Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 65

http://staff.unila.ac.

id/sigit

UNIT 1
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

College Life in the United States

Instructors at American colleges and universities have many different teaching


methods. Some instructors give assignments every day. They grade homework.
Students in their classes have to take many quizzes, a midterm exam, and a final
exam. Other instructors give only assignments. Some teachers always follow a
course outline and usually use textbook. Others send students to the library for
assignments.

The atmosphere in some classrooms is very formal. Students call their instructor
Professor Smith, Mrs. Jones, and so on. Some teachers wear business clothes
and give lectures. Other classrooms have an informal atmosphere. Students and
lectures discuss their ideas. Instructors dress informally, and students call them by
they first name. American teachers are not alike in their teaching styles.

At American colleges and universities, libraries and learning centers are available
to the students. They can often use typewriter, tape recorders, video machines, and
computers. They can buy books, notebooks, and other thing at campus stores.
There are also services available to the students. They can get advice on their
problems from counselors and individual help with their classes from tutors. In
addition to facilities and services for study, colleges and universities usually offer
facilities for recreation. Some schools have swimming pools and tennis courts.
Most have snack bars or cafetarias. (Taken from INTERACTIONS, Kirn, 1985)

http://staff.unila.ac.id/sigit
2

Difficult Words

Provide the possible meanings of the following words in Indonesian language.


1. an assignment =
2. atmosphere =
3. an advice =
4. a counselor =
5. alike =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!


1. What are two kinds of classroom atmosphere?
2. What are the examples of learning facilities at most American colleges or
universities?
3. Where do these students use these things?
4. What do counselors offer students with?

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the
text you have read.
1. Tell your partner the teaching methods commonly used by our teachers or
lectures at our colleges or universities
2. Tell your partner the teaching method that you like most and the one that
you like least
3. Tell your partner the advantages and disadvantages of our teaching method
by contrast with American teaching methods.

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS
3

Instructors at American colleges and universities have many different teaching


methods
The sentence taken from the text is often called Simple Present Tense.

Every sentence must have a subject and a predicate. This is also true for
Simple Present Tense statements. The predicate of Simple Present Tense
statements may take either a form of verbal or non-verbal predicate.

Examples:
A. Sentences with verbal predicates

No Subject Verbal Predicate


1 I like computers very much.
2 You learn English at the Language Centre.
3 We do not study mathematics a lot.
4 She does not study statistics.
5 He studies statistical analysis.
(+) Noun or pronoun verb 1st or verb 1st + s
(-) Noun or pronoun do not/does not + verb 1st

B. Sentences with non verbal predicates

No Subject Non-Verbal Predicate


1 I am a student of a private university.
2 We are not employees.
3 My university is very big.
4 Her sister is not a student.
5 She is in Jakarta.
(+) Noun or pronoun is/am/are
(-) Noun or Pronoun is/am/are not

Note: This pattern is usually used to express habitual actions or general truth.
4

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

As a student you have to schedule your routine activities. Fill in the form below.
Now ask in turn about routine activities. Follow this model:
A : Where are you at 6 oclock in the morning?
B : I am at home.
A : What do you usually do at home at 6 oclock?
B : I usually read a book.

Schedule of my daily activities

No Time Place Activities


1 6 at home. read a book
2 ..
3
4
10

Activity 2

Work in pairs with another partner telling him/her your partners routine activities
you have talked about. Begin like this:
A : Please tell me your friends routine activities?
B : Well, Ani/Anto is at home at 6 oclock. S(he) usually reads a book. Etc.

6. WRITING

Write down a paragraph about your own routine activities. See the example below.
I am usually at home at 6 oclock in the morning. At the time I often read a book,
etc.
5

UNIT 2
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

How can I get to the Post office?

I have a special rule for travel: never carry a map. I prefer to ask for directions.
Sometimes I get lost, but I usually have a good time. I can practice a new language,
meet new people, and learn new customs. And I find out about different styles of
directions every time I ask, How can I get to the post office?

Foreign tourist often confused in Japan because most streets there dont have
names; in Japan, people use landmarks in their directions instead of their street
names. For example, the Japanese will say to travelers, Go straight down to the
corner. Turn left at the big hotel and go past a fruit market. The post office is across
from the bus stop.

In the countryside of the American Midwest, there are not usually many
landmarks. There are no mountains, so the land is very flat; in many places there is
no town or buildings within miles. Instead of landmark, people will tell you
directions and distances. In Kansas or Iowa, for instance, people will say, Go north
two miles. Turn east, and then go another mile.

People in Los Angles, California, have no idea of distance on the map: they measure
distance in Los Angles in time, not miles. How far away is the post office? you
ask. Oh, they answer, its about five minutes from here. You say, Yes, but how
many miles away is it? They dont know.
6

People in Greece sometimes do not even try to give directions because tourists
seldom understand the Greek language. Instead, a Greek will often say, Follow
me. Then he will lead you through the streets of the city to the post office.
Sometimes a person doesnt know the answer to your questions. What happens in
this situation? A New Yorker might say, Sorry, I have no idea. But in Yucatan,
Mexico no one answers, I dont know. People in Yucatan believe that I dont
know is impolite. They usually give an answer, often a wrong one. A tourist can get
very, very lost in Yucatan!

One thing will help you everywhere- in Japan, the United States, Greece, Mexico, or
any other place. You might not understand the persons body language: Go in that
direction, and you may find the post office! (Taken from INTERACTIONS, Kirn,
1985)

Difficult Words

Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indoensian language.
1. to carry =
2. to get lost =
3. flat =
4. distance =
5. to understand =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!


1. What is the main idea of the passage?
2. What kind of thing is the countryside?
3. How does it look like?
4. What doesnt it have?
5. What does the word countryside mean?
3. ORAL REPRODUCTION
7

With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the
text you have read.
Discuss the following topics!
1. The ways to give directions in your own cultures (country)
2. The use of body language in giving directions
3. The opinions why the people in different countries give directions in
different ways.

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS

One thing will help you everywhere


The sentence taken from the text is often called Simple Future Tense.

Every sentence must have a subject and a predicate. This is also true for
Simple Future Tense statements. The predicate of Simple Future Tense
statements may take either a form of verbal or non-verbal predicate.

Examples:
A. Sentences with verbal predicates

No Subject Verbal Predicate


1 I Will study seriously.
2 A friend of mine Will study together with me.
3 Diligent students Will not forget their homework.
4 They Will not stop studying English.
5 All of us Will remember one another.
(+) Noun or pronoun will + verb 1st
(-) Noun or pronoun Will not + verb 1st

B. Sentences with non verbal predicates

No Subject Non-Verbal Predicate


8

1 We Will be parents in the future.


2 Girls Will be mothers.
3 Boys Will be fathers.
4 All of us Will not be unemployed.
5 Some of us Will not be in Lampung.
(+) Noun or pronoun Will + be
(-) Noun or pronoun Will not + be

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Arrange your planning of the next semester semester. When finished, do the
practice again and now change roles. Fill in the form below. Start like this:
A : Where will you be in the first week of the next semester?
B : Well, I will be at campus.
A : What will you do there?
B : I will of course meet with my academic guidance. Etc.

Planning for the next semester


No Time Place Activities
1 week 1 at campus meet with my academic
2 guidance

3 ..

10 .

Activity 2

Tell your friends planning you have talked about to another classmate. Begin like
this:
A : Please tell me his/her planning for the next semester?
9

B : Well, I would like to tell you Tonis planning for the next semester. At the
first
week, he will be at campus. He will meet with his academic guidance. Etc.

6. WRITING

Write down a paragraph of ten to fifteen sentences about your planning for next
semester.
10

UNIT 3
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

Women in the Nuclear Family

The family is changing. In the past, grandparents, parents, and children used to live
together; in other words, they had an extended family. Sometimes two or more
brothers with their wives and children were part of this large family group. But
family structure is changing throughout the world. The nuclear family consists of
only one father, one mother and children; it is becoming the main family structure
everywhere.

The nuclear family offers married women some advantages: they have freedom
from their relatives, and husband does not have all the power of the family. Family
structure in most part of the world is still patriarchal; that is the father is the
head of the family and makes most of the important decisions. Studies show,
however, that in nuclear families, men and women usually make an equal number
of decisions about family life. Also, well-educated husbands and wives often prefer
to share the power.

But wives usually have to pay for the benefits of freedom and power. When
women lived in extended families, sisters, grandmothers, and aunts helped one
another with housework and childcare. In addition, older women in a large family
group had important positions. Wives in nuclear families do not often enjoy this
benefit, and they have another disadvantage, too; women generally live longer than
their husbands, so older women from nuclear families often have to live alone.
11

Studies show that women are generally less satisfied with marriage than mean are.
In the past, mean worked outside the home and women worked inside. Housework
and childcare were a full-time job, and there was no time for anything else. Of
course this situation is changing. Women now work outside the home and have
more freedom than they did in the past. Why, then, are some women still
discontent?

In most parts of the world today, women work because the family needs more
money. However, their outside jobs often give them less freedom, not more,
because they still have to do most of the housework. The women actually have two
full-time jobs- one outside the home and another inside- and not much free time.

The nuclear family will probably continue to be the main family form of the future.
Change, however, usually brings disadvantages along with benefits, and family
forms of the past had had many advantages. (Taken from INTERACTIONS, Kirn,
1985)

Difficult Words

Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indoensian language.
1. grandparents =
2. to consists =
3. a decision =
4. freedom =
5. probably =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!


1. What does the text talk about?
2. What advantages does the nuclear family offer women?
12

3. What are some disadvantages of the nuclear family for women?


4. Why are many women dissatisfied with marriage and nuclear family?
5. What does they in paragraph 2 line 1 refer to?

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

Please work in-group of three or four, discussing the questions below:


1. Do you live in nuclear family or extended family? What is the main family
structure in your neighborhood?
2. What do you think is good about nuclear family?
3. What is good about extended family?
4. What is your pinion about a married woman working outside the home?
Why or why not?

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS

they had an extended family.


The sentence taken from the text is often called Simple Past Tense.

Every sentence must have a subject and a predicate. This is also true for
Simple Past Tense statements. The predicate of Simple Past Tense
statements may take either a form of verbal or non-verbal predicate.

Examples:
A. Sentences with verbal predicates

No Subject Verbal Predicate


1 My father Studied at a Senior School in Medan.
2 He Continued his study in Bandung in 1961.
3 My mother Did not study in Medan.
4 She Did not finish her university.
5 They Moved to Lampung in 1970.
(+) Noun or pronoun verb 2nd
(-) Noun or pronoun Did not + verb 1st
13

B. Sentences with non verbal predicates

No Subject Verbal Predicate


1 My father Was very active in students activities.
2 He Was the captain in this class.
3 My mother Was not active.
4 She Was one of the beautiful girl in her class.
5 They Were not lazy students.
(+) Noun or pronoun Was/were
(-) Noun or pronoun Was/were not

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Work in pairs talking in turn about your past activities. Fill in the form below.
Follow the model:
A : Where were you at 6 a.m. yesterday?
B : I was at home.
A : What did you do at home?
B : I did jogging. Etc

Schedule of Yesterdays activities


No Time Place Activities
1 6 a.m. at home. do jogging
2 ..
3
4
10

Activity 2
14

Now ask another friend what your friend did yesterday. Begin like this:
A : Where was he at 6 a.m. yesterday?
B : He was at home?
A : What did he do at home at 6 a.m. yesterday?
B : He said that he did jogging. Etc.

6. WRITING

Write a paragraph about your own yesterdays activities.


15

UNIT 4
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

Untitled

Most children have achieved remarkably sophisticated language capabilities by the


age of three. Their vocabularies have reached about 1000 words, and they can use
as many as five of those words in a single sentence. They make up new words, too.
They can speak about the past and future as well as the present. They understand
that some words have more than one meaning. They can duck when a ball is
coming or see a duck on lake. They have began to use negatives (Thats not mine)
and helping verbs (I can do it myself).

Over the next two years, their vocabulary will more than double. They will begin to
play with words, to repeat silly sounds, to try out toilet words or even swear
words, just to elicit an adults reaction. Newly aware of the power of words, they
will begin to argue, and they will start to tell jokes.

This language play carries on a process of experimentation that began when child
was an infant, first encountering language. At one time, experts thought children
learned language simply by imitating adults. Nowadays, most linguists agree that
children learn primarily by experimenting- by listening and thinking about what
they hear, by making their own sounds, and then by observing the way others react.

Language comes first as a great garble of sound. Slowly, children learn to hear
individual sound patterns, or words. They try out sounds. For example babies
16

babble da da and from adults responses (yes, thats daddy), learn which sounds
enable them to communicate effectively. (Taken from TOEFL Prep Book, Lin
Lougheed, 1992)

Difficult Words
Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indoensian language.
1. sophisticated =
2. to make up =
3. silly =
4. infant =
5. babble =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!


1. What is the best title for the passage?
2. What age can children tell their past experience?
3. At the age of five, what do the children begin to experiment with?
4. How does an infant learn a language?
5. What does the passage tell us about the childs first recognition of words?

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the
text you have read!
Tell your partner about:
1. Your experience when you were still a child
2. your way of teaching a language if you have children
Most children have achieved remarkably sophisticated language capabilities by the
age of three
The sentence taken from the text is often called Present Perfect Tense.
17

Every sentence must have a subject and a predicate. This is also true for
Present Perfect Tense statements. The predicate of Present Perfect Tense
statements may take either a form of verbal or non-verbal predicate.

Examples:
A. Sentences with verbal predicates

No Subject Verbal Predicate


1 Some students have lived here since they were born.
2 We have studied English for 6 years.
3 My father has not met some of my friends.
4 Nobody here has seen UFO.
5 Some lecturers have not earned their Ph.D. degrees.
(+) Noun or pronoun have/has verb 3rd
(-) Noun or pronoun have/has not + verb 3rd

B. Sentences with non verbal predicates

No Subject Verbal Predicate


We have been university students for 6
1
months.
2 Everybody has been very busy with his homework.
3 Some universities have not been accrediated .
4 Our dean has been to USA twice.
5 This department has been accredited.
(+) Noun or pronoun have/has + been
(-) Noun or pronoun have/has not + been

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Ask your friend about the condition and activities of his/her family. Fill in the form
below. Follow the model:
18

A : Hi, how have you been for a week?


B : I have (Ive) been fine.
A : What have you done then?
B : I have finished my homework and visited my friends in Jakarta.
A : Sounds good. And how has you sister been?
B : She has (Shes) been fine too.
A : What has she done for a week?
B : As I know, she has just returned home after a vacation in Bali.

Summary of my family condition and activities for a week


Members Condition Activities
of the
family
You fine finish homework, visit friend
father .. ..
mother .. ..
brother .. ..
sister .. ..
nieces .. ..
nephews .. ..
etc.

Activity 2

Now change roles. Practice the activity 1 again.


Activity 3
Now tell another friend about the condition and activities of your friends family for
a week you have talked about. See the example below.
A : Please tell me the condition and activities of his/her family for one week.
B : Well, he has been fine and he has finished .etc

6. WRITING
19

Write down condition and activities of your own family for a week.
20

UNIT 5
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

Advertising: The Selling of a Product

A consumer walks into a store. He stands in front of hundreds of foxes of laundry


detergent. He chooses one brand, pays for it, and leaves. Why does he pick that
specific kind of soap? Is it truly better than the others? Probably not. These days,
many products are nearly identical to each other in quality and price. If products
are almost the same, what makes consumers buy one brand instead of another?
Although we might not like to admit it, commercials on television and
advertisements in magazines probably influence us much more than we think they
do.

Advertising informs consumers about new products available on the market. It


gives us information about everything from shampoo to toothpaste to computers
and cars. But there is one serious problem with this. The information is actually
very often misinformation. It tells us the products benefits but hides their
disadvantages. Advertisings not only lead us to buy things that we dont need and
cant afford, but it also confuses our sense of reality. Zoom toothpaste prevents
cavities and give you white teeth! the advertisement tells us. But it does not tell us
the complete truth: that a healthy diet and a good toothbrush will have the same
effect.

Advertisers use many methods to get us to buy their products. One of their most
successful methods is to make us feel dissatisfied with ourselves and our imperfect
21

lives. Advertisements show us who we arent and what we dont have. Our teeth are
not white enough. Our hair isnt shiny enough. Our clothes arent clean enough.
Advertisements make us afraid that people wont like us if we dont use the
advertised products. Why dont I have any dates? a good-looking girl sadly asks in
commercial. Here replies her roommate, try Zoom toothpaste! Of course she
tries it, and immediately the whole football team falls in love with her. Thats a
stupid commercial, we might say. But we still buy Zoom toothpaste out of fear of
being unpopular and having no friends.

If fear is the negative motive for buying product, then wanting a good self-image is
the positive reason for choosing it. Each of us has a mental picture of the kind of
person we would like to be. For example, a modern young woman might like to
think that she looks like a beautiful movie star. A middleage man might want to
see himself a strong, attractive athlete. Advertisers know this. They write specific
ads to make certain groups of people choose their product. Two people may choose
different brand of toothpaste with the identical price, amount, and quality; each
person believes that he is expressing his personality by choosing that brand. (Taken
from INTERACTIONS, Kirn, 1985)

Difficult Words
Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indoensian language.
1. a brand =
2. admit =
3. shiny =
4. good-looking =
5. identical price =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
22

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separate paper!


1. What is the main idea of the text?
2. What does it in line 6 refer to?
3. What does they in line 7 refer to?
4. The word admit in line 6 nearly eans..
5. What does this in paragraph 2 line 3 refer to?

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

Talk with your friends about the following questions:


1. What kind of advertising attracts your attention? Do you sometimes buy
products in the ads or commercials?
2. How are American and Canadian advertisements and commercials different
from those in our country?
3. What image would you like to have for yourself?
4. What famous brands of products do you have in your home now? Why did
you buy these?

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS

A consumer walks into a store


The information is actually very often misinformation.
The two sentences have different types of predicate: verbal and non verbal
predicates

Every sentence must have a subject and a predicate. The predicate may take
either a form of verbal or non-verbal predicate.

Examples:
A. Sentences with verbal predicates
23

No Tenses Examples
1 Simple Present Tense We like Information Technology.
2 Simple Future Tense We will learn English for two semesters.
3 Simple Past Tense We did not learn English seriously at
SMU.
4 Simple Past Tense We have learned English for 6 years.

B. Sentences with non verbal predicates

No Tenses Examples
1 Simple Present Tense We are students of STMIK Darmajaya.
2 Simple Future Tense We will not be bad English learners.
3 Simple Past Tense We were not very serious students at SMU.
4 Simple Past Tense We have been university students for a
year.

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Please interview your friend about his/her routine activities, future planning, past
activities, and activities for one week you have talked about. Use only yes-no
questions. Follow this model:
Reporter : Excuse me, are you usually at home at 6 oclock in the morning?
Badu : yes I am.
Reporter : Do you read a book at that time?
Badu : No I dont. I usually take a bath.
Reporter : Will you be at home tomorrow?
Badu : yes
Reporter : Will you study at home?
Badu : yes I will.
Reporter : what about yesterday, were you at home yesterday?
24

Badu : No I wasnt. I was at campus.


Repoter : Did you study at campus?
Badu : Yes I did.
Reporter : For a week, have you been at home/fine?
Badu : yes I have.
Reporter : Have you done your work?
Badu : yes

Activity 2

Now change roles and do activity 1 again.

Activity 3

Work in-group of three or four. You have to guess your friend, famous people, or
the things surroundings. Here is the example:

Example 1
A : Is it a man?
B : Yes, it is.
C : Does he wear glasses?
B : No, he doesnt.
D : Is his hair curly?
B : Yes.
D : Is he Anto?
B : yes he is.

Example 2
A : Is it hard?
B : No
C : Do all the students in this class use it?
25

B : Yes they do
C : Is it small?
B : yes it is.
C : it is a pen?
B : yes.

6. WRITING

Write down ten to fifteen sentences about the characteristics of your friends or
things you have guessed. See the example below.

His name is He always wears glasses. He looks rather thin. He always brings a
bag. His hair is curly and his skin is rather black, etc.
26

UNIT 6
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

Television: How it Affects Us

How does television affect our lives? It can be very helpful to people who carefully
choose the shows that they watch. Television can increase our knowledge of the
outside world; there are high-quality programs that help us understand many fields
of study: science, medicine, the arts, and so on. Moreover, television benefits very
old people who cant often leave the house, as well as patient in the hospitals. It
also offers non-native speakers the advantage of daily informal language practice;
they can increase their vocabulary and practice listening.

On the other hand there are several serious disadvantages to television. Of course,
it provides us with a pleasant way to relax and spend our free time, but in some
countries, people watch the boob tube for an average of six hours of more a day.
Many children stare at a t.v. screen for more hours each day than they do anything
else, including studying and sleeping. Its clear that the tube has a powerful
influence on their lives and that its influence is often negative.

Recent studies show that after only thirty seconds of t.v., a persons brain relaxes
the same that it does just before the person falls asleep. Another effect of television
on the human brain is that it seems to cause poor concentration. Chidden who view
a lot t.v. can often concentrate on a subject for only fifteen to twenty minutes; they
can pay attention only for amount of time between commercials.
27

Another disadvantage is that t.v. often causes people to become dissatisfied with
their own lives. Real life does not seem as exciting to these people as the lives of
actors on the screen. To many people, t.v. becomes more real than reality, and their
own lives seem boring. Also many people get upset or depressed when they cannot
solve the problems in real life as quickly as t.v. actors seem to. On the screen, actors
solve the problems in a half-hour program or thirty-second commercial.

Before a child is fourteen years old, he or she views eleven thousand murders on
the tube he or she begins to believe that there is nothing strange about fights,
killing, and other kinds of violence. Many studies show that people become more
violence after certain programs. They may even do the things that they saw in a
violent show. An example is the effect of the movie The Deer Hunter. After it
appeared on t.v. in the United States, twenty-nine people tried to kill themselves a
way similar to an event in the film.

The most negative effect of boob tube might be peoples addiction to it. People
often feel a strange and powerful need to watch t.v. even when they dont enjoy it.
(Taken from INTERACTIONS, Kirn, 1985)

Difficult Words
Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indoensian language.
1. to affect =
2. to benefit =
3. pleasant =
4. disadvantage =
5. violence =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
28

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!


1. What is the main idea of the text?
2. What does the word stare in line 11most nearly mean?
3. What does it in paragraph 3 line 2 refer to?
4. What does it in paragraph 3 line 3 refer to?
5. What are the effects of television on human brain?

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

Discuss with you friends about the following questions:


1. How many hours do you watch television every day?
2. Which show do you like most? Why?
3. Which shows/ programs dont you like? Why?
4. Does t.v. help you in any way? If so, how?

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS

How does television affect our lives?


The sentence taken from the text is a question or interrogative in Simple Present
Tense.
Interrogatives in Simple Present Tense
A. For subjects

Purpose Question word Predicate


Person Who does not like accounting?
Thing What makes you happy?
Specific What class is not interesting?
thing
Choice Which (house) is yours?
Possesive Whose class is the most difficult one?
Number How many people study in this university?
29

Wh word or How Verbal Predicate ?


Wh word or How Non-verbal Predicate ?

B. For non-subjects

Purpose Question Word Clause


Place Where is your house?
Object Whom does she like most in this
class?
Object What (subjects) do you like very much ?
Time When do you drink coffe?
Manner How is she now?
Reason Why are they always absent on
Monday?
Wh-Word or How do/does subject ?
Wh-Word or How is/are/am subject ?

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Ask your friend about information of his/her family. Change roles. Use Wh-
questions. Use the model below: Start like this:

Example 1
Reporter : Excuse me, who is at home everyday?
Badu : My sister and I.
Reporter : Why are you at home today?
Badu : Because
Reporter : and why is your sister at home too?
Badu : Because, she ..
Reporter : and who goes to school?
Badu : My Brother himself
Reporter : How does your brother go to school?
30

Badu : He goes to school by bus. Etc.

Example 2
Make statement about the activities of your family. Please respond the statement
using only Wh-questions. Follow this model:
A : I study at home today.
B : Who studies at home today?
A ; Why do you study at home today?
B : Because

Activity 2

Tell with another partner about your friends activities of his/her family.

6. WRITING

Write down what you have talked about with your friend
31

UNIT 7
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

What will we expect from computers in the near future?

Trends in hardware development are helping students with disabilities gain greater
independence and integration into society. Speech recognition systems, electronic
communications, personal computers, robots, and artificial intelligence are making
a difference. The movement towards miniaturization, use of lighter materials, and
high-capacity information processing are making devices more transparent.
Devices such as wrist-watch computers will provide students with unobtrusive
support. Peripheral devices are becoming more adaptable to multimodalities.
Computers that are activated by voice and have synthesized speech are assisting
students who are physically handicapped, blind, and at risk. Captions and
enhanced narration of TV programs are also helping students who have physical
and language disabilities. Distance education, telecommunications, expert systems,
and artificial intelligence are projected to become more prevalent and especially
valuable to the special education populace. (Taken from Computers in Education
by Merrill, at al.)

Difficult Words

Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indoensian language.
1. hardware =
2. society =
3. a device =
32

4. to assist =
5. populace =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!


1. What does the passage talk about?
2. What are the benefits of the computer in the near future?
3. The word transparent in line 6 nearly means
4. The word unobtrusive in line 7 means
5. The word prevalent in the last line most nearly means.

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the
text you have read.
1. How is the development of the current computer different from computers
in the near future?
2. Ask your friends the benefits of computers in the near future especially for
students who are physically handicapped, blind, and at risk.

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS

What will we expect from computers in the near future?


The sentence taken from the text is a question or interrogative in Simple Future
Tense.

Interrogatives in Simple Future Tense


33

A. For subjects

Purpose Question word Predicate


Person Who will not join our party?
Thing What will make you happy?
Specific What class will not be interesting?
thing
Choice Which (house) will be yours?
Possesive Whose car will be parked here?
Number How many people will come to the meeting?
Wh word or How Verbal Predicate ?
Wh word or How Non-verbal Predicate ?

B. For non-subjects

Purpose Question Word Clause


Place Where will you study next year?
Object Whom will you marry?
Object What (subjects) will you take next semester ?
Time When will she finish her study?
Manner How will you be this afternoon?
Reason Why will you be absent tomorrow?
Wh-Word or How will subject ?

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Ask your friend about information of his/her family future planning. Reverse roles.
Now your friend is a reporter. Use the model below:

Example 1
Reporter : Excuse me, who will be at home tomorrow?
34

Badu : My parents
Reporter : Why will your parents be at home tomorrow?
Badu : Because ..
Reporter : and who will work tomorrow?
Badu : My brother.
Reporter : How will your brother go to work?
Badu : He will go to work by motorcycle.

Example 2
Make statement about tomorrows activities. Please respond the statement using
only Wh-questions. Follow this model.
A : Tomorrow I will study at home.
B : Sorry, who will study at friends house?
B : Who will study at home?
B : Why will you study hard next semester?
A : Because I have no class.

Activity 2

Tell with another classmate about your friends future activities.

6. WRITING

Write down his family future activities you talked about.


35

UNIT 8
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

Who named the Apple computer?

One of the best-known success stories associated with the advent of the
microcomputer is that of Steven Jobs. As a student at Homestead High School in
Los Altos (California) during the early 1970s, he attended lecturers at Hewlett-
Packard, driven by his fascination with technology. After creating and selling an
illegal electronic telephone attachment that allowed the user to make long-distance
calls at no cost, Jobs and his friend Stephen Wozniak built and marked one of the
worlds first microcomputers. From a business that began in a bedroom and garage
of his parents home, Jobs six years later was chairman of the board of a company
with $600 million in sales and growing almost out of control. The Apple computer
was named by Jobs in memory of a summer spent working in the orchards of
Oregon. (Taken from Computers in Education by Merrill, at al.)

Difficult Words

Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indonesian language.
1. advent =
2. fascination =
3. illegal =
4. at no cost =
5. chairman =
2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
36

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!


1. What is the name of Steven Jobs often associated with?
2. What did Steven Jobs experiment and make money from it?
3. What was the practical use of his work?
4. Where did he begin his business?
5. How was his business after six years he began his business?

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the
text you have read
Discuss with your partner
1. the type of computer that most students use
2. the advantages and disadvantages of using computers
3. the computer programs that university students should use

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS

Who named the Apple computer?


The sentence taken from the text is a question or interrogative in Simple Past
Tense.

Interrogatives in Simple Past Tense


A. For subjects
Purpose Question word Predicate
Person Who did not join our party?
Thing What made you happy?
Specific What class was not interesting?
thing
Choice Which (house) was your parents house?
Possesive Whose car was here yesterday?
Number How many people came to the meeting?
37

Wh word or How Verbal Predicate ?


Wh word or How Non-verbal Predicate ?

B. For non-subjects

Purpose Question Word Clause


Place Where were you yesterday?
Object Whom did you meet in Jakarta?
Object What (subjects) did you take next semester ?
Time When did you finish your SMU?
Manner How were you last night?
Reason Why were you absent yesterday?
Wh-Word or How did subject ?
Wh-Word or How was/were subject ?

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Ask your friend about information of past activities of his/her family. Reverse roles.
Now your friend is a reporter. Use the model below. Start like this:

Example 1
Reporter : Excuse me, who was at home yesterday/last week?
B : My sister and I.
Reporter : Why were you at home yesterday?
B : Because
Reporter : and why was your sister at home too?
B : Because she ..
Reporter : Who studied at home yesterday?
B : My brother
Reporter : What did he study yesterday?
B : He studied economics.
38

Reporter : thank you very much.


B : You are very wellcome

Example 2
Make statement about your own past activities. Please respond the statement using
only Wh-questions. Follow this model
A : I did home work last night.
B : Who did homework last night?
A ; Where did you do homework last night?
B :

6. WRITING

Write ten to fifteen sentences about past activities of friends family.


An example:
His sister and s(he) were at home yesterday. He was at home because heane her
sister was at home because she .., etc
39

UNIT 9
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

How has a computer application influenced our attitudes?

Attitudes are associated with almost every learning activity. An attitude is an


internal state that affects our tendency to respond in a certain way. People
generally have a positive or negative emotional reaction to any learning situation.
That emotional reaction influences our attitudes about what we have learned. Our
attitudes influence how we respond with respect to our knowledge and skills.
Attitudes are involved in choices made about smoking cigarettes, attendening an
opera, studying, following safety procedures, and obeying traffic laws. Attitudes can
be influenced and changed through the use of classical condition, reinforcement,
and human modeling.

Any computer application will have some influence on student attitudes. If the
program is designed to adapt to individual needs, then the student will experience
success and have a positive emotional reaction. If the program is too easy or too
difficult, the student will become bored or frustrated, which leads to negative
attitudes. If appropriate gaming elements are incorporated into the application,
then the students will be motivated to continue to interact with the program. When
students have a choice, they will engage in those learning activities that are
enjoyable and relevant to their interests. Computer-based videodisc applications
can be used to demonstrate or model appropriate choice behaviors. (Taken from
Computers in Education by Merrill, et al.)
40

Difficult Words

Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indoensian language.
1. An attitude =
2. knowledge =
3. reinforcment =
4. to adapt =
5. enjoyable =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the
text you have read

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS

How has a computer application influenced our attitudes?


The sentence taken from the text is a question or interrogative in Present Perfect
Tense.
Interrogatives in Present Perfect Tense
A. For subjects
Purpose Question word Predicate
Person Who has met your father?
Thing What has made you happy?
Specific What class has been interesting?
thing
Choice Which (building) has been cleaned?
Possessive Whose car has hit the three?
Number How many students have finished their studies?
41

Wh word or How Verbal Predicate ?


Wh word or How Non-verbal Predicate ?

B. For non-subject

Purpose Question Word Clause


Place Where have you been?
Object Whom have you seen since this
morning?
Object What (subjects) have they taken this semester
?
Time How long have you been in Lampung?
Manner How has she done her job?
Reason Why have they been absent for a
week?
Wh-Word or How have/has subject ?

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Ask your friend about information of what your classmate has done. Reverse roles.
Now your friend is a reporter. Use the model below. Start like this:

Example 1
Reporter : Excuse me, who has been at home so far?
B : My sister and I.
Reporter : Why have you been at home today?
B : Because
Reporter : and why has your sister been at home too?
B : Because, she ..
Reporter : Who has watched tv?
B : My younger brother
Reporter : What program have your brother has watched?
42

B : He has
Reporter : Thanks a lot
B : no worries

Example 2
Make statement about what your family has done for a week. Please respond the
statement using only Wh-questions. Follow this model
A : I have been/ stayed at home for a week.
B : Who has been/stayed at home for a week?
A : Why have you been/stayed at home for a week?
B : Because

6. WRITING

Write ten to fifteen sentences about the activities she has done for one week.
An example:
His sister and s(he) have been/stayed at home for a week. He has been/stayed at
home because hewhile her sister has been/stayed at home because she .., etc
43

UNIT 10
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

Food Personalities

People express their personalities in their clothes, their cars, and their homes. A
study shows that our diets are also an expression of our personalities. Perhaps we
dont choose foods only for taste and nutrition. We might choose them because
they tell people something about us. For example, some people mainly eat
gourmet foods, such as caviar and lobster, and they eat only in expensive
restaurants (never in cafeterias or snack bars). They might want to tell the world
that they know about the the better things in life.

Human beings can eat many different kinds of foods, but some people choose not
to eat meat. These vegetarians often have more in common than just their diet.
Their personalities might be similar, too. For example, vegetarians in the United
States may be creative people, and they might not enjoy competitive sports or jobs.
They worry about their health of the world, and they probably dont believe in war.

Some people eat mostly fast food. One study shows that many fast food-eaters
have a lot in common with each other, but they are very much different from
vegetarians. They are competitive and good at business. They are also in hurry.
Many fast food eaters might not agree with this description of their personalities,
but it is a common picture of them.
Some people also believe that people of the same astrological sign have similar food
personalities. Arians (born under the sign of Aries, between March 21 and April 19)
44

usually like spicy food, with a lot of onions and pepper. People with the sign of
Taurus (April 20 to may 20) prefer healthful fruits and vegetables to other food,
but they often eat too much. Sagittarians (November 22 to December 21) like ethnic
foods from many different countries. Aquarians (January 20 to February 18) can
eat as much meat and fish as they want, but sugar and cholesterol are sometimes
problems for them. (Taken from Mozaic, Wegmann & Kenezevic, 1985)

Difficult Words

Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indoensian language.
1. a diet =
2. nutrition =
3. a vegetarian =
4. to agree =
5. pepper =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!


1. What do them and they in line 3 refer to?
2. Why do we choose certain foods?
3. Why do some people eat mainly gourmet foods?
4. What do vegetarians have in common besides their diet?
5. What are two examples of personality characteristics?

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the
text you have read
1. What kinds of foods do you like and dislike? Why?
2. What kind of food do you eat most often? Why? Does this kind of food
express your personality?
45

3. Do you know gourmet eaters? Vegetarians? Fast-food eaters? In your


opinion, what kind of people are they?
4. Do you believe the information in this reading? Why or why not?

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS

People with the sign of Taurus (April 20 to may 20) prefer healthful fruits and
vegetables to other food
The sentence above is expressed by using a preference.
There are some types of preference.

Subject Predicate in preference forms


University like computers better than typewriters
students
We prefer computer books to accounting books
The students would rather study than play

The forms are as follows:

Subject Predicate
like noun better than noun
prefer noun to noun
would rather verb 1st than verb 1st

Note:
Instead of would rather, we may use would sooner
We may also use gerund instead of noun, e.g. I like swimming better than hiking.

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1
46

Please list a number of the subjects provided in this semester. Put a tick (V) on the
subjects you like and a cross (x) on the subjects you dislike. Ask your friends likes
and dislikes as given in the example below.

A : Do you like all the subjects you are studying in this semester?
B : No, I dont.
A : What subjects do you like then?
B : management, history, etc.
A : How do you like them?
B : I think I like them very much (I am crazy about them).
A : Which one do you like better, management or .?
B : I like management better.
A : And which subjects you dislike?
B : I dislike (cant stand of) mathematics
A : Why do you dislike mathematics?

Subjects like very much/ OK dislike/hate/cant


be crazy about stand
.. .. ..
.. .. ..
. .. ..
. .. ..
. .. ..
. .. ..
.. .. ..
.. .. ..

Activity 2

Tell another friend your friends likes and dislikes you have talked about.

6. WRITING
47

Write a paragraph about your friends like and dislikes.


Start like this:
S(he) likes some subjects s(he) is studying this semester such as, . But s(he)

48

UNIT 11
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

The Laser

Since the laser is an intense, highly directional source of light, some of its energy
will be absorbed by the material it strikes. This absorption can result in a
temperature increase of the surface and/or the interior of the object. If the object
placed in the path of the laser is the human body, then extra precautions should be
taken.

The eye is much more vulnerable to injury from laser radiation than the skin. When
a laser beam directly hits the eye, visible light is transmitted through the cornea
and lens and is focused to a small spot on the retina. This is true for direct viewing
(looking into the laser) as well as specular reflections of the beam (reflection off
mirror like surfaces).

Both Class I and II Helium-Neon lasers can be used for classroom demonstrations
because of the low potential for injury to the user or viewer. However, the Laser
Institute of America lists the following safety precautions when operating Class II
lasers:
Do not permit a person to stare into the laser.
Do not point the laser at a persons eye.
Keep beam paths above or well below either sitting or standing eye level.
Permit only experienced personal to operate the laser, and do not leave an
operable laser unattended.
49

Eliminate unnecessary specular surfaces from the vicinity of the beam path.
(Taken from TOEFL Prep Book, Lin Lougheed, 1992)

Difficult Words

Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indoensian language.
1. intense =
2. to result in =
3. specular =
4. precautions =
5. injury =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!


1. What is the main topic of the passage?
2. What is actually the laser?
3. What happens if the laser hits your eyes?
4. What laser is safe to be used for classroom demonstrations

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the
text you have read
1. What is interesting for you about the laser?
2. What other lights do you think dangerous for our eyes?
3. What do you do with your eyes if the dangerous light hits your eyes?

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS

Keep beam paths above or well below either sitting or standing eye level
The sentence taken from the text is called a command.
50

Commands are expressed by the imperative. In the second person imperative, the
subject you is rarely used.
Subject Command
(You) click on the Browse button in the Create Shortcut dialog
box
(You) select Bold Italic from the Font Style list
(You) bring your own diskettes
The formula is as follows:
verb 1st

Note:
For negative commands, we put do not (dont) before the verb. For example:
- Dont bring the bad diskettes.
For non verbal predicates, we use be. For example:
- Be quiet.
- Dont be lazy.

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Ask a friend of you the procedure for making or doing something for example, the
procedure for making the ice cream. Firs list the ingredients and tools as shown in
Table below. Start like this:
A : Excuse me, tell me how the ice cream is made?
B : Well, first two eggs are broken into the bowl. Then one cup of sugar is
added
and everything is blended together, etc.
Example of Ingredients and tools for making ice cream
No Ingredients Tools
1 two eggs bowel
2 one cup of sugar blender
3
etc
51

Activity 2

Now change roles and practice activity 1 again.

6. WRITING

Now write up a description for making or doing something.


52

UNIT 12
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

Are Men More Creative Than Women?

Through out history it has been men, for the most part, who have engaged in public
life. Men have sought for public achievement and recognition, while women
obtained their main satisfactions by bearing and rearing children. In womens eyes,
public achievement makes a man more attractive as a marriage partner. But for
men the situation is reversed. The more a woman achieves publicly, the less
desirable she seems as a wife.

There are three possible positions one can tackle about male and female creativity.
The first is that males are inherently more creative in all fields. The second is that if
it were not for the greater appeal of crating and cherishing young human beings,
females would be as creative as males. If this were the case, then if men were
permitted the enjoyment women have always had in rearing young children, male
creativity might be reduced also. (There is some indication in the United States
today that this is so.) The third possible position is that certain forms of creativity
are more congenial to one sex than to the other and that the great creative acts will
therefore come from only one sex in a given field. (Taken from Mozaic, Wegmann
& Kenezevic, 1985)
53

Difficult Words

Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indoensian language.
1. public =
2. achievement =
3. attractive =
4. appeal =
5. congenial =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!


1. Who has been popular in public life?
2. What do men think about public achievement and recognition for women?
3. Are females are as creative as males?
4. What are the tree possible positions given regarding male and female
creativity? Are there any other possible explanations? What position do you
think correct? Why?

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the
text you have read
1. In your society, which sex enjoys more public life?
2. What women who have been famous for their creativity?
3. What fields are dominated almost completely by one sex? What are your
reasons for this?
4. Do you think it is harder for women to excel in science, business, art, or
politics nowadays, or do they have the same opportunities as men? Does this
vary from one culture to another? Explain.
4. GRAMMAR FOCUS
54

if it were not for the greater appeal of crating and cherishing young human beings,
females would be as creative as males
The sentence above is called a conditional sentence.

Conditional sentences have two parts: the if clause and the main clause.
There are three types of conditional sentences:
Type 1: the action at present or future = probable to happen
Type 2: contrary to the facts at present = impossible to happen
Type 3: contrary to the facts in the past = impossible to happen

Type If clause Main clause


If you do not study hard, you will not pass the exam.
Type 1 (it is probable that you do (it is probable that you do not
not study hard) pass the exam)
You would see the earth above
If you lived in the moon,
you.
Type 2 (impossible that you live in
(impossible that you see the
the moon)
earth above you)
If we had got independence Japanese would not have
in 1940, colonialized our country.
Type 3
(we did not get (Japanese colonialized our
independence in 1940) country)
Type 1 If subject verb 1st Subject will verb 1st
Type 2 If subject verb 2snd Subject would verb 1st
Type 3 If subject had verb 3rd Subject would have verb 3rd

Note:
Possible variations of the basic forms:
Conditional sentences may take negative forms.
In type 1 instead of will, we may use can, may, might, must, or should.
In type 2 instead of would, we may use might or could.
In type 3 instead of would have, we may use might have, or could have.
55

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Please imagine that your friend is the one in the list below. Ask him/ her that s(he)
would or could do if s(he) were the one in the list. Change roles and practice the
activity again. Start like this:
A : If you were the President what would you do?
B : If I were the president, I would raise the fund for education.

Here are the lists:


President, an artist, a bird, a rector,

Activity 2

Now imagine that your friend has something that s(he) doesnt really have, or can
do some thing that s(he) really cant do. Ask your friend, starting like this:
A : What would you do if you had Rp. 100.000.000?
B : If I had Rp. 1000.000.000, I would go around the world.
A : and what would you do if you could fly planes.
B : If I could fly planes I would
No Imagination
1 have
2 Rp.1.000.000.000,-
3 fly planes
4 .
5 .
etc .

Activity 3
56

Tell another friend about your friends imagination you have already asked in
activity 1 and 2.

6. WRITING

Write down your friends imagination. You have talked about.


57

UNIT 13
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

Charlie Chaplin, Creator of Comedy

Charlie Chaplin has broken all records in making people laugh. No one has so set a
whole world laughing as the little man with the bowler hat, the cane, and the
overlarge shoes.

Much has been written about Chaplins art and his legendary career, and opinions
have varied widely. But perhaps the commentator who called him the most
universal human being of our time comes closest to the truth. Those who have
called him a genius stress the timeless and universal qualities in his work. It is an
art filled with tragic undertones and deep human feeling, with which an audience
cannot help but become involved and identified. It is for these reasons, I believe,
that the figure of Charlie has kept its grip on generation after generation.

All his biographers agree that Chaplins miserable childhood in the London slums
was the decisive influence in his development and in the type of films he made.
Chaplin himself emphasizes it in his memories. The more one reads about his
earliest period, the more one is inclined to agree. For Chaplin, his suffering youth
has a lingering fascination: it gave him a world that he could transform with his
imagination onto the movie screen.

Chaplin was never afraid of tackle controversial subjects in his films. He released a
parody on war (Shoulder Arms) only a few weeks before the American troops came
home from the hell of the trenches in World War I (1918). This was regarded as
58

sheer madness, but the parody was well received. So perfectly did it hit the nail on
the head that even the homecoming soldiers found it irresistible and deeply
appreciated this skit on what for them had been grim reality.

Churchgoers raged when Chaplin, in The Pilgrim (1923), attacked nonconformist


religions. In City lights (1931) he took his turn at mocking capitalism. Modern
Times (1936) parodied the inhuman destruction of the machine age. The great
Dictator (1940) made fun of Hitler and proclaimed Chaplins view of world politics.
Chaplin, in his comic satirical way, fought what he perceived as tyranny and
injustice. (Taken from Mozaic, Wegmann & Kenezevic, 1985)

Difficult Words

Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indoensian language.
1. legendary =
2. truth =
3. to transform =
4. a nail =
5. injustice =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!


1. What is the main idea of the passage?
2. What did Charlie Chaplin look like?
3. What is one quality of his genius almost everyone agrees?
4. What was Charlie not afraid to deal with?
5. What does it in paragraph 3 line 3 refer to?
3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

Please work in-group of three or four, discussing the questions below:


1. What our comedian program do you like better? Why?
59

2. What our comedian program do you dislike? Why?


3. What is your pinion about the comedian groups in our country? Why or why
not?
4. How is program of comedy in our country different from that of comedy in
other countries?

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS

For instance, he refers to the Trobriand Islanders who differentiate between what
he defines as fairy tales, legends, and myths. (The underlined clause is called
relative clause).

Relative clauses or adjective clauses are clauses that describe noun in


such a way to distinguish it from other nouns of the same class.

Person Noun Pronoun Relative clause Main clause


Subject The woman who teaches you English lives here.
The woman that teaches you English lives here.
Object The man whom we met yesterday is his father.
The man who we met yesterday is his father.
The man that we met yesterday is his father.
Possessiv The girl whose hair is long will see you.
e

Thing Noun Pronoun Relative clause Main clause


Subject The cat which bit you will be killed.
The cat that bit you will be killed.
Object The house which you have painted is very good.
The house that you have painted is very good.
Possessiv The car whose color you like is very old.
e
The car of which color you like is very old.

Note:
The formula is as follows:
60

Subject Pronoun Predicate


The who/that (the woman = subject) teaches you English
woman
The cat which/that (the cat = subject) bit you will be killed

Object Pronoun Subject predicate


The man Whom/who/that we met (the man = object) yesterday
The house Which/that you have painted (the house = object)

Possesive Pronoun Noun (in a clause)


The girl whose (her = possesive) hair is long
The car whose/of which (its = possesive) color you like

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Please identify a person or thing surroundings. Follow this model.


A : Which one is the best student in this class?
B : The best student in this class is the student who uses glasses.

Activity 2

Ask the characteristics of person or thing. Follow this model.

Example 1
A : What are the characteristics of a good student?
B : A good student is first the student who always studies hard, second the one
who always does homework, third,

Example 2
A : Tell me the characteristics of a good t.v. program?
61

B : I think a good tv program is first, the program that deals with education,
second the program that doesnt show any violence, third, .

6. WRITING

Please write down the characteristics of person or someone you have talked about.
62

UNIT 14
1. READING

You have to read the following text at home

Thinking Skills

Many teachers today believe that they teach thinking skills. In most instances,
however, what they actually do involves putting students into situations where they
are simply made to think and expected to do is as best they can. Most methods
teachers customarily use to teach thinking are indirect, rather than direct. These
methods are based on the questionable assumption that by doing thinking,
students automatically learn how to engage in such thinking.

Educational researchers have pointed out time and again that learning to think is
not an automatic by-product of studying certain subjects, assimilating the products
of someone elses thinking, or simply being asked to think about a subject or topic.
Nor do youngsters learn how to engage in critical thinking effectively by
themselves. There is little reason to believe that competence in critical thinking can
be an incidental outcome of instruction directed, or that appears to be directed, at
other ends. By concentrating on the detail of the subject mater being studied, most
common approaches to teaching critical thinking so obscure the skills of how to
engage in thinking that students fail to master them.

If we want to improve student proficiency in thinking, we must use more direct


methods of instruction than we now use. First, we must establish as explicit goals
of instruction, the attitude, skill, and knowledge components of critical thinking.
Second, we must employ direct, systematic instruction in these skills prior to,
63

during, and following student introduction to and use of these skills in our
classrooms. (Taken from TOEFL Prep Book, Lin Lougheed, 1992)

Difficult Words

Provide the possible meanings of the following words in the Indoensian language.
1. an instance =
2. to assimilate =
3. an outcome =
4. proficiency =
5. to employ =

2. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!


1. What does the passage mainly talk about?
2. Why does the author believe that teaching of thinking is inadequate today?
3. How many steps does the author suggest to teach thinking?
4. What does the second they in line 2 refer to?
5. What does the word engage in line 6 mostly mean?

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION

With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the
text you have read
1. How is indirect thinking different from direct thinking?
2. What are both the strengths and weaknesses of the methods of thinking?
3. How is your way of thinking different from that of the members of your
family?

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS

they are simply made to think and expected to do


64

The clause above is expressed in passive tense.

The passive of an active tense is formed by putting to be in the same tense as


the active verb and adding the past participle of the active verb or verb 3rd .
The subject of the verb or doer becomes the agent and often not
mentioned. When it is mentioned it is preceded by by and placed at the end
of the clause.
Examples

1 I write a letter A letter is (not) written.


2 I wrote a letter A letter was (not) written.
3 I will write a letter A letter will (not) be written.
4 I have written a letter A letter has (not) been written.
5 I am writing a letter A letter is (not) being written.
6 I was writing a letter A letter was (not) being written.
7 I will have written a A letter will (not) have been
letter written.

No Active Tense Passive Tense


1 write is/am/are written
2 wrote was/were written
3 will write will be written
4 have/has written have/has been written
5 is/am/are writing is/am/are being written
6 was/were writing was/were being written
7 will have written will have been written
verbs (+) to be verb 3rd
(-) to be not verb 3rd

Note:
Passive voice can be combined with infinitive forms when the passive forms are
followed the verbs like, love, want and wish.

Example:
- I want the computer to be repaired.

Another form of passive voice can used with the verbs have to and need to.

Example:
- The painter needs to be installed to the computer.
65

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Ask a friend of you the procedure for making or doing something for example, the
procedure for making the ice cream. First list the ingredients and tools as shown in
Table below. Start like this:
A : Excuse me, tell me how the ice cream is made?
B : Well, first two eggs are broken into the bowl. Then one cup of sugar is
added
and everything is blended together, etc.

Example of Ingredients and tools for making ice cream


No Ingredients Tools
1 two eggs bowel
2 one cup of sugar blender
3
4
4
etc

Activity 2

Now change roles and practice activity 1 again.

6. WRITING

Now write up a description for making or doing something.