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MID SEMESTER EXAM QUESTION PAPER

January-May 2017 Semester


CL204 : Heat Transfer Operation

Name: Roll no.:


Date 27-Feb-2017 Time: 2 hrs (09:00 to 11:00 hrs)
SECTION 1 (10 marks) Answer all the questions. Each question carry one mark

Each question can have single or multiple correct answers


For choose the best possible answer - circle all the appropriate answers.
For other questions write your answer in the blank-space or match with appropriate arrows.
Dont use any additional sheet for SECTION - I.
1. Match the correct pair as in the table below. Put arrows to place the matching.

A Nu number i hL/k where k = conductivity of fluid A

B Bi number ii hL/k where k = conductivity of solid B

iii Conduction resistance the surface of the body


A
Convection resistance at the surface of the body

iv Conduction resistance within the body


B
Convection resistance at the surface of the body

v Convection at the surface of the body


B
Conduction within the body

2. The Stainless Steel (SS) cylinder at 30 C is dipped in hot water (85 C) where Bi >1 & > 0.2. The unsteady
state temperature profile of SS cylinder can be estimated by

(a) using Heisler and Grober charts (b) solving (T T ) / (T Ti ) e 2 BiFo

(c) Lumped parameter analysis (d) None

3. In condensation process, the heat transfer mechanism occurring in following mode

(a) Constant heat flux across the length (b) Constant surface temperature across the length

(c) Constant heat flux after achieving fully developed (d) All above
heat flow condition

4. For fully developed laminar flow in a circular tube subjected to constant surface heat flux or temperature, the
Nusselt number is a constant. There is no dependence on the Reynolds or the Prandtl numbers.

(a) True (b) False

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5. Match the correct pair as in the table below. Put arrows to place the matching
A ChiltonColburn analogy (External forced convection) i Nu 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.3 B
B Dittus Boelter equation (Internal forced convection and cooling) ii c f , x 2st x Pr 2/3 A
iii Nu 0.023 Re 0.8
Pr 0.4

iv c f ,x
st x Pr 2/3 J H , x
2 A
v c f ,x 2 J H ,x
A

6. Write three - dimensional heat conduction equation with heat source in cartesian
coordinates
.
+ + + =
. - heat generation per unit volume ; k- thermal conductivity ; - thermal diffusion

7. Critical insulation thickness for flat wall exposed to air is no answer

(a) kwall / h (b) h / k wall

(c) 0 (d) kair / h

8. Write two practical applications for steady heat conduction with heat-source systems

(a) ___Nuclear fuel rods____

(b) __Electric heating elements_

9. Write the relationship between fin efficiency and effectiveness

=
effeciency - effectiveness A fin- fin surface area A base- Fin base area

10. Calculate the Nusselt Number for copper flat plate placed on air flow channel, Assume air temperature = 100 C
and heat transfer coefficient = 100 W/m2 C, Kcopper = 400 W/m C, Plate length = 8 m, Plate thickness = 0.5 mm
Kair = 0.003 W/m C.

(a) 2 (b) 27000

(c) 2700 (d) None

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MID SEMESTER EXAM QUESTION PAPER
January-May 2017 Semester
CL204 : Heat Transfer Operation
Date 27-Feb-2017 Time: 2hrs (09:00 to 11:00 hrs)

Note@ if required, you are allowed to make necessary assumptions to solve the problems defined in this exam question
paper and provide proper justification for each of the assumption made.

Section 2: 30 marks ( 10 Questions), Answer all the questions.

1. One face of an aluminium plate 3 cm thickness is maintained at 225 C, and the other face is maintained at 25 C. The
thermal conductivity of the aluminium is varying with function of temperature as per the equation k(T) =0.0013 * T 2 - 0.0875
*T + 206.41, where K in W/m. C and Temperature in C . How much heat is transferred (W/m2) through the plate?
(Mark 2)

2. An electric current is passed through a wire 1 mm in diameter and 10 cm long. The wire is submerged in liquid water
at atmospheric pressure, and the current is increased until the water boils. For this situation h=5000 W/m2.C, and the water
temperature will be 100C. How much electric power (W) must be supplied to the wire to maintain the wire surface at 114C?
(Mark 2)

3. A horizontal steel pipe having a diameter of 5 cm is maintained at a temperature of 50 C in a large room where the
air and wall temperature are at 20 C. The surface emissivity of the steel may be taken as 0.8. Calculate the total heat lost by
the pipe per unit length (W/m). Given Data: heat-transfer coefficient for free convection with this geometry and air is
h=6.5W/m2.C. (Mark 2)

4. Find the heat transfer (W) through the composite wall shown
in Figure 1. Assume that any plane wall normal to the heat flow is
isothermal, Given Data, kA = 150 W/m.C, kB = 30 W/m.C, kC = 50
W/m.C, kD = 70 W/m.C, AB = AD.
(Mark 3)

5. Derive a relation for the critical radius of insulation for a


cylinder. Calculate the critical radius of insulation for fiber glass [k=0.04
W/mC] surrounding a pipe and exposed to room air at 20 C with h=3.0
Figure 1: The composite wall
W/m2.C. Assume that 5.0-cm-diameter pipe surface is maintained at
200 C. Does addition of any fiberglass insulation would cause a decrease in the heat transfer? and justify your answer.
(Mark 3)

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6. Water flows on the inside of a steel pipe with an ID of 2.5cm. The wall thickness is 2 mm, and the convection
coefficient on the inside is 500 W/m2.C. The convection coefficient on the outside 12 W/m 2.C. Calculate the overall heat
transfer coefficient. [Ksteel= 50.2 W/m.K]. (Mark 3)
7. Consider a pin fin as shown in Figure 2. Assume that the fin is exposed to an evacuated space
such that the convection is negligible and the radiation loss per unit surface area given by

qrad A T 4 Ts4

where is the surface emissivity constant, is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, and the temperatures
Figure 2: Pin fin
are exposed in K. (i) Derive a differential equation for the temperature in the pin fin as a function
of x, the distance from the base. Let T0 be the base temperature, and (ii) write the appropriate boundary conditions for the
differential equation (Mark 3)

8. The temperature of a gas stream is to be measured by a thermocouple whose


junction can be approximated as a 1-mm-diameter sphere, as shown in the Figure 3. The
properties of the junction are k= 35 W/m.K, =8500 kg/m 3,and cp = 320 J/kg.K, and the
convection heat transfer coefficient between the junction and the gas is h=210 W/m 2.K.
Determine how long it will take for the thermocouple to read 99 percent of the initial
Figure 3: Thermocouple wire
temperature difference. Define Biot number and its physical significance.

(Mark 4)

9. During the flow of air at T= 20C over a plate surface maintained at a constant temperature of Ts =160C, the
dimensionless temperature profile within the air layer over the plate is determined to be

T y T
e ay Figure 4: Temperature profile
Ts T

where a = 200 m-1 and y is the vertical distance measured from the plate surface show in Figure 4 . Determine the heat flux
on the plate surface and the convection heat transfer coefficient. Given data: k = 50.03024 W/m.C at 90 C
(Mark 4)

10. (a). Define Prandtl, Nusselt Number. (b) Draw thermal and viscous boundary layer profile for both internal and
external flow conditions with respect to Pr << 1, Pr=1, Pr>>1, and provide example fluids for respective cases. (c) Draw average
and local heat transfer coefficient profile for a flat plate with combined laminar and turbulent flow (Mark 4)

MID SEMESTER EXAM QUESTION PAPER

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January-May 2017 Semester
CL204 : Heat Transfer Operation
Date 27-Feb-2017 Time: 2hrs (09:00 to 11:00 hrs)

Note@ if required, you are allowed to make necessary assumptions to solve the problems defined in this exam question
paper and provide proper justification for each of the assumption made.

1. One face of an aluminium plate 3 cm thick is maintained at 225 C, and the other face is maintained at 25 C. How
much heat is transferred through the plate? The thermal conductivity of the aluminium is varying with function of
temperature as per the equation k(T) =0.0013 * T 2 - 0.0875 *T + 206.41, where K in W/m. C and Temperature in C .
How much heat is transferred (W/m2) through the plate? (Ans: 1467.46 KW/m2) (Mark 2)

Assumption: (1) heat transfer is one dimensional when thickness >> Length and width

According to Fouriers law of heat conduction

25
0.0013 * T 2 0.0875 * T 206.41 dT
q dT
k 225
0.03
A dx
dx
0

1467.46kW / m 2

2. An electric current is passed through a wire 1 mm in diameter and 10 cm long. The wire is submerged in liquid
water at atmospheric pressure, and the current is increased until the water boils. For this situation h=5000 W/m2C,
and the water temperature will be 100C. How much electric power (W) must be supplied to the wire to maintain the
wire surface at 114C? (Ans : 21.98 W) (Mark 2)

Given: d = 0.001 m; L = 0.1 m; h = 5000 W/m2 C; T = 100 C; Ts = 114 C

Assumptions: (1) surface to fluid Heat Transfer due to radiation and conduction are negligible compare with convection.
(2) Average Heat transfer coefficient is constant since temperature and flow condition are steady.

Solution: From Newtons law of cooling,

q = h * A * (Ts - T) = 5000 * ( 3.14 * 0.001 * 0.1) * (114 100)

= 21.98 W.

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3. A horizontal steel pipe having a diameter of 5 cm is maintained at a temperature of 50 C in a large room where the
air and wall temperature are at 20 C. The surface emissivity of the steel may be taken as 0.8. Calculate the total heat
lost by the pipe per unit length (W/m). Given Data: heat-transfer coefficient for free convection with this geometry and
air is h=6.5W/m2 C. (Ans: 55.67 W/m) (Mark 2)

Given: d = 0.05 m , Ts = 50 C , Tsurr = 20 C , = 0.8 , h=6.5W/m2 C.

Assumptions: (1) surface to fluid Heat Transfer due to conduction is negligible compare with convection and radiation.
(2) Average Heat transfer coefficient is constant since temperature and flow condition are steady.

Heat loss by convection

q conv = h A (Ts Tsurr)

(q/L)conv = (6.5) () (0.05) (50-20) = 30.63 W/m

Pipe is surrounded by large enclosure , So heat also transfer by radiation q rad = A (Ts4-Tsurr4)

(q/L)rad = (5.669 x 10-8 ) (0.8) (3234-2934) = 25.04 w/m

Total heat Loss (q/L) T = (q/L)conv + ( q/L)rad = 55.67 W/m

4. Find the heat transfer (W) through the composite wall in the Figure 5: The composite wall given below. Assume
that any plane wall normal to the heat flow is isothermal, Given Data, kA = 150 W/mC, kB = 30 W/mC, kC = 50 W/mC,
kD = 70 W/mC, AB = AD. (Ans: 11400 W) (Mark 3)

Assumptions: (1) One dimensional heat flow since any


plane wall normal to the heat flow is isothermal (ii) thermal
conductivity is constant (iii) Contact resistance between surface
is negligible.

Figure 5: The composite wall

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.

5. Derive a relation for the critical radius of insulation for a cylinder. Calculate the critical radius of insulation for fiber
glass [k=0.04 W/mC] surrounding a pipe and exposed to room air at 20 C with h=3.0 W/m2 C. Assume that 5.0-cm-
diameter pipe surface is maintained at 200 C. Does addition of any fiberglass insulation would cause a decrease in the
heat transfer? and justify your answer. Ans (No) (Mark 3)

Assumption: (i) One dimensional heat transfer when L>>> r (ii) the contact resistance between surface is negligible. (iii)
surface to fluid Heat Transfer due to radiation and conduction are negligible compare with convection

1 1
2
=0=
1
+

Critical radius = 0.04/3.0 = 1.33 cm,

Since critical radius smaller than pipe radius, the addition of fiberglass insulation does not lead to reduced heat transfer.

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6. Water flows on the inside of a steel pipe with an ID of 2.5cm. The wall thickness is 2 mm, and the convection
coefficient on the inside is 500 W/m2C. The convection coefficient on the outside 12 W/m 2C. Calculate the overall heat
transfer coefficient. [Ksteel= 50.2 W/m.K]. (Mark 3)
(Ans: Ui= 13.5390 W/m2C
Uo= 11.66909 W/m2C )

Assumption: (i) Conductivity is constant (ii) internal and external heat transfer coefficient is constant.

Ui= 13.5390 W/m2C


Uo= 11.66909 W/m2C

7. Consider a pin fin as shown in Figure 6. Assume that the fin is exposed to an evacuated space
such that the convection is negligible and the radiation loss per unit surface area given by
qrad /A= (T4-Ts4)

where is the surface emissivity constant, is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, and the
temperatures are exposed in K. (i) Derive a differential equation for the temperature in the pin Figure 6: Pin fin

fin as a function of x, the distance from the base. Let T0 be the base temperature, and (ii) write the appropriate boundary
conditions for the differential equation. (Mark 3)

Assumptions: (i) Heat transfer is one dimensional along the cylinder length, when cylinder radius << cylinder length. (ii)
L is fin length

dT
qx kAc
dx
dT dT d 2T
qx dx kAc kAc 2 dx
dx x dx dx dx

Radiation Heat loss

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qrad P.dx T 4 Ts 4

Energy balance

qx qx dx qrad

d 2T P
dx 2

kAc
T 4
Ts 4 0

BC1 : x=0 =

Free end fin BC2 : k = Ac T4


xL Ts 4 x = L

For other conditions

8. The temperature of a gas stream is to be measured by a thermocouple whose junction


can be approximated as a 1-mm-diameter sphere, as shown in the Figure 7. The properties
of the junction are k= 35 W/mK, =8500 kg/m3,and cp = 320 J/kgK, and the convection heat
transfer coefficient between the junction and the gas is h=210 W/m2K. Determine how
long it will take for the thermocouple to read 99 percent of the initial temperature
difference. Define Biot Number and its Physical Significance. Figure 7: Thermocouple wire

Ans (10 s) (Mark 4)

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9. During the flow of air at T= 20C over a plate surface maintained at a constant temperature of Ts =160C, the
dimensionless temperature profile within the air layer over the plate is determined to be

T y T
e ay Figure 8: Temperature profile
Ts T

where a = 200 m-1 and y is the vertical distance measured from the plate surface show in Figure 8. Determine the heat
flux on the plate surface and the convection heat transfer coefficient. Given data: k = 5 0.03024 W/mC at 90 C

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(Ans: h = 10006.48 W/m2 C , q = 1400.8 kW/m
) 2 )
(Mark 4)

1400.8 kW/m2

10006.48 W/m2 C

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10. (a). Define Prandtl, Nusselt Number. (b) Draw thermal and viscous boundary layer profile for both internal and external
flow conditions with respect to Pr << 1, Pr=1, Pr>>1, and provide example fluids for respective cases. (c) Draw average and
local heat transfer coefficient profile for a flat plate with combined laminar and turbulent flow (Mark4)

Nusselt number: Dimensionless convection heat transfer coefficient

hLc
Nu
k

The Nusselt number represents the enhancement of heat transfer through a fluid layer as a result of convection relative to
conduction across the same fluid layer.

Prandtl Number: The relative thickness of the velocity and the thermal boundary layers is best described by the dimensionless
parameter Prandtl number

Molecular diffusivity of momentum


Pr
Molecular diffusivity of heat
cp

k


Pr
T

(b) External flow:

The Prandtl numbers of gases are about 1, which indicates that both momentum and heat dissipate through the fluid at about
the same rate.

Heat diffuses very slowly in liquid metals (Pr << 1) and very quickly in oils (Pr >> 1) relative to momentum.

The thermal boundary layer is much thicker for liquid metals and much thinner for oils relative to the velocity boundary layer.

Liquid metals used where large amounts of heat must be removed from a relatively small space, as In a nuclear reactor.
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Internal flow:

Pr>>1

Pr=1
Pr<<1

(c) Graphical representation of the average heat transfer coefficient for a flat plate with combined laminar and turbulent
flow

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