.0 0.0 1.0 0 .0
1.3458 0.0 0.0 1.0 0 .0
0.0 0.6729 0.0 1.0 0 .0
0.6729 0.6729 0.0 1.0 0 .0
1.3458 0.6729 0.0 1.0 0 .0
0.0 1.3458 0.0 1.0 0 .0
0.6729 1.3458 0.0 1.0 0 .0
1.3458 1.3458 0.0 1.0 0 .0
,
Custom Array Definition (. 15.29)
.
. 15. 29.

-
,

(). , :
1. HFSS, Radiation, Antenna Array
Setup. Antenna Array Setup.
2. Array Type, Custom Array Setup.
3. Custom Array.
4. Import Definition. (. 15.30).
5. .
.txt . .
. 15. 30.
6. , View Definition
Custom Array Setup.
7. OK.
, (. 15.31),

, .

. 15.31.

. 15.31 .
, ,
. 15.32 . 15.33.

. 15.32. . 15. 33.


, ,
. =30,

30 (. 15.34). 30
x y.
. 15.34.

(.
15.33), ,
3x3 30 (. 15.35).
. 15.35.
30

(3 3),
. 15. 36:
. 15.36.


, . 15. 38.
. 15.37.
,
.
. 15.37. - . 15.38.
3 3,

, Ansft HFSS
.

. . 15.39-15.41.
. 15.39. 3 3

. 15.40.
-
. 15.41.

,
, (. 15.42).
, ,
.
,
,
.
. 15. 42. ,



.
, .
, HFSS
,
, ,
.
Ansft HFSS
,

.
, Ansft HFSS
,
, ,
.

20 ,
,
, ,
, , , ,
. , 21
, ,
OC EC.

, ,
. : ,

. .
, ,

, (
) SuperCompact. ,

CM-4 .
Touchstone.
.

, , .
, 90-
.
.
(
CompactSoft EESOft).
MWO Microwave
Office, .

. ,
, ,
, .
. MWO ,
. ,
,
Touchstone.

1
MWO ,
:
Layout, ,
, .
,
.
,
, , 20

,
.
,
. ,
Touchstone, .
, MMICAD, Aplac, Harmonica
. ,
. Serenade
AnSoft ,

. AnSoft Agilent
HFSS,
,
.
, ,
,
. , 90
,
. , ,
Aplac, XFDTD, Fidelity CST HFSS.


:
- ,
- (,
),
- ,
(,
),
-
,
,
2
- ,
,
-
, ,
,
- (
, ,
, )


,
, ,
.

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.

.

, :

- , .
- ,
.
- .
-
.
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.
- HFSS, MWO ADS 2

- .
-
,
.
- ,
CD.

,
- .

[1] HFSS Ansoft v.9.1. Manuals. 2004.


[2] www.ansoft.com

[3] Balanis, Constantine A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design 2nd
edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1997

[4] Swanson, Daniel, "Microwave Circuit Modeling Using Electromagnetic Field


Simulation," Artech House, 2003

[5] Stutzman, Warren L., and Thiele, Gary A., Antenna Theory and
Design 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1998

[6] Arthur C. Ludwig, The Definition of Cross Polarization, IEEE Transactions on


Antennas and Propagation, vol. AP-21 num. 1, pp. 116 -119, Jan. 1973.

[7] IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas, IEEE Transactions on


Antennas and Propagation, vol. AP-31 num. 6, Nov. 1983.

[8] K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving


Maxwell's equations in isotropic media, " IEEE Transactions on Antennas and
Propagation, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 302-307, May 1966.

[9] A. Kurushin, S. Podkovyrin. Syntesis of Microwave Structures. IEEE


Microwave Conference AMP2001, Taipei, 2001.

[10] .., .., ..


HFSS. ., , 2004, 208 .

[11] "Fast Two-Dimensional Diffraction Modeling for Site Specific Propagation


Prediction in Urban Microcellular Environments" by W. Zhang, IEEE
Transactions on Vehicular Technology, March 2000.

[12] G. Mur, "Absorbing boundary condition for the finite-difference


approximation of the time-domain electromagnetic field equations," IEEE
Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. EMC-23, No. 4, pp. 377-
382, November 1981.