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Increasing The Access To Health Care To

The Poor And The Marginalized By Using


The Fruits And Vegetables Available To
Treat Diseases
Volume 1
A Compilation For Medical Doctors,
Nurses and Pharmacists Serving The
Communities Of The Poor And The
Marginalized.

A Contribution of The Fletchers, Manakers and Morgans Families


Contribution To Improving The Conditions Of The Poor and The
Marginalized.
Not For Sale
Compiled By
Basil Fletcher
The Municipality Of Portmore
St. Catherine,
Jamaica

1
Introduction........................................................................................................................25
The Environment and Social Conditions In Which Many In Need Of
Care Lives....................................................................................................................27
Poverty haunting Hanover...................................................................................27
Men, women and children struggling to survive despite tourism boom........................27
JLP candidate says poverty ravaging St Thomas..................................29
Jamaica records increase in poverty...........................................................32
Shocking! - Troubling increase in child abuse cases.....................................................34
Neglect of children most common report..................................................................34
Squatting in Montego Bay ... horrific past, hopeful future published: Sunday | April
16, 2006.....................................................................................................................36
LAND GRAB! - Residents In Fear As Squatters Start Informal Community Beside......................38
Their Houses In Old Harbour Glades.......................................................................................38
Fences Erected..................................................................................................................39
What Does Oesity Looks Like?.................................................................................41
Example 1 From Gordon House, A Senetor From The Upper House.......................41
Grandma Mavis Makes Stir Fry Goat Blood, Food For The Aged, Food For The Old.....42
What Does A Person Looks Like When He or She Strives To Maintain Good Health?
...................................................................................................................................43
Example From Gordon House, Jamaica. The Photograph of A Senator....................43
...................................................................................................................................44
Whole Blood Meal.....................................................................................................44
lamb blood curry................................................................................................................45
Another Example of What Is Meanth By Obesity From Gordon House...................48
Photograph of A Senator............................................................................................48
...................................................................................................................................48
Benefits of Goat Blood..................................................................................................49
What Does It Mean To Fight To Stay In Shape? An Example From Gordon House 50
Photograph of A Fighting Senator.............................................................................50
...................................................................................................................................50
Can goats' blood help beat MS? My mother is walking proof it can.............................50
Another Look At Obesity In Gordon House. Photograph Of A Senator...................54
...................................................................................................................................54
Blood Poriyal : How To Make Goat Blood Poriyal...................................................55
What Does It Mean To Maintain A Healthy Weight? Example From Gordon House,
Photograph of A Senator............................................................................................56
...................................................................................................................................56
Good Nutrition for the Older Person.............................................................................57
Another Example of Obesity From Gordon House. Photograph Of A Member Of
Parliament..................................................................................................................60
...................................................................................................................................60
Traditional Maasai Food: Blood and Milk.....................................................................61
A balanced diet in the bush............................................................................................61
A Jamaican Parliamentarian Who Tries To Stay In Good Shape...............................63
...................................................................................................................................63

2
Bovine blood components: fractionation, composition, and nutritive value.................64
Why Chefs Are (Finally) Cooking With Blood.............................................................65
Example of A Member Of Parliament Who Needs To Go To Dances ClassesNow For Our
Sake....................................................................................................................................69
...........................................................................................................................................69
Why Spend So Much Time On Blood Meal?....................................................................69
Photograph of An Old But Very Healthy Member Of Parliament. She Keeps The
Weight Off- Possibly Attends Dance Classes Three Hours Daily.............................70
...................................................................................................................................70
Sweet Potato Leaves......................................................................................................70
A Photograph Of A Prime Minister Who Cared About His Health. He Attended
Dance Classes At Least Twice Weekly One Would Think........................................73
Department of Food Science, Nutrition & Technology.....................................................74
ENCOURAGING CONSUMPTION OF SWEET POTATO LEAVES AS A
VEGETABLE IN KENYAN URBAN AREAS.............................................................74
A Young Prime Minister Whose Photograph Says Has Kept In Good Shape...........75
...................................................................................................................................75
The Church and Schools Must Be Held Responsible For Rural Hunger and The Spread
Of Life Style Diseases...................................................................................................76
Look At These Two Members Of Parliament Who Are Age Mates And Decide Who
Needs To Attend Dance Classes Now!......................................................................77
...............................................................................................................................77
Birds Of A Feather- Refused To Attend Dance Classes! The Examples They Set For
Our Impessionable Children!.....................................................................................77
...................................................................................................................................78
Carrots................................................................................................................................78
What Are Carrots Good For?...............................................................................................78
9 Top Reasons to Eat Carrots.....................................................................................79
HEART DISEASE..................................................................................................79
CANCER................................................................................................................79
VISION...................................................................................................................79
BRAIN HEALTH....................................................................................................80
LIVER PROTECTION...........................................................................................80
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES................................................................80
ANTI-AGING BENEFITS......................................................................................80
SKIN HEALTH.......................................................................................................80
ORAL HEALTH.....................................................................................................81
How to Store and Prepare Your Carrots for Maximum Nutrition..................................81
Carrot Coconut Soup.....................................................................................................81
And He Ate More Than The Then Commissioner Of Police. Compare And Contrast
...................................................................................................................................83
...................................................................................................................................83
Carrot Greens (Carrot leaves)............................................................................................83
What are carrot greens...................................................................................................83
Can you eat carrot greens..............................................................................................84
Description.....................................................................................................................85

3
Nutritional Data.............................................................................................................85
Health benefits: Are carrot greens good for you............................................................86
High in vitamin C......................................................................................................86
Rich source of chlorophyll.........................................................................................86
Ensures a good heart health.......................................................................................87
For bone health..........................................................................................................87
Uses of carrot tops.........................................................................................................87
Edible uses.................................................................................................................87
Medicinal Uses..........................................................................................................88
His Chin Is Gone! The Meaning Of Obesity, Examples From Senior Police Officers
...................................................................................................................................88
...................................................................................................................................89
Another Example Of What It Means To Be Obese From The Very Senior Ranks Of
The Jamaica Constabulary Force. What is the Message being sent to the young
Constabule? Eat Until You Burst!..............................................................................89
...................................................................................................................................89
What Do I Do with Carrot Greens?...................................................................................89
Warm Chickpea and Carrot-top Salad...........................................................................91
Carrots Nutrition and Good Health Part 3 - Medicinal Uses......................................91
Eat Until Your Eyes Disappear A Message From The Senior Ranks Of The
Jamaica Constabulary Force To All Young Officers Under The Rank Of Inspector.
Follow Our Example-Our Eyes Are Disappearing....................................................97
...................................................................................................................................97
This Member Of Parliament Seems To Be In Agreement With The Senior Police
Officers! May God Have Mercy and Pity Our Grandchildren Least They Become
Barrels........................................................................................................................97
Women and Carrots.......................................................................................................99
Why Women should eat Carrots: A high vitamin A and Beta Carotene content mean
that the following problems often suffered by women can be helped through carrot
consumption...............................................................................................................99
Menorrhagia (abnormally heavy menstruation which can be caused by Vitamin
A deficiency...........................................................................................................99
Abnormal pap smears sometimes due to low levels of beta carotene and Vitamin A
(as well as E and C)...................................................................................................99
Pre-menstrual Syndrome. Vitamin A increases progesterone levels which is believed
to relieve this syndrome.............................................................................................99
Vaginitis, because the immunity boosting, antiviral and antibacterial properties of
carrots can help fight some types of this ailment......................................................99
Urinary Tract Infections, again Vitamin A is helpful in infection control.................99
Osteoporosis, here the phytochemicals in carrots fight against this disease which
particularly affects older women...............................................................................99
Period Pain.................................................................................................................99
Wondercup Breast Cream........................................................................................100
Cosmetic use............................................................................................................100
Carrot is therefore very useful for the skin for its properties:-................................101
Anti-Aging...............................................................................................................101

4
Anti-inflammatory...................................................................................................101
Eye care...................................................................................................................101
Nourishing...............................................................................................................101
Moisturising.............................................................................................................101
Additional Important Medical Reading For Women...............................................101
Old Age Does Not Make You Fat! Laziness Does!.................................................105
.................................................................................................................................105
.................................................................................................................................105
Pumpkin leaves, raw........................................................................................................106
Nutrition Facts.............................................................................................................106
Pumpkin leaves, raw nutrition facts and analysis....................................................106
TEN HEALTH BENEFITS OF PUMPKIN LEAVES(UGU).........................................108
Some of the health benefits of pumpkin leave include:...........................................109
Prevention of convulsion:........................................................................................109
Your Position In Society Does Not Make Obese-Fat! Laziness and Inactivity Do!110
.................................................................................................................................110
How pumpkin leaves prevent premature ageing..........................................................110
Pumpkin.........................................................................................................................111
Uses..............................................................................................................................111
Dosing..........................................................................................................................111
Contraindications.........................................................................................................111
Pregnancy/Lactation....................................................................................................112
Interactions...................................................................................................................112
Adverse Reactions.......................................................................................................112
Toxicology...................................................................................................................112
Botany..........................................................................................................................112
History.........................................................................................................................112
Chemistry.....................................................................................................................113
Uses and Pharmacology...............................................................................................113
Dosage.........................................................................................................................114
Pregnancy/Lactation....................................................................................................115
Interactions...................................................................................................................115
Adverse Reactions.......................................................................................................115
Toxicology...................................................................................................................115
Bibliography................................................................................................................116
Your Busy Schedule Does Not Make You Obese- Inactivity and Laziness Do! The
Chairman Of NCB Michael Lee-Chin, Showing That He Is Physically Fit...........118
.................................................................................................................................118
How Many Of Those Who Sits In Gordon House Can Claim To Have Greater
Responsibilities and Busier Shedules Than Richard Byles? Does He Look Obese?
.................................................................................................................................118
.................................................................................................................................118
Pumpkin flowers, raw......................................................................................................119
Pumpkin flowers, raw nutrition facts and analysis..................................................119
Pumpkin. Properties, content. Pumpkin Benefits............................................................121
Characteristics, content and health benefits of the Pumpkin.......................................121

5
Medical Uses of pumpkin............................................................................................122
Yams nutrition facts.....................................................................................................123
Health benefits of yams...............................................................................................123
Selection and storage...................................................................................................124
Preparation and serving methods.........................................................................124
Medicinal uses.....................................................................................................125
Does Either Mark Golding or Lambert Brown Carry More Responsibilities or Busier
Schedules Than Don Webby of Grace Kennedy And Company Ltd, Who Also Sits In
The Senate? What Are Their Exuses For Their Tremendous Sizes?.......................126
.................................................................................................................................126
Biological Activities and Applications of Dioscorins, the Major Tuber Storage Proteins of
Yam..................................................................................................................................126
Abstract........................................................................................................................126
Overview......................................................................................................................127
Characteristics of Dioscorins.......................................................................................127
Biological Activities....................................................................................................128
-Carbonic Anhydrase (-CA) Activity...................................................................128
Antioxidant Activity................................................................................................129
Antihypertensive Activity........................................................................................129
Immunomodulatory Activity...................................................................................130
Lectin Activity.........................................................................................................131
Airway Epithelial Cells Protection..........................................................................131
Conclusion...................................................................................................................131
References....................................................................................................................132
The Nutritional Benefits Of Coco and Dasheen Leaves---Taro Leaves......................137
22 Scientific Taro Leaves Benefits (No.18 Shocking You).............................................137
Taro Leaves nutrition...................................................................................137
The Nutritional Value and Phytochemical Components of Taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.)
Schott] Powder and its Selected Processed Foods...........................................................141
Abstract....................................................................................................................141
Introduction..............................................................................................................142
Materials and Methods............................................................................................142
Raw materials..........................................................................................................143
Screening of taro varieties.......................................................................143
Processing of taro corms (dasheen or coco heads)...................143
Chemical analysis.........................................................................................143
Nutritional value.............................................................................................143
Phytochemical contents............................................................................144
Antinutrient contents..................................................................................144
Preparation of taro powder......................................................................144
Preparation of noodles and cookies....................................................144
Statistical analysis.......................................................................................144
Results.................................................................................................................145
Preliminary screening of taro varieties.............................................145

6
Proximate composition of taro...............................................................145
Moisture content......................................................................................................145
Crude ash: The crude ash of raw taro increased when processed into powder then
.................................................................................................................................145
decreased when........................................................................................................145
Crude fiber: The crude fiber of raw taro increased when processed into powder
then decreased when made......................................................................................145
Antinutrient content of taro:....................................................................146
Discussion..........................................................................................................146
Preliminary screening of taro varieties.............................................146
Proximate composition of taro...............................................................147
Conclusion...............................................................................................................149
Recommendation.....................................................................................................150
Acknowledgements..................................................................................................150
The Medicinal Uses of Poi (Fermented coco or dasheen)...............................................156
Abstract........................................................................................................................156
INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................156
TARO PLANT.............................................................................................................159
DEFINITION OF POI.................................................................................................159
POI AS A FOOD SUBSTITUTE FOR INFANT ALLERGIES..................................160
FAILURE-TO-THRIVE..............................................................................................162
CONCLUSION............................................................................................................163
Acknowledgments.......................................................................................................163
References....................................................................................................................164
Colocasia esculenta (coco/dasheen): A potent indigenous plant.................................165
Abstract....................................................................................................................165
Introduction..............................................................................................................165
Plant profile.............................................................................................................166
Botanical description...............................................................................................167
Morphology [8]..........................................................................................................168
Microscopical features of C. esculanta leaf.............................................................169
Phytochemistry........................................................................................................170
Antifungal activity...................................................................................................174
References.............................................................................................................177
Cabbage.......................................................................................................................180
What's New and Beneficial About Cabbage........................................................180
WHFoods Recommendations..............................................................................181
Red Cabbage (Please not green and white cabbages are equally as good)181
NutrientDRI/DV......................................................................................................181
Health Benefits............................................................................................................183
Antioxidant-Related Health Benefits of Cabbage...............................................183
Anti-Inflammatory Benefits of Cabbage.............................................................184
Glucosinolates and Cancer Prevention from Cabbage........................................184
Glucosinolates in Cabbage and Their Anti-Cancer Thiocyanates.......................185
Digestive Tract Support of Cabbage....................................................................185

7
Cardiovascular Support from Cabbage................................................................186
Description...................................................................................................................186
History.........................................................................................................................188
How to Select and Store..............................................................................................189
Tips for Preparing and Cooking...................................................................................189
Tips for Preparing Cabbage.................................................................................189
The Nutrient-Rich Way of Cooking Cabbage......................................................190
How to Enjoy...............................................................................................................191
A Few Quick Serving Ideas.................................................................................191
Nutritional Profile........................................................................................................191
Introduction to Food Rating System Chart..................................................................191
In-Depth Nutritional Profile........................................................................................193
Note:............................................................................................................................199
References....................................................................................................................199
CABBAGE..................................................................................................................201
Other Names:.......................................................................................................201
How does it work?...............................................................................................201
Conditions & Treatments Related to CABBAGE.......................................................202
Cabbages health benefits / medicinal uses.........................................................................203
PROPERTIES Cabbage contains.............................................................................203
Health benefits / medicinal uses of Cabbage...........................................................204
* Gastroduodenal ulcer .........................................................................................204
* Stomach disorders ..................................................................................204
* Intestinal disorders .............................................................................................204
* Cardiovascular disorders .....................................................................204
* Cancer ...........................................................................................................205
* Diabetes .......................................................................................................205
* Scurvy...............................................................................................................205
Osteoporosis and decalcification.........................................................205
IRISH POTATOES..........................................................................................................207
USES........................................................................................................................207
NUTRITION FACTS..............................................................................................207
HEALTH BENEFIT................................................................................................207
Stress:.......................................................................................................................208
Gut health.................................................................................................................208
Weight Gain:............................................................................................................208
Digestion:.................................................................................................................208
Scurvy:.....................................................................................................................208
Rheumatism:............................................................................................................209
Inflammation:..........................................................................................................209
High Blood Pressure:...............................................................................................209
Brain Function:........................................................................................................209
Heart Diseases:........................................................................................................209
Kidney Stones:.........................................................................................................210
Potato Properties and health benefits / medicinal uses......................................................210

8
PROPERTIES..........................................................................................................210
HEALTH BENEFITS / MEDICINAL USES OF POTATO....................................211
STOMACH DISORDERS.....................................................................................211
KIDNEY DISEASE...............................................................................................212
OBESITY..............................................................................................................212
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE........................................................................212
Potatoes: Health Benefits, Facts, Research......................................................................213
Possible health benefits of consuming potatoes..........................................................214
1) Bone health..........................................................................................................215
2) Blood pressure.....................................................................................................216
3) Heart health.........................................................................................................216
4) Inflammation.......................................................................................................216
5) Cancer..................................................................................................................216
6) Digestion and regularity......................................................................................217
7) Weight management and satiety..........................................................................217
8) Metabolism..........................................................................................................217
9) Skin......................................................................................................................217
Nutritional profile of potatoes.....................................................................................217
How to incorporate more potatoes into your diet........................................................218
Bananas....................................................................................................................220
Health Benefits............................................................................................................222
Cardiovascular Health and Bananas....................................................................222
Bananas' Digestive Benefits................................................................................222
Athletic Performance and Bananas......................................................................223
Description...................................................................................................................223
History.........................................................................................................................224
How to Select and Store..............................................................................................224
How to Enjoy...............................................................................................................225
Individual Concerns.....................................................................................................225
Bananas and Latex-Fruit Syndrome....................................................................225
Nutritional Profile........................................................................................................225
Introduction to Food Rating System Chart..................................................................225
In-Depth Nutritional Profile........................................................................................227
Note:............................................................................................................................232
References....................................................................................................................233
Medicinal Properties of the Banana Plant / Banana Tree................................................233
About...........................................................................................................................233
Bananas, raw................................................................................................................236
Banana Tree Facts........................................................................................................238
7 Amazing Medicinal Properties of the Banana Plant.....................................................240
Green Banana Is Anti-Diarrhea...............................................................................241
Banana Is Anti-Ulcer Activity..........................................................................242
Banana Peel Suppresses Prostate Gland Growth................................242
Banana Stem Extract suppresses Oxalate Kidney Stones.....242
Banana Consumption Protects the Skin Against UV-Light Damage
.........................................................................................................................................242

9
Banana Has Anti-Diabetic Properties..............................................................................242
Banana Contains a Variety of Anti-Infective Compounds...............................................242
RESOURCES..............................................................................................................243
Health Benefits Of Banana Tree ( Uses Stem/Flower/Leaves/Peel).....244
Ayurveda View On Banana................................................................................245
Medicinal Uses Of Banana Stem:..............................................................246
Medicinal uses of Banana Flower:...................................................................246
Medicinal uses of Banana Plant Leaves:......................................................246
Medicinal uses of Banana Peel:.......................................................................247
Other Curative Properties of Banana......................................................247
Kidney Disorders :..........................................................................................247
Jackfruit Health Benefits.................................................................................................249
Jackfruit For Pregnant Women...............................................................................251
Side Effects Of Jackfruit...........................................................................................251
Jackfruit and Its Many Functional Components as Related to Human Health: A Review
.........................................................................................................................................252
Authors........................................................................................................................252
Shrikant Baslingappa Swami,..........................................................................252
N. J. Thakor,.....................................................................................................252
P. M. Haldankar,...............................................................................................252
S. B. Kalse.......................................................................................................252
Abstract........................................................................................................................252
Introduction..................................................................................................................252
Figure 1..................................................................................................................253
Different parts of jackfruit: (A) jackfruit; (B) cutting section of jackfruit; (C)
jackfruit flesh; (D) jackfruit seed.............................................................................253
Phytochemistry............................................................................................................254
Chemical Composition of Jackfruit.............................................................................255
Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)..................................................255
Antioxidants.................................................................................................................256
Carotenoid Composition..............................................................................................259
Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit.....................................................................................261
Functional Properties...................................................................................................262
Figure 2..............................................................................................................263
Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit.................................................264
Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit...........................................................264
Human Disorders and Health.......................................................................................264
Cardiovascular health..............................................................................................265
Improving skin health..............................................................................................265
Improving stomach ulcer.........................................................................................266
Improving digestion.................................................................................................266
Strengthening the bone............................................................................................266
Preventing anemia...................................................................................................267
Maintaining a healthy thyroid gland........................................................................267
Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed....................................................................267

10
Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour...............................................................268
Table 4. Physicochemical properties of jackfruit seed flour.................................268
Table 5. Minerals composition of jackfruit seed flour..........................................269
Table 6. Functional properties of jackfruit seed flour...........................................270
Other Properties...........................................................................................................270
Antiviral Properties......................................................................................................270
Acetylcholine in Jackfruit............................................................................................270
Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit..............................................271
Uses of jackfruit in traditional medicine are shown in Table 7...............................271
Root..........................................................................................................................272
Leaves......................................................................................................................272
Latex........................................................................................................................272
Fruit..........................................................................................................................273
Seed..........................................................................................................................273
Value-Added Products from Jackfruit.........................................................................273
Figure 3..............................................................................................................274
Jackfruit jam............................................................................................................274
Jackfruit wine...........................................................................................................274
Fermented beverages...............................................................................................274
Dehydrated jackfruit................................................................................................275
Jackfruit chips..........................................................................................................275
Jackfruit leather.......................................................................................................276
Figure 4..............................................................................................................276
Conclusion...................................................................................................................276
References....................................................................................................................276
Health Benefits of Jackfruit....................................................................................298
What is a Jackfruit?...............................................................................................298
Health Benefits of Jackfruit............................................................................299
Jackfruit Recipes................................................................................................301
Raw Jackfruit Curry.......................................................................................301
Jackfruit Seed Stir Fry..................................................................................302
Jackfruit Beauty and Health Tips.................................................................303
Jackfruit, raw...........................................................................................................304
Jackfruit, raw.................................................................................................................305
Nutrition Facts.................................................................................................................306
Nutrition summary...................................................................................................307
Calories................................................................................................................307
Fat........................................................................................................................307
Carbs....................................................................................................................307
Protein..................................................................................................................307
Calories..................................................................................................................307
Vitamins.................................................................................................................307
Protein and Amino Acids....................................................................................308
Fats and Fatty Acids.............................................................................................310
Good Fats vs Bad Fats.........................................................................................311

11
Minerals.................................................................................................................311
Carbohydrates......................................................................................................312
Sterols.....................................................................................................................312
Other Nutrients....................................................................................................313
15 Benefits Of Breadfruit And Its Nutritional Value.......................................................313
Breadfruit Health Benefits.......................................................................................314
1. Cardiovascular health:.....................................................................................314
2. Resistance against infections:..........................................................................314
3. Source of Energy:............................................................................................315
4. Diabetes:..........................................................................................................315
5. Aids digestion:.................................................................................................315
6. Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids:..............................................................................315
7. Dental health:...................................................................................................315
Breadfruit Skin benefits...........................................................................................315
8. Prevents Excessive Skin Inflammation:..........................................................315
9. Collagen Production:.......................................................................................315
10. Encourages New Cell Growth:......................................................................315
11. Cures Skin Infections:....................................................................................315
12. Treats Skin Diseases:.....................................................................................316
Breadfruit Hair benefits...........................................................................................316
13. Nourishes Hair:..............................................................................................316
14. Treats Dandruff, Itchiness & Hair Breakage:................................................316
15. Promotes Hair Growth:..................................................................................316
Breadfruit Nutritional value.................................................................................316
Breadfruit leaves have been used as herbal remedy in various countries........................318
The tea and its health benefits.....................................................................................319
The sap.........................................................................................................................319
Health Benefits of Breadfruit Leaf Tea........................................................................319
Dr. Paul Haider............................................................................................................320
FollowDr. Paul Haider.................................................................................................320
Spiritual Teacher and Master Herbalist....................................................................320
Health Benefits of Breadfruit...........................................................................................322
What is Breadfruit?......................................................................................................322
Health Benefits of Breadfruit...................................................................................323
Good for Weight Watchers...................................................................................324
Develops Resistance to Infections.......................................................................324
Brimming with Goodness of Fiber......................................................................324
Nourishes Hair.....................................................................................................325
Good for Skin......................................................................................................325
Health Benefits of Breadfruit Leaves......................................................................325
Health Concerns...................................................................................................326
Breadfruit Recipes...................................................................................................326
Breadfruit Curry...................................................................................................326
Breadfruit, raw.............................................................................................................327
Watermelon..................................................................................................................329
Food as Medicine: Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Cucurbitaceae)...........................329

12
History and Traditional Use.....................................................................................329
Range and Habitat....................................................................................................329
Historical and Commercial Uses.............................................................................331
Nutrient Profile26......................................................................................................333
Macronutrient Profile...............................................................................................333
Secondary Metabolites.............................................................................................333
Very good source of:................................................................................................333
Recipe: Pickled Watermelon Rinds.........................................................................334
References................................................................................................................335
Watermelon lycopene and allied health claims................................................................337
Abstract........................................................................................................................337
Background..................................................................................................................337
Classification and nutritional profile...........................................................................338
Figure 1............................................................................................................................339
Aroma contributing volatiles.......................................................................................339
Watermelon: a potential source of lycopene................................................................340
Synthesis route of lycopene.........................................................................................340
Lycopene: structure and physicochemical properties..................................................341
Figure 2............................................................................................................................342
Table 1..............................................................................................................................343
Absorption pathway.....................................................................................................343
Figure 3............................................................................................................................344
Lycopene health claims................................................................................................344
a. Oxidative stress....................................................................................................345
Figure 4............................................................................................................................347
b. Nutrigenomics and cancer insurgence.............................................................347
c. Cardiovascular complications..............................................................................349
d. Diabetes mellitus................................................................................................350
e. Macular diseases................................................................................................352
Conclusions..............................................................................................................352
References................................................................................................................353
Cited by other articles in PMC.............................................................................360
Watermelon Seeds as Food: Nutrient Composition, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant
Activity........................................................................................................................361
Abstract:...................................................................................................................361
Contents...................................................................................................................362
2.Materials and Methods.........................................................................................363
Table 1. Proximate composition of seeds of three watermelon varieties.............364
Table 2. Mineral Composition of seeds of three watermelon varieties...................364
Table 3. Total Phenol content and antioxidant activity of seeds of three watermelon
varieties....................................................................................................................365
Phytochemicals........................................................................................................367
Total Phenol Content...............................................................................................368
Antioxidant activity.................................................................................................369
References................................................................................................................370

13
Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and
sensory properties of cookies...........................................................................................372
Abstract........................................................................................................................372
Introduction..................................................................................................................372
Materials and methods.................................................................................................373
Materials..................................................................................................................373
Preparation of protein concentrates.........................................................................373
Fig. 1................................................................................................................................374
Chemical analysis of flour and cookies...................................................................374
Fig. 2................................................................................................................................375
Dough handling properties......................................................................................375
Cookie preparation...................................................................................................376
Physical properties of cookies.................................................................................377
Sensory analysis.......................................................................................................377
Statistical analysis....................................................................................................377
Results and discussions................................................................................................378
Wheat flour and protein concentrate quality...........................................................378
Table 1..............................................................................................................................378
Dough handling properties......................................................................................379
Table 2..............................................................................................................................380
Table 3..............................................................................................................................383
Composition of cookies...........................................................................................385
Table 4..............................................................................................................................386
Table 5..............................................................................................................................388
Sensory analysis.......................................................................................................389
Table 6..............................................................................................................................390
Conclusions..................................................................................................................391
Contributor Information...............................................................................................392
References....................................................................................................................392
Oranges: Health Benefits, Nutritional Information.........................................................394
Possible health benefits of consuming oranges...........................................................395
Stroke.......................................................................................................................395
Blood pressure.........................................................................................................396
Cancer......................................................................................................................397
Nutritional breakdown of oranges...............................................................................397
How to incorporate more oranges into your diet.........................................................397
Tips for oranges:......................................................................................................398
Recent developments on oranges from MNT news............................................................399
Possible health risks of oranges...................................................................................399
13 Health Benefits of Oranges.........................................................................................400
Orange strengthens your emotional body, encouraging a general feeling of joy,
well-being, and cheerfulness. Tae Yun Kim........................................................400
Note: drink juice in moderate amounts. The high sugar content of fruit juices can
cause tooth decay and the high acid content can wear away enamel if consumed in
excess. 3. Mandarin oranges fight liver cancer, according to studies.....................402
5. They are rich in potassium and boost heart health...............................................402

14
They lower the risk of diseases................................................................................402
7. Oranges fight against viral infections..................................................................403
8. They relieve constipation.....................................................................................403
9. They aid in good eye health and protect vision...................................................403
10. They regulate high blood pressure.....................................................................403
11. They protect skin................................................................................................404
Oranges provide smart carbs and do not cause a blood sugar spike........................404
Interesting Orange Facts:.........................................................................................405
History of the Orange:.............................................................................................406
Growing Oranges:....................................................................................................406
Selection and Storage:.............................................................................................407
Orange Cautions:.....................................................................................................407
Preparation and Serving Tips:..................................................................................407
Top 7 health benefits of orange peel............................................................................408
We all love oranges for its various health benefits. But orange peels are also
loaded with nutrients good for overall health.........................................................408
Helps in weight loss.................................................................................................409
Relieves respiratory problems.................................................................................409
Prevents digestive complications.............................................................................409
Improves oral health................................................................................................409
Protects from cancer................................................................................................410
Acts as a natural skin bleach....................................................................................410
Improves heart health..............................................................................................410
References:...............................................................................................................411
Orange Medicinal Properties: Cough, Stress and Nervousness Remedy........................411
Parts Used:...............................................................................................................412
Medicinal Use..........................................................................................................412
How to Use..............................................................................................................413
Active Principles:.....................................................................................................413
Bitter Orange...................................................................................................................413
Uses..............................................................................................................................413
Parts Used & Where Grown....................................................................................413
This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:
.................................................................................................................................414
Indigestion, Heartburn, and Low Stomach Acidity.................................................414
Insomnia..................................................................................................................414
Obesity.....................................................................................................................415
Traditional Use (May Not Be Supported by Scientific Studies)..............................415
Bitter Orange...................................................................................................................415
How It Works...............................................................................................................415
How It Works...........................................................................................................415
How to Use It...........................................................................................................416
Interactions..............................................................................................................416
Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds.................................416
Interactions with Medicines.....................................................................................416
Side Effects..............................................................................................................416

15
Bitter Orange for Weight Control....................................................................................417
Why Use......................................................................................................................417
Why Do Dieters Use It?*.........................................................................................417
What Do the Advocates Say?*................................................................................417
How Much Is Usually Taken by Dieters?................................................................417
Side Effects..............................................................................................................418
Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds.................................418
Interactions with Medicines.....................................................................................418

Introduction

There is at present a clear need, for Jamaica medical health practitioners, not only to
recognize that there are a significant number of individuals who are unable owing to their
financial status, to make effective use of the medical health facilities , too often one sees
individuals with prescriptions from their doctors standing by pharmacies, begging money
to fill their prescriptions. It is hoped that this publication of articles taken from internet
sources, by making information about available and accessible nutritional and
pharmaceutical values of fruits and vegetables which are in relative abundance, to those
who practice among the poor will help to resolve conflict which exist between the best
desires of the medical health community and the economic possibilities of the poor.

A related issue is nutrition; many of our medical practitioners are unaware of the level of
hunger which exists among segments of the population. It is possibly very difficult for to
imagine that in modern Jamaica, there are many senior citizens and children who have
little or nothing to eat and that among the working poor there are entire families which
share that experience. Here no mention is of the unemployed in urban areas and the
property-less in rural parts. The first prerequisites for an individual to experience good
health are access to suitable and adequate shelter and suitable and adequate nutrition;
both of which many Jamaicans lack.

This compilation, which is the first of two, is intended for medical doctors, pharmacists
and nurses who work with the urban and rural poor, with the aim of facilitating and
encouraging them to be better able to address the medical and nutritional needs of those
individuals.
This compilation is no way complete and thus does deal with many available resources
such as grapefruits, tomatoes, or the physical and mental health benefits of walking or
dancing and it is hoped that our highly trained and experienced doctors and nurses will
also do their own reading.

This compilation is in no way intended to criticize or question the practices of our


medical doctors and nurses who serve the poor, but rather is produced as a response to a
visible lack of effective access of many to the services offered by our doctors, nurses and
pharmacists, and in recognition, that in the Jamaican context, many individuals, trained
and untrained have been encouraged to question if not ignore local resources in favor of

16
imported resources and to consume as been prescribed by the system within which we
live.

In producing this, the getting of it into the hands of those who are best placed to make use
it has not been resolved, and thus it is hope that information about its presence and
availability will through the existing channels of communication with the health sector be
transmitted to they who serve in the communities of needs.

An objective of the compilation should also be of value to Guyana, Nicaragua, Nigeria


and Ethiopia. The Jamaican state cannot afford to send medical workers to those places
and even less so the Fletcher's, Manaker's and Morgan's families. Given that reality one
can only but hope that the compilation will be able to compensate for the lack of the
ability to put medical workers on the ground.
It is also hoped that this publication will encourage the authorities in Mali and elsewhere
in French speaking Africa to produce their own compilations to meet the needs of the
under served segments of their populations.

Without dreams, mankind become stagnated and regress, with no hope of a better future,
it can only but hope that the collective dream and desire to give the poor and the
underserved access to affordable and quality health care can be realized in our time, by
encouraging families and other non-state actors to play their role. In this light, this
compilation should perhaps be seen as complimenting the efforts of the NGO- Doctors
Without Borders and similar organizations all be it in a different form and coming from
the hands of a Prague trained economist rather than from the hands of a medical doctor.

Here it is the wish of the compiler to recognized the contribution of the many doctors,
scientists, herbal doctors, magazines, authors and others who have allowed their work
without hindrance or obstruction to be used in this compilation. To your the Fletcher's,
Manaker's and Morgan's families say :- Thanks.

Please Note That The Document Is A Word Document- Photos Might Slip A Bit,
However You The Health Care Practitioner Has The Ability To Coply, To Use The
Imbedded Links And Other Features Permitted By Microsoft Words.

End

The Environment and Social Conditions In Which


Many In Need Of Care Lives

Medical doctors, nurses and pharmacists are encourage to in their taking of histories, in
their care and prescribing, to take into account the socio-economic circumstances of those
individuals who come to them and have entrusted them to take good care of their health
and to help them to recover from and or manage the various ailments which have afflicted

17
them. Here the doctor, the nurse and the pharmacist are asked to see the individual in
need of health care not only as a physical being but also a social being, belonging to a
given community and a given social segment of the population.

This segment of the compilation is intended to help these health practitioners to see what
is over on the other side of the road and the conditions in which they who live there live.
If one has an understanding of the conditions in which an individual lives; then one is
very likely to have a more comprehensive understanding of the health problems and
challenges which are likely to have mental and physical health impact on the individual.

Poverty haunting Hanover


Men, women and children struggling to survive despite tourism boom

Jamaica Gleaner

5 Feb 2017

Claudia Gardner Assignment Coordinator

DESPITE THE number of mega hotel developments going up along its coastline
over the last 15 years, Hanover is still haunted by deep pockets of poverty, with concerns
mounting about the number of destitute persons living in the western parish.
According to chairman of the Hanover Parish Homelessness Committee, Nerris
Hawthorne, there are persons from all age groups and sex seriously destitute in the parish.
Poverty is on the rise. Some women take successive partners, get pregnant for them;
the men then disappear, leaving the women with many children to support. That causes
great poverty among them.
They live in family homes or rented one-bedroom homes that are in very bad
condition. The young men many are leaving school, no subjects nor training, leaving
them to try and eke out an existence, and that creates a problem where scamming is
concerned, as they see this as an alternative, said Hawthorne.
She added: There is another category of poor, and that is older people who did not
pay into any pension scheme, who are now weak, old and have no set income. Some
depend on the church, on relatives, but that is totally insufficient to take them through.

18
And the high cost of living, especially where the general consumption tax is
concerned, any little money that they can get, by the time they go into the shops there is
very little that they can buy, so this is keeping them on the poverty line.
BELOW THE POVERTY LINE
Hawthorne, who also chairs the Lucea Development Initiative, noted that the persons
living below the poverty line in the parish include some who were professionals and are
now unable to survive on the pension they are getting.
Because the pension they get just cannot do what is required in these economic
conditions ... in some of the schools, if it were not for the generosity of entities like
Sandals, some returned residents and some of the charities in Hanover, then our schools
and schoolchildren would be in a sad state, said Hawthorne.
Data from the Hanover Municipal Corporation show that there are 689 registered
poor persons in the parish and 59 registered homeless persons. With the latest Statistical
Institute of Jamaica (STATIN) report showing the parish with a population of 69,874, that
would mean that approximately one in every 100 residents in the parish is impoverished.
According the population census published by STATIN in 2011, of the 23,753
households in Hanover, 5,571 (23%) had no kitchen facilities and 4,434 (19%) had no
bathroom facilities.
In addition, 7,117 (30%) of households were either using pit toilets or had no toilet
facilities, while 2,126 (9%) of households had no electricity supply and relied on
kerosene oil for lighting.
POOR POTABLE WATER
The data also showed that 2,774 households (12%) relied on wood, charcoal or
kerosene as fuel for cooking. The parish also had a poor potable water situation, as
members of 7,261 or 31 per cent of households were still trekking to standpipes, springs,
streams, and other catchment areas for water, or were relying on water trucks.
In 2007, the Planning Institute of Jamaica noted, in a report titled The Poverty-
Environment Nexus, that Hanover in 1992 had more than half its population living
below the poverty line, but that this was reduced to 13.3 in 1998 and moved to 14.1 in
2002.
Landlessness and the protracted wait to obtain land titles were other sore points
raised by Hawthorne, STATIN data for which indicated that 6,032 (25%) of Hanover
household heads did not own the land on which they were living.
Some of these persons have land. If they were able to subdivide their land they
could earn, but it cant be done, because the people dont have the money to start. It is too
expensive and the process is too long. People cannot get titles for their land easily. These
processes are too lengthy, too arduous for our people, said Hawthorne.
End
JLP candidate says poverty ravaging St Thomas
BY BALFORD HENRY Observer senior reporter henryb@jamaicaobserver.com
Monday, March 23, 2015

19
-->

FORMER president of the JLP's young professional arm, Generation 2000 (G2K),
Delano Seiveright, says he is not surprised that St Thomas is now ranked the poorest
parish in Jamaica.

"With the pit latrine the most prevalent type of toilet facility used by households in St
Thomas, accounting for 54.7 per cent of households, it comes as no surprise that the
parish is ranked as Jamaica's poorest," Seiveright told the Jamaica Observer.

He said that with the parish's history of underdevelopment, its elderly population is
deemed to be the worst affected in the whole county.

Seiveright, who was named late last year as the Opposition party's caretaker/candidate for
the eastern St Thomas constituency, which is now represented by Minister of Health Dr
Fenton Ferguson, said "the situation is extremely bad".

"We have started a programme of handing out food and other basic necessities to the
worst-affected every weekend, district by district. We really do need more help, and I am
urging the few companies in St Thomas making millions from the parish to step up their
corporate social responsibility," he said.

"The Government, on the other hand, has failed the parish miserably; poverty has more
than doubled from roughly 14 per cent in 2008 to 32.5 per cent or more today, according
to the Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions but, depending on how some of us measure
poverty, I would say it exceeds 50 per cent," he added.

20
The all-Jamaica individual poverty prevalence increased by 2.3 percentage points since
2010 to reach 19.9 per cent by 2012, according to the report of the annual survey released
by the Planning Institute of Jamaica and Statistical Institute of Jamaica recently.

The report, tabled in the House of Representatives at the start of the current budget debate
by Minister of Finance and Planning Dr Peter Phillips, revealed that St Thomas has
become the most impoverished parish, with a 32.5 per cent prevalence, while St Mary,
formerly considered the poorest parish, offered the least prevalence of poverty at 9.4 per
cent.

Seiveright, who along with a growing number of young people from in and outside the
parish, is carrying out an elderly charity outreach programme on weekends, says that
approximately half of the parish's labour force are unemployed.

In light of the paltry state of affairs in the parish, the caretaker/candidate said that on
entering the constituency last year, he was appalled at the very high levels of poverty and
neglect everywhere.

"The elderly are the worst affected. Their children have either abandoned them or are
mired in poverty themselves. It's a vicious cycle. Their health has deteriorated, many are
basically blind and are left to live in houses that are literally falling apart. It is an
absolutely unacceptable state of affairs. No human being should live like that," Seiveright
commented.

Seiveright also linked the high level of poverty to "very poor" representation over the
years that, he said, has done nothing to arrest the decline in the agricultural and
manufacturing sectors and diversify the parish's economic base.

"Today, outside of sugar, which frankly pays peanuts, and remittances from family
members overseas, there is not much left going on in St Thomas. I have spoken with
several businessmen and women who have relocated to Kingston because they simply
refuse to live there anymore. It's a sad situation," he stated.

In former years, the Bowden and Port Morant wharves were kept busy exporting sugar
and bananas. Despite the interruption of the Panama disease, which led to the departure
of the United Fruit Company, production continued into the early 2000s, but ended with
the closure of the Eastern Banana Estate.

21
Most coconut farms were wiped out by the Lethal Yellowing disease, although Michael
Black's Farm in Nutts River stands as the parish's premier coconut farm.

Seiveright said that there are only a few large properties being used for the production of
coconut, sugar cane, bananas, and coffee. However, small farming is quite evident, with
over 12,000 small farms, primarily subsistent in nature.

Although admitting that handouts are not the solution, he said "there is no sense in
looking at a 72-year-old woman and telling her about grandiose development plans for
the future when she needs food, toiletries and health care attention now."

Seiveright said that he has also been able to establish a development task force since last
year involving some of the parish's most successful people, including two who now
reside overseas.

"We are working on a pragmatic development plan that will very likely integrate highway
development, agriculture, agro-processing, light manufacturing, port development, and
tourism into a programme aimed at blasting the parish out of its long-running mode of
underdevelopment and poverty," he said.

The first step, according to him, is to build a "decent" highway for the parish. Despite
bordering Jamaica's capital city, Kingston, he said St Thomas is the only parish with a
substandard main road which makes it very unattractive to investors.

22
Jamaica records increase in poverty
BY STEVEN JACKSON Business reporter jacksons@jamaicaobserver.com
Sunday, November 30, 2014

-->

POVERTY increased to one-fifth of the Jamaican population, according to the just-


released Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions (JSLC) 2012.

Interestingly, poverty increased in most urban areas but dropped in the majority of rural
areas due mainly to increased earnings from agriculture.

"The all-Jamaica individual poverty prevalence increased by 2.3 percentage points


relative to 2010 to reach 19.9 per cent," stated the survey findings released on Friday at
the Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ) head office in Kingston.

St Thomas became the most impoverished parish with a 32.5 per cent prevalence, while
St Mary offers the least prevalence of poverty at 9.4 per cent.

"There was an increase in agriculture production and the resumption of bauxite


operations in some parishes," stated Caren Nelson, manager, Policy Research Unit at the
PIOJ, when quizzed on the reduction in rural poverty.

"There was real decline in the per capita consumption except for the rural areas," Nelson
said in her address that looked at the poorest 20 per cent or quintile 1 of the population
that lives on $74,000 per capita consumption, compared with the richest 20 per cent or
quintile 5 on $520,000.

The report covered areas of demography, household consumption, health, education,


housing, social protection, early childhood development, and ageing.

23
The PIOJ and Statistical Institute of Jamaica (Statin) apologised for the delay in releasing
the report which they jointly publish. However, they indicated that it will still benefit
academics, researchers, and historians.

"The ultimate goal is timely analysis and data collection. We note and acknowledge the
delays," stated Colin Bullock, director general at the PIOJ, in his address.

"We will try to make the information more timely," stated Carol Coy, director general of
Statin, at the launch.

The previous report was tabled in 2010 by former Prime Minister Bruce Golding when
the results of the 2008 and 2009 surveys were also tabled.

The JSLC allows for the tracking of Jamaica's progress, especially in relation to Vision
2030 and United Nations millennium development goals. It started as an annual
publication in 1988, providing a detailed profile of the quality of life and social
conditions experienced by Jamaicans over a one-year period.

24
Shocking! - Troubling increase in child abuse
cases
Neglect of children most common report

BY JAVENE SKYERS Observer staff reporter skyersj@jamaicaobserver.com

Friday, April 07, 2017 1 comment

The Office of the Childrens Registry (OCR) yesterday jolted the nation with data stating that close
to 70,000 cases of child abuse were reported in Jamaica over eight years, from 2007, and that
preliminary figures show a troubling increase in the number of cases reported in 2015.

According to OCR Registrar Grieg Smith, the 13,948 reports received in 2015 represented an increase of
close to 19 per cent over the previous year.

Smith was speaking at the Child Month 2017 media launch held yesterday morning at GraceKennedy
Limited headquarters in downtown Kingston.

He noted that of the reports received, 9,883 represented children who were being reported to the OCR for
the first time. Of this number, 55 per cent were girls, 43 per cent were boys, while the gender for the
remaining two per cent was not specified.

Unlike the previous year where there was a decline in the number of first reports observed, there was a
15 per cent increase in the number of new cases received in 2015, Smith told guests at the launch.

Neglect continues to be the most common report received by the OCR over the years, he said. Fifty-one
per cent of the total reports made to the OCR in 2015 had elements of neglect. The other categories which
featured high percentages were children in need of care and protection (41 per cent), those who exhibited
behavioural problems (35 per cent) and children who were sexually abused (27 per cent).

25
Smith stressed that a holistic approach to protecting children requires an equally holistic coalition of
partners and urged Jamaicans to work together with child care agencies as well as the Government to
protect and secure the future of the nations children.

He also gave his commitment that the OCR will continue to work to put an end to child abuse and
collaborate with their partners to bring perpetrators to justice.

After the launch, Childrens Advocate Diahann Gordon-Harrison told the

Jamaica Observer that recent tragic incidences involving children, such as the death of 14-year-old Orane
Johnson who was allegedly killed by an 11-year-old friend, is a stark reminder that there needs to be an
examination of the root causes of violence.

Whenever we lose lives, especially children, for me it is quite sobering because as we have all said
repeatedly, a lost life particularly that of a child is really indicative of lost potential because you
never know what that child could have become. So it is something that I take very seriously, and at the
Office of the Childrens Advocate we are very sobered and saddened by incidents of this nature, she said.

Gordon-Harrison suggested that what needs to be done going forward is a back-to-basics approach in
looking at the root causes of the problem, and one that comes readily to mind in situations like this is that
of the continued feeding of children on a diet of violence.

We treat them violently in the homes when we are trying to correct them; we speak to them violently when
we are upset; and especially for those children who live in homes where there is domestic violence, they are
seeing violence every day. So if this is the situation, we need to change the dialogue with our children; we
need to ensure that we are teaching them how to do effective conflict resolution, Gordon-Harrison stated.

We are teaching them how to be kinder in their treatment of each other so we have to show them that we
cant continue to have the cycle of violence, and I think if that happens, each child who becomes a well-
adjusted adult can help in raising children who are less violent, she added.

Squatting in Montego Bay ... horrific past, hopeful future


published: Sunday | April 16, 2006

26
- PHOTO BY MONIQUE HEPBURN
A man dismantles the home of a squatter in the Operation Pride community of Retirement, St. James on Monday March 7, 2005. The
community was under the microscope due to criminals who were driving fear into the lives of residents.

Adrian Frater, News Editor

WESTERN BUREAU:

SQUATTING REMAINS Montego Bay's biggest security concern and socio-economic challenge.

With more than 80 per cent of the homicides taking place in informal settlements in St. James every year,
and with some 30,000 houses in Montego Bay's 19 squatter communities not contributing to the land tax
pool, the police and city fathers continue to be jittery.

The absence of basic amenities such as streetlights and roads in the informal communities have made these
communities a special challenge for the police in terms of easy access, especially at nights. Also, the
absence of specific addresses and sound social structures have made the areas quite attractive to criminals.

"These areas pose a special challenge to the police, especially at nights," said Assistant Commissioner of
Police (ACP) Denver Frater, the head of intelligence in Operation Kingfish. "The absence of easy access
makes them difficult to police and criminals tend to gravitate towards these areas."

CHALLENGE TO LAW ENFORCEMENT

ACP Frater, who was once stationed in Montego Bay and has had first-hand experiences fighting crime in
the city's informal communities, said the challenge to law enforcement is likely to remain, unless proper
roads and lights are put in place, and the general standard of living in these areas improved.

According to police statistics, the past four years, which has witnessed an increase in murder figures in St.
James every year, over 80 per cent of the homicides have taken place in informal settlements in and around
Rose Heights, Green Pond, Canterbury, Mt. Salem, Quarrie, Norwood, Bottom Pen, Flankers, Mt. Salem
and Glendevon.

Along with the security concern, is apprehension that the city could be losing in excess of $10 million
annually in potential revenue.

Speaking at a Gleaner Editors' Forum, in Montego Bay, in 2003, Dr. Horace Chang, the Member of
Parliament for North West St. James, which has 17 of the 19 squatter settlements, said that in addition to
not contributing to the land tax pool, these informal communities are also putting a major strain on the
city's resources in regards to overcrowded schools, inadequate social services, a growing homeless
population and high unemployment.

"There are no services in the informal settlements in Montego Bay, so everybody crowds downtown ... so it
must be overcrowded ... It must be dirty," Dr. Chang, stated at the time.

DEVELOPMENT SHOULD COMPLY WITH LAW

27
Cognisant of the many negatives associated with the informal communities, when businessman Mark Kerr-
Jarrett took over as president of the Montego Bay Chamber of Commerce and Industry last year, he listed
the regularisation of squatter settlements as one of the priority issues in his 13-prong agenda to join forces
with the Greater Montego Bay Redevelopment Company (GMRC) 2014 in bringing order to the city.

"We will be moving immediately to put the GMRC 2014 plan back on track," said Mr. Kerr-Jarrett, in
explaining his agenda to tackle squatting.

"We will be moving swiftly to bring all areas of development into full compliance with the law."

Another major negative created by the city's informal development is the devastating impact it is having on
implementing proper plans to meet the city's needs. Quoting 2004 figures, Mr. Kerr-Jarrett said while the
official statistics list Montego Bay as having a population of 100,000, when the 19 informal communities,
which each has approximately 5,000 residents, come into the mix, the true figure is closer to 200,000.

"We're 50 per cent off," said Mr. Kerr-Jarrett, in terms of planning for Montego Bay using the official
figures. With this situation, we will always be behind and we will not always meet our development
criteria."

PROVIDENCE HEIGHTS SETTLEMENT

But there seems to be hope for controlling the situation -- the settling of the dispute over the Providence
Heights settlement being an example.

Businesswoman Angella Whitter, wife of Montego Bay's land baron Joe Whitter, said the decision to sell
their Providence Heights property to former squatters in 2001 was not an amicable one as they were
literally forced into making that decision.

"The matter is now settled although I can't say that it was amicable," said a seemingly subdued Mrs.
Whitter. "We basically had no choice because the people (former squatters) flatly refused to leave the land
despite our many attempts to get them to leave."

The conclusion comes five years after that bitter and protracted dispute reached its ugliest on March 11,
1994, when the then squatters staged a day-long demonstration in Montego Bay. During the unrest, Joe
Whitter's Fort Street office was burnt to the ground.

When Mr. Whitter finally decided to sell the land to the Providence Heights Land Development Limited,
the umbrella group formed by the former squatters, his initial asking price was $140 million. However,
following another bout of wrangling with the lawyers representing the group, he settled for a mere $45
million - and walked away.

LAND GRAB! - Residents In Fear As Squatters Start Informal Community Beside


Their Houses In Old Harbour Glades

28
Published:Sunday | May 15, 2016 | 5:00 AMRyon Jones

PreviousNext

Pa

Hundreds of persons have started to establish an informal community on lands believed to be owned by the State just

outside the relatively new Old Harbour Glades in St Catherine, leaving persons who paid millions of dollars for the

upscale houses worried that a squatter settlement is developing just outside their back doors

The land is covered by thick vegetation and is extremely rocky in certain parts, but this has not prevented a steady

stream of persons from descending on the area almost daily seeking to grab their parcel.

The squatters have taken steps to get themselves organised with at least two meetings having already been held, the

most recent taking place last Wednesday.

Among the issues discussed at the last meeting was the pooling of money by the squatters to construct a road and the

laying of water pipes. A third meeting is scheduled for today.

29
"Close to 300 people come in already and clearing out, and by weekend it supposed to reach 500," said one man seen

hanging out at the entrance of the property beside a makeshift stall where refreshment was being sold to visitors.

"You have a mixture of people, both from surrounding communities and outside, such as Spanish Town, and even

country people coming," declared the man who asked not to be named.

Fences Erected

During a visit to the area last week, members of our news team saw several persons venturing deep into the hilly

region aiming to identify a plot of land that has not yet been claimed.

Several areas were seen where shrubs had been cut down or burnt. In some areas, fences were erected while one man

was seen putting up posts, which he said was for a man who had claimed that piece of land.

The man identified himself as Roy and said he had been living in a board structure on the property for a number of

years.

Roy has taken on the job of pointing out to new squatters what constitutes a plot, where has been claimed and where

they could call their own, while charging between $3,000 and $5,000 to those who need their captured plots cleared.

He could not say who has given the squatters permission to claim the land, and that is a question which Audley

Campbell, the councillor for the Old Harbour North division, is trying to get an answer to.

"I am trying to get to the bottom of it, because it is going to devalue the community (Old Harbour Glades), which is a

lovely one right there," said Campbell.

"I am very much concerned, as it is going to be a security hazard for the area. That area can't be policed like that, and

second, it will be a health hazard, because there is no sewage arrangement or nothing up there," added Campbell.

Karen Stewart, who was seen walking through the bushes, said the hope is that after they settle on the land, the

Government will come in give them an opportunity to formalise their occupancy.

30
"I heard about it and I born and grow around the road so I came to look my piece. I have identified a little piece that I

tek," said Stewart.

"So to how I look at it right now, if I take a little piece and build a little shed on it and anything happen they can take

their thing. But it is not private and a Government own, when Government comes in we will have a chance because we

already live on it."

But police constable Garfield Edwards, who lives in Old Harbour Glades, said the residents of the almost new scheme

do not want the squatters on their doorsteps.

"Some of them started building up houses, but we made them tear them down and told them that if we came back up

there and saw them we were going to arrest and prosecute them," said Edwards.

"We also told them the proper channels to go through, because if they get the OK and come back with documents that

show they got permission to build on the land that's fine."

Crime Concern

Fellow resident Mark Day is concerned about the crime that the squatters might bring to the area, with an increase in

break-ins having already been noticed.

He is calling on the authorities to step in before permanent structures are erected.

"If the squatting go on it is going to be like is a ghetto we live in, and that's what we are running from," said Day.

According to Campbell, he had informed the St Catherine Parish Council about what was happening, but nothing had

yet been done.

But when contacted, Andr Griffiths, planning officer for the St Catherine Parish Council, said he was not aware of the

development before being informed by The Sunday Gleaner and would be deploying a team to look into it.

31
"It is something that we are not going to leave unattended, because we have to deal with building approvals, and

anything that has not received approval we will do the necessary serving of notices and ask for it to cease immediately,"

said Griffiths.

Just over five months ago, The Gleaner uncovered a similar land grab in the Dallas Mountain area of St Andrew.

At that time, persons claimed they were sold the state lands, but the Government indicated that it had not entered any

agreement for the sale of the lands and the police launched an investigation into the transaction.

ryon.jones@gleanerjm.com

What Does Oesity Looks Like?

Example 1 From Gordon House, A Senetor From The Upper House

32
Grandma Mavis Makes Stir Fry Goat Blood, Food For
The Aged, Food For The Old

Grandama Mavis makes goat blood soup, Young Sweet Carol a hospital ward attendant
asked her why she does not buy a tin of Complan drink. Grandma Mavis told her that she
knows nothing about such things and asked her to buy a tin for her. Carol that Saturday
went to the supermarket and decided that she will use the opportunity to buy Grandma
Mavis a tin of Complan along with the rest of the groceries.

When Carol reached home and Grandma asked if she remembered the Complan, Carol
told her that if she bought the Complan she would not be able to buy food to eat.
Grandma Mavis made a pot of stir fry goat blood with two onions, three stalks of
escellion, four tomatoes, two heads of garlic, two sweet pepper, one country pepper and a
sprig of thyme, and as the pot of rice bubbled she hummed to herself the song "The
Lord Is My Shepherd. One time per week Grandma Mavis makes goat blood soup, one
time per week Grandma Mavis make stir fry goat blood and white rice.

Comments

The Laws as given by Moses forbids the eating of blood meal in any form, the Laws of
Moses also states in no uncertain terms that provisions should be made for the poor and
those in need. The vast majority of Jamaicans keep the Laws as far as not eating pork,
shell fish and blood meal is concerned, however the Jamaican society has made little if
any provision for the poor.

Thus should a poor elderly person or a poor family wishes to consume in a healthy way
and to preserve health there are moments when the Dietary Laws have to be broken.
Complan is the cheapest and most available food supplement intend for senior citizens in
Jamaica, however the price of a single tin of Complan is beyond the reach of the average
elderly Jamaican.

33
What Does A Person Looks Like When He or She Strives To Maintain
Good Health?

Example From Gordon House, Jamaica. The Photograph of A Senator.

34
Whole Blood Meal

by Gary Pfalzbot
Whole blood meal is produced by spray drying at low temperatures, the fresh whole
blood from animal processing plants. The fresh blood is collected in on-site cooling tanks
that utilize agitation to prevent coagulation of the fresh blood. Once delivered to the
drying plants the whole blood is centrifuged to remove foreign material and then
circulated through a disintegrator to rid all remaining foreign particles prior to spray
drying.
Typical Analysis Solvent
Crude Protein 80.0%
Crude Fat 1.0%
Crude Fiber 1.0%
Ruminant Digestible Protein 63.1%

Typical Amino Acid Profile


Methionine 1.0%
Crystine 1.4%
Lysine 6.9%
Trytophane 1.0%
Isoleucine 0.8%
Histidine 3.05%
Valine 5.2%
Leucine 10.3%
Arginine 2.35%
Glycine 4.4%
Caution: Any recommendations given here should be considered as general only and may
not apply in your specific situation. All final recommendations should be made by a
qualified person familiar with your particular circumstances.
About the author: Gary Pfalzbot is a Service Connected Disabled Veteran and the web
master of GoatWorld as well as some other web sites. He has raised goats over the years,
been involved with 4-H (as a young boy) and currently resides in Colorado where he and
his wife Pam raise a few breeds of goats and other animals, and primarily author the
GoatWorld web site to continue to inform, educate, and promote the industry.
( Source:- http://www.goatworld.com/nutrition/bloodmealwhole.shtml)

35
lamb blood curry

Aattu Ratham Poriya

The sight of the goat blood in the meat shop kept like a pudding in bowls used to frighten
me. I never imagined making a curry out of it. But during my last visit to chettinad, my
periamma whom I have already mentioned to be great cook asked me to try this and blog
the recipe. She told me the recipe also. She told me that the curry will not have any smell.
This Sunday the lady who comes once or twice a month from the nearby village and
helps me in cleaning the house, fish tank, car etc came. I asked her about the goat blood.
She said that they people buy and cook it. So I took her to the shop to buy it. There were
some 6 or 7 bowls of jelly like red thing in front itself. I asked for one .The man in the
shop asked me is it enough? I asked the cost .He told 15 Rs. I was surprised and got one
bowl more. The lady who came with me told that they would have added salt in the bowl
and should be careful while adding salt to the curry. As per the recipe my periamma gave,
I first washed the thing nicely. In a kadai in 4 cups of water boiled the blood till they
turned like liver. Allowed it to cool and then cut into small pieces. I prepared it as per the
recipe. I never told my daughter what it was. While eating she told me amma the liver is
very soft today' The curry did not have any non veg smell and was good.

36
Ingredients
Goat or lamb blood -2 bowls
Small onion minced -30 or big onion minced -1 or 2
Garlic chopped little
Curry leaf little
Grated coconut -2 table spoons
Green chili -8 minced
Procedure
Wash and cook the blood in a kadai in 4 cups of water till it turns like liver. Allow it to

cool. Then cut them into small pieces .


In a kadai in one teaspoon of oil season the curry with a teaspoon of fennel seed and little
curry leaf. Saut the minced onion and garlic and chilies for 5 minutes. Now add the cut
pieces too and mix well. Check for the salt taste and add the salt needed and cook for 5 to
6 minutes without adding water .There will be little water in the boiled pieces. Finally

37
add the grated coconut and mix well. The fry goes well with both sambar and curd rice.
I have not browsed the medicinal value of this goat blood. If my readers can find time to
do so please send it to me .I will add on to the blog.
(Source:- http://solaiachiskitchen.blogspot.com/2010/11/aattu-ratham-poriyal-lamb-
blood-curry.html )

Another Example of What Is Meanth By Obesity From Gordon House.

Photograph of A Senator

38
Benefits of Goat Blood

Goats are the usual farm animals we eat meat and milk. Actually, the goat has a benefit to
restore stamina. When you consume goat meat, your body will feel the heat, or increased
body temperature, because when meat is digested in the body, substances contained in the
meat goat cause burning carbohydrates take place very quickly, so the body feels like
burning. A football player from Scottish club St. Johnstone, Peter MacDonald spent his
summer in 2009 with goat blood injection therapy to treat a hamstring injury (injury to
the back of the thigh muscle). Football athletes who are in the position of striker is
confident all the goats that received injections of blood can save her career as a football
player. This treatment may sound like voodoo because animal blood entering into the
body. But it was not only MacDonald who had undergone this treatment, because of some
other football athletes ever known to do that is Michael Owen, Jurgen Klinsmann and
Arjen Robben. Treatment was initiated by a German physician Wilhelm Muller-
Wolfhart, who was a world expert in treating the hamstring problem that works in
Munich and has helped some names of athletes to come back fully fit. MacDonald has
suffered long-term problems with hamstringnya. Frustration is what made him switch to
select the treatment Muller-Wolfhart with the wonders of goat blood. This treatment can
help muscles recover faster and can be re-used. "The club sent me to get the best care
with the doctor Muller-Wolfhart, the doctor said I was too tight hamstring and given
injections of goat blood could melonggarkannya well," MacDonald said, as quoted from
Dailyrecord.co.uk, Thursday (20 / 1 / 2011). MacDonald said a week after the treatment
he was able to start training. He was getting physiotherapy and doing a lot of stretching
over a period of rest. In addition to animal blood injection, the physician for the German
national team is claiming that the extract from the crested chicken or the so-called Hylart
can help lubricate (grease) knee injury and reduce pain. From now on try to learn to learn
all the benefits of animals, because animals are not we thought could actually be a cure
for your disease.

(Source:- http://guidance-article.blogspot.com/2011/01/benefits-of-goat-blood.html )

39
What Does It Mean To Fight To Stay In Shape? An Example From
Gordon House

Photograph of A Fighting Senator

Can goats' blood help beat MS? My mother is walking proof it can

By VICTORIA LAMBERT
Last updated at 11:08 19 June 2007

When her mother, Diana, began taking an unlicensed experimental drug made from goats'
blood for multiple sclerosis, you might imagine Jackie Llewellyn-Bowen would have had
a few nagging doubts.

But if she did, these were quickly allayed. 'Three weeks after she started taking it, I went
to my parents' home. My mother was standing in the hallway,' says Jackie, wife of
Laurence Llewellyn- Bowen.
'She beamed at me and said: "Look - no stick!" She wasn't using a frame, hobbling or
grabbing at furniture to find her balance. She had gone back to the mobility she had the
year before.'

40
All over the country, sufferers of MS and their families were hearing of Aimspro and
clamouring for it. Some were able to get hold of it, although no one has ever established
how many.

Yet, just three years later, its true value is being challenged by medical experts and
charities, many of whom are unable to speak publicly because they are involved in
complicated litigation with Daval International, the pharmaceutical company behind the
drug.

Most significantly, the MS Society has just revealed it is concerned that users of Aimspro,
a potential anti-inflammatory treatment, are spending their life savings and placing too
much faith in a drug that is untried and not properly tested. As the drug has not been
formally evaluated, it is impossible to judge whether it works.
Moreover, the Society is raising concerns that the drug is being promoted in an
evangelical fashion by the charity Proventus (set up to lobby for wider access to drugs
such as Aimspro).
MS is a debilitating and incurable neurological condition - the result of damage to the
nervous system. Vital messages are not transmitted properly from the brain to the body.
There are 85,000 people diagnosed with it, with varying degrees of severity.
There are four types of MS. Benign MS accounts for 20 per cent of cases and causes a
few mild attacks but no longterm symptoms. Relapsing remitting MS causes sporadic
attacks from which there are periods of total remission.

Secondary progressive MS often starts with these clear-cut attacks and remissions, but
over ten to 15 years becomes more disabling.

Finally, primary/progressive MS affects 12 per cent of sufferers and has a slow onset,
beginning with walking difficulties but progressing steadily.

Authorised treatments include betainterferon and Copaxone, disease-modifying drugs,


which some patients find reduces the likelihood of relapse by one-third.
A cannabis spray called Sativex recently became available to be prescribed on a 'named
patient' basis: it is not licensed for general use but can be made available for a specific
patient or need.

Some sufferers find it alleviates the worst symptoms. But most find day-to-day
management of their condition a challenge. And for those with primary/progressive MS,
no drugs are available to help.

Aimspro is derived from purified serum extracted from the blood of goats, which have
been injected with dead, harmless HIV-infected cells created in the lab rather than taken
from humans. It is thought this creates antibodies, which appear in the serum and can
help reduce the inflammation likely to be at the root of many major illnesses including
MS.

41
The stories about its efficacy that first emerged seemed miraculous: men and women
were apparently throwing down their walking sticks and turning over their wheelchairs.
Alan Osmond of Seventies pop fame tried it and abandoned his leg brace, saying: 'Almost
immediately I could walk faster, better, quicker.'

A trial got under way at St George's, Tooting, a leading London hospital. GPs sought
ways to get their patients a free course from Daval. And patients clamoured for a chance
to try it, even if they had to pay for the 180-a-time, twice-weekly injection privately.
Those who did get the drug couldn't wait to tell their stories: they were feeling less pain,
their eyesight improved, they had more energy, some found physical sensations were
renewed, others just felt better in themselves. Perhaps this drug really was the
breakthrough all had hoped for.

The Llewellyn-Bowens thought so. Diana had fallen ill three years previously, aged 65.
After suffering a slipped disc in her back, she had felt increasing pain in her left leg
which was causing her to limp.
She was diagnosed with primary/ progressive MS, which meant her condition was likely
to decline rapidly. Jackie discovered the trial at St George's and tried to get her mother on
it.

When told it was full, she found Dr David Maziels, a Kent GP, who agreed to prescribe it
as part of another trial group.

There was just one thing missing - the link that meant Aimspro could be assessed by the
National Institute for Clinical Excellence and become available to all: a clinical peer-
reviewed trial. Instead, the trial under way at St George's was suddenly brought to a halt
by Daval and without explanation.

A hospital spokesman said: 'A trial to establish the safety of a drug consisting of HIV-
inoculated goat serum on patients with secondary progressive MS was stopped by Daval
in March 2005, without consultation or investigation, after nurses found a small number
of treatments were defrosting too rapidly to be given to patients.

'The trial was not endangered in any way, as back-up supplies of the drug were given to
the patients.
'The trial had been conducted according to an agreed clinical protocol and without
problems for nearly a year.

'We were surprised by the abrupt decision to withhold supplies of the drug based on this
one instance after so many months of work without discussing it with us first.'
Daval has continued to supply the drug privately. Doctors are still able to prescribe
Aimspro because it is produced under a specials licence under the Medicines and
Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). It does not approve the medicine
itself, but gives a licence to a pharmaceutical site, its staff and approves its basic
ingredients.

42
The responsibility for ordering the drug is then down to a GP who is comfortable to
prescribe it. The MHRA is clearly not happy with the current situation. It has an ongoing
investigation into Daval for offences under the Medicines Act 1968, including illegal
sale, supply, manufacture and advertising of an unlicensed medicine.

The lack of a clinical trial is a concern for the MS Society. Dr Lee Dunster, head of
research for the Society, says: 'There have been no safety and efficacy trials which runs
against standard practice for a company that wants to bring a therapeutic agent to market.
'We have been told that the company intends to get trials under way but there is a huge
difference between intention and action.'

Dr Dunster is not attempting to prejudge the results of any trial - he is aware that many
MS sufferers are happy with the drug. He said: 'If it is safe and proven, that is great for
everyone. Until then we cannot support it.We know there have been some adverse
reactions to the drug. What we don't know is what this might do to the body over time.'
However, Brian Quick, managing director of Daval International, denies the suggestion
the company is dragging its heels over testing or trying to abuse a specials licence.
'All I want to do is the get the trials under way and done,' he says.

'The MS Society know that we are trying to do this; and that we concluded a small one in
Oxford which found the product safe. We stopped the trial at St George's, as we felt the
product was not being handled carefully enough, which would have affected both its
efficacy and the trial results.

'It's not in our interests not to do trials; we want to get this drug on to the market.
'The application is with the MHRA, we hope to have a positive response within three to
four weeks, and we are lined up now to begin clinical trials in September or October this
year.'

The MHRA investigation, he says, is 'a minor matter'. 'We would like the MHRA to
pursue their investigations and get this over with. We are not selling the product illegally.'

It's been two years since Diana took Aimspro - the family took a joint decision that it was
too difficult to get hold of and too expensive for the results it gave.
Jackie is sure her mother got some benefit, but says it's impossible to know what would
have happened if they hadn't gone down that route. But she is glad they did.
'Aimspro has no serious side effects, no toxicity, so why shouldn't people give it a go?
'My mother is still getting around now. But you can't say if it is a long-term effect of the
Aimspro.'

Where she and Dr Dunster agree is on the need to examine the serum more closely. She
says: 'From what I have seen, this drug offers hope. Why not investigate it further and
then judge it?'

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-463033/Can-goats-blood-help-

43
beat-MS-My-mother-walking-proof-can.html#ixzz4dWRFoIvv
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Another Look At Obesity In Gordon House. Photograph Of A Senator

44
Blood Poriyal : How To Make Goat Blood Poriyal

Prep Time : 10 mins | Cooking Time : 15 mins | Serves : 3 to 4 | Cuisine : Indian

Author : Shanavi | Copyright : www.kitchensecretsandsnippets.com

Ingredients:

Goat blood - 1 box


Ginger garlic paste - 1 1/2 tsp
Channa dal - 1/4 cup, soaked
Onion - 2 medium sized onion, finely chopped
Green chillies - 1 no, finely chopped
Fennel Seed powder - 1/2 tsp
Turmeric powder - 1/8 tsp
Red chilli powder - 1 tsp
Salt - a pinch
Curry leaves - a sprig
Oil - 2 tsp

Method:

Add little bit of water, say about 1/4 cup of water to the coagulated blood and cook it
separately for 5 minutes.
Drain the water, rest for few minutes and then smash the cooked blood into pieces and
keep aside.

45
Heat a pan with2 tsp of oil and fry the onion until it sweats thoroughly. Next add in the
ginger garlic paste and fry again for 2 minutes on medium flame until they are fried well.
Next add in the green chillies, curry leaves and saute for a minute. Now add in the soaked
channa dal to the seasoning mixture and saute well until it gets cooked thoroughly.
Add in the fennel seed powder, turmeric powder, red chilli powder, salt ( a pinch,
remember the blood already contains salt) to the mixture and fry well for 2 minutes until
the raw smell is gone.
Dump in the crumbled blood pieces and mix well to combine. Cover and simmer the
mixture for another 2 to 3 minutes until it gets blend with the masala and the water is
gone ( the blood will ooze out water)
Switch off the fire when the blood poriyal becomes dry, but not so dry and serve hot.

What Does It Mean To Maintain A Healthy Weight? Example From Gordon House,
Photograph of A Senator.

46
Good Nutrition for the Older Person
Posted in Healthy ageing

Eating healthily, combined with regular physical activity, can help a person live a
full, active life, preserving independence into older age.
10 Simple Dietary Guidelines To Help You Stay Well Into Older Age:

Balance your food intake with physical activity the more active you are, the more food
you need. Keep an eye on your meal portion size, if you are less active choose smaller
serving sizes and add plenty of vegetables, salad and fruit.

Include a carbohydrate food (bread, rice, pasta, potato, or cereal) at each meal. Choose
high fibre options whenever you can (see following section for suggestions).
Aim for five servings of fruits & vegetables each day. These are packed with important
nutrients to help you stay healthy. Remember these can be fresh, frozen, tinned, or dried.
Colour is important have a mixture of different coloured fruits and vegetables each day
such as apples, oranges, bananas, spinach, cabbage, carrots, sweet potato, broccoli,
cauliflower, peppers, sweet corn.

Protein foods help to make new cells and keep your muscles healthy. Stay fit and strong
by eating a variety of protein-rich foods each day. Great sources include lean meat,
poultry and fish. Salmon, sardines, trout, fresh tuna and kippers are packed with heart-
healthy omega 3 fats. Eating beans, eggs and nuts is a simple way of boosting the protein
in your diet.

Keep your bones healthy by having three servings of low-fat dairy foods (milk, yoghurt,
or cheese) each day. Dairy foods with added calcium and vitamin D are even better. Look
out for these in the supermarket as fortified foods.
Choose heart-healthy fats. We all need some fat in the diet but it is a case of choosing the
right type:
Saturated fat or animal fat can raise your cholesterol level, which can in turn increase
the risk of heart disease. Saturated fat is found in butter, hard margarine, lard, cream,
cream based sauces, fat on meat, skin on chicken, and processed meats like sausages,
burgers, black and white pudding, meat pies and pate. It is also found in biscuits, cakes,
chocolate, toffees, takeaway foods, foods covered in batter and breadcrumbs as well as
milk, cheese and yoghurt.

Trans fat or hydrogenated vegetable fat also raises cholesterol levels. Trans fat is found
in hard margarine, cakes, biscuits and confectionery. It may be listed as hydrogenated fat
on food labels and should be avoided.

Monounsaturated fat aim to replace saturated fat with monounsaturated fat to help
protect your heart as it helps lower cholesterol level. Monounsaturated fat is found in
olive oil, peanut oil and rapeseed oil, unsalted peanuts, cashew nuts and almonds.

47
Polyunsaturated fat can also help to reduce cholesterol levels. Polyunsaturated fat is
found in oily fish (omega-3 fat), sunflower oil (omega-6 fat), sesame oil, flaxseed oil,
walnuts and hazelnuts.

Remember all types of fats and oils contain the same amount of fat and calories. They can
lead to weight gain if used to excess!

7. Use less salt. Too much salt in the diet can contribute to high blood pressure, which in
turn can lead to stroke or heart disease.You can reduce the amount of salt in your diet by:
Avoid adding salt to your food at the table and in cooking. Use pepper, lemon juice, herbs
and spices to flavour food instead of salt.

Choosing fresh foods as often as possible e.g. fresh meat, chicken, fish, vegetables,
home-made soups and sauces without salt.
Limit intake of processed or canned food.

Avoid foods high in salt such as packet and tinned soups and sauces, instant noodles,
Bovril, Oxo, Marmite, stock cubes, soy sauce, garlic salt and sea salt.

Avoid processed meats such as ham, bacon, corned beef, sausages, burgers, black and
white pudding, meat pies, pate as well as smoked fish.

Keep away from snacks such as salted biscuits and salted crisps and nuts.

Check food labels to help you choose foods with a low amount of salt. Too much salt is
more than 1.5g (0.6g sodium) per 100g of any food item.

8. Limit amount of foods high in empty calories like biscuits, cakes, savoury snacks
(crisps, peanuts), sweets, confectionary. These foods are rich in calories, fat, sugar and
salt, so remember not too much and not too often.
9. Stay hydrated. Among other things, dehydration causes tiredness, dizziness and
constipation. Get plenty of fluids (water, fruit cordials, juice, milk) on board each day. As
a general guide, about 8 glasses a day should be adequate.

10. Alcohol should be enjoyed in moderation. The recommendations are no more than 11
standard drinks a week for women or 17 standard drinks a week for men with a number
of alcohol free days in the week. A standard drink is

48
Some Important Nutrients to Consider
As we get older, our bodies have different needs, so certain nutrients become especially
important for good health:

Fibre: Eating fibre-rich foods helps bowels move regularly, lowering the risk of
constipation. A high-fibre diet can also lower the risk for many chronic conditions
including heart disease, obesity and some cancers. Good sources of fibre include:
100% wholemeal or wholegrain bread.

Breakfast cereals such as porridge, weetabix, shredded wheat, branflakes


Other cereals such as brown rice, brown pasta

Potatoes eaten in their jackets


Fruits and vegetables
Pulse vegetables such as beans, peas and lentils.

Breakfast can be a super way to get a high fibre start to the day: Add linseed to a
wholegrain cereal or to yoghurt or have prune juice instead of orange juice to boost your
fibre intake.

Calcium and Vitamin D: Older adults need extra calcium and vitamin D to help
maintain bone health. Being a healthy weight can help keep bones strong. Take three
servings of vitamin D-fortified milk, cheese, or yoghurt each day. Other calcium-rich
foods include fortified cereals, dark green leafy vegetables and canned fish with soft
bones (like sardines).

Iron and Vitamin B12: Iron is responsible for carrying oxygen around the body, while
vitamin B12 keeps your brain and nervous system healthy. Many older adults do not get

49
enough of these important nutrients in their diet. The best sources of iron include red
meats such as beef, liver, kidney, lamb, pork, ham, corned beef & black & white pudding,
while fortified cereals, lean meat and some fish and seafood are sources of both iron and
vitamin B12. Taking a vitamin C-rich food like orange juice at meal time can help your
body to absorb iron. Ask your doctor or dietitian whether you would benefit from an iron
or a vitamin B12 supplement.

A word on exercise....
Combining an active lifestyle with a healthy diet is your best recipe for healthy ageing.
Try to be physically active for at least 30 minutes most days.
It is okay to break up your 30 minutes physical activity into 10-minute sessions
throughout the day.
If you are currently inactive, start with 5 minutes of exercise, such as walking, gardening,
climbing stairs or dancing and gradually increase this time as you become stronger.
Always check with your doctor or nurse before beginning a new physical activity
programme.

Updated by Anne Marie Bennett, MINDI, May 2016


(Source:- https://www.indi.ie/fact-sheets/fact-sheets-on-nutrition-for-older-people/509-
good-nutrition-for-the-older-person.html)

Another Example of Obesity From Gordon House. Photograph Of A


Member Of Parliament.

50
Traditional Maasai Food: Blood and Milk
A balanced diet in the bush
By Thomson Safaris

Italians have pasta, Russians have borscht, and Americans have cheeseburgers and cherry
pie; traditional foods can be found in every culture, and the 120+ ethnic and tribal groups
living in Tanzania are no exception.
To a westerner, though, traditional eating for the Maasai may seem distinctly unorthodox.
Thats because a traditional Maasai diet not only includes, but primarily relies upon, both
cows milk and cows blood.
In Maasai culture, cattle are highly valued. The size of your herd indicates your status in
the community, and accumulating animalsrather than consuming themis common
practice.

A
Maasai herder tends his cattle
Photo taken by Thomson Safaris guest, Beverly Halliwell-Ross

That means that milk plays a huge role in a traditional Maasai diet. Drunk raw (or
soured), drunk in tea, or turned into butter (which is especially important as a food for
infants), milk is a part of almost every meal for Maasai herders.

Raw beef is also consumed, but much more fascinating (and possibly a little off-putting
to the western palate) is the tradition of drinking raw blood, cooked blood, and blood-
milk mixtures.

51
Blood is obtained by nicking the jugular artery of a cow precisely, allowing for blood-
letting that doesnt kill the animal. Mixed blood and milk is used as a ritual drink in
special celebrations, or given to the sick.

Of course blood and milk arent the only things Maasai eat; the diet has always been
supplemented with tubers, honey, and foraged plants that are most often used in soups
and stews. More recently, Maasai have supplemented their diet with grains and maize-
meal (and of course many modern Maasai live an urban lifestyle, with the more varied
diet that entails). They still play an important role in many Maasai meals, however; for
example, ugali (a thick maize-based porridge that serves as a staple food throughout
Tanzania) is generally served with milk in Maasai households.

A pair of Ingri, traditional Maasai gourds used to hold milk.


By Omondi (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

52
Though a diet made up of primarily animal proteins might sound like a heart attack
waiting to happen, Maasai that consume a primarily traditional diet are emphatically
healthy. Studies going as far back as the 1930s showed almost no diseases or cavities
among Maasai tribesmen, and more recent studies on Maasai warriors showed no signs of
heart disease, and cholesterol levels about half as high as the average Americans.

The absence of negative heart effects is so pronounced, its led some researchers to posit
that the traditional Maasai diet has led to very localized evolution in the Maasai people,
such that theyre better-equipped to process animal fats. Interestingly, Maasai that have
moved into cities, where they are eating diets with higher levels of sugar and grains than
a traditional Maasai diet contains, show much higher rates of heart problems.

Today, dwindling herd sizes mean that blood plays a less important role in the Maasai
diet than it once did. That may make it easier for a westerner to stomach the idea of a
Maasai dinnerbut it means missing out on one heck of an eating adventure.

Author: Thomson Safaris


Thomson Safaris has been providing photographic Tanzania safaris and Mount
Kilimanjaro treks for over 35 years.
(source:- http://www.thomsonsafaris.com/blog/traditional-maasai-diet-blood-milk/ )

A Jamaican Parliamentarian Who Tries To Stay In Good Shape

53
J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Jan;47(1):231-6.

Bovine blood components: fractionation, composition,


and nutritive value.
Duarte RT1, Carvalho Simes MC, Sgarbieri VC.
Author information
Abstract
The objective of this research work was to fractionate bovine blood, collected
hygienically in a slaughterhouse, into blood plasma protein concentrate, red blood cell
concentrate, globin isolate, and a carboxymethylcellulose-heme iron (CMC-heme)
complex. All four fractions were studied for proximate composition and amino acid and
mineral contents. The nutritive value of plasma protein concentrate and globin isolate was
comparatively studied using rat bioassays. The amino acid content in plasma protein
concentrate is well balanced and produced net protein utilization and net protein ratio
equivalent to 95% those of casein. Globin isolate ( approximately 91% protein) is
deficient in isoleucine and S-containing amino acids and was unable to support rat
growth at 10% concentration in the diet. Red blood cell concentrate and the isolated
CMC-heme complex were good sources of bioavailable iron. Iron availabilities for CMC-
heme and whole blood cell concentrate, related to ferrous sulfate as 100%, were 64 and
70%, respectively.
PMID:

10563877
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
(Source:- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10563877)

54
Why Chefs Are (Finally) Cooking With Blood

Alex Lau
FEBRUARY 12, 2015
BY ROCHELLE BILOW PHOTOGRAPHED BY ALEX LAU

From Austin to Boston to Portland, some of the nations' best-known chefs are embracing
an oft-maligned ingredient: blood. What has become, in recent times, the final frontier of
all things offal is now a culinary darling. Well, almost. Chefs like Andy Ricker (Pok Pok;
Portland, New York, Los Angeles), Jamie Bissonnette (Toro; Boston, New York), Alex
Stupak (Empellon; New York) and Paul Qui (Qui; Austin) are using blood in more than a
few of their dishes. Although the chefs' styles are all very different, they share one thing
in common: Each strives to cook authentic iterations of global cuisines that have all relied
on blood as a supporting ingredient for centuries.

Pok Pok's Northern Thai influences, Toro's Spanish roots, Stupak's Mexican flavors, and
Qui's Filipino leanings all feature blood as a thickener, a rehydrating agent, coloring
agent, or simply enough, a flavor enhancer. These are not the only global cuisines that
feature blood: It's also used in Taiwanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Chinese, Irish,
Portuguese, Swedish, Peruvian, and Mexican foodto name just a few. More cuisines
use blood than not. Although one can certainly find blood in American kitchensif one
looks hard enoughit's most likely in a nod to other cuisines.

"It's definitely an acquired taste," says Andrew Knowlton, BA's restaurant and drinks
editor, and big-time blood fan. "Maybe we've just seen too many horror films, but if you
can get past that, it's got this intense minerality that I really crave." He cites about-to-
reopen Aska's blood cracker, and Estela's blood croquetta (both in Manhattan) as prime
examples of how a little blood can add richness and depth to a dish. But that's not the
only reason chefs are choosing to cook with blood.

Blood Imparts Flavor and Texture


Blood is prized for both pleasure and efficiency. It's a superb thickener, provided it hasn't
been frozen and congealed, says Bissonnette, who makes a sausage of roughly 40 percent
blood at Toro. Pig's blood is typically favored for its sweeter, lighter flavor. (Beef blood
can be gamey, and although gelatinous and mild, chicken blood is hard to source, says
Ricker.) Whatever the animal, blood's deep, rich color is not lost on chefs who prize it for
its aesthetics: At Sen Yai, Ricker's Thai-influenced noodle shop, they "add a little [blood]
to boat noodles to make the broth rich and the color nice." Stupak is experimenting with
blood to rehydrate house-made masa harina into crimson tortillas for a potential menu
offering later this year. (Masa harina is a dried and powdered form of corn.)

For Qui, who serves a version of the Filipino pork blood stew dinuguan at Qui, it's all
about the richness blood adds. "Blood gives you that richness and flavor you want,
without being too heavy," he says. "And, I think it's healthier [than butter]." Qui uses both

55
rabbit and duck blood in addition to the more typical pork blood. He notes that the best
quality blood is a deep, almost-black color; bright red means it's been oxidized.
And for the increasing amount of chefs who are purchasing whole animals direct from
farmerssay, a whole pig rather than a dozen shrink-wrapped tenderloinsmaking good
use of every part of the carcass is just good financial management.

Bissonnette purchases whole pigs direct from farmers who, when requested, will also
include the blood (many farmers let a pig "bleed out" after slaughter, not bothering to
capture and save the blood because, well, until recently it wasn't desired). "It keeps the
food costs down if you can find ways to use the cheek, the tail, the ear, the marrowand
the blood," he says.

Besides chefs' penny-pinching proclivity and resourcefulness, it's also imperative to many
that they pay proper respect to the animal. "To not use every part of an animal is, frankly,
heresy," says Stupak, adding that people in most cultures are comfortable with the
necessity of slaughter in order to consume meat.

Blood Is a Traditional Ingredient


American chefs cooking global food also feel responsible for honoring the authenticity of
a particular cuisine. "Most of [authentic Mexican cooking] feels very new when held up
against what we generally perceive as Mexican here in the U.S. From my experience,
because I am not Mexican, people often think I am tinkering with things when I am not,"
says Stupak. When your reputation as a chef is on the line, you're not likely to cut corners
or eliminate ingredients. Says Bissonnette: "Of course it would be easy to skip few steps
or ingredients, but that's not why good cooks cook. We want the challenge, and we want
to learn."

Plus, why eat a knockoff when you can eat the real thing? There's plenty of tasty takeout
Thai to be found in America, but what sets Ricker apart is his complete immersion into
Thailand's culture. When it comes to nuance of flavor, his version of khanom jiin
naan ngiaw, for example, is a noodle dish much truer to the food found in northern
Thailand than sticky-sweet takeout pad Thai. (Ricker uses pig's blood instead of the
typical chicken's blood, but hey, let's not split hairs.)

Blood Is a Badge of Honor (And Sign of Skill)


There's one other, less-touted reason for cooking with blood: It's just plain badass. "Raw
blood doesn't taste good," says Bissonnette. It's bland and iron-y, he explains, like a huge
bowl of stinging nettles. To take an ingredient like that and turn it into lick-the-plate good
food requires a certain skill level that chefs seek and admire. "I can take a ripe avocado,
mash it up on toast and season it well, then charge $14 for it at brunch," says Bissonnette.
"But so can a lot of people."

Stupak agrees, hitting the example closer to home: "Anyone can season steak and grill it,"
he says, but to choose off-cuts of meat and organs requires a particular skill and desire to
push one's self. Most chefs worth their salt would rather have the satisfaction of tackling
a challenging ingredient. In other words, you've got to play big to win big. The way Qui

56
speaks about blood indicates his mastery of the ingredient: He knows, for example, that
adding blood to a steaming-hot dish will impart an iron-tinged, "well-cooked liver" taste.
That's not something most culinary school students are taught, and it's a nod to his skill
level.

That said, "guts for the sake of guts" is less impressive, according to Stupak. Oaxacan
blood sausage, or sangrita, for example, relies on blood, so if Stupak wants to feature it
on his menu, it's an ingredient he needs to source. But filling diners' plates with thyroid
glands, kidneys, and liver just for the hell of it isn't just tiresomeit might be bad
business.

Blood Is Still for the Adventurous Diner


"You have to build up diners' trust," says Bissonnette, citing Toro's large menu as a
helpful tool. He explains that if a customer's really excited about pan con tomate and
chicken empanadas, he or she is admittedly not likely to eagerly dig into smoked beef
heart on toast. But the morcilla de cordero, a shepherd's pie with lambs' blood sausage,
apples, Brussels sprouts, and topped with bubbling-hot sheep's milk cheese, is a
surprisingly user-friendly "gateway drug" into blood consumption. (It's a riff on the first
bloody dish Bissonnette cooked, which was a soft blood sausage with onions, apples, and
cabbage.)
The flavors are all familiar to diners, and unless they're really looking for it, they might
not even identify blood as an ingredient. It merely enhances the rich tomato-based sauce
that holds it all together. "Just try it," says Bissonnette to wary customers. "It's got that
good sloppy joe vibe without the corn syrup and ketchup."

In the case of Ricker's Boat Noodles, the menu doesn't identify blood as an ingredient.
They're listed as, "Noodles in a complex rich dark broth with spices, herbs, stewed beef,
poached beef, house-made meatballs, water, spinach, dry chilies, herbs, and bean
sprouts." Traditional? You bet. Explicitly so? Not in so many words.

Adventurous eaters are eager to try blood-based dishes, but for the majority of
Americans, the idea of consuming blood feels inherently taboo. Ricker believes it's a
result of generations of supermarket shoppers who have lost touch with the way we used
to eat: "Now, we are only interested in prime cuts, we don't eat skin, we can't handle
seeing whole parts of the animal on the plate, [and] meat on the bone is not seen as an
appetizing thing." Bissonnette agrees, citing years of "TV dinners and canned food" as
the primary culprits.

Bissonnette cites a neat-freakish repulsion to blood as partially to blame. "For some


reason, people think there's a greater chance they'll get sick from blood," he says. "But it's
no less safe than any other meat." And besides, he adds: "If it was bad, you'd know." How
would we know? He scrunches up his nose. "Trust me. You'd just know."
"We never ate blood," says Stupak, "because we never had to." The kitchen at Empelln
Cocina calls blood-and-offal dishes "red flag" items, because when they're ordered, it's a
red flag to the cooks: The diner is likely a food writer or a fellow chef. "If you put blood

57
on a menu, it's still incredibly hard to sell," he says. "And any restaurateur who tells you
he or she sells more blood sausage than steak is lying."

Qui, however, might disagree: He's had blood on his menu at Qui continually since a few
months after opening. And what's more, he says, last year, his spin on dinuguan was one
of the restaurant's top ten sellers. The formal dining room's new menu is a prix fixe,
meaning that all diners get blood, whether they want it or not; diners on the patio can
choose their own adventure. Are the tides changing? If so, it's a slow turn. Qui's
customers are admittedly in the minority when it comes to adventurous dining. "We [as a
society] won't even eat chicken thighs," says Stupak. "How can we expect diners in this
country to embrace blood?"

Blood: The Final Frontier?


For the adventurous diner, blood is, according to Stupak, the "purest expression of offal."
That's both why it's worth tryingand why it's hard to. And what about the chefs who are
spreading the word: Is there any food they won't tackle? Largely not. Qui says he's
"willing to try anything." Bissonnette thinks peanut butter is perhaps the most disgusting
food he's ever encountered. Stupak admits he's not a fan of dill, although he won't go to
great lengths to avoid it. Ricker has a hard time with kidneys: "When I was a kid, we had
an English woman who lived in our house who cooked them up, and the whole house
would smell like [urine]. Never got over that." Although he adds: "But I bet I will
eventually."

(Source:- http://www.bonappetit.com/entertaining-style/trends-news/article/restaurants-
chefs-blood )

58
Example of A Member Of Parliament Who Needs To Go To Dances
ClassesNow For Our Sake

Why Spend So Much Time On Blood Meal?

Grandma Mavis and her niece Carol are not the only persons who would have benefitted
from the goat blood soup and the goat blood stir fry with white rice. Last Sunday the 2nd.
April 2017, a young man a former student of the Edna Manley College in Jamaica on the
RJR programme Palaver , reported that there were days when he and his family at home
had nothing to eat, they were hungry; sadly his experience is not unique and one hears of
similar experiences from the guests on the TVJ programee Profile which comes on
television on Sunday evenings.

While for the average Jamaican teacher who belongs to a nuclear family with one or two
children, the price of liver, kidney or chicken gizzards is affordable, within the city
Kingston and in many rural places, there are many Jamaicans who go to bed hungry, with
nothing to eat; this experience is also shared by the working poor.

Sadly the majority of those individuals who are forced to experience hunger in Jamaica
Land We Love, are the young and the old, the most vulnerable groups in society, the
young who are not yet able to provide for them selves and the old who can longer work.
Regardless of which system of health care one uses, conventional or traditional; there is
an underlying assumption that the patient, the individual being cared for, have access to a
satisfactory diet. Given that this is not so, one has to relax the Dietary Laws as were and
are given in the Old Testament.

End

59
Photograph of An Old But Very Healthy Member Of Parliament. She Keeps The
Weight Off- Possibly Attends Dance Classes Three Hours Daily

Sweet Potato Leaves

There are many in Kingston and other urban centers who would be surprised if told that
callalo, that common leafy vegetable, is not available in many rural communities in
Jamaica, for example in Manchester, callalo is not planted and while wild callalo is
plentiful post-harvest of cultivated crops, these wild callalo are general significantly
damaged by pests and worms, thus one might be able to obtain some stalks with very few
usable leaves. It is in this context one has to look at the rural poor, that little old lady or
man who passes through the field to pick up that portion of the crop which was not
collected/ left behind by the farmer. It is a standard common practice in the Hibernia-
Bethany region of Northern Manchester in keeping with Moorish-Sephardic traditions to
leave something in the fields for the poor, thus when Irish potato, sweet potato or carrots
are harvested, some is left in the field to be collected by that unknown poor person who
visits the fields after harvest.

It is for these unknown and unseen individuals, persons without names the usage of sweet
potato leaves could play an important role in alleviating hunger and ensuring a more
balanced nutrition. Yet even while we think of meeting the dietary needs of those
individuals, we look at the diets of those who are better off in the villages and small
towns, and here one finds that many a rural farmer and his household does not have a

60
balanced diet, more and more, their status needs have forced them to rely on imported
staples thus mimicking the lifestyle of those who live in the urban areas. Diabetes and
hypertension are no-longer urban maladies but now plagues in many rural households.
For the well to do rural farmer , who does not eat callalo, does not eat the tops of carrots,
who does not eat coco leaves , who does not eat pumpkin leaves and whose only
vegetable with leaves are cabbages, sweet potato leaves are also recommended. True we
will go through the nutritional benefits of all the leaves mentioned, but we start with
sweet potato leaves which are seasonally abundant in the hills of Manchester.

Sweet potato leaves, raw


Nutrition Facts

Serving Size
100 g Add to comparison
Amount Per Serving Add to meal
Export CSV
Calories 42

% Daily Value

Total Fat 0.5g


1%
Saturated Fat 0.1g
0%
Sodium 6mg
0%
Total Carbohydrate 8.8g
3%
Dietary Fiber 5.3g
21 %
Protein 2.5g
5%
Vitamin A 76 % Vitamin C 18 %

Calcium 8% Iron 5% Badges: low fat

Daily values are based on 2000 calorie diet.

Product Sweet potato leaves, raw


Food Category Vegetables and Vegetable Products

Sweet potato leaves, raw nutrition facts and analysis

61
Vitamins Carbohydrates
Nutrient Amount DV Nutrient Amount DV
Folic acid 0.00 mcg Carbohydrate 8.82 g 3%
Niacin 1.130 mg 6% Fiber 5.3 g 21 %
Pantothenic acid 0.225 mg 2%
Riboflavin 0.345 mg 20 % Fats and Fatty Acids
Thiamin 0.156 mg 10 %
Vitamin A 3778.00 IU 76 %
Vitamin A, RAE 189.00 mcg
Carotene, alpha 42.00 mcg
Carotene, beta 2217.00 mcg
Cryptoxanthin, beta 58.00 mcg
Lutein + zeaxanthin 14720.00 mcg
Lycopene 0.00 mcg Nutrient Amount DV
Vitamin B12 0.00 mcg 0% Fat 0.51 g 1%
Vitamin B6 0.190 mg 10 % Saturated fatty acids 0.111 g 1%
Vitamin C 11.0 mg 18 % Hexadecanoic acid 0.100 g
Vitamin D 0.00 IU 0% Octadecanoic acid 0.010 g
Vitamin K 302.2 mcg 378 % Monounsaturated fatty acids 0.020 g
Octadecenoic acid 0.020 g
Minerals Polyunsaturated fatty acids 0.228 g
Nutrient Amount DV Octadecadienoic acid 0.192 g
Calcium, Ca 78.00 mg 8% Octadecatrienoic acid 0.036 g
Iron, Fe 0.97 mg 5% Fatty acids, total trans 0.000 g
Magnesium, Mg 70.00 mg 18 %
Phosphorus, P 81.00 mg 8% Sterols
Potassium, K 508.00 mg 11 % Nutrient Amount DV
Selenium, Se 0.9 mcg 1% Cholesterol 0.00 mg 0%
Sodium, Na 6.00 mg 0%
Other
Nutrient Amount DV
Proteins and Aminoacids
Ash 1.36 g
Nutrient Amount DV
Protein 2.49 g 5% Water 86.81 g
Cystine 0.047 g
Lysine 0.228 g 11 %
Methionine 0.086 g 8%

62
Tryptophan 0.035 g 12 %
Foods related to sweet potato leaves, raw
Sweet potato, unprepared, raw Sweet potato, unprepared, frozen

Please let us know if you have any suggestions on how to make this website better.Sweet
potato leaves, raw: nutritional value and analysis. Daily values for aminoacids are based
on 155 lbs body weight. Interchangeable pairs of aminoacids: Methionine + Cysteine,
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine. Other daily values are based on 2000 calorie diet. Nutritional
value of a cooked product is provided for the given weight of cooked food. Data from
USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28.
NutritionValue.Org - Nutrition facts exposed. | Google+ | Contact webmasterBy using
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Policy.Copyright 2017 NutritionValue.org All rights reserved

https://www.nutritionvalue.org/Sweet_potato_leaves,_raw_nutritional_value.html

A Photograph Of A Prime Minister Who Cared About His Health. He Attended Dance
Classes At Least Twice Weekly One Would Think.

The University Of Nairobi

Department of Food Science, Nutrition & Technology

63
ENCOURAGING CONSUMPTION OF SWEET
POTATO LEAVES AS A VEGETABLE IN
KENYAN URBAN AREAS
Abstract

Sweet potato leaves are a by-product of the plant and good source of nutrients. They are
high in potassium, beta carotene, fiber, lutein and xanthine. In Kenya, kales, cabbages
and other indigenous vegetables are the most consumed vegetables. This study is aimed
at encouraging the consumption of sweet potato leaves as a vegetable in urban areas in
Kenya.

In Africa sweet potato leaves are popular in countries like Senegal, South Africa and
Ghana. However, in Kenya and Uganda sweet potatoes are mostly grown only for its
tubers. Very few communities which are based in the rural region consume the sweet
potato leaves as vegetables. There is therefore need to encourage its consumption given
its multiple nutritional and health benefits.

Sweet potato leaves are high in Lutein and zeaxanthin (xanthophylls) which are said to
have a number of benefits to the eye especially in the prevention of AMD (age-related
macular degeneration) and cataracts. Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids
reported to be present in eye lens. They are widely distributed in tissues and are the
principal carotenoids in the eye lens and macular region of the retina. Lutein has the
ability to filter harmful short-wave blue light and it is as an antioxidant which prevents
oxidative damage to eye lens muscles which initiates age related cataracts.

Xanthophylls may possess anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties and play a


role in the health of body tissues other than the eye as suggested by research studies
related to carcinogenesis and the risk for cancer. Lutein has been identified to be one of
three anti-mutagenic pigments present in vegetables.

In humans, plasma lutein has been inversely associated with cytochrome CYP1A2
activity, a hepatic enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of a number of
putative human carcinogens. Intake of these xanthophylls may reduce the risk of certain
major cancers like breast cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer among others. A
growing body of experimental evidence and observational studies suggest that lutein and
zeaxanthin may play a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke.

In a coculture model of the arterial wall, a study found lutein to be highly effective in
reducing oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and inhibiting the inflammatory
response of monocytes to LDL trapped in the artery wall. This study is based on the
general analysis of the nutritional qualities of the sweet potato leaves as demonstrated in
previous research.

64
Observations made in the vegetable market suggest the absence of the sweet potato
leaves in the market. Urban area residents have either not heard or eaten these leaves,
thus I recommend awareness of the nutritional benefits of the sweet potato leaves. This
would help improve general health of the consumers through reduction of several
vitamin-related deficiency diseases such as vitamin A deficiency, cataracts and age-
related macular disease (AMD) among other diseases.

A continuously growing body of evidence suggests that lutein and zeaxanthin will
contribute to the protection against several age-related diseases, including cataract, AMD,
heart disease, and some forms of cancer. Thus, there is a need of awareness of the sweet
potato leaves. Given that the sweet potato thrives in semi-arid areas it would improve on
food security and public health because vegetables like kales and cabbages require a lot
of water for cultivation as compared to sweet potato which both the tubers and leaves are
edible.

( Source http://foodtech.uonbi.ac.ke/node/1164 )

A Young Prime Minister Whose Photograph Says Has Kept In Good


Shape

65
The Church and Schools Must Be Held Responsible For
Rural Hunger and The Spread Of Life Style
Diseases

Both the Christian Church and its many rural schools cannot escape bearing
responsibility, for their role in the continued existence of rural hunger and the spread of
Life Style diseases, try as they may. There was a time in Jamaica, when nearly all if not
all rural schools had school gardens, and the Church played an active role in promoting
and encouraging the use of local materials. Thus for example was very normal for the
Church and the school to come together to teach baking, wine making, and cooking with
local material ; Church organized and hosted village fairs where one could see and taste
were once common events in rural life.

Today the pastors of many rural Churches not only do not know how yam is planted but
think and act in a manner which makes very clear statements that they are above touching
the dirt in which crops are planted. The wives of these pastors are as equally left handed
as their husbands, many cannot bake a simple birthday cake and have no idea as to how
one can use breadfruit or sweet potato to make anything except putting into water and
cook. These Pastors and their wives in many cases responsibly for leading their
congregations away from eating what they go to the supermarkets to purchase that which
is imported. The same hold true for the rural teacher who has surrendered without reason
or cause his role of leadership in the village, and has become equally in many instances,
as left handed and out of place as the pastors and their wives.

If the teacher and the pastor are still the most educated persons in the rural village, on
whose shoulder does leadership falls? Here I wish to point out, that Jesus, did not only
break bread, he made bread, and that is clearly shown in his approach to the fish and
bread. Our rural pastors, their wives and the rural teachers for all intent and purpose are
there only to break bread; they are not into the making of bread. Good health starts with a
good diet.

End of comments

66
Look At These Two Members Of Parliament Who Are Age Mates And Decide Who
Needs To Attend Dance Classes Now!

Birds Of A Feather- Refused To Attend Dance Classes! The Examples They Set For
Our Impessionable Children!

67
Carrots
What Are Carrots Good For?

February 15, 2016 |

By Dr. Mercola

The average American adult eats about 12 pounds of carrots a year, making them one of
the most popular root vegetables in the U.S. (even though that works out to only about
one cup per week).

Carrots were originally grown in central Asian and Middle Eastern countries, but they
were viewed as more of a medicinal herb than a food.

Early carrots (some believe they may even date back to early Egypt) were not orange.
Instead, they came in a variety of colors like purple, white, red, yellow and black. The
orange carrots known and loved today are the result of cross breeding red and yellow
carrots, which was done back in the 16th century.1
The word "carrot" has its origins in the Greek word "karoton," as "kar" describes
anything with a horn-like shape. Many believe carrots were named after beta-carotene,
which is found in abundance in this vegetable.

68
However, the opposite actually holds true; beta-carotene was named after carrots.2 I
generally recommend eating carrots in moderation because they contain more sugar than
any other vegetable aside from beets.
However, when eaten as part of an overall healthy diet, the nutrients in carrots may
provide multiple health benefits, including protection against heart disease and stroke and
helping to build strong bones and a healthy nervous system.

9 Top Reasons to Eat Carrots

Carrots make an excellent, crunchy go-to snack. You can eat them raw or cooked, with
dip or without, and added to just about any meal you can think of.
Their slightly sweet taste and versatility are part of what make carrots so popular, but
beyond this, you should strive to eat more carrots because of what they can offer your
health.

HEART DISEASE
Eating more deep-orange-colored fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower
risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In particular, carrots are associated with a 32
percent lower risk of CHD, leading researchers to conclude:3
" [A] higher intake of deep orange fruit and vegetables and especially carrots
may protect against CHD."
The consumption of carrots has also been associated with a lower risk of heart
attacks in women.4
CANCER
Antioxidants in carrots, including beta-carotene, may play a role in cancer
prevention. Research has shown that smokers who eat carrots more than once a
week have a lower risk of lung cancer,5 while a beta-carotene-rich diet may also
protect against prostate cancer.6
Research published in the European Journal of Nutrition also found a significantly
decreased risk of prostate cancer associated with the intake of carrots.7
The consumption of beta-carotene is also associated with a lower risk of colon
cancer8 while carrot juice extract may kill leukemia cells and inhibit their
progression.9 Further, a meta-analysis found that eating carrots may reduce your
risk of gastric cancer by up to 26 percent.10
Carrots also contain falcarinol, a natural toxin that protects carrots against fungal
disease. It's thought that this compound may stimulate cancer-fighting mechanisms
in your body, as it's been shown to cut the risk of tumor development in rats.11
VISION
A deficiency in vitamin A can cause your eye's photoreceptors to deteriorate, which
leads to vision problems. Eating foods rich in beta-carotene may restore
vision,12 lending truth to the old adage that carrots are good for your eyes.
In addition, research shows women may reduce their risk of glaucoma by 64
percent by consuming more than two servings per week of carrots.13
Carrots are also a rich source of lutein, and research suggests "increased lutein
consumption has a close correlation with reduction in the incidence of cataract."14

69
BRAIN HEALTH
Carrot extract has been found to be useful for the management of cognitive
dysfunctions and may offer memory improvement and cholesterol-lowering
benefits.15
A high intake of root vegetables, including carrots, is also associated with better
cognitive function and smaller decline in cognitive function during middle age.16
And a study published in the British Journal of Nutrition found a diet rich in plant
foods is associated with better performance in several cognitive abilities in a dose-
dependent manner among the elderly.17
Notably, carrots had one of the strongest positive cognitive associations of the plant
foods tested.

LIVER PROTECTION
Carrot extract may help to protect your liver from the toxic effects of environmental
chemicals.18
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES
Carrot extract also has anti-inflammatory properties and provided anti-
inflammatory benefits that were significant even when compared to anti-
inflammatory drugs like Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen and Celebrex.19

ANTI-AGING BENEFITS
Carrots are a valuable source of antioxidants, including carotenoids (beta carotene,
lutein and alpha-carotene), hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic acid and ferulic acid),
and anthocyanins.
Antioxidants may help to ward off cellular damage from free radicals, slowing
down cellular aging. As noted by the George Mateljan Foundation:20
"Different varieties of carrots contain differing amounts of these antioxidant
phytonutrients. Red and purple carrots, for example, are best known for the rich
anthocyanin content.
Oranges are particularly outstanding in terms of beta-carotene, which accounts for
65% of their total carotenoid content. In yellow carrots, 50% of the total
carotenoids come from lutein.
You're going to receive outstanding antioxidant benefits from each of these carrot
varieties!"
SKIN HEALTH
Orange-red vegetables are full of beta-carotene. Your body converts beta-carotene
into vitamin A, which prevents cell damage and premature aging. Beta-carotene
may also protect your skin from sun damage.

Researchers even found that carotenoids, which are found in high concentrations in
carrots, impart a warm glow "sufficient to convey perceptible improvements in the
apparent healthiness and attractiveness of facial skin."21

70
ORAL HEALTH
Carrots help to clean your teeth by increasing saliva production. Eating them at the
end of a meal may even help to reduce your risk of cavities.22

How to Store and Prepare Your Carrots for Maximum Nutrition

Carrots are great to eat raw, but if you enjoy them cooked, that's a healthy way to enjoy
them as well. One study even found that cooked carrots had higher levels of beta-
carotene and phenolic acids than raw carrots, and the antioxidant activity continued to
increase over a period of four weeks.

Root vegetables like carrots work well when fermented, and they're delicious when added
to homemade sauerkraut alongside cabbage. You can also juice them, but do this
sparingly because of the high sugar content.
Adding carrot peels to a carrot puree also boosted antioxidant levels.23 Another option is
to simply eat your carrots without peeling them, as much of their nutrition lies just below
the skin. It's important to choose organic carrots, especially when eating the skin.
Consumer Reports analyzed 12 years of data from the USDA's Pesticide Data Program to
determine the risk categories (from very low to very high) for different types of produce,
and carrots came back at the high end for pesticide residues. Because of this, carrots are
one food you should always try to buy organic.
As for storage, keep them in the coolest part of your refrigerator in a sealed plastic bag or
wrapped in a paper towel, which should keep them fresh for about two weeks. Avoiding
storing them near apples, pears or potatoes, as the ethylene gas they release may turn
your carrots bitter.

If you purchase carrots with the green tops still attached, they should be removed prior to
storing them in the fridge (they'll cause the carrot to wilt faster). However, don't throw
them away. Carrot tops are nutritious, too, and can easily be added to your fresh
vegetable juice.

Also, you're typically better off buying whole carrots instead of baby carrots not only
price wise but also health wise. Baby carrots, which are now one of the most popular
carrot forms, were not invented until 1986 when a California carrot farmer created them
to save some of the broken and misshaped carrots in his harvest.25
Baby carrots are not actually "baby" carrots at all but rather are less-than-perfect carrots
that have been shaved down to a smaller size. Not only are baby carrots more expensive
than whole carrots, they're also typically given a chlorine bath to prolong shelf life.
Carrot Coconut Soup

Are you tired of eating plain carrots? Here's another way to use carrots that will wake up
your taste buds. This soup takes only about 30 minutes to make, but is packed with flavor
and nutrition:

71
Carrot Coconut Soup26
Prep and Cook Time: 30 minutes
Ingredients
1 large onion, chopped

1 Tbsp. + 3 cups bone broth

2 Tbsp. fresh ginger, sliced


4 medium cloves garlic, chopped

1 tsp. curry powder or turmeric

2 cups sliced carrots, about 1/4-inch thick

1 cup sweet potato, cut into about 1/2-inch cubes


5 oz. coconut milk

Salt and white pepper to taste

Directions:
1. Chop onion and let it sit for at least five minutes to bring out its
health benefits.

2. Heat 1 Tbsp. broth in a medium soup pot. Saut onion in broth over
medium heat for about 5 minutes, stirring often.

3. Add garlic and ginger and continue to saut for another minute.

4. Add curry powder or turmeric and mix well with onions.

5. Add broth, carrots, and sweet potato and simmer on medium high
heat until vegetables are tender, about 15 minutes.

6. Add coconut milk.

7. Blend in batches making sure blender is not more than half full.
When it's hot, and the blender is too full, it can erupt and burn you.
Add salt and pepper to taste.

8. Return to soup pot and reheat.

Serves 4

(Source:- http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/02/15/health-benefits-
carrots.aspx)

72
And He Ate More Than The Then Commissioner Of Police. Compare And Contrast

Carrot Greens (Carrot leaves)


What are carrot greens

The leafy tops attached to fresh carrots in the form of umbrella-like clusters are referred
to as carrot greens.

73
Carrot Greens

Table of Contents
What are carrot greens
Can you eat carrot greens
Description
Nutritional Data
Health benefits: Are carrot greens good for you
Uses of carrot tops
Ways of Cooking and Storing Carrot Greens
Recipes
Substitutes
Are carrot greens toxic
Use during pregnancy
Where to buy
Interesting Facts

Can you eat carrot greens

Though there are a lot of speculations regarding the edibility of carrot tops, these leafy
greens are high in proteins, vitamins and minerals, which make it a useful ingredient in
soups, salads, and curries.

Carrot Greens

Description

They are lacy and feathery in appearance, somewhat resembling coriander leaves, also
being coarse and grainy in its raw form. Their slightly bitter, astringent and grassy flavor
blends perfectly with a tinge of sweetness.

Nutritional Data

Given below is the nutritional data of one cup raw carrot greens.

74
Nutrients Amount

Calories 88 g

Total Fat 0g

Cholesterol 0 mg

Total Carbs 7g

Dietary Fiber 2g

Sugars 0g

Protein 1g

Vitamin A 110%

Vitamin C 10%

Calcium 2%

Iron 2%

Carrot Greens Pictures

Health benefits: Are carrot greens good for you

75
High in vitamin C

Because of its high vitamin C content that is six times more than that of the roots, adding
carrot greens as a part of your diet along with other healthy foods can help in protecting
the immune system. It may even help your body to fight against cough and cold, also
ensuring healthy, glowing skin.

Rich source of chlorophyll

Chlorophyll contains powerful phytonutrients which work towards preventing the growth
and formation of tumors. Studies show carrot leaves to have the ability to inhibit the
growth of tumorous cells, in turn restricting malignant cell division.

Effects on the kidney: Acting as a mild diuretic, chlorophyll helps in stimulating the
flow of urine while its detoxifying properties aid in filtering the kidney thus minimizing
the risk of edema as well as combatting kidney stones or dissolving the ones already
formed.
Effects on the colon: The detoxification effects of chlorophyll also help in loosening and
cleansing the colon while the dietary fibers assist in pushing out the accumulated wastes,
promoting better absorption of nutrients.

Ensures a good heart health

Including carrot greens as a part of your diet may ensure a good heart health as its high
potassium content and antioxidant properties work towards regulating blood pressure as
well as protecting the heart from getting damaged by free radicals.

76
Carrot Green Leaves

For bone health

The high content of magnesium in chlorophyll helps in toning, contracting, and relaxing
the muscles, whereas Vitamin K helps in increasing bone density. Carrot greens contain a
combination of both, thus having it in substantial amounts may lead to a sound bone
health, lessening the chances of bone related problems like osteoporosis.
Uses of carrot tops

Edible uses

In spite of their bitter taste, their crunchy texture makes them be used raw in
salads.

The leafy greens can be used in preparing juices along with the carrots. Its
astringent flavor makes it perfectly blend with sweet fruits like apples and bananas for
making smoothies.

They can be used as an ingredient in soups, broths or stock prepared from


chicken, beef or vegetables after being blanched or sauted.

It may be included in curries along with other greens or be a part of stir fries too.

Carrot tops can be used in making tea as they help in the proper functioning of the
kidney and bladder along with other health benefits.

It can be used as an alternative for basil while preparing pesto.


Because of its pleasing appearance, it can be used for garnishing several dishes in
place of parsley or cilantro.

Medicinal Uses

Because of the antiseptic properties, carrot leaf juice is used as mouthwash for
minimizing bad breath as well as healing mouth sores.

77
The greens can be mashed and mixed with honey to help in cleaning festering
wounds.

Carrot Greens Images

(Source:- http://www.onlyfoods.net/carrot-greens.html )

His Chin Is Gone! The Meaning Of Obesity, Examples From Senior Police Officers

Another Example Of What It Means To Be Obese From The Very Senior Ranks Of
The Jamaica Constabulary Force. What is the Message being sent to the
young Constabule? Eat Until You Burst!

78
What Do I Do with Carrot Greens?

79
You see them in knee-high piles after the twice-weekly farmers' market in my
neighborhood; the verdant remains of the days carrot sales. The long, lanky
tops, their shiny green leaves vaguely reminiscent of Italian parsley, are mostly
overlooked by home cooks and professional chefs alike. This is probably due to
the unrelenting rumor about the leaves being poisonous (due to their
resemblance of the extremely toxic plant Queen Annes Lace).

While its true that carrot leaves do contain alkaloids and nitrateswhich some
people can be sensitive to in the same way that others are sensitive to potatoes,
eggplants, and other nightshade plantsthey arent toxic unless you eat them
by the bushel. They are, however, versatile and downright tasty, depending on
how you prepare them.

You can use carrot greens in the same way youd use parsley, either as a
garnish, or minor player in salads, or as the no-holds-barred star of the culinary
show. From carrot-top pesto to carrot-greens soup, the possibilities are vast and
varied, and come with a nutritional bonus: Theyre packed with potassium,

80
chlorophyll, and other nutrients with health-supporting benefits. This
simple salad marries carrot greens with the humble chickpea and a dash of
cumin to unite the flavors and textures. Try bringing a bowlful to your next
potluck and having your friends guess the ingredients.

Warm Chickpea and Carrot-top Salad


Serves 4

1 tsp. olive oil


1 tsp. ground cumin
1 medium onion, minced
1 14-oz can chickpeas, drained
1 cup finely chopped carrot greens,
Juice of 1 lemon
Salt, to taste

Heat oil over medium heat. Add cumin, and saut 1 minute, or until fragrant.
Add onion and saut until golden, about 2 minutes. Add chickpeas and saut
until heated through and any liquid has evaporated, about 2 minutes.Remove
pan from heat and add carrot greens. Toss, then transfer to a serving bowl and
season with lemon juice and salt before serving.

Source:- http://www.vegetariantimes.com/blog/what-do-i-do-with-carrot-greens

(use gungo peas or red peas in the recipe above)

Carrots Nutrition and Good Health Part 3 - Medicinal


Uses

81
NUTRITION : THE MEDICINE OF THE
FUTURE - Voltaire said:

"The art of medicine consists of amusing


the patient while Nature cures the disease".

The medicine of the future will no longer be


remedial, it will be preventive; not based on
drugs but on the best diet for health. This
page explores the issue in relation to
carrots. Always remember carrots nourish they do not heal. If the body has
the ability to heal itself, it will use the raw materials found in foods to do its
own healing work. Herbs do not heal, they feed. Herbs do not force the
body to maintain and repair itself. They simply support the body in these
natural functions.

Medicinal Uses

Remember carrots nourish they do not heal. If the body has the ability to
heal itself, it will use the raw materials found in foods to do its own healing
work. Herbs do not heal, they feed. Herbs do not force the body to maintain
and repair itself. They simply support the body in these natural functions.

Carrots are credited with many medicinal properties; they are said to
cleanse the intestines and to be diuretic, remineralizing, antidiarrheal, an
overall tonic and antianemic. Carrot is rich in alkaline elements which
purify and revitalize the blood. They nourish the entire system and help in
the maintenance of acid-alkaline balance in the body. The carrot also has a
reputation as a vegetable that helps to maintain good eyesight.

Raw grated carrot can be applied as a compress to burns for a soothing


effect. Its highly energizing juice has a particularly beneficial effect on the
liver. Consumed in excessive quantities, carrots can cause the skin to turn
yellow; this phenomenon, which is called Carotenemia and caused by the
carotene contained in carrots, is frequently seen in young children but is not
at all dangerous.
See "do not overdose" below or click here.

An infusion of carrot seeds (1 teaspoon per cup of boiling water) is believed


to be diuretic, to stimulate the appetite, reduce colic, aid fluid retention and
help alleviate menstrual cramps. The dried flowers are also used as a tea as
a remedy for dropsy. Taken in wine, or boiled in wine and taken, the seeds
help conception. Strangely enough the seeds made into a tea have been used
for centuries as a contraceptive. Applied with honey, the leaves cleanse
running sores or ulcers. Carrots are also supposed to help break wind and
remove stitches in the side. Chewing a carrot immediately after food kills

82
all the harmful germs in the mouth. It cleans the teeth, removes the
food particles lodged in the crevices and prevents bleeding of the
gums and tooth decay. Carrot soup is supposed to relieve diarrhoea
and help with tonsillitis.

In days gone by they grated raw carrot and gave it to children to expel
worms. Pulped carrot is used as a cataplasm for application to ulcers and
sores. They were also supposed to improve your memory abilities and
relieve nervous tension. An Old English superstition is that the small purple
flower in the centre of the Wild Carrot (Queen Annes Lace) was of benefit
in curing epilepsy. Visit the Wild Carrot page. Click here.

Queen Annes Lace (the Wild Carrot) was also considered toxic. The leaves
contain furocoumarins that may cause allergic contact dermatitis from the
leaves, especially when wet. Later exposure to the sun may cause mild
photodermatitis. Wild Carrot seed is also an early abortifacient, historically,
sometimes used as a natural "morning after" contraceptive tea. Queen
Annes Lace has long been used because of its contraceptive properties.

Read more about contraception (caution this page contains items which
may not be suitable for minors)

It has since been scientifically proven that the carrot seed extract, if given
orally at the correct dosage from day 4 to 6 post-coitum, effectively inhibits
implantation.

Pliny the Elder suggested that it was used as a love potion, guaranteed to be
effective, and Galen goes so far as to claim that it actually "procures lust."
As a vegetable, however, the carrot in Roman times remained a bitter, tough
taproot, edible only in the early spring as a pot herb.

As the carrot was improved it found its way into medicine chests as well as
stew pots. Both Gerard and Culpeper recommend the carrot for numerous
ills. Culpeper says that the carrot is influenced by Mercury, the god of wind,
and that a tea made from the dried leaves should dispel wind from the
bowels and relieve dropsy, kidney stones, and women's complaints.

Experimentally hypoglycemic, a tea made from Queen Annes Lace was


believed to help maintain low blood sugar levels in humans, but it had no
effect on diabetes artificially induced in animals. Wild carrot tea has been
recommended for bladder and kidney ailment, dropsy, gout, gravel; seeds
are recommended for calculus, obstructions of the viscera (internal organs),
dropsy, jaundice, scurvy. Carrots of one form or another were once served at
every meal for liver derangements; now we learn that they may upset the

83
liver.

Medicinally the Carrot was used as a diuretic, stimulant, in the treatment of


dropsy, flatulence, chronic coughs, dysentery, windy colic, chronic renal
diseases and a host of other uses.

Eating carrots is also good


for allergies, aneamia,
rheumatism, tonic for the
nervous system. Everyone
knows they can improve
eye health; But it does not
stop there the delicious
carrot is good for diarrhoea,
constipation (very high in
fibre), intestinal
inflammation, cleansing the
blood (a liver tonic), an
immune system tonic.
Carrot is traditionally
recommended to weak,
sickly or rickety children, to convalescents or pregnant women, its anti-
aneamic properties having been famous for a long time.

Tea made the seeds can promote the onset of menstruation. It is effective on
skin problems including broken veins/capillaries, burns, creeping impetigo,
wrinkles and sun damage. Carrots also help in stimulating milk flow during
lactation. Believe it or not the carrot is also effective against roundworms
and dandruff. Pureed carrots are good for babies with diarrhoea, providing
essential nutrients and natural sugars.

Scientists have given us another reason to eat carrots - Falcarinol a


compound found in the popular root vegetable has been found to have an
effect on the development of cancer. - read more
Alternative Medicinal Uses

The alternative medicine believers consider the carrot (the whole plant or its
seeds) to have the following properties:

Anthelmintic (destroying or expelling worms).


Carminative (expelling flatulence).
Contraceptive.
Deobstruent.
Diuretic (promoting the discharge of urine).
Emmenagogue (producing oils which stimulate the flow of

84
menstrual blood).
Galactogogue (promoting the secretion of milk).
Ophthalmic (pertaining to the eye).
Stimulant.
Oedema (water retention).

Nutritional analysis of 100 grams of uncooked carrot (USDA source)


equivalent to one average 7 inch carrot and NO FAT or CHOLESTEROL!

This table gives the main analysis of key ingredients for an average carrot.

For the full USDA nutritional analysis click here.


Edible part 95% Sodium 95mg

Water 91.6g Potassium 220mg

Proteins 1.1g Iron 0.7mg

Lipids 0g Calcium 44mg

Glucides 7.6g Phosphorus 37mg

Carbohydrates 10 Niacin 0.7mg

Fibre 3.1g Vitamin C 4mg

Energy 33kcal Vitamin E (mg) 0.5

Vitamin A (mcg) 2813 Zinc (mg) 0.2

A simple chart for the average carrot More detailed analysis

Carrots (Daucus carota), Fresh, raw, Nutrition


value per 100 g. Total-ORAC value 666 umol
TE/100 g. (Source: USDA National Nutrient
data base)

85
(Source:- http://www.carrotmuseum.co.uk/nutrition3.html )

86
Eat Until Your Eyes Disappear A Message From The Senior Ranks Of The
Jamaica Constabulary Force To All Young Officers Under The Rank Of
Inspector. Follow Our Example-Our Eyes Are Disappearing

This Member Of Parliament Seems To Be In Agreement With The Senior Police


Officers! May God Have Mercy and Pity Our Grandchildren Least They
Become Barrels.

87
A girl packing out coal for sale on Georges Lane in Kingston. What are her potential health
problems as a user of charcoal for cooking? What are the health implications for the general
population of cutting down trees for making coal or direct cooking? What are the implications for
drought & landslides ?

88
Women and Carrots
Why Women should eat Carrots: A high vitamin A and Beta
Carotene content mean that the following problems often
suffered by women can be helped through carrot
consumption.

Menorrhagia (abnormally heavy menstruation which can be caused by


Vitamin A deficiency.
Abnormal pap smears sometimes due to low levels of beta carotene and Vitamin A (as well as
E and C)
Pre-menstrual Syndrome. Vitamin A increases progesterone levels which is believed to
relieve this syndrome.
Vaginitis, because the immunity boosting, antiviral and antibacterial properties of carrots can
help fight some types of this ailment.
Urinary Tract Infections, again Vitamin A is helpful in infection control.
Osteoporosis, here the phytochemicals in carrots fight against this disease which particularly
affects older women.
Period Pain

Beware during motherhood

People say that pregnant women should not eat carrots because they contain vitamin A and
could induce malformations in the baby. Is this true? Doctors say no. Carrots are OK, but the
vitamin supplements can be a factor.

Vitamin A is an important essential nutrient that you can get from certain foods and in
multivitamins and supplements. In doses well over 10,000 units per day, vitamin A has been
found to induce fetal malformations of the face and heart, and other problems. And in
experimental animals, retinoids -- including vitamin A -- have produced defects involving the
central nervous system, limbs and cardiovascular system, and behavioural abnormalities.

Vegetables such as carrots contain provitamin A compounds called carotenoids, the most
common of which is beta-carotene. When you eat carrots, your body converts only as much
beta-carotene into vitamin A as it needs, so eating even a lot of beta-carotene-rich carrots will
not increase the level of vitamin A in your blood.

The average healthy diet will not significantly raise your vitamin A level. But certain
supplements contain much more than the safe daily dose limit of 10,000 international units
(IU). If you take too much vitamin A in supplement form, or by ingesting certain foods that
contain large amounts of it, such as liver, you could raise your blood level to the unhealthy
range.

Most pre natal vitamin supplements contain 4,000 IU to 5,000 IU of vitamin A, which is
about twice the recommended daily allowance (RDA) and less than half the safe maximum

89
dose of 10,000 IU.

You could easily top 10,000 IU per day if you take additional supplements of high-dose
vitamins or if you regularly eat liver, which contains on average of four to 12 times the RDA
for vitamin A. Enriched foods such as fortified cereals or dairy products may also contain
large doses of vitamin A.

To keep from ingesting too much vitamin A, avoid supplements that are enriched with it
before and during pregnancy, except for the prenatal vitamins recommended by your doctor
or midwife.

Taken in wine, or boiled in wine and taken, the seeds help conception. Strangely enough the
seeds made into a tea have been used for centuries as a contraceptive. Even the well-known
fifth century physician/herbalist, Hippocrates prescribed it as an abortifacient. When herbal
lore such as this survives the test of time, there is a good chance there is some truth behind
it.

Wondercup Breast Cream

Many women use "Wondercup" breast cream. Carrot was chosen as a chief ingredient of
wondercup because: " It contains components with estrogenic activities, most notably beta
carotene, which, like all phytoestrogens, is a substance similar to female hormones, and
therefore able to regulate their production in the body, thus stimulating the natural
development of the breast, the main receptor of estrogens in the female body."
This property is confirmed by the traditional use of carrot as a stimulant to the production of
mother's milk - indeed it acts on the breast by promoting the development of the mammary
glands.

Cosmetic use

Carrot has been regarded by the ancient healers as the 'herbal healer' of skin diseases. Indeed
Vitamin A or betacarotene, of which carrot is rich, can be considered the main vitamins for
the skin. Dry skin, with impurities, acne, difficulty in tanning, sunburns, eritema, premature
appearance of wrinkles - all these things can depend largely on an insufficient intake of this
vitamin.

Carrot is therefore very useful for the skin for its properties:-
Anti-Aging

90
Anti-inflammatory
Eye care
Nourishing
Moisturising

Anti-inflammatory, revitalizes and tones the skin. Used to treat dermatitis, eczema, rashes, as
well as wrinkles (for its antioxidant properties which fight the damage to tissues caused by
free radicals). Used also to promote the healing of cuts, abrasions and stubborn sores. Carrot
seed diluted in wheatgerm oil is recommended as a suntan lotion. It is indeed used in some
suncare lotions on the market. The underground part of carrot has anti-asthenic and anti-
inflammatory properties and fights psoriasis.

Eye care - From early childhood we are taught to eat carrots to improve our eyesight. Carrot
brings relief of eyestrain and inflammation of the eyes.

Nourishing - Carrot promotes healthy skin and is beneficial to areas of the skin that are
regularly exposed to the sun and tend to blister and peel.

Moisturising - Carrot aids in repair of skin tissue and helps in the treatment of dry, chapped
and scaling skin conditions.

The fresh root, finely chopped, can be used as a beauty mask for the face.

Why Women should eat Carrots: A high vitamin A and Beta Carotene content mean that the
following problems often suffered by women can be helped through carrot consumption.

Additional Important Medical Reading For Women


Menorrhagia (abnormally heavy menstruation which can be caused by Vitamin A
deficiency.
Abnormal pap smears sometimes due to low levels of beta carotene and Vitamin A (as
well as E and C)
Pre-menstrual Syndrome. Vitamin A increases progesterone levels which is believed
to relieve this syndrome.
Vaginitis, because the immunity boosting, antiviral and antibacterial properties of
carrots can help fight some types of this ailment.
Urinary Tract Infections, again Vitamin A is helpful in infection control.
Osteoporosis, here the phytochemicals in carrots fight against this disease which
particularly affects older women.

Beware during motherhood

People say that pregnant women should not eat carrots because they contain vitamin A and
could induce malformations in the baby. Is this true? Doctors say no. Carrots are OK, but the
vitamin supplements can be a factor.

91
Vitamin A is an important essential nutrient that you can get from certain
foods and in multivitamins and supplements. In doses well over 10,000
units per day, vitamin A has been found to induce fetal malformations of
the face and heart, and other problems. And in experimental animals,
retinoids -- including vitamin A -- have produced defects involving the
central nervous system, limbs and cardiovascular system, and behavioural
abnormalities.

Vegetables such as carrots contain provitamin A compounds called carotenoids, the most
common of which is beta-carotene. When you eat carrots, your body converts only as much
beta-carotene into vitamin A as it needs, so eating even a lot of beta-carotene-rich carrots will
not increase the level of vitamin A in your blood.

The average healthy diet will not significantly raise your vitamin A level. But certain
supplements contain much more than the safe daily dose limit of 10,000 international units
(IU). If you take too much vitamin A in supplement form, or by ingesting certain foods that
contain large amounts of it, such as liver, you could raise your blood level to the unhealthy
range.

Most pre natal vitamin supplements contain 4,000 IU to 5,000 IU of vitamin A, which is
about twice the recommended daily allowance (RDA) and less than half the safe maximum
dose of 10,000 IU.

You could easily top 10,000 IU per day if you take additional supplements of high-dose
vitamins or if you regularly eat liver, which contains on average of four to 12 times the RDA
for vitamin A. Enriched foods such as fortified cereals or dairy products may also contain
large doses of vitamin A.

To keep from ingesting too much vitamin A, avoid supplements that are enriched with it
before and during pregnancy, except for the prenatal vitamins recommended by your doctor
or midwife.

Taken in wine, or boiled in wine and taken, the seeds help conception. Strangely enough the
seeds made into a tea have been used for centuries as a contraceptive. Even the well-known
fifth century physician/herbalist, Hippocrates prescribed it as an abortifacient. When herbal
lore such as this survives the test of time, there is a good chance there is some truth behind it.

Wondercup Breast Cream

Many women use "Wondercup" breast cream. Carrot was chosen as a chief ingredient of
wondercup because: " It contains components with estrogenic activities, most notably beta
carotene, which, like all phytoestrogens, is a substance similar to female hormones, and
therefore able to regulate their production in the body, thus stimulating the natural
development of the breast, the main receptor of estrogens in the female body."
This property is confirmed by the traditional use of carrot as a stimulant to the production of

92
mother's milk - indeed it acts on the breast by promoting the development of the mammary
glands.

Cosmetic use

Carrot has been regarded by the ancient healers as the 'herbal healer' of skin diseases. Indeed
Vitamin A or betacarotene, of which carrot is rich, can be considered the main vitamins for
the skin. Dry skin, with impurities, acne, difficulty in tanning, sunburns, eritema, premature
appearance of wrinkles - all these things can depend largely on an insufficient intake of this
vitamin.

Carrot is therefore very useful for the skin for its properties:

Anti-inflammatory, revitalizes and tones the skin. Used to treat dermatitis, eczema, rashes, as
well as wrinkles (for its antioxidant properties which fight the damage to tissues caused by
free radicals). Used also to promote the healing of cuts, abrasions and stubborn sores. Carrot
seed diluted in wheatgerm oil is recommended as a suntan lotion. It is indeed used in some
suncare lotions on the market. The underground part of carrot has anti-asthenic and anti-
inflammatory properties and fights psoriasis.

Eye care - From early childhood we are taught to eat carrots to improve our eyesight. Carrot
brings relief of eyestrain and inflammation of the eyes.

Nourishing - Carrot promotes healthy skin and is beneficial to areas of the skin that are
regularly exposed to the sun and tend to blister and peel.

Moisturising - Carrot aids in repair of skin tissue and helps in the treatment of dry, chapped
and scaling skin conditions.

The fresh root, finely chopped, can be used as a beauty mask for the face.

Weight Management

What is the secret to permanent weight loss? If you want to lower your risk for chronic
diseases, eat less! No books to buy, no complex theories to unravel. Just eat moderate
portions. Portion control doesn't sell books, but it works. Most people believe that they gain
weight when they eat too much, because of heredity or because of ageing. First, you have to
understand what actually causes weight gain. Find out the real reasons here.

Period Pain Do Carrots Help To Treat Period Pain?

Of the many health benefits of carrots, treating period pain efficiently is a major one. One of
the worst and annoying time for women every month is when they are menstruating. It not
just makes them uncomfortable but a few of them also experience extreme pain, making it
difficult to carry on with their day-to-day activities. For such a condition carrots help provide

93
relief. Among the several health benefits of carrots, treating period pain is a major one. The
intensity of the pain may vary from one woman to another.

A few of them have extreme pain, a few have mild pain while a few others do not feel any
pain at all. So what leads to this excruciating pain during periods? When the uterus contracts
to expel its lining while menstruating, this leads to extreme pain in the lower abdomen. When
the pain gets unbearable women take painkillers. This might provide immediate relief but
popping in a painkiller every time you get the pain might not be healthy. It can cause a lot of
side effects. So for such a condition natural remedies are the best and carrot is one among
them.

Here are a few reasons why women should make carrots a part of their diet especially when
they are on their periods. Take a look at the health benefits of carrots and how to consume
them.

1. Rich In Iron Content: Carrots are rich in iron content and are known to make up for the
blood loss during periods. It not just helps in easing the pain but also helps to regularize the
period flow.

2. Rich In Beta Carotene: One of the major contents in carrot is the beta carotene. The beta
carotene converts into vitamin A that is helpful in controlling the blood flow and thus
minimizes the pain.

3. Rich In Fibre: Carrots contain unique fibres that help in detoxifying the body and ease the
blood flow and pain during menstruation.

Ways to consume carrots when you have menstrual pain:

Carrot Juice: Take one or two fresh carrots, peel them, cut them into pieces and then put them
in a juicer and then blend them well. Drink this juice twice a day. It helps ease menstrual
pain.

Include Carrots In Salads: Add carrots to your salads and then have them. This helps ease the
pain during your periods and also even if your cycle is normal, adding carrots helps beat
fatigue.

Eat Raw Carrots: If your period pain becomes unbearable, just take fresh carrots, clean them
properly and then chew the raw carrots. It helps ease the pain. Also having carrots helps in
regularizing the blood flow.
(source:- http://www.carrotmuseum.co.uk/women.html )
Old Age Does Not Make You Fat! Laziness Does!

94
95
Pumpkin leaves, raw

Nutrition Facts Add to comparison


Add to meal
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Serving Size
100 g
Amount Per Serving
Calories 19
% Daily Value
Total Fat 0.4g
1%
Saturated Fat 0.2g
1%
Sodium 11mg
0%
Total Carbohydrate 2.3g
1%
Protein 3.2g
6%
Vitamin A 39 % Vitamin C 18 %
Calcium 4 % Iron 12 %
Daily values are based on 2000 calorie diet. Badges: low fat

Product Pumpkin leaves, raw


Food Category Vegetables and Vegetable Products

Pumpkin leaves, raw nutrition facts and analysis


Vitamins Carbohydrates
Nutrient Amount DV Nutrient Amount DV
Folate 36.00 mcg Carbohydrate 2.33 g 1%
Folic acid 0.00 mcg
Niacin 0.920 mg 5 % Fats and Fatty Acids
Pantothenic acid 0.042 mg 0 %
Riboflavin 0.128 mg 8 %
Thiamin 0.094 mg 6 %
39
Vitamin A 1942.00 IU
%

96
Vitamin A, RAE 97.00 mcg
Vitamin B12 0.00 mcg 0 %
10
Vitamin B6 0.207 mg
%
18
Vitamin C 11.0 mg
%
Vitamin D 0.00 IU 0 %
Nutrient Amount DV
Minerals Fat 0.40 g 1 %
Nutrient Amount DV Saturated fatty acids 0.207 g 1 %
Calcium, Ca 39.00 mg 4% Dodecanoic acid 0.004 g
Copper, Cu 0.133 mg 7% Hexadecanoic acid 0.146 g
ron, Fe 2.22 mg 12 % Octadecanoic acid 0.011 g
Magnesium, Mg 38.00 mg 10 % Tetradecanoic acid 0.026 g
Manganese, Mn 0.355 mg 18 % Monounsaturated fatty acids 0.052 g
Phosphorus, P 104.00 mg 10 % Hexadecenoic acid 0.026 g
Potassium, K 436.00 mg 9% Octadecenoic acid 0.025 g
Selenium, Se 0.9 mcg 1% Polyunsaturated fatty acids 0.022 g
Sodium, Na 11.00 mg 0% Octadecadienoic acid 0.010 g
Zinc, Zn 0.20 mg 1% Octadecatrienoic acid 0.012 g
Fatty acids, total trans 0.000 g
Proteins and Aminoacids
Nutrient Amount DV Sterols
Protein 3.15 g 6% Nutrient Amount DV
Arginine 0.217 g Cholesterol 0.00 mg 0%
Cystine 0.032 g
Histidine 0.050 g Other
Isoleucine 0.156 g 11 % Nutrient Amount DV
Leucine 0.318 g 12 % Ash 1.24 g
Lysine 0.200 g 10 % Water 92.88 g
Methionine 0.054 g 5%
Phenylalanine 0.171 g 10 %
Threonine 0.156 g 15 %
Tryptophan 0.041 g 15 %
Tyrosine 0.156 g 9%
Valine 0.181 g 10 %

97
Pumpkin
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Pumpkin leaves, raw: nutritional value and analysis. Daily values for aminoacids are based on 155 lbs body weight. Interchangeable pairs
of aminoacids: Methionine + Cysteine, Phenylalanine + Tyrosine. Other daily values are based on 2000 calorie diet.
Nutritional value of a cooked product is provided for the given weight of cooked food. Data from USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Refere
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TEN HEALTH BENEFITS OF PUMPKIN LEAVES(UGU)

Back where I come from, we call these green ugwu or ugu, and most Nigerians have
no idea what the English name is (like most local foods) it is known as pumpkin leaves.
My grandmother used to say this was a great vegetable to blend and mix with juices and
stuff, but way back then, as a child, I could never understand why someone would want
to blend a vegetable. And it didnt have the best texture in the world. Now, look at me,
blending all sorts of greens!
This vegetable is used a lot in Nigeria to cook soups (what you may refer to as a sauce),
to boil and eat plain, or to blend into a shake. People say it is healthy, but I dont think
people truly know what those health benefits are.
Pumpkin leaves contain a healthy amount of Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium, and Iron,
while still staying very low on the calorie front.
We all know about the vision benefits vitamin A provides, as well as the skin benefits.
Vitamin C helps to heal wounds and form scar tissue, and maintain healthy bones, skin,
and teeth. However since the body cannot produce this vitamin on its own or even store
it, you should be consistently getting enough vitamin C in your diet.
As for calcium, your mother probably already told you growing up that you need a
healthy dose of calcium for your bones and teeth as a child. However, if you are a female,

98
it is important to consume enough calcium to help prevent osteoporosis and keep your
bones strong. There have also been studies showing that calcium may help reduce the risk
of cardiovascular failure.
Iron helps our muscles store and use oxygen, and helps carry oxygen from our lungs to
other parts of our bodies as part of hemoglobin. If youve ever heard the term anemia,
this can be caused by iron deficiency. Women and children in particular need a healthy
dose of iron consistently, and these leaves help provide that nutrient naturally.

Some of the health benefits of pumpkin leave include:

Prevention of convulsion:
The young leaves sliced and mixed with coconut water and salt are stored in a bottle and
used for the treatment of convulsion in ethno medicine.
2 lowers cholesterol:
leaves has hypolipdemic effect and may be a useful therapy in hypercholestolemia.
3 Boost fertility:
A particular study showed that pumpkin has the potential to regenerate testicular damage
and also increase spermatogenesis.
4. It has a liver protecting effects.
5. It has antibacterial effects
6 .The leaves are rich in iron and play a key role in the cure of anaemia, (my
mother used to mix the leaf extract with milk)
7. They are also noted for lactating properties and are in high demand for
nursing mothers.
8.It has an hypoglycaemic (sugar reducing) effect. It is good for diabetics
9. Increases Blood Volume and Boost Immune System
10. The high protein content in leaves of plants such as pumpkin could have
supplementary effect for the daily protein requirement of the body.
(Source:- https://agropreneurnaija.wordpress.com/2014/02/10/ten-health-benefits-of-
pumpkin-leavesugu/ )

Your Position In Society Does Not Make Obese-Fat! Laziness and Inactivity Do!

99
How pumpkin leaves prevent premature ageing
ON FEBRUARY 1, 201312:45 AMIN HEALTH0 COMMENTS By CHARLYNE IKPE

Fluted pumpkin belongs to the leafy green family. It is a valuable commercial crop grown
across the low-land humid tropics of West Africa. Ugu, are highly nutritious and very
rich in potassium, calcium, iron and some folic acid. On its own, pumpkin is low in
saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium. It is also a good source of vitamin E, Thiamin,
Niacin, vitamin B6, Folate, Iron, magnesium and phosphorus, and a very good source of
dietary fibre, vitamin A, vitamin C, riboflavin, potassium, Copper and Manganese. The
leaves is a good source of different types of vitamins, minerals and rich in anti-oxidants,
such as alpha-carotene and Betacarotene which help to slow down ageing process.

Fluted Pumpkin Vegetable Antioxidants found in the leaves also help to eliminate free
radicals which are responsible for cancerous growths. The potassium helps in balancing
fluid levels in the body and promotes the development of strong bones which were
crucial to controlling blood pressure. Ugu leaves are also renowned for been rich in iron
and vitamin C, needed for the production of blood and maintaining a good health. Rich in
vitamin E, which promotes a healthier skin and in turn slows down the aging of the skin.

All these nutrients in work together and help in slowing down the ageing One of the
tricks of preventing premature ageing is to indulge in the process. Ugu has lots of health
advantage which helps in maintaining a good health for the body and its advisable for

100
people to consume the vegetable in large quantity and regularly, because of its
tremendous health benefits.
If you want to age less and prevent disease, broccoli leaves, kale, sweet potato, spinach
and pumpkin spinach, are the best deal. Pumpkin is chock full o goodness. You can tell
by its bright color that its going to be going to be good for you. Not only is pumpkin
loaded with vitamin A and antioxidant carotenoids, particularly alpha and beta-carotenes,
its a good source of vitamins C, K, and E, and lots of minerals, including magnesium,
potassium, and iron.

The spherical shaped fruits range in weight from less than 0.5kg to more than 50kg. Its
ability to grow to such a large size makes it the largest fruit in the plant kingdom. The
pumpkin plant which grow up to 25 feet long produces both male and female bright
yellow colored flowers with five petals. Pumpkins were used to treat bladder problems
and as a pain killer. Its seeds are an excellent source of fat and protein.

Read more at: http://www.vanguardngr.com/2013/02/how-pumpkin-leaves-prevent-


premature-ageing-2/

Pumpkin
Scientific Name(s): Cucurbita pepo L. Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Common Name(s): Chilacayote , acorn squash , butternut squash , field pumpkin , fig-
leaf gourd , pepo , pumpkin , squash , yellow summer squash , zucchini

Uses
Pumpkin seeds, seed oil, and pumpkin pulp have been evaluated in limited clinical trials
for medicinal actions, including anthelmintic, hypotensive, and hypoglycemic activity.
The extracts may also be useful for managing symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia
and anxiety-related disorders, although limited clinical trial information is available.

Dosing
Limited high-quality clinical trials exist to support therapeutic dosing. Pumpkin seed 30 g
daily has been used as a source of supplemental iron in non-pregnant adults.

Contraindications
Contraindications have not been identified.

101
Pregnancy/Lactation
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.
Antinutrients (eg, oxalates, cyanide, tannin) have been identified in pumpkin seeds and
leaves.

Interactions
An increased anticoagulant effect of warfarin has been reported during concurrent
ingestion of a combination preparation of cucurbita, saw palmetto, and vitamin E.
Causality of cucurbita was not proven.

Adverse Reactions
Clinical trials report few adverse reactions. Methemoglobinemia caused by high nitrate
content has been reported in infants given zucchini soup for constipation. IgE-related
allergy to zucchini has been reported, as well as oral allergy syndrome, nausea, diarrhea,
and pruritus. Cross-reactivity to watermelon, cucumber, and pumpkin was demonstrated.

Toxicology
There have been no reports of severe toxicity with the use of cucurbita extracts.
Antinutrients have been described in the seeds and leaves, including oxalates, tannins,
and cyanide.

Botany
Pumpkin is a dicotyledonous vegetable that develops long vine-like stems with trifoliate
leaves and edible large, fleshy fruits. The rapid-growing plant can climb to 5 m. The
large, yellow flowers are eaten in some Mediterranean and Mexican cultures, and the
fruits are eaten worldwide. Many cultivated varieties can be found throughout the
world. 1 , 2 , 3 Other members of the genus include Cucurbita digitata , Cucurbita
ficifolia , and Cucurbita maxima species.

History
The seeds of several species of pumpkin have been used in traditional medicine for
centuries. Traditionally, the seeds of the Cucurbita species are ingested as a tea or after
grinding. They have been used to immobilize and aid in the expulsion of intestinal worms
and parasites. In some cultures, small amounts of the seeds are eaten on a daily basis as a
prophylactic against worm infections. The seeds also have been used in the treatment of
prostate disorders. Pumpkin flowers are sometimes added to tacos or soup as a source of
protein. 2 , 3 , 4

102
Chemistry
The fleshy pulp of Cucurbita is primarily consumed as a vegetable. Investigational
interest centers on polysaccharide and pectin content, as well as the presence of
triterpenoids, cucurbitan glycosides, carotenoids, including lutein and beta-carotene, and
cucurmosin, a ribosome-inactivating protein. 3 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11

The pumpkin flower is a source of protein. Glutamic and aspartic acid, leucine, valine,
phenylalanine, and tryptophan are among the amino acids identified. Phytosterols, such
as spinasterol, have been identified, as well as trypsin-inhibitors. 4 , 12 , 13

Lipids comprise up to 50% of the seed and around 30% is protein. Pumpkin seeds can be
a nutritional source of iron and potassium. Phytosterols (eg, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol),
antioxidant tocopherols, antihelminthic cucurbitin, squalene, and cardioprotective fatty
acids have been isolated from the seeds and seed oil. The presence of squash inhibitors
(serine protease inhibitors) is thought to confer a protective effect to the plant against
pests and pathogens. 3 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20

Uses and Pharmacology


Anthelmintic activity
Animal data

In vitro experiments and animal studies have demonstrated anthelmintic action of dried
seeds and extracts against some Schistosoma japonicum and malarial parasites, but not all
parasites (eg, tapeworm). 21 , 22 , 23

Clinical data

A preclinical study demonstrated an anthelmintic effect with pumpkin seed 23 g in 100


mL water; however, cucurbitin has been generally supplanted by more effective single-
dose vermifuges. 3

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

Pumpkin seed extract may have antiandrogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. 24

Animal data

A protective effect on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia was seen in rats fed


pumpkin seed oil. 25

Clinical data

Trials are limited and the results conflict. A large clinical trial (N = 476) found an
improvement in symptoms associated with BPH as determined by the International

103
Prostate Symptom Score, but no change in objective measures, such as p-vol or post-void
residual urine. 24 Another clinical trial found that a preparation of C. pepo (curbicin)
improved certain parameters of BPH, including urinary flow, micturition time, residual
urine, and urinary frequency versus placebo. 26

Cancer

Limited in vitro and animal experiments have shown antimutagenic and inhibitory
actions of pumpkin seed extract and boiled, but not fresh, pumpkin juice. 3 , 27 , 28

Cardiovascular effects

In rats, pumpkin seed oil improved the plasma lipid profile 3 , 29 and exhibited
antioxidant activity in the heart and liver. 30 In these experiments, a hypotensive action
was demonstrated by the oil alone, and in combination with captopril and
felodipine. 29 , 30

CNS

Defatted squash seed is rich in tryptophan. 31 , 32 Limited clinical trials have been
conducted comparing plant-based tryptophan with the pharmaceutical grade chemical.
Modest improvements were demonstrated in social anxiety disorder (social phobia) and
insomnia when squash-derived tryptophan was administered with glucose to improve
CNS blood levels. 31 , 32

Diabetes
Animal data

The pulp and seeds of C. ficifolia have been evaluated for hypoglycemic action in
alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. 3 , 33

Clinical data

Multiple open-label clinical studies report reduced postprandial serum and fasting
glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes given pumpkin juice or pumpkin powder,
but quality clinical trials are lacking. 3 A small clinical trial (N = 10) demonstrated
decreases in fasting blood glucose levels 3 to 5 hours after consumption of the juice of
fresh immature C. ficifolia fruit; 4 mL/kg of body weight of the juice was administered
(100 g crushed fruit was equivalent to 75 mL of juice). 34

Dosage
Limited high-quality clinical trials exist to support therapeutic dosing. Fresh pumpkin
juice 4 mL/kg of body weight was administered in a study conducted among patients with
type 2 diabetes. 34 However, it would take 100 g of crushed fruit to equal 75 mL of
juice. 35 Pumpkin seed 30 g provide approximately 4 mg of iron. When administered to

104
nonpregnant adults for 4 weeks, iron status improved. 14 Pumpkin seed 23 g per 100 mL
was used in a study of anthelmintic action. 3

Pregnancy/Lactation
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. Anti-
nutrients (eg, oxalates, cyanide, tannin) have been identified in pumpkin seeds and
leaves, with detrimental effects on growing rats and chickens. 3 , 19

Interactions
In an experiment conducted in rats, pumpkin seed oil potentiated the hypotensive effect
of captopril and felodipine. 30 Two men stabilized on warfarin experienced an increase in
the international normalized ratio (INR) after taking an herbal combination containing
Cucurbita , saw palmetto, and vitamin E. 36 In both patients, the INR returned to
previous values when the herbal product was discontinued. Although neither Cucurbita
nor saw palmetto can be ruled out as the cause of the INR increase, it is more likely that
vitamin E interfered with vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, adding to the
anticoagulant effects of warfarin. 36

Adverse Reactions
Clinical trials report few adverse reactions. 3 , 26

Methemoglobinemia has been reported in infants 2 months of age or younger who were
given zucchini soup for constipation. The adverse reaction was attributed to the high
nitrate content of the vegetable. 37

Vitamin A toxicity, with abnormal liver function tests, has been reported with prolonged
and excessive pumpkin consumption. 38

IgE-related allergy to zucchini has been reported. Oral allergy syndrome, nausea,
diarrhea, and pruritus have also been described in a number of patients. Cross-reactivity
to watermelon, cucumber, and pumpkin has occurred. 39 , 40 , 41

A number of pathogenic fungi causing the deterioration of carved pumpkins have been
identified. These fungi could cause severe infection in immunocompromised
individuals. 42

Toxicology
Severe toxicity has not been reported with the use of Cucurbita extracts. Ingestion of C.
maxima seeds by rats and pigs during a 4-week period resulted in no changes in most
laboratory parameters. 43 The median lethal dose of freeze-dried C. ficifolia juice in mice
was 650 mg/kg. 35

105
Antinutrients (eg, oxalates, cyanide, tannin) have been found in pumpkin seeds and
leaves, having detrimental effects on rats and chickens. 3 , 19 Trypsin inhibitors have
been described in flowers of pumpkin varieties, but were not considered antinutritional. 4

Bibliography
1. Curcurbita pepo L. USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database ( http://plants.usda.gov , July, 2009).
National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
2. Tyler VE. The New Honest Herbal . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: GF Stickley Co; 1987.
3. Caili F, Huan S, Quanhong L. A review on pharmacological activities and utilization technologies of pumpkin.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr . 2006;61(2):73-80.
4. Sotelo A, Lpez-Garca S, Basurto-Pea F. Content of nutrient and antinutrient in edible flowers of wild plants
in Mexico. Plant Foods Hum Nutr . 2007;62(3):133-138.
5. Wang DC, Xiang H, Li D, et al. Purine-containing cucurbitane triterpenoids from Cucurbita pepo cv dayangua.
Phytochemistry . 2008;69(6):1434-1438.
6. Nayab D, Ali D, Arshad N, Malik A, Choudhary MI, Ahmed Z. Cucurbitacin glucosides from Citrullus
colocynthis . Nat Prod Res . 2006;20(5):409-413.
7. Hou X, Meehan EJ, Xie J, Huang M, Chen M, Chen L. Atomic resolution structure of cucurmosin, a novel
type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata . J Struct Biol . 2008;164(1):81-
87.
8. Arima HK, Rodrguez-Amaya DB. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of a squash and a pumpkin
from northeastern Brazil. Arch Latinoam Nutr . 1990;40(2):284-292.
9. Barua S, et al. Studies on dark green leafy vegetables and yellow vegetables. Part 5. Availability of carotene as
a source of vitamin A. Bangladesh Pharm J . 1977;6:8-12.
10. Stoianova-Ivanova B, et al. Long chain hydrocarbons and fatty acids in different parts of the fruits of
Cucurbita maxima linnaeus. Riv Ital Essenze Profumi Piante Officinali Aromi Saponi Cosmetici Aerosol .
1975;57:377-382.
11. Jaroniewska D, et al. Vegetables in diet and treatment: pumpkin. Farm Pol . 1997;53(3):134-135.
12. Villaseor IM, Lemon P, Palileo A, Bremner JB. Antigenotoxic spinasterol from Cucurbita maxima flowers.
Mutat Res . 1996;360(2):89-93.
13. Itokawa H, et al. Studies on the constituents of the male flowers of Cucurbita pepo L [in Japanese]. Yakugaku
Zasshi J Pharm Soc Japan . 1982;102(4):318-321.
14. Naghii MR, Mofid M. Impact of daily consumption of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal and pumpkin seed
kernels ( Cucurbita pepo ) on serum iron in adult women. Biofactors . 2007;30(1):19-26.
15. Ryan E, Galvin K, O'Connor TP, Maguire AR, O'Brien NM. Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and
fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes. Plant Foods Hum Nutr . 2007;62(3):85-91.
16. Stevenson DG, Eller FJ, Wang L, Jane JL, Wang T, Inglett GE. Oil and tocopherol content and composition
of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars. J Agric Food Chem . 2007;55(10):4005-4013.
17. Krauze-Baranowska M, Cisowski W. Flavonols from Cucurbita pepo L. herb. Acta Pol Pharm .
1996;53(1):53-56.
18. Chiche L, Heitz A, Gelly JC, et al. Squash inhibitors: from structural motifs to macrocyclic knottins. Curr
Protein Pept Sci . 2004;5(5):341-349.
19. Akwaowo EU, Ndon BA, Etuk EU. Minerals and antinutrients in fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis
Hook f .). Food Chem . 2000;70(2):235-240.
20. Wong CM, Yeung HW, Ng TB. Screening of Trichosanthes kirilowii , Momordica charantia and Cucurbita
maxima (family Cucurbitaceae) for compounds with antilipolytic activity. J Ethnopharmacol . 1985;13(3):313-
321.
21. De Amorim A, et al. Anthelmintic action of plants. Part 6. Influence of pumpkin seeds in the removal of
Vampirolepis nana from mice. Rev Bras Farmacogn . 1992;73:81-82.
22. Elisha E, et al. Anthelmintic activity of some Iraqi plants of the Cucurbitaceae. Pharm Biol . 1987;25(3):153-
157.
23. Amorim CZ, Marques AD, Cordeiro RS. Screening of the antimalarial activity of plants of the Cucurbitaceae
family. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz . 1991;86(suppl 2):177-180.
24. Dreikorn K. The role of phytotherapy in treating lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic
hyperplasia. World J Urol . 2002;19(6):426-435.
25. Gossell-Williams M, Davis A, O'Connor N. Inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of

106
sprague-dawley rats by pumpkin seed oil. J Med Food . 2006;9(2):284-286.
26. Carbin B, Larsson B, Lindahl O. Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with phytosterols. Br J Urol .
1990;66(6):639-641.
27. Rojas NM, Acosta S. Antitumoral potential of aqueous extracts of Cuban plants. Part 2. Rev Cubana Farm .
1980:14:219-225.
28. Jayaprakasam B, Seeram NP, Nair MG. Anticancer and antiinflammatory activities of cucurbitacins from
Cucurbita andreana . Cancer Lett . 2003;189(1):11-16.
29. Gossell-Williams M, Lyttle K, Clarke T, Gardner M, Simon O. Supplementation with pumpkin seed oil
improves plasma lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes of female non-ovariectomized and ovariectomized
Sprague-Dawley rats. Phytother Res . 2008;22(7):873-877.
30. Zuhair HA, Abd El-Fattah AA, El-Sayed MI. Pumpkin-seed oil modulates the effect of felodipine and
captopril in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pharmacol Res . 2000;41(5):555-563.
31. Hudson C, Hudson S, MacKenzie J. Protein-source tryptophan as an efficacious treatment for social anxiety
disorder: a pilot study. Can J Physiol Pharmacol . 2007;85(9):928-932.
32. Hudson C, Hudson SP, Hecht T, MacKenzie J. Protein source tryptophan versus pharmaceutical grade
tryptophan as an efficacious treatment for chronic insomnia. Nutr Neurosci . 2005;8(2):121-127.
33. Roman-Ramos R, Flores-Saenz JL, Alarcon-Aguilar FJ. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of some edible plants. J
Ethnopharmacol . 1995;48(1):25-32.
34. Acosta-Patio JL, Jimnez-Balderas E, Jurez-Oropeza MA, Daz-Zagoya JC. Hypoglycemic action of
Cucurbita ficifolia on Type 2 diabetic patients with moderately high blood glucose levels. J Ethnopharmacol .
2001;77(1):99-101.
35. Andrade-Cetto A, Heinrich M. Mexican plants with hypoglycaemic effect used in the treatment of diabetes. J
Ethnopharmacol . 2005;99(3):325-348.
36. Yue QY, Jansson K. Herbal drug curbicin and anticoagulant effect with and without warfarin: possibly related
to the vitamin E component. J Am Geriatr Soc . 2001;49(6):838.
37. Savino F, Maccario S, Guidi C, Castagno E, Farinasso D, Cresi F, Silvestro L, Mussa GC.
Methemoglobinemia caused by the ingestion of courgette soup given in order to resolve constipation in two
formula-fed infants. Ann Nutr Metab . 2006;50(4):368-371.
38. Nagai K, Hosaka H, Kubo S, Nakabayashi T, Amagasaki Y, Nakamura N. Vitamin A toxicity secondary to
excessive intake of yellow-green vegetables, liver and laver. J Hepatol . 1999;31(1):142-148.
39. Reindl J, Anliker MD, Karamloo F, Vieths S, Wthrich B. Allergy caused by ingestion of zucchini
( Cucurbita pepo ): characterization of allergens and cross-reactivity to pollen and other foods. J Allergy Clin
Immunol . 2000;106(2):379-385.
40. Figueredo E, Cuesta-Herranz J, Minguez A, et al. Allergy to pumpkin and cross-reactivity to other
Cucurbitaceae fruits. J Allergy Clin Immunol . 2000;106(2):402-403.
41. Potter T, Hashimoto K. Butternut squash ( Cucurbita moschata ) dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis .
1994;30(2):123.
42. Nagano Y, Millar BC, Loughrey A, Goldsmith CE, Rooney PJ, Moore JE, Elborn JS. Jack o'Lanternscarier
than you think! Am J Infect Control . 2006;34(10):680-681.
43. de Queiroz-Neto A, Mataqueiro MI, Santana AE, Alessi AC. Toxicologic evaluation of acute and subacute
oral administration of Cucurbita maxima seed extracts to rats and swine. J Ethnopharmacol . 1994;43(1):45-51.

Copyright 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health

Your Busy Schedule Does Not Make You Obese- Inactivity and Laziness Do! The
Chairman Of NCB Michael Lee-Chin, Showing That He Is Physically Fit

107
How Many Of Those Who Sits In Gordon House Can Claim To Have Greater
Responsibilities and Busier Shedules Than Richard Byles? Does He Look
Obese?

108
Pumpkin flowers, raw
Add to comparison

Nutrition Facts Add to meal


Export CSV

Serving Size
100 g
Amount Per Serving
Calories 15
% Daily Value
Total Fat 0.1g
0%
Sodium 5mg
0%
Total Carbohydrate 3.3g
1%
Protein 1g
2%
Vitamin A 39 % Vitamin C 47 %
Calcium 4 % Iron 4%
Daily values are based on 2000 calorie diet.
Badges: low fat

Product Pumpkin flowers, raw


Food Category Vegetables and Vegetable Products

Pumpkin flowers, raw nutrition facts and analysis


Vitamins Carbohydrates
Nutrient Amount DV Nutrient Amount DV
Folate 59.00 mcg Carbohydrate 3.28 g 1%
Folic acid 0.00 mcg
Niacin 0.690 mg 3% Fats and Fatty Acids
Riboflavin 0.075 mg 4%
Thiamin 0.042 mg 3%
Vitamin A 1947.00 IU 39 %
Vitamin A, RAE 97.00 mcg
Vitamin B12 0.00 mcg 0%
Vitamin C 28.0 mg 47 %

109
Vitamin D 0.00 IU 0% Nutrient Amount DV
Fat 0.07 g 0 %
Minerals Saturated fatty acids 0.036 g 0 %
Nutrient Amount DV Dodecanoic acid 0.001 g
Calcium, Ca 39.00 mg 4 % Hexadecanoic acid 0.026 g
Iron, Fe 0.70 mg 4 % Octadecanoic acid 0.002 g
Magnesium, Mg 24.00 mg 6 % Tetradecanoic acid 0.005 g
Phosphorus, P 49.00 mg 5 % Monounsaturated fatty acids 0.009 g
Potassium, K 173.00 mg 4 % Hexadecenoic acid 0.005 g
Selenium, Se 0.7 mcg 1 % Octadecenoic acid 0.004 g
Sodium, Na 5.00 mg 0 % Polyunsaturated fatty acids 0.004 g
Octadecadienoic acid 0.002 g
Proteins and Aminoacids
Octadecatrienoic acid 0.002 g
Nutrient Amount DV
Fatty acids, total trans 0.000 g
Protein 1.03 g 2%

Sterols
Nutrient Amount DV
Cholesterol 0.00 mg 0%

Other
Nutrient Amount DV
Ash 0.48 g
Water 95.15 g

Please let us know if you have any suggestions on how to make this website better.
Pumpkin flowers, raw: nutritional value and analysis. Daily values for aminoacids are based on 155 lbs body weight.
Interchangeable pairs of aminoacids: Methionine + Cysteine, Phenylalanine + Tyrosine. Other daily values are based on 2000 calorie diet.
Nutritional value of a cooked product is provided for the given weight of cooked food. Data from USDA National Nutrient Database
for Standard Reference, Release 28.
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Herbs - Medicinal Plants

110
Pumpkin. Properties, content. Pumpkin Benefits
what is Pumpkin?. Properties of the pumpkin. Health benefits of pumpkin. Uses
of pumpkin, preparationas an anthelmintic. Pumpkin seed. Remedies.
Characteristics, content and health benefits of the Pumpkin

Pumpkin seed
Scientific name: Cucurbita pepo L.
Family: Cucurbitaceae

Pumpkin is an annual plant with short cycle grown commonly in the tropics between March and June.

It is known from antiquity whose origins are lost in time.

The pumpkin is very useful as food and its seeds are highly valued for their health benefits
as an anthelmintic and contain 50% of a fatty oil composed by oleic acid and linoleic acid.

It has a high content of carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins B, C, D, E and K. It also
contains minerals like calcium, potassium and phosphorus.

Other substances present in pumpkin are the glycoside (cucurbitin), albumin, lecithin,
phytosterol and various resins.

Medical Uses of pumpkin

pumpkin seeds

111
Its preparation as an anthelmintic consist of mixing 100-200 g of peeled pumpkin
seeds (without testa) with honey or syrup (up to 100 ml) and gradually taken over the
course of 1 hour.

After 3 hours it should be taken some type of laxative to expel parasites. It has been very
helpful in removing the Taenia Solium and Taenia Saginata.

Another use of the pumpkin is as antiinflammatory for cystitis, prostatitis, in particular


for preventing or treating prostate cancer and also for insomnia.

The pulp either raw or cooked is used as emulsifier.

From the pumpkin seeds is extracted an oil very good for household and medicinal uses.

The seed has refreshing and soothing properties, is given as seed milk for nephritis and
inflammation of the bladder and urethra.

A good remedy for burns is 30 g of pulp per liter of water and makes a porridge with the
mix.
REMEMBER to always consult your doctor before combining natural products with any

references
Mashkovski MD. Manual de fitoterapia para mdicos. Mosc: Ed. Meditsina, 1987.
Roig JT. Plantas medicinales aromticas o venenosas de Cuba. La Habana: Editorial
Ciencia y Tcnica, 1988:1125.
Reynolds JEF (Editor). Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia. London: The
Pharmaceutical Press, 1989:1896.
Pousset JL. Plantes medicinales africaines. Utilisation practique. Pars, Ed. Marqueting.
1989.
Granda M, Acosta L, Fuentes V y Cabrera I. Plantas Medicinales II. La Habana: CIDA,
1990:27.
Robineau L. Hacia una farmacopea caribea. Sto. Domingo: Enda-Caribe/UNAH,
1991:475.
Source:- https://www.medicinalplants-pharmacognosy.com/herbs-medicinal-
plants/pumpkin/

Yams nutrition facts


Yams are carbohydrate rich, staple tuber vegetables of West African origin. Botanically it
belongs to the family Dioscoreaceae, in the genus, Dioscorea.
There exist several hundred cultivars of Dioscorea; however, only a few of them worth of
commercial importance. Traditional yam tuber types grown are Dioscorea
rotundata (white guinea), D. alata (yellow), D. bulbifera (aerial potato), D.
opposita (Chinese), D. esculenta (Southeast Asian) and D. dumenterum (trifoliate).

112
Besides their use as food, yams have long been symbolically associated with the culture
and ritualism in some parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin Americas.

Yam tubers (Dioscorea


rotundata) put for sale in a Chinese mountain yams (D. opposita). Photo
market. (Photo courtesy: Nick courtesy: Soo Hua Tung.
Hobgood)

Yam plant is a perennial vine cultivated for its large, edible, underground tuber, which
can reach up to 120 pounds in weight and 2 meters in length. They are one of the
conventional tropical crops requiring hot, humid climates and may cease to grow when
the temperature dips below 68 degrees F.
Yams are similar in appearance to sweet potatoes. However, they are not at all related to
it. Some major differences that set them apart from sweet potatoes: yams are
monocotyledons, larger in size, features thick, rough, dark brown to pink skin depending
upon the cultivar type. Whereas, sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) are dicotyledonous,
relatively smaller size and possess thin peel.
Although yams are grown all over the African continent, Nigeria is the worlds largest
producer and exporter, accounting for over 70 percent of the total global production.

Health benefits of yams


Yam is a good source of energy; 100 g provides 118 calories. It's crunchy edible root
chiefly composed of complex carbohydrates and soluble dietary fiber.
Dietary fiber help reduces constipation, decrease bad (LDL) cholesterol levels by binding
to it in the intestines and lower colon cancer risk by preventing toxic compounds in the
food from adhering to the colon mucosa. Additionally, being a good source of complex
carbohydrate, it regulates steady rise in blood sugar levels. For the same reason, yam
recommended as low glycemic index healthy food.
The tuber is an excellent source of the B-complex group of vitamins. It provides adequate
daily requirements of pyridoxine (vitamin B6), thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin, folates,
pantothenic acid, and niacin. These vitamins mediate various metabolic functions in the
body.
Fresh root also contains good amounts of antioxidant vitamin, vitamin-C; providing
about 29% of recommended levels per 100 g. Vitamin-C plays some important roles as
anti-aging, immune function booster, wound healing, and bone growth.

113
Yam contains small amounts of vitamin-A, and -carotene levels. Carotenes convert into
vitamin-A inside the body. Both these compounds are powerful antioxidants. Vitamin-A
has many functions like maintaining healthy mucosa and skin, night vision, growth and
protection from lung and oral cavity cancers.
Further, the tuber indeed is one of the good sources of minerals such as copper, calcium,
potassium, iron, manganese, and phosphorus. 100 g provides about 816 mg
of Potassium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids which helps
controlling heart rate and blood pressure by countering hypertensive effects of sodium.
Copper is essential for the production of red blood cells. The body uses manganese as a
co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Iron is required for red blood
cell formation.

Selection and storage


Yams can be available in the markets year-round. Fresh tubers, however, available in
plenty by August when their annual harvest season begins, marking the end of the rainy
season in Western Africa. A new yam festival celebrated with great fervor as symbolism
to fresh crop and availability of fresh food in abundance all over Nigeria and Ghana.
In the supermarkets, generally one can come across, small cut sections of yam wrapped in
thin plastic films. Their interior meat is white to light pink depending upon the cultivar
type with rich, starchy flavor.
In general, whole tubers stored after drying several hours under the sunlight, in well-
ventilated yam barns (traditional storage system) where they stay well for several months.
Cut sections, however, should be used early or stored in the refrigerator for immediate
use.

Preparation and serving methods


Unlike sweet potatoes which can be eaten raw, yams should never be consumed
uncooked since they carry naturally-occurring plant toxins including dioscorine,
diosgenin, and triterpenes. The tuber must be peeled and cooked in order to remove these
bitter proteins.
Dioscorea opposita or Japanese yam is, however, can be eaten raw, unlike its African
brethren. Here, the whole root is briefly soaked in the vinegar-water solution to neutralize
irritant oxalate crystals that found in their skin. The root is then cut into small slices or
grated to get a gel-like milk to add in mouth-watering East-Asian recipes.
Here are some serving tips:

114
Pounded yam recipe, fufu.
(Photo courtesy: Saabir)

The tuber can be used in a variety of cuisines boiled, baked, fried, or sometimes roasted.
The most common cooking method in Africa is "pounded yam." Fufu (Foo-foo, Foufou)
is a special dish prepared during the yam festival. To make fufu; either pounded yam or
its powder is added to boiling water to make a round cake-like dough (clump). A bite-
sized piece of the fufu is then consumed with sauce, stew, or soup akin to ragi cake
(finger-millet, Eleusine coracana, ragi-mudde) eaten in some parts of South India.
Japanese yam or yamaimo is eaten raw in salads or grated to get a gel-like milk, which is
then added to noodles.
It also used much like sweet potatoes in the preparation of cake, casseroles, bread, etc.

Medicinal uses
Yam tubers used various traditional medicines in China, Korea, and Japan. Its
mucilaginous tuber milk contains allantoin, a cell-proliferate that speeds up the healing
process when applied to ulcers, boils, and abscesses. Its decoction also used to stimulate
appetite and to relieve bronchial irritation, cough, etc. (Medical disclaimer).

Safety profile
Yams of African species must be cooked before safely eaten because various natural toxic
substances such as dioscorine can cause illness if consumed raw.(Medical disclaimer).
Source:- http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/yams.html

115
Does Either Mark Golding or Lambert Brown Carry More Responsibilities or
Busier Schedules Than Don Webby of Grace Kennedy And Company Ltd,
Who Also Sits In The Senate? What Are Their Exuses For Their Tremendous
Sizes?

Biological Activities and Applications of Dioscorins,


the Major Tuber Storage Proteins of Yam
Yeh-Lin Lu,1 Cho-Yun Chia,2 Yen-Wenn Liu,1 and Wen-Chi Hou2,*
Author information Copyright and License information
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract
Yam tubers, a common tuber crop and an important traditional Chinese medicine in
Taiwan, have many bioactive substances, including phenolic compounds, mucilage
polysaccharides, steroidal saponins and proteins. Among the total soluble proteins, 80%
of them are dioscorins. In the past two decades, many studies showed that dioscorins
exhibited biological activities bothand, including the enzymatic, antioxidant,
antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, lectin activities and the protecting role on airway
epithelial cells against allergens. Some of these activities are survived after chemical,
heating process or enzymatic digestion. Despite of lacking the intact structural
information and the detail action mechanisms in the cells, yam dioscorins are potential
resources for developing as functional foods and interesting targets for food protein
researchers.

116
Overview
Yams (Dioscorea spp., Dioscoreaceae) are one of important tuber crops in Africa, Asia,
and Middle and South America and also staple foods in Caribbean. In the traditional
Chinese medicine classic, The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (
shn nng bn co jng), the dried slices of Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( shn yo;
the tuber of Dioscorea spp.) are classified as top grade ( shng pn) which are
juvenescent with no toxic effect when long-term uses. The yam tubers, like other storage
roots, are rich in starch, but they also contain about 1-3% protein in fresh samples. On the
dry weight basis, the crude protein content raises to ca. 6-13%. Harvey and Boulter
(1983) first isolated the major group of proteins accounted for approximately 85% of the
total soluble protein content by alkaline buffers (borate or Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.3) and
anion-exchange chromatography from the tubers of D. rotundata cv Nwapoko. They are
assumed to deposit aggregately in vacuoles of the storage cells and share lots of
characteristics, such as high amide content and solubility, with other storage proteins.
Conlan et al. (1995) first reported two classes of cDNA clones encoding the major tuber
storage proteins of the D. cayenensis. The protein coding regions between the two
classes, A and B, represent 84.1% similarities and the deduced amino acid sequences are
69.6% similarities with respected to each other, but with no sequence identity with that of
patatin or sporamin, the storage protein of potato and sweet potato, respectively. Their
findings brought more detail information and the name, dioscorins, was first introduced
to represent the yam tuber storage proteins. In this article, we will review some of the
biological activities of dioscorins and also compare these from different yam species.

Characteristics of Dioscorins
The monomeric molecular weights of dioscorins purified from different species are about
31 kDa (Harvey and Boulter, 1983; Conlan et al., 1995; Hou et al., 2000; Liao et al,
2004). They can be extracted by alkaline buffer (borate or Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.3) from
the tubers and simply purified by weak anion-exchange chromatography, ex. DE-52 resin,
with the purity > 95%. In different buffer systems, the monomers usually associate to
form dimers, tetramers and higher molecular weight polymers by noncovalent or
disulphide inter-molecular interactions. Sample preparation in the presence of SDS and 2-
mercaptoethanol seems to facilitate the breakdown of dioscorins. By prior treatment of
urea or guanidine-HCl, followed by reduction and alkylation, the breakdown
phenomenon could be minimized (Harvey and Boulter, 1983; Harvey and Boulter,
1985). Figure 1 shows the alignment of protein sequences of different dioscorins. The
precursor of dioscorins contains a signal peptide in their N-terminal, which may be
removed by processing protease in the vacuoles, but the detailed mechanism is still
unclear. Even the carbohydrates cannot be detected in the dioscorins purified by Harvey
and Boulter. The comparison of molecular weight between native protein and protein
deduced from cDNAs shows the post-translational modifications occur (Conlan et al.,
1995). Further study by Con A-peroxidase analysis system shows that, at least, some of
the dioscorins are glycoproteins (Hou et al., 2000). The structural information of
dioscorins is really limited. Conlan et al. (1995) showed that the secondary structure
contents of dioscorins analyzed by far UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy were
about 33% -helix, 8% -sheet and 38% -turn. By using near infrared Fourier transform
Raman spectrometry analysis (Liao et al., 2004), the secondary structure of dioscorin

117
from D. alata L. was majorly -helix, while that from D. alata L. var. purpurea was
mostly antiparallel -sheets even their amino acid compositions were similar. Dioscorin
from D. japonica, with different amino acid compositions, had a mixed form of -helix
and antiparallel -sheets. These show that dioscorins from different sources might have
different structure and activities.

Biological Activities
-Carbonic Anhydrase (-CA) Activity
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc metalloenzymesthat catalyze the interchange of
CO2 and HCO3 play a key role in CO2 fixation for photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and
plants. In mammals, CA reaction is involved in respiration and transport of CO2 between
lungs and tissues. To date, at least five genetically unrelated families (, , , and ) of
CAs were reported, the detail information could be found in recent reviews (Supuran,
2008; Gilmour, 2010). cDNA alignment of dioscorins and CAs shows significant
sequence similarity to -CAs, but may fail to have activity because of the alternations in
conserved active-site and mismatch in one of three Zn-liganding sites (Hewett-Emmett
and Tashian, 1996). Hou et al. (1999b) first report the experimental evidence for the CA
activity of dioscorin. They purified dioscorin from D. batatas Decne, the CA activity
was determined from the direction of dehydration of sodium bicarbonate by pH-stat
technique and the autotitration was done with 0.1 M H2SO4 to pH 7.1 set as a fixed end
point and SDS-PAGE followed by active staining by color change of bromothymol blue.
Subsequently, dioscorins from other five cultivars of three D. species were also proved to
have CA activity by activity stainings, including D. batatas Decne var. Shoufeng, D.
alata L. var. Tainong 1, D. alata L. var. Tainong 2, D. alata L. var. Zhongguochang
and D. pseudojaponica var. Keelung (Hou et al., 2000). Interestingly, the CA
activities could be found in all dioscorins with no appreciable amount of zinc atom
detected and the activities remained after 2-mercaptoethanol, acetazolamide (inhibitor of
CAs) or 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (Zn-chelating agent) treatments. These findings
show dioscorins are novel -CAs, but no further investigations have been made until
now.

118
Antioxidant Activity
The antioxidant is defined as a molecule that has the ability to slow or prevent the
oxidation of other molecules. The oxidation damages on physiological substances are
highly related to many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, aging, neurodegenerative
diseases and cancers (Moon and Shibamoto, 2009). Hou et al. (1999a) showed that
dioscorin isolated from D. batatas Decne had both dehydroascorbate reductase and
monodehydroascorbate reductase activities in vitro at the pH close to neutral, by these,
dioscorin could reduce dehydroascorbate and monodehydroascorbate to generate
ascorbate in turn to reduce the ROS and increase the scavenger concentration at the same
time. Hou et al. (2001) reported that dioscorin exhibited the scavenging activity against
both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical in a dose-dependent
manner in vitro. The use of pepsin to simulate dioscorin digestion in vivo, it was found
that DPPH scavenging activities of peptic hydrolysates were increasing with hydrolyzed
time and active fraction of small molecules were revealed by gel permeation
chromatography (Liu and Lin 2009). It is noted that some Cys-containing synthetic
peptides derived from computer-aided dioscorin hydrolysis show DPPH and hydroxyl
radical scavenging activities.

Antihypertensive Activity
Hypertension, a high prevalence chronic disease in the world, is a clear risk factor for
several kinds of cardiovascular disease, such as coronary vascular disease (CVD) and
stroke. In prehypertension state, life-style changes are suitable for improvement. When
blood pressure goes up, pharmaceutical treatments will be required. Among all classes of
antihypertensive drugs, ACE inhibitors are wildly use in hypertension patients and
patients with other complications, ex. diabetes and chronic kidney disease (JNC 7).
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1), a part of the renin-angotensin-
aldosterone (RAA) system, is an exopeptidase that can convert angiotensin I
(decapeptide) to the potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II (octapeptide). ACE also
degrades bradykinin and other vasodilatory peptides (Zaman et al., 2002). Even the major
adverse effect of dry cough, the relative low adverse effect rate and renal protection effect
make them become the commonly prescribed class. Hsu et al. (2002) first reported that
native protein of dioscorin purified from D. alata cv. Tainong No. 1 (TN1-dioscorin) and
its peptic hydrolysates presented ACE inhibitory activities in dose-dependent manner.
The IC50 of dioscorin on ACE in reported assay system was 6.404 M compared to
0.00781 M of captopril, the first commercial ACE inhibitor. According to kinetic
analysis, dioscorin showed mixed noncompetitive inhibition against ACE. When 31.25
g discorin was applied, the apparent inhibition constant (Ki) was 2.738 M. Following
this study, Lin et al. (2006) fed the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with TN1-
dioscorin and its peptic hydrolysates. In short- term (24h) experiments, both TN1-
dioscorin and its peptic hydrolysates (administrated orally once by the dose 40 mg/kg)
showed significant lowing on mean blood pressure (MBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP)
and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the pressure- lowing effect were equal to the
captopril group. In the long-term measurement, the TN1-dioscorin was orally
administrated once daily for 25 days in the dose of 40 mg/kg. The greatest reduction in
BP was appeared on day 9 and the BP-lowing activity remained in the end of experiment.

119
In order to evaluate the BP-lowing activity on human, the instant food (30 g) with and
without lyophilized yam powder, containing 140 mg dioscorin determined by ELISA,
was made and applied daily on hypertensive subjects for 5 weeks, followed by 1 week
washout and then a 5 week crossover. By this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the
intake of dioscorin-containing meal showed a regulating effect on human blood pressure
(Liu et al., 2009a). Liu et al. (2009b) evaluated the BP-lowing different preparations of
yam products on SHRs, all of them containing dioscorin, but the amounts were not
determined. The results showed that different food processing methods, including
alcoholic-insoluble solids from 80% ethanolic extraction, tuber slices by hot-air-drying
and steam- cook and water extracts by hot water treatment (90C and 95C) for 10
minutes, show no significant changes in the BP-lowing activities in the SHR model.
Thus, the antihypertensive activity of dioscorins or yam processing products can be easily
applied in the development of healthy or functional foods. Several synthetic peptides
derived from computer-aided dioscorin hydrolysis show ACE inhibitory activities, and
the oral administration of these peptides to SHR is currently undertaken for BP
regulations. It is noted that a synthetic peptide derived from computer-aided dioscorin
hydrolysis show antihypertensive activity by vasorelaxation effects with or without
endothelium by using phenylephrine-contracted thoracic aorta from SD rats.

Immunomodulatory Activity
The innate immunity is the first defense line of the immune system. Many of the involved
molecules have the property of pattern recognition and can be divided into to groups of
soluble molecules or cell-associated receptors. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a kind of
pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), play a key role in innate immunity. In human, 10
TLR family members have been identified; each of them has its own pathogen-
associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (Kawai and Akira, 2011). TN1-dioscorin activates
both NF-B and MAPKs (JNK, p38 and ERK1/2) signaling via TLR-4 and induces the
expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines
(TNF-, IL-1 and IL-6) in bone marrow cells isolated from C3H/HeN mice (TLR-4
functional) and the RAW 264.7 cells which these effects are eliminated in the TLR-4 dull
mice, C3H/HeJ (Fu et al., 2006). In addition, TN1-dioscorin enhances the phagocytosis
against E. coli, the oxidative burst activity of RAW 264.7 cells and the proliferation of
spleen cells isolated from BALB/c mice (Liu et al., 2007). When oral administration of
TN1-dioscorin (2.5 and 20 mg/kg/day) to BALB/c mice for 21 days, the lymphocyte
subpopulation in both peripheral blood and splenocytes are changed. The significant
enhancement of phagocytosis and natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity are appeared.
The Peyer's patches and sIgA in the feces are also increased which shows the
immunomodulatory activity might be related to mucosal immune responses (Liu et al.,
2009). Lin et al. (2009) compared the immunomodulatory activities of dioscorins from
two different species, D. alata cv. Tainong No. 1 and D. japonica (Dj-dioscorin), in mice.
TN1-dioscorin stimulated major on phagocytosis activity of lymphoid cells, whereas the
major immunomodulatory activity of Dj-dioscorin was lymphoid cells proliferation.
These results show that dioscorins from different species may behave different activities
on immune responses.

120
Lectin Activity
Lectins, a kind of sugar-binding protein with high specificity to their own sugar moieties,
play the key role of cells, pathogens and molecules recognition in both animals and
plants. They can be applied for cell selection, glycoprotein isolation, sugar moiety
identification and so on. In addition, some lectins, like concanavalin A (Con A) and
phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), have mitogen activity that can stimulate lymphocytes
proliferation in functional immune system (Sharon, 2007; Michiels et al., 2010).
Gaidamashvili et al. (2004) isolated four proteins from D. batatas, three of them (DB1,
DB3 and DB4) existed lectin activity. The large subunit of the DB3 (DB3L), which was
further compose of two 31-kDa subunits linked by disulfide bond, was homologous with
class B dioscorins and responsible for the full lectin activity of DB3. But the relationship
between lymphocytes proliferation and lectin activity of dioscorins still needs further
investigations.

Airway Epithelial Cells Protection


In the airway, the first line of host defenses is the barrier of mucus and epithelial cells.
The mucus can trap the pathogens and remove them before they can contact with the
epithelial cells, but unfortunately, because of the decrease in secretion cell (type II
alveolar epithelial cells and Clara cells), the mucociliary clearance is dramatically
impaired. The airway epithelial cells protect against the pathogens by three ways, the first
is the secretion of multiple proteases to degrade the pathogens; the second is to secret
protease inhibitors which inactive the proteases derived from pathogens and protect
themselves against proteolytic effects from host immune cells; the last one is the
epithelial tight junctions that prevent pathogens penetrate into subepithelial mucosa.
House dust mite (HDM) allergens, the most common allergen in the world, and some
fungal allergens containing serine proteases which can destroy the tight junction via lyse
the junction-associated proteins, for example, claudin-1, zonaoccludens-1 (ZO-1),
occludin, E-cadherin (EC) and desmoplakin (DP). In addition, some of these allergens
can directly induce the cytokine releases of epithelial cells that facilitate the permeability
of the pathogens (Proud and Leigh, 2011). Ko et al. (2009) demonstrated that dioscorin
had the protective ability in A549 cells against damages of dust mite extracts by
maintaining the tight junction structure and the expression of junction-associated
proteins, including ZO-1, EC and DP. As the trypsin, a serine-type protease, inhibitory
activities of dioscorins were reported (Hou et al., 1999b and 2000), and the authors
proposed that the protective effect of dioscorin in airway epithelial cells might be from
the antiprotease activity.

Conclusion
In summary, dioscorins are easily purified proteins rich in the tuber of many species of
yam. They exhibit antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, lectin activities and
can protect airway epithelial cells against dust mite allergen destruction (Figure 2). They
also show some enzyme activities, such as -CA, DHA reductase and MDA activities,

121
and present minor trypsin-inhibitor activity. Even after oral digestion, the
antihypertensive and immunomodulatory effects remain. According to these properties,
dioscorins are worth developing as healthy or functional foods. Further investigations are
required in the studies of the mechanism of actions, structures and findings on new
biological activities.

Figure 2
Summary of biological activity of dioscorins

References
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122
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Articles from Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine are

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Members of the Gay Community lived under this road in the storm drains. What are the
possible health problems they would acquire as a result of where they lived?

126
The Nutritional Benefits Of Coco and Dasheen
Leaves---Taro Leaves

22 Scientific Taro Leaves Benefits (No.18 Shocking You)


ads
Taro is a tropical plant originally from Southern India and Southeast Asia. Its usually
consumed as a root vegetable or as its leaves vegetables. Both its root and leaves have
many health benefits for the body because it is rich in nutrients.

Taro Leaves nutrition

Per 1 cup (145g) steamed taro leaves (without salt) contain the nutrients as follow:
Calories 35 Calories from fat 5
% Daily Value
Total carbohydrate 5.8g 2%
Dietary fiber 2.9g 12%

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Total fat 0.6g 1%
Omega-3 fatty acids 74mg
Omega-6 fatty acids 170mg
Protein 4g 8%
Vitamin A 6145 IU 123%
Vitamin C 51.5mg 86%
Thiamin (vitamin B1) 0.2mg 13%
Ribovlavin (vitamin B2) 0.6mg 32%
Niacin (vitamin B3) 1.8mg 9%
Vitamin B6 0.1mg 5%
Folate 70mcg 17%
Calcium 125mg 12%
Iron 1.7mg 10%
Magnesium 29mg 7%
Phosphorus 39.2mg 4%
sodium 3mg
zinc 0.3mg 2%
copper 0.2mg 10%
Manganese 0.5mg 27%
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
From its nutrient contents, we can get the taro leaves benefits as follow:
Act as an antioxidant to prevent cancer.
Taro leaves are rich in vitamin C which acts as an antioxidant. This will help to prevent
many diseases and fight again free radicals that cause cancer.

Boost your immune system.


Vitamin C in 1 cup of taro leaves (145mg) can reach 86% daily value that the body needs.
You can boost your immune system effectively with this plant.
Keep the healthy eyes.
Besides the vitamin C, taro leaves are rich in vitamin A. It reaches an amazing daily value
until 123%. It is very good to keep your eyes stay healthy, maintain the visual acuity, and
prevent the eyes diseases such as cataract, myopia, and blindness.
Help the digestive process and treat the digestive problems .
Taro leaves are high in dietary fiber which helps to absorb and digest the food well. Taro
leaves can make you stay away from the digestive problems such as indigestion,
constipation, and also diarrhea.
Reduce the cholesterol level.

128
Taro leaves have no cholesterol and have
only 1% of total fat. This is the best diet for reducing cholesterol. The dietary fiber and
methionine contained in taro leaves can reduce the cholesterol effectively by binding and
break down of fat and cholesterol especially triglyceride.
Aid to weight loss diet.
Taro leaves are low in fat and high in protein. This is the best choice for diet menu to
reduce your fat and get your muscle mass.
Help to reduce inflammation.
Omega 3 in taro leaves play the role in inflammation process which can inhibit the
release of inflammation substances. It can help to treat diseases like arthritis, gastritis, or
lupus disease.
Control the blood pressure.
Taro leaves contain omega 3, an essential fatty acid which provides making material
hormones to control the contraction and relaxation of arteries wall. If this mechanism is
going well, the blood pressure can be controlled in normal level.
sponsored links

Protect the nervous system.


Taro leaves contain vitamin B complex including thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin
B6 which have the action to protect the nervous system. If you feel the symptoms like
tingling, numbness, or pain in your limb, you can eat taro leaves to reduce those
symptoms. They will boost your immune system also.

Help the development of the fetal brain and nervous system .


If you are in pregnant, it is good to consume taro leaves. Besides its rich in nutrition, it
contains folate which is essential for the development of your fetal brain and nervous
system. However, you should cook the taro leaves well before you eat them.
Keep the healthy bone.
The calcium contained in taro leaves bring the health benefits for the healthy bone. It
helps the bone formation and it works with phosphorous to strengthen the bone and teeth.
Help in the fetal bone and teeth development.
Besides its folate content which is beneficial for the fetus, taro leaves contain also
manganese. This mineral helps in the fetal cartilage, bone, and teeth formation during
pregnancy.
Help to prevent anemia.

129
Taro leaves contain iron mineral which helps in red blood cell formation. In addition, its
vitamin C content helps to absorb the iron well. This will meet the need of red blood cells
in the body and anemia can be prevented.
Help to prevent preeclampsia in pregnancy.
The magnesium mineral in taro leaves helps to prevent preeclampsia during pregnancy.
Magnesium has the mechanism in muscle relaxation so it can be used to prevent
preeclampsia.
Help to treat diarrhea quickly.
Taro leaves contain zinc, a mineral that protects intestine mucosa. When diarrhea
happens, the intestine wall will lose its mucosa. Zinc help to relieve the mucosa quickly
so diarrhea can stop immediately.
Help to reduce wrinkle in the skin.
Taro leaves contain the amino acid called threonine. This protein compound aids the
formation of elastin and collagen which are good for the healthy skin. It will prevent the
skin from wrinkle and rejuvenate skin as well.
Bring the best energy source.
Taro leaves bring the best energy source for the body through its essential amino acid
called isoleucine. This protein regulates the blood sugar and increases the muscle strength
and energy levels. This is the best diet for people who love to work out.
Promote the bone and skin healing.
An essential amino acid called leucine is contained by taro leaves. It promotes the bone
and skin healing by releasing the natural painkiller called enkephalins. It does not only
facilitate the bone healing but also relieve the pain as well.
Help to enhance the memory and mood.
Taro leaves release dopamine which acts in the brain and nervous system. It is
synthesized by phenylalanine to enhance your brain memory and control your mood.
Help to treat nicotine addiction.
Taro leaves contain tyrosine, a crucial amino acid in the human body. It becomes an
adaptogen substance which helps to minimize the effect of nicotine, cocaine, and coffee
addiction.

Increase the sperm production.


Taro leaves are good for men because of its arginine content. This amino acid can help to
increase the sperm production.
Act as the detoxification agent.
Histidine, one of the essential amino acids is contained in taro leaves. It acts as
detoxification agent that helps to remove the heavy metals from the body and protect the
body from radiation damage.
Warning About Preparation
Taro leaves benefits have been explained above in a scientific way. However, you cant
consume taro leaves in a raw condition because it has a dangerous toxin. You should soak
them first in the clean water before you cook about 10-15 minutes. After that, you have to
cook them well to remove its toxic substance.

130
The Nutritional Value and Phytochemical Components
of Taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] Powder
and its Selected Processed Foods
Richelle M Alcantara1*, Wilma A Hurtada1 and Erlinda I Dizon2

1
Institute of Human Nutrition and Food, College of Human Ecology, Philippines

2
Institute of Food Science and Technology, Food Science Cluster, College of Agriculture,
University of the Philippines Los Baos, 4031 College, Laguna, Philippines

Corresponding Author : Richelle M Alcantara


Institute of Human Nutrition and Food
College of Human Ecology, Philippines
Tel: 09277516166
E-mail: richelle.alcantara@yahoo.com

Received March 29, 2013; Accepted April 26, 2013; Published April 28, 2013

Citation: Alcantara RM, Hurtada WA, Dizon EI (2013) The Nutritional Value and Phytochemical Components
of Taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] Powder and its Selected Processed Foods. J Nutr Food Sci 3:207. doi:10.4172/2155

Copyright: 2013 Alcantara RM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of
the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction
in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract
The nutritional value, phytochemical components and antinutrient contents of taro corm
and its products were studied. Processing taro corm significantly affected its proximate
composition, mineral content, phytochemical components and antinutrient (oxalate and
phytate) contents. There was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the proximate
composition, mineral content, phytochemical components and antinutrient contents when
taro corms were made into powder and were further decreased when processed into taro
noodles and cookies. Exposure to high temperature during processing could have greatly
affected the reduction in nutrient and phytochemical as well as antinutrient contents of
raw taro.

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Keywords
Taro; Nutritional value; Phytochemical components; Antinutrients; Processing; Noodles; Cookies

Introduction
When a crop is being considered for food, nutritional value and consumer acceptance must be taken into
consideration. The nutritional value of a food depends upon its nutritional contents and their digestibility and
the presence or absence of antinutrients and toxic factors. As far as consumer acceptance is concerned,
Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro or cocoyam, is an important food staple of developing countries
in Africa, West Indies, Pacific region and Asia. For supplying nutrients, the corms may be considered as a good
source of carbohydrates and potassium. Large servings of taro corms can become a significant source of dietary
protein, especially if taken more than once a day. Taro is also a good source of thiamin, riboflavin, iron,
phosphorus and zinc and a very good source of vitamin B6, vitamin C, niacin, potassium, copper and manganese. T
contains greater amounts of vitamin B-complex than whole milk [1].

In addition, taro is especially useful to persons allergic to cereals and can be consumed by children who
are sensitive to milk [2]. Taro is also a tuber that is very rich in carbohydrates, ranging between 73 to 80%
which is mainly starch at 77.9% and 1.4% crude fiber, Dry Matter (DM) basis. Because of its high carbohydrate
content, this tuber represents one of the main sources of energy in many parts of the tropics and sub-tropics
providing about a third of the food intake of more than 400 million people in these areas [1].

Nowadays, zinc deficiency is widespread and affects the health and well-being of populations worldwide [3]
and since taro is one of the few non-animal sources of zinc [4], its utilization should therefore be pursued to help
in the alleviation of zinc deficiency which is associated to stunting. However, despite the wide application and
great potential of taro as a chief dietary source of carbohydrate and other essential nutrients, its usage is often
limited by its antinutrient contents which are either potentially toxic or may limit the bioavailability of nutrients.

This study specifically determined the nutritional value, phytochemical components and antinutrient contents
of raw taro and when processed into powder, noodles and cookies to determine the effect of processing.
The results of this study may provide opportunities to promote and support the use of taro into processed foods
like noodles and cookies to reduce its antinutrient contents which can help improve its production and utilization
potentials.

132
Materials and Methods

Raw materials
Two varieties (NSIC G-9 and VG-2) of taro corms were obtained from Philippine Root Crop Research and
Training Center, Visayas State University, Visca, Baybay City, Leyte. Gabing Tagalog, the native variety
was purchased from a vegetable dealer in Calamba City and was authenticated at the Museum of Natural History,
University of the Philippines Los Baos. The samples used were fresh and in their raw form. The two varieties
(NSIC G-9 and VG-2) from Leyte were 3-4 cm in diameter and have purple flesh while the other variety
(Gabing Tagalog) was 1-2 cm in diameter and has white flesh.

Screening of taro varieties


Preliminary study was conducted on the three varieties of taro to identify the variety that was used in this study
with the highest zinc and lowest antinutrient (oxalate and phytate) contents. Variety NSIC G-9 showed
the highest zinc and lowest antinutrient (oxalate and phytate) contents and was used in the development
of taro powder.

Processing of taro corms (dasheen or coco heads)


The raw taro corms underwent different physical treatments such as washing, peeling, dicing, soaking, drying
and milling before they were processed into taro powder to reduce their antinutrient contents based on the
study of Blas [5]. The taro powder was then used in the preparation of noodles and cookies.
The raw taro corms, powdered taro and taro-based noodles and cookies were also analyzed for their proximate
composition, mineral, phytochemical and antinutrient contents. All the analyses were done at the
Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines Los Baos.

Chemical analysis
Chemical analyses were done in the raw taro corms, after it was processed into powder and when used in
the preparation of noodles and cookies.

Nutritional value

133
Moisture, crude protein, ash, fiber and fat were analyzed as described in AOAC methods (1990).
Carbohydrate (expressed as nitrogen free extract, NFE) was computed by subtracting the moisture,
crude protein, ash, fiber and fat from 100. Zinc was analyzed following the AOAC (1990) dry ashing
procedure and standard analytical method for atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Also, iron content
was analyzed following the AOAC [6] wet digestion method and standard analytical method for atomic
absorption spectrophotometry while calcium content followed the EDTA Method.

Phytochemical contents
The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu Assay while the total tannin analysis was
conducted using the modified vanillin method. The total flavonoid concentration was measured using a
colorimetric assay developed by Zhishen et al. [7] while the method of Hosttetman and Marsto [8] for the analysis
of saponins was used. For the alkaloids contents, the method developed by Hultin and Torsell [9] was used
in the analysis.

Antinutrient contents
Oxalate content was determined by the method of Munro and Bassir [10] while the analysis of phytate
content followed the method developed by Latta and Eskin [11].

Preparation of taro powder


NSIC G-9 variety, the sample with the highest zinc and lowest antinutrient (oxalate and phytates) contents
was used in the preparation of taro powder. The raw taro was washed in running water for two hours and
then peeled. The samples were diced into one cm size, washed again then were soaked in water overnight.
The samples were blanched for five minutes then were dried at 60C for 24 hours in the following day.
The dried samples were milled (100 mesh) and were analyzed for its proximate composition, minerals
, phytochemicals and antinutrients contents before packing.

Preparation of noodles and cookies


The taro powder was used in the preparation of taro-based food products such as noodles and cookies.
For both products, recipes were standardized to determine the proportion of the ingredients that yielded

134
the most acceptable product. This was based on a preliminary sensory evaluation done on the different
proportions of taro powder and all purpose flour in making noodles and cookies.

For the preparation of noodles, the ingredients used were taro powder (75%), all purpose flour (25%), salt,
egg and water. On the other hand, for the preparation of cookies, the ingredients used were taro powder (50%),
all purpose flour (50%), baking powder, salt, sugar, butter, egg and vanilla.

Statistical analysis
Results of the chemical tests were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Fishers Least Significant
Difference (LSD) and Pearson Correlation Analysis. All the statistical tests were performed at 5% level of
significance using SAS version 6.12. The results were expressed as mean values standard deviation.

Results

Preliminary screening of taro varieties


The three varieties of taro (NSIC G-9, VG-2 and Gabing Tagalog) were analyzed for their zinc, oxalate and
phytate contents to determine the variety to be made into powder and used in making noodles and cookies.
The results showed that NSIC G-9 had the highest zinc content at 1.67 mg/100 g while VG-2 had the lowest
at 1.28 mg/100 g. For their antinutrient contents, VG-2 had the lowest oxalate (146.62 mg/100 g) and
phytate (48.42 mg/100 g) contents while Gabing Tagalog had the highest oxalate (1,348.48 mg/100 g)
and phytate (96.58 mg/100 g) contents. All the results were significantly different (Table 1).

Proximate composition of taro


Moisture content: Table 2 summarizes the proximate composition of raw taro, powdered taro, taro noodles
and taro cookies. Raw taro had the highest moisture content at 6.54% while taro cookies had the lowest at 1.07%.
The results also showed that the moisture content of taro powder in noodles and cookies had decreased
significantly while the decreased in the moisture content from raw taro to powdered taro were not significant.
Figure 1 shows that there was a 5.05% reduction in moisture content from raw taro to taro powder,
5.08% reduction from taro powder to noodles and 82.77% reduction from taro powder to cookies.
Crude ash: The crude ash of raw taro increased when processed into powder then

decreased when
boiled and baked. Taro cookies had the lowest ash content at 0.24% while taro powder had the highest
at 2.78% (Table 2). Results showed that there was a significant difference in the ash content of raw taro

135
and its processed products. Figure 1 shows that there was a 13.93% increase in ash content from raw taro
to taro powder.
Crude fiber: The crude fiber of raw taro increased when processed into powder then decrease

into noodles and cookies. Taro powder had the highest fiber content at 3.10% while taro cookies had the
lowest at 0.27% (Table 2). The results also showed significant differences in the crude fiber of raw taro
and its processed products. Figure 1 shows that there was a 2.99% increase in the fiber content of raw taro
to taro powder while the significant reduction in fiber content of taro powder in noodles and cookies
were 60% and 91.29%, respectively.
Crude protein: Taro powder (8.07%) had the highest protein content and taro cookies (0.69%) had the
lowest (Table 2). Results showed that there was a significant difference in the crude protein of raw taro and
its processed products. There was a noticeable reduction in the protein content of taro powder when made
into taro noodles and cookies at 59.98% and 91.45%, respectively (Figure 1).
Crude fat: Raw taro had the highest fat content at 0.65% while taro cookies had the lowest at 0.13%
(Table 2). Figure 1 shows that there was a decrease in fat content from raw taro to powdered taro at 30.77%,
from taro powder to noodles at 57.78% and cookies at 71.11%.
Carbohydrate: The carbohydrate content of raw taro decreased significantly when processed into powder,
noodles and cookies. Raw taro had the highest carbohydrate content at 86.11% while taro cookies had the
lowest at 36.69% (Table 2). As shown in figure 1, there was a significant decrease in the carbohydrate
content of taro powder when made into taro noodles and cookies at 30% and 57.14%, respectively.
Mineral content of taro: There were significant differences in the zinc, iron and calcium content of raw ta
, taro powder, noodles and cookies (Table 3). In general, there was an increase in the mineral content from
raw taro to taro powder at 10.18% in zinc, 37.63% in iron and 17.89% in calcium (Figure 2). On the other
hand, there was a reduction in the mineral contents of taro powder into noodles at 29.89% for zinc,
30.05% for iron and 50.02% for calcium while cookies at 52.72% for zinc, 14.53% for iron and 78.10%
for calcium (Figure 2).

Antinutrient content of taro:


Oxalate : Raw taro (156.33 mg/100 g) had the highest oxalate content while taro noodles (29.96 mg/100 g)
had the lowest (Table 4). It was also observed that there was a reduction in the oxalate content from raw taro
into powdered taro at 77.18%, from taro powder into noodles at 16.01% and from taro powder into
cookies at 9.7% (Figure 3).
Phytate: Raw taro (85.47 mg/100g) had the highest phytate content which significantly decreased when
processed into powder, noodles and cookies (Table 4). It was observed that there was a reduction in
the phytate content of raw taro into taro powder at 15.80% and taro powder into taro noodles at 70%
and taro cookies at 82.85% (Figure 3).
Antioxidant activity and phytochemical components of taro : The phytochemical compon
are shown in table 5. Taro powder had the highest antioxidant activity value at 81.77% lipid peroxidation
while taro cookies had the lowest at 28% lipid peroxidation. The higher the % lipid peroxidation,
the lower is the antioxidative activity therefore taro powder has a lower antioxidant activity. On the other hand,

136
taro powder had the highest total phenolic content at 78.33 mg/100 g while taro cookies had the lowest
at 3.68 mg/100g expressed as g catechin equivalent/g. The tannin content was highest in raw taro and
powdered taro at 32.24 mg/100 g expressed as vanillin equivalent/g and there were no traces in
taro noodles and cookies. For the flavonoids content, taro powder had the highest at 64.23 mg/100 g
while taro cookies had the lowest at 0.90 mg/100 g expressed as mg gallic acid equivalent/g.
The saponins content were highest in taro powder at 26.96 mg/100 g and lowest in taro cookies
at 2.73 mg/100 g saponins. Lastly, alkaloids were not present in all samples. The results showed that all
the mean values for antioxidant activity, phenols, tannins, flavonoids and saponins were significantly
different from raw taro to powdered taro to noodles and cookies.

Discussion

Preliminary screening of taro varieties


Based on the results, the variety that was best to be utilized was NSIC G-9 since it had the highest zinc content
and had low phytate and oxalate contents compared to the other varieties.

Proximate composition of taro


Moisture content: The reduction in moisture content was due to the application of heat which caused the
loss of water from food as a result of evaporation. The higher reduction in moisture content of taro cookies
was due to the higher temperature used in baking which is 190C compared to the 60C used in drying which
resulted in the rapid evaporation of water. When a food is placed in a hot oven, the low humidity of air
in the oven creates a moisture vapor pressure gradient, which causes moisture at the surface of
the food to evaporate and this in turn creates movement of moisture from the interior of the food to
the surface [12].
Crude ash: The increase in the ash content resulted from the removal of moisture during drying which
increased the concentration of ash in taro powder. On the other hand, the significant reduction in
the ash content of taro powder into noodles at 50% and cookies at 91.37% implies that the potential ability
of taro to supply essential minerals has been reduced. This may be due to water absorption during boiling
of the taro noodles leading to dilution [13], or it may be due to leaching of the mineral compounds into
the boiling water [14]. Also, it could have been lost during baking of the taro cookies due to higher
temperature (190C) either by degradation as a result of destruction or chemical changes like
oxidation [15]. As heating continued, some of the mineral elements may be partly loss as volatile
compounds [16] contributing to the reduction in the ash content.
Crude fiber: The increase in the fiber content observed in taro powder resulted from the removal of moisture
during drying which increase the concentration of fiber [17]. Since boiling and baking require higher
temperatures, 100C and 190C, respectively, it is possible that these caused the decrease in fiber
content of taro powder when used in making noodles and cookies. Boiling reduces the crude fiber content
due to increased temperature that leads to breakage of weak bonds between polysaccharide chains
and glycosidic linkages in the dietary fiber polysaccharides [14]. According to FAO (1990),
the depolymerization of the fiber results in the solubilization of the fiber. Other reactions during boiling
that may affect the dietary fiber content and its properties are leakage into the boiling water, formation

137
of Maillard reaction products thus adding to the lignin content and formation of resistant starch fractions.
Also, baking may decrease the amount of pectin in roots and the degree of esterification, thereby
decreasing their dietary fiber content, but this is not nutritionally significant [18].
Crude protein: Agoreyo et al. [17] reported that the protein content of raw taro decreases after drying
and processing, from 4.5 to 2.3%. The low crude protein content of taro noodles and cookies was due
to the effect of heat from boiling and baking which could have denatured the secondary and tertiary
structures of the protein. The observed decrease in protein content by the boiling process was due to
the denaturation of protein wherein the hydrogen bonds and non-polar hydrophobic interactions of
the secondary and tertiary structures of proteins are disrupted by heat [15] and the soluble amino acids
leached out in the cooking medium [18].
Crude fat: The decrease in fat content may be due to blanching done prior to drying which may have
melted the fat into the boiling water thus causing a reduction in the fat content [14]. Also, heating
triggers polymerization, decomposition and oxidation of fat contributing to its loss during drying,
boiling and baking [19].
Carbohydrate: The high level of carbohydrate content observed in raw taro, taro powder, noodles and cookies
agrees with the findings reported by FAO [18] that the main nutrient supplied by taro, as with other roots and
tubers, is dietary energy provided by the carbohydrates [20]. Moreover, the lower carbohydrate content of taro
noodles and cookies compared to taro powder was due to the other ingredients added like all purpose flour
and egg thus decreasing the amount contributed by taro powder.
Mineral content of taro: The increase in the mineral contents observed in this study could be a result of th
removal of moisture during drying which tends to increase the concentration of minerals [17]. Minerals are
generally not sensitive to heat during processing, but are susceptible to leaching into the processing or
cooking water.
The decrease in mineral contents were due to water absorption during boiling of the noodles leading to dilution
or it may be due to leaching of the mineral compounds into the boiling water, and hence, low amount of the ash
and mineral content [14]. Also, the reduction in mineral contents during baking of the taro cookies were due to
higher temperature (190C) which causes mineral degradation as a result of destruction or chemical changes
like oxidation [15]. Moreover, as heating continued, some of the mineral elements such as zinc, iron and
calcium may be partly loss as volatile compounds [16] contributing to the reduction in the mineral content.
Antinutrient content of taro oxalate: The reduction in oxalate content may be due to the different
treatments done to raw taro prior to drying like washing, peeling, dicing, soaking overnight and blanching
as well as the boiling of noodles and baking done in making cookies. Washing according to the studies
of Huang et al. [2] reduced the concentration of oxalate by 9.2%, while Akpan and Umoh [21] stated in
their study that the peel of tubers contains more oxalate than the peeled tubers. Buntha et al. [22] also
reported that the acridity of high oxalate cultivars of taro can be reduced by peeling, grating, soaking
and fermentation during processing. Thus, dicing of the tubers makes the tissues finer and smaller
resulting in greater surface area exposed to soaking medium so that leaching process is faster.
Huang et al. (2010) also found out in their studies that soaking reduced the concentration of oxalates
by 23.5% and cooking by 56.7% [2]. Shanthakumari et al. [23] further confirmed that the decrease in
the anti-nutritional factors like oxalates during soaking may be due to leaching out of these substances
in soaking medium. Boiling may cause considerable cell rupture and facilitate leakage of soluble oxalate
into cooking water [24].

138
Phytate: Because phytate is heat-stable, significant heat destruction of phytate during cooking is not
expected to occur. Therefore, the reduction in phytate content during boiling only takes place either by
discarding the boiling water or by enzymatic phytate hydrolysis due to the action of the intrinsic plant
phytases during the early part of the cooking phase. Heating for prolonged times at elevated temperatures
lead to a progressive inactivation of the endogenous enzymes. The decrease in phytate content during
boiling of the taro noodles may be partly due to the formation of insoluble complexes between phytate
and other components, such as
phytate-protein or phytate-protein-mineral [25]. Moreover, phytates may be soluble under very high
temperatures like during boiling (100C) and baking (190C) as evident by the significant reduction
of phytate content in taro noodles and cookies.
Antioxidant activity and phytochemical components of taro
Generally, the phytochemical components of raw taro increased when it was made into powder and decreased
when used in making noodles and cookies (Figure 4). It is well known that heat can destroy the quality of
food attributes, such as color, texture, nutrients and phytochemicals beneficial to health.
The natural antioxidants contained in foods can be lost to a significant degree during processing using
boiling, drying or handling such as peeling and slicing, as well as during storage, because most bioactive
compounds are relatively unstable when subjected to heat. However, recent studies have shown that
heat processing does not necessarily result in a loss of quality and health properties. In some cases,
heat treatment produces no change or has an improved effect on the content and activity of naturally
occurring antioxidants as evident in the increase in phytochemical components of taro powder after
drying (60C) at 124.89% for phenols, 89.59% for saponins and 124.89% for flavonoids (Figure 4).
This might be attributed to the increased extractability of phenolic compounds due to the disruption of
plant cell walls during drying [26] as observed in the increase phenolic content of powdered taro.
When taro noodles were boiled, there was a reduction in the phytochemical components at 79.23% for
phenols, 95.39% for flavonoids and 81.42% for saponins while 100% for tannins since
it was no longer detected (Figure 4). According to Tomas-Barberan and Espin (2001),
with increasing temperature, the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity which degrades phenolic compounds
may have been increased or activated from latent to active PPO [27] and thus decreasing
the total phenolic content in taro noodles. The decreased in the total antioxidant activity and in
other phytochemicals may also be due to the leaching out of the water soluble antioxidants.
Also, heat tends to degrade certain compounds such as phenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponins
with antioxidant properties [28]. Most losses are due to the leaching of antioxidant compounds from
the vegetables into the cooking water during the prolonged exposure to water and heat [29].
On the other hand, baking caused the significant reduction in phytochemical components at 95.30% for
phenols, 98.60% for flavonoids, 89.87% for saponins while tannins were no longer detected in taro cookies
(Figure 4). Baking at 190C functions to inactivate the enzymes polyphenol oxidases due to
the high temperature applied. The results was in accordance with the work of Chism and Haard [30],
wherein the total phenolic content decreased significantly due to the non-inactivation of the
oxidative enzymes as a result of high temperatures which may released more bound phenolic acids
from the breakdown of cellular constituents through the disruption of cell walls that could have released
the oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes that can destroy the antioxidants. According to Hakkinen and
Torroren [31], the polyphenol oxidase could have been denatured at high temperature which may have
prevented the oxidation of phenolic compounds. Exposure of polyphenol oxidases to temperatures higher
than 70C results in the destruction of their catalytic activity. Given that the taro cookies were baked

139
for 190C for 10-13 minutes, the higher temperature and longer cooking time promotes further
cell disruption and decompartmentalization of phenolic compounds and polyphenol oxidase can be
denatured with high temperatures. The denaturation of PPO could have occurred immediately upon
its release and have prevented any activation. It has also been reported by Tomaino et al. [32]
that increase and/or prolonged thermal treatment such as in boiling and baking may be responsible
for a significant loss of natural antioxidants, as most of these compounds are relatively unstable as
against some compounds which are heat stable. However, other causes of depletion of antioxidants
could also be due to operations such as peeling, cutting and slicing which were done to raw taro before
drying as they induce a rapid enzymatic oxidation of natural antioxidants as reported by Oboh et al. [33].
Soaking was also effective in reducing the levels of tannins and flavonoids [15]. Shanthakumari et al.
[23] further confirmed that the decrease in saponins, tannins, flavonoids and phenolics during soaking
may be due to leaching out of these substances in soaking medium under the influence of concentration
gradient. Generally, these processes (drying, boiling, baking, soaking, peeling and slicing) may cause
negative attribute to the final food product as evident in the decreased phytochemical contents of taro
noodles and cookies.

Conclusion
The results of the study revealed that the proximate composition, mineral content, phytochemical components
and antinutrient (oxalate and phytates) contents of raw taro significantly decreased when made into taro powder
and when used as an ingredient in the preparation of noodles and cookies. Boiling the taro noodles and
baking the taro cookies significantly decreased the proximate composition, mineral content,
phytochemical components and antinutrient (oxalate and phytates) contents of taro powder.

Recommendation
Studies on the shelf life and effect of storage to taro powder as well as to its products like noodles and cookies
must be done. Another area of interest would be the characterization of taro powder for its use as an ingredient
in baked products and other processed foods to improve palatability especially for children. Also, further
studies on possible ways of minimizing its antinutrient content to improve its mineral content should be
pursued. Lastly, the use of taro-based food products in feeding programs should be tested to know
whether it can help improve nutritional status, thus preventing malnutrition.

Acknowledgements

140
Special thanks to the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) Accelerated Science & Technology
Human Resource Development Program (ASTHRDP) for the full financial support and scholarship grant
and to Dr. Dilberto O. Ferraren of Philippine Root Crop Research and Training Center, Visayas State
University, Visca, Baybay City, Leyte, for providing the taro samples.

VARIETY ZINC (mg/100g) OXALATE (mg/100g) PHYTATE (mg/100g)

Gabing Tagalog 1.45 0.03b 1,348.48 8.51a 96.58 1.66a

NSIC G-9 1.67 0.17a 156.33 2.50b 85.47 1.40b

VG-2 1.28 0.05c 146.62 2.52b 48.42 3.47c

Means having the same letter within column are not significantly different at p<0.05. Data were
mean of three determinations (n=3).Table 1: Mean zinc, oxalate and phytate contents of
the different varieties of taro.

COMPONENTS
TARO
RAW TARO TARO POWDER TARO COOKIES**
NOODLES**
Moisture (%) 6.54 0.16a 6.21 0.03a 3.10 0.28b 1.07 0.10c
Crude Ash (%) 2.44 0.03b 2.78 0.07a 1.39 0.13c 0.24 0.02d
Crude Fiber (%) 3.01 0.03a 3.10 0.04a 1.24 0.06b 0.27 0.02c
Crude Protein (%) 7.79 0.03b 8.07 0.07a 3.23 0.14c 0.69 0.03d
Crude Fat (%) 0.65 0.02a 0.45 0.03b 0.19 0.03b 0.13 0.01c
Carbohydrate (%) 86.11 0.06a 85.60 0.06a 59.92 0.21b 36.69 0.20c
* Means having the same letter within rows are not significantly different at p<0.05.
Data were mean of three determinations (n=3).
** Excluding other ingredients.

141
SAMPLES ZINC (mg/100g) IRON (mg/100g) CALCIUM (mg/100g)
Raw Taro 1.67 0.06b 2.95 0.19b 55.00 1.64b
Taro Powder 1.84 0.06a 4.06 0.13a 64.84 0.44a
Taro Noodles** 1.29 0.04c 2.84 0.21d 32.41 0.35c
Taro Cookies** 0.87 0.01d 3.47 0.11c 13.90 0.11d
Means having the same letter within column are not significantly different at p<0.05.
** Excluding other ingredientsTable 3: Mean mineral contents of raw taro, taro powder and taro-based
noodles and cookies.

SAMPLES OXALATE CONTENT (mg/100g) PHYTATE CONTENT (mg/100g)


Raw Taro 156.33 5.13a 85.47 0.83a
Taro Powder 35.67 0.58b 71.97 0.57b
Taro Noodles** 29.96 0.57d 21.59 0.34c
Taro Cookies** 32.21 0.32c 12.34 0.18d
Means having the same letter within column are not significantly different at p<0.05.
Data were mean of three determinations (n=3).
** Excluding other ingredients.Table 4: Mean antinutrient contents of raw taro, taro powder and
taro-based noodles and cookies.*

COMPONENTS RAW TARO TARO POWDER TARO NOODLES** TARO COOKI


Antioxidant Activity (% LP)1 74.68 0.44b 81.77 0.47a 65.91 0.27c 28.00 0.12d
Phenols (mg/100g expressed
34.83 0.28b 78.33 0.66a 16.27 0.90c 3.68 0.10d
as g/catechin eq/g )
Tannins (mg/100g expressed
32.24 0.35a 32.24 0.35a Negative Negative
as vanillin eq/g)
Flavonoids (mg/100g
expressed as mg gallic acid 28.56 0.23b 64.23 0.54a 2.96 0.32c 0.90 0.16d
eq/g)
Saponins (mg/100g saponins) 14.22 0.36b 26.96 0.61a 5.01 0.61c 2.73 0.18d
Alkaloids (rating) Negative Negative Negative Negative
Means having the same letter within column are not significantly different at p<0.05.
Data were mean of three determinations (n=3).

142
** Excluding other ingredients.
1
The higher the % lipid peroxidation, the lower the antioxidative activityTable 5:
Mean antioxidant activity and phytochemicals present in raw, powdered and processed taro.*

Figure 1: Changes in the proximate composition of raw taro, taro powder and taro-based noodles
and cookies.

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Figure 2: Changes in the mineral contents of raw taro, taro powder and tarobased noodles
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Figure 3: Changes in the antinutrient contents of raw taro, taro powder and taro-based noodles
and cookies.

144
Figure 4: Changes in the antioxidant activity (AOA) and phytochemical contents of raw
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and-its-selected-processed-foods-2155-9600.1000207.php?aid=13236

Taro corn is that part of the coco or dasheen which in Jamaica is usually
peeled and cooked.

The Medicinal Uses of Poi (Fermented coco or dasheen)


Amy C. Brown, Ph.D., R.D. and Ana Valiere, M.S.

Author information Copyright and License information

See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

Abstract
Poi is a pasty starch made from the cooked, mashed corm of the taro plantOriginating in
Asia, this root crop is now found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions and was a
major dietary staple in the Pacific islands. We hypothesize that poi has potential use as a
probioticdefined by FAO/WHO as, live microorganisms which when administered in
adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. No scientific studies have explored
the possibility of poi being used as a probiotic in medical nutrition therapy, however, an
investigator determined that the predominant bacteria in poi are(95%) and(5%), both of
which are lactic acid-producing bacteria. This investigator also reported that poi contains
significantly more of these bacteria per gram than yogurt. To determine if poi is
beneficial for certain health conditions, a literature search was conducted to find all
available research studies in which poi was used as a complementary treatment.
Documented evidence suggests that poi shows promise for use in infants with allergies or
failure-to-thrive. However, to support previous findings, more research needs to be
conducted with poi and its potential use as a probiotic.
Go to:

INTRODUCTION

149
Very few studies have researched or explored the possibility of poi being utilized in
medical nutrition therapy for certain health conditions. Early studies in the mid
1960s1 implied that poi might be useful for the treatment of allergies and failure-to-thrive
in infants. These studies were conducted in Hawaii, where researchers reported that many
hospitals used poi on a regular basis in the early 1950s.1 This paper reviews health
problemsallergies, failure-to-thrive, and certain gastrointestinal conditions such as
diarrhea, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease
(Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis)for which poi might be a useful food substitute.
Probiotics might also benefit cancer, depressed immune function, inadequate lactose
digestion, cancer cachexia, AIDS, and pancreatitis/cystic fibrosis (Table 1).2

Table 1
Possible Probiotic Benefits (adapted from Goldin2)
Go to:

TARO PLANT
The historic use and importance of taro (the plant from which poi is made) can help
explain why this crop has such significant implications in human health. Taro (Colocasia
esculenta L.), a root crop belonging to the Araceae family, has been cultivated for many
centuries. Originating in Asia, taro is now primarily found in tropical and subtropical
regions,3,4 where it was historically a major dietary staple on the islands of the Pacific,
especially Hawaii, New Zealand, and west to Indonesia. This plant provided primarily
carbohydrates, along with a few other nutrients (Table 2).5 The Polynesians gave over 200
names to the different varieties (or cultivars) of taro, and they were believed to carry this
important crop with them as they journeyed to other islands. Taro was extremely
important to the Hawaiians who associated it with their Gods and their story of creation,
and even used it for medicinal purposes.

150
Table 2
Nutrient Composition of Two Varieties of Taro Corms, mean (S.D.) (from Huang et al.5)

DEFINITION OF POI
Poi is now the most common food form of taro consumed in Hawaii. It is made by
cooking taro corms and then crushing/pounding them into a starchy paste by adding
water.6 The amount of water used determines the thickness of poi, which is then strained
through a cloth.7 Yeast and lactic acid bacteria naturally found on the plants surface
ferment the mixture, eventually leading to sour poi.8 Fermentation proceeds without
inoculated starter cultures and usually takes about two to three days to reach the sour
stage.8 The fermentation of fresh poi is similar to that occurring in the preparation of
yogurt and sauerkraut. In poi, acid production changes the pH from 6.3 to 4.5 within 24
hours, and reaches its lowest pH on the fourth or fifth day of fermentation, when the poi
is usually discarded. As early as 1933, Allen and Allen9 recognized that souring was the
result of acid-producing bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Streptococcus. These
researchers were able to identify three Lactobacillus species and
two Streptococcus (recently renamed Lactococcus) bacteria, which included the S.
lactis species.9 In a recent study, Huang8 identified the predominant species in sour poi
as Lactococcus lactis. Despite its acidic pH, poi and taro are considered alkaline foods
because their alkaline-forming elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) exceed their acid-forming
elements (S, P, Cl).1
Poi is easily digested, and this may benefit certain health conditions involving the
gastrointestinal tract (Table 3).1014 In 1928, Barret15 observed that the Kanakan language
of the Polynesians did not even have a word for indigestion. MacCaughey10 recognized
how easily poi was digested in 1917, and explained that this was due to the small size of
the taro starch granule. This was confirmed by the studies of Langworthy and
Deuel,11 who found that the raw starches of rice and taro root were notably more
digestible; they also determined that this was the result of the smaller size of the starch
granules.11 Early human studies with poi ingestion showed no undigested starch in feces,
even if large quantities of poi were consumed.9 In 1952, Derstine and Rada1 reported that
the fermentation process seems to be affiliated with the easy digestibility of poi and the
high absorbability of its minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus. The nutrient
composition of poi is very similar to the values shown for taro (Table 2).5 Poi is also
hypoallergenic because of its very low protein content, and as such has been used as a
food substitute for people with food allergies.

151
Table 3
Reported Uses of Poi

POI AS A FOOD SUBSTITUTE FOR INFANT ALLERGIES


In 1939, Alverez16 was the first to suggest that poi be used as a substitute for people with
allergies. It is interesting that in the United States, allergies are most often caused by corn
and wheat, while in Japan, allergies are most often caused by rice.17 During World War II,
poi was used as a substitute for cereal or grain in Honolulu among soldiers experiencing
allergy problems.1 Dr. Lawrence J. Halpin, a physician specializing in allergies, was
satisfied with the use of poi as a substitute for cereals, and upon returning to the
mainland, he attempted to get other doctors interested in poi for their wheat- and grain-
sensitive patients. However, mainland doctors were reluctant to use poi because of their
unfamiliarity with the product or its use. Another concern was that a few physicians did
not consider poi sufficiently sterile as an infant food or for therapeutic use.1
Food allergies most frequently afflict children,18 with cows milk being the most common
allergenic food for infants, followed by eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, and
soybeans.19 Feingold20 was one of the first researchers to suggest that poi be considered a
substitute for soy milk in infants allergic to both soy and cows milk. Cereals can also
cause allergies in infants because they usually are the first semi-solid food consumed.
The most common method of treatment for food allergies is the elimination diet, in which
the specific food is avoided or eliminated.21 This approach can be difficult because not
many alternative medical foods are available, and many infants develop allergies to the
substitutes that are given.21 Physicians in Hawaii were some of the first researchers to
investigate other substitutes for food allergies.
Dr. Jerome Glaser, a pediatrician and allergist visiting the Hawaiian Islands in 1961,
reported that many infants in Hawaii were practically raised on poi.7 In addition to the
extensive use of poi for normal infants, Glaser noted the high use of poi for allergic
infants and those with gastrointestinal disorders, and theorized that infants allergic to
cereal could eat poi as a substitute. Glaser attempted to conduct a 6-month study of 100
infants born in the Strong Memorial Hospital, in which 50 infants were to be fed poi and
compared with 50 rice-fed babies. However, parental compliance was a problem, and the
study was reduced to only three babies remaining on the rice cereal for 6 months and five
babies on the poi diet. However, Glaser realized that 6 months was an impractical time
period and that 2 months was probably sufficient to establish trends. Nineteen rice-fed
babies and 28 poi-fed babies were in the study for 2 months. After looking at several
growth curves, Glaser et al.7 concluded that the development of full-term poi-fed babies
was not discernible from that of rice-fed babies. Additional observations were that only

152
three of the 22 poi-fed babies (14%) had hematocrits that were 30 or less, compared with
three out of 11 rice-fed infants (27%). As far as these researchers could determine, both
groups of infants thrived equally well. They were unable to have full control over these
infants, however, and complete metabolic studies could not be performed in an outpatient
clinic.7
Roth et al.13 supported Glasers findings when they conducted their study on infants in
Honolulu hospitals. They tested 191 potentially allergic infants (59 infants were omitted
from the study) and found that breastfed babies remained completely symptom-free. Of
the infants fed cows milk substitutes (n = 132), about 7% of the rice-fed infants (4/55)
and poi-fed infants (5/73) showed signs of allergy. Roth concluded that poi was definitely
well tolerated by babies, and that it may be regarded as a useful alternative when there is
a family history of cereal allergy.13
Glaser et al.7 also reported two case studies in which poi proved to be helpful to allergic
infants. One infant could not tolerate cows milk, soybean milk, meat-based milk, any
cereals, or any other foods, but thrived well on poi. This infant was a boy who was first
seen at the age of 9 weeks. He was hospitalized because he was considered a failure-to-
thrive infant as the result of having multiple food intolerance. His weight was 3700 grams
at the time of admission. A family history of allergy resulted in his being placed on a diet
of soybean milk. The soybean milk did not produce the desired weight gain effects, so
they turned to many other formulas, including goats milk, beef- based milk from Gerber,
and a lamb-based milk. The lamb-based milk produced some results but he still had loose
stools that they controlled with diodoquin. At the age of 9 months, he was able to take in
banana flakes, the lamb-based milk, small quantities of chicken, tapioca, and pears, as
well as a vitamin preparation. His stools then became soft and contained a lot of mucous,
which the diodoquin did not seem to help. He also developed atopic dermatitis. At this
time, the lamb-based milk was discontinued, which resulted in control of the soft stools.
He was started on poi as the main dietary carbohydrate, which he had no trouble
tolerating. He was given whale meat as a source of protein and calcium, and was later
given rabbit meat and goat meat. By the age of 19 months, he was at the lower limit of
weight for his height (11.5 kg). Once again, he had loose stools, so the foods that were
suspected were only given once or twice per weeka method called a rotary diversified
dietwhich appeared successful. His intake of poi was approximately one pound per
day. This child was so sensitive that at 2 years old he developed mild ragweed pollinosis
and had a mild anaphylactic reaction to a bee sting, as well as a number of allergic drug
reactions. He was last seen at the age of 4 years and 3 months, at which time he had a
normal weight and height for his age, appeared healthy, and was still consuming large
amounts of poi.7
The second case study by Glaser et al.7 using poi in allergic children consisted of an
edematous girl who was extremely ill and admitted to the hospital at the age of 2.5 years.
She had come from a family with a history of allergy and had already experienced
gastrointestinal problems as an infant that were attributed to cows milk allergy. In
infancy, she had also experienced attacks of spasmodic croup, which had progressed into
bronchial asthma. She was so sick that she could not even be skin tested to determine the
cause of the edema. She was placed on an elimination diet with meat-based milk as the
sole protein source, poi as the cereal alternative, banana, applesauce, string beans, carrots,

153
and a vitamin supplement. Her diet remained fairly constant for the next 9 months. She
began to develop a taste for poi mixed with banana or applesauce and consumed roughly
13 ounces per day. Although her edema persisted and was found to be the result of
congenital lymphangiectasia, her allergic symptoms became minimal. When last seen at
4.5 years old, she was tolerating many foods well, had eliminated cows milk completely,
and was using a meat-based milk.7
Poi may also be useful for people with celiac disease, who are allergic to the protein
gluten in wheat. Although it has been suggested that the lack of gluten in poi makes it an
ideal substitute for cereals in patients with celiac disease, there are no reported formal
studies in the literature. This may be partially due to the rarity of this condition in Hawaii,
as this condition more frequently afflicts Caucasians than Asians.7

FAILURE-TO-THRIVE
Weight gain is often the desired outcome for patients with failure-to-thrive. Few studies
have been done on the use of poi and failure-to-thrive, and those that exist date back to
the mid 1960s. In Glasers research studying allergic infants in 1965,7 there were 12
preterm infants (those who remained in the hospital for 11 to 45 days) that consumed poi
and thrived as well as other preterm infants of comparable weight and size.7There was
also a case study of a premature infant who was the second born of a non-identical twin
pair and weighed 1500 grams.7 After being on various formulas and only gaining 100
grams in 54 days, she had failed to thrive. Thorough examinations and tests had been
conducted, including gastrointestinal x-rays, sweat electrolytes, carbohydrate utilization
tests, and blood chemistry tests, all with negative results. She was then given poi and
quickly responded positively. Glaser et al.7 mention that she was discharged from the
hospital after being able to maintain a healthy weight (2250 to 2500 grams), but does not
state her weight at the time of the discharge. Her progress was followed for 19 weeks
following discharge, but unfortunately, she never returned to the hospital and was lost to
follow-up. Although Glaser was careful in his statement of poi being the cause of this
babys transformation, he stated It is a matter of common experience that any food
tolerated by a premature infant is equally well or better tolerated by a full-term infant. We
feel that poi can safely be recommended as a food for any very young infant.7 However,
because these studies occurred almost half a century ago, further research investigating
the use of poi in infants and children are warranted.

CONCLUSION
Although a few studies several decades ago suggest the use of poi in treating certain
medical conditions, especially infant food allergies and failure-to-thrive in infants, studies
involving poi after that period declined dramatically. The studies in the mid-1960s
evaluating pois usefulness in treating allergies and effecting weight gain in failure-to-
thrive infants were helpful, but more studies need to be conducted to counter or confirm
their results.

154
Another potential medicinal use of poi is as a probiotic because it contains the
predominant lactic acid bacteria (L. lactis). Perhaps poi also deserves to be researched as
having a possible beneficial role in those medical conditions shown to improve with the
use of fermented dairy products: diarrhea, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and
inflammatory bowel disease (Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis), cancer, depressed
immune function, and inadequate lactase digestion.
In addition, the easy digestibility and other characteristics of poi might make it a
nutritional supplement for weight gain in patients with conditions such as failure-to-
thrive, cancer cachexia, AIDS, pancreatitis (cystic fibrosis), and some of the induced
weight loss conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, such as inflammatory bowel disease. It
is suggested that poi, a nutritional supplement unique in its possible probiotic activities
and low allergenic protein, should be further investigated for possible benefits to patients
affected by these medical conditions.
Go to:

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by a Research Centers in Minority Institutions award, P20
RR11091, from the National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of
Health. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily
represent the official views of the NCRR/NIH. A grant from the USDA-CSREES
(Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service) also supported this
research.
Go to:

References
1. Derstine V, Rada EL. Some dietetic factors influencing the market for poi in
Hawaii. In: Agricultural Economics, bulletin 3 Hawaii: University of Hawaii Agricultural
Experiment Station. 1952;3:143.
2. Goldin BR. Health benefits of probiotics. Br J Nutr. 1998;80:S203S207. [PubMed]
3. Bradbury JH, Holloway WD, Bradshaw K, Jealous W, Phimpisane T. Effect of cooking
on nutrient content of tropical root crops from the South Pacific. J Sci Food
Agric. 1988;43:333342.
4. Macleod G. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the aroma
components of cooked taro (Colocasia esculenta L) Food Chem. 1990;38:8996.
5. Huang AS, Titchenal CA, Meilleur BA. Nutrient composition of taro corms and
breadfruit. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2001;13:859864.
6. Miller C, Bauer A, Denning H. Taro as a source of thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. J
Am Diet Assoc. 1952;28:435438. [PubMed]
7. Glaser J, Lawrence RA, Harrison A, Ball MR. Poiits use as a food for normal,
allergic and potentially allergic children. Ann Allergy. 1967;25:496500. [PubMed]
8. Huang AS, Lam SY, Nakayama TM, Lin H. Microbiological and chemical changes in
poi stored at 20C. J Agric Food Chem. 1994;42:4548.

155
9. Allen ON, Allen EK. The manufacture of poi from taro in Hawaii: with special
emphasis upon its fermentation, Honolulu: University of Hawaii and the US Department
of Agriculture. Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, bulletin. 1933;7070:130.
10. MacCaughey V. The Hawaiian taro as food. Hawaiian Forester and
Agriculturist. 1917:265268.
11. Langworthy CF, Deuel HJ. Digestibility of raw rice, arrowroot, canna, cassava, taro,
tree-fern, and potato starches. J Biol Chem. 1922;52:251261.
12. Abbott IA. Laau Hawaii. Traditional Hawaiian Uses of Plants. Honolulu; Bishop
Museum Press; 1992.
13. Roth A, Worth RM, Lichton IJ. Use of poi in the prevention of allergic disease in
potentially allergic infants. Ann Allergy. 1967;25:501506. [PubMed]
14. Ferguson LR. Adsorption of a hydrophobic mutagen to dietary fiber from taro
(Colocasia esculenta), an important food plant of the South Pacific. Nutr
Cancer. 1992;17:8595. [PubMed]
15. Barrett OW. The Tropical Crops. New York: Mac-Millan Co.; 1928:375377.
16. Alverez WC. Problems of maintaining nutrition in the highly food-sensitive
person. Am J Dig Dis. 1939;5:801803.
17. Rowe AH. Elimination Diets and the Patients Allergies. A Handbook of Allergy, 2nd
ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger; 1944.
18. Fries JH. Peanuts: allergic and other untoward reactions. Ann Allergy. 1982;48:220
226. [PubMed]
19. Bock SA, Martin M. The incidence of adverse reactions to foodsa continuous
study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1983;71:98.
20. Feingold BF. A vegetable milk substitute: taro. J Allergy. 1942;13:488.
21. Taylor SL. Food allergies. Food Technol. 1985 Feb;:98102.

Source:- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1482315/

Rakesh Prajapati, Manisha Kalariya, Rahul Umbarkar, Sachin Parmar, Navin Sheth
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Colocasia esculenta (coco/dasheen): A potent indigenous


plant
Abstract

Colocasia esculenta (CE) Linn. (Family: Araceae) is an annual herbaceous plant with a
long history of usage in traditional medicine in several countries across the world,
especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. The herb has been known since ancient
times for its curative properties and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments

156
such as asthma, arthritis, diarrhea, internal hemorrhage, neurological disorders, and skin
disorders. The juice of CE corm is widely used for treatment of body ache and baldness.
A wide range of chemical compounds including flavonoids, -sitosterol, and steroids
have been isolated from this species. Extracts from this plant have been found to possess
various pharmacological activities. This contribution provides a comprehensive review of
its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and the pharmacological profile as a
medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-
cancer, and hypolipidemic effects presented in this review in order to evaluate the
potential use of this plant in pharmaceuticals.

Introduction

It is a well-known fact that traditional systems of medicines have always played


important role in meeting the global healthcare needs. They are continuing to do so at
present and shall play major role in future as well. The system of medicines that are
considered to be Indian in origin or the systems of medicine, which came to India from
other countries and assimilated in Indian culture are known as Indian Systems of
Medicine. India has the unique distinction of having six recognized systems of medicine
in this category. They are Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Yoga, Naturopathy and
Homoeopathy. [1]

Among them, Ayurveda has been practiced for thousands of years. Considerable research
on pharmacognosy, chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical therapeutics has been carried
out on Ayurvedic medicinal plants. Natural products, including plants, animals, and
minerals have been the basis of treatment of human diseases. The current accepted
modern medicine or allopathy has gradually developed over the years by scientific and
observational efforts of scientists. However, the basis of its development remains rooted
in traditional medicine and therapies. [2]

Plants have played a significant role in maintaining human health and improving quality
of human life since long and have served humans well as valuable components of
medicines, seasoning, beverages, cosmetics, and dyes. The popularity of herbal medicine
in recent times is based on the premise that plants contain natural substances that can
promote health and alleviate illness. Therefore, the focus on plant research has increased
all over the world and a large body of evidence show immense potential of medicinal
plants used in various traditional system. There are many herbs that are predominantly
used to treat cardiovascular, liver, central nervous system (CNS), digestive, and metabolic
disorders. Given their potential to produce significant therapeutic effect, they can be
useful as drug or supplement in the treatment or management of various diseases. Herbal
drugs or medicinal plants, and their extracts and isolated compounds have demonstrated a
wide spectrum of biological activities. Ethnopharmacological studies on such herbs or
medicinally imported plants continue to interest investigators throughout the world. [3]

Selection of scientific and systematic approach for the biological evaluation of plant
products based on their use in the traditional systems of medicine forms the basis for an
ideal approach in the development of new drugs from plants. One such plant is Colocasia

157
esculenta Linn, commonly known as taro (English); aravi (Hindi) and alupam (Sanskrit).
It is a tall and perennial herbaceous plant growing throughout India.

Plant profile

Colocasia esculenta Linn. (Family: Araceae) [Figure 1] is also known as Arum


esculentum L. and Colocasia antiquorum Schott. [4] It is commonly called
as taro (English); alavi, patarveliya (Gujarati); arvi,
kachalu (Hindi); alu (Marathi); alupam, alukam (Sanskrit); and sempu (Tamil).
Geographically, it occurs throughout India and is cultivated worldwide. [5],[6]

Geographical distribution

It is a wild plant and cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India and Ceylon. It is
cultivated in all hot countries.

Habitat [7]
For taroleaf production, magnesium was found to have a significantly favorable effect.
Under the agroclimatic conditions of Kerala, a spacing of 6045 cm, and the use of green
leaf mulch, significantly increased the yield, but did not affect the quality aspect of the
cormels, such as starch and oxalate content. Use of leaf mulch increased the protein
content of the cormels. The growth and yield of taro were found to increase by using
Dadap (Erythrina spp.) and Panicum maximum Linn. as soil mulches, the former being
more effective than the latter.

158
Botanical description
Parts used: Leaves and corms [Figure 2]

Morphology [8]

Colocasia esculenta Linn. is a tall herb [Figure 1], tuberous or with a stout short
caudex, flowering and leafing together.
Leaves are simple, with a stout petiole, lamina peltate, ovate-cordate or sagittate-
cordate. Spadix shorter than the petiole and much shorter than the spathe,
appendix much shorter than the inflorescence.
Petiole erect, up to 1.2-m long, rarely longer with a triangular sinus cut one-third
to half way to petiole, with a dull, not polished surface above, paler or colored
beneath, but rarely glaucous.
Peduncle shorter than the petiole, spathe pale yellow, 15- to 35-cm long; tube
greenish, oblong; lamina narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, convolute, never widely
open, and curved slightly backwards in flower.
Female inflorescence short, male inflorescence long, cylindrical, usually
interposed neuters between the two. Appendix erect, elongate-conical or fusiform,
subulate or abbreviate. Male flowers 3-6 androus.

159
Female flowers 3-4 gynous; ovary ovoid or oblong, one-locular; ovules several or
many, biseriate; style 0 short in the beginning, later on 0; stigma depressed-
capitate, very shortly 3-5 sulcate.
Berries obconic or oblong, many seeded. Seeds oblong, sulcate. Albumen
copious; embryo axile.
Stem above ground 0, or slightly swollen at the base of the leaf-sheaths, arising
from a hard tapering rhizome or in cultivated forms a tuberous rhizome suckers
and stolons sometimes present.
Spadix much shorter than the spathe rather than slender. Female inflorescence as
long as the sterile male inflorescence. Appendix much shorter than the
inflorescence, style very short; stigma discoid.

Microscopical features of C. esculanta leaf [9]

Upper Epidermis

Epidermis is made up of single layer of spherical to polygonal cells with straight to


slightly beaded anticlinal walls, wavy in shape. Chlorophyll is present in epidermal cells.
The outer surface is cutinized.

Mesophyll

It shows dorsiventral arrangement and mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and


spongy parenchyma. Palisade cells filled with chlorophyll and phenolic compounds.

Spongy parenchyma

The leaf is monocot, so it shows presence of vacuoles. It is made up of parenchymatous


cells with varying size and shape, which measures about 7-9 cells in thickness, with
intermittently interspersed vascular elements. A majority of cells are filled with
compound-type starch grains. Starch grains are simple, spherical with centric helium and
less prominent striations.

Lower epidermis

Epidermis is made up of single layer of polygonal cells with straight to slightly beaded
anticlinal walls. It shows the presence of paracytic type of stomata and papillae.

Conducting tissue system

Each vascular bundle is simple and surrounded by a single layer of parenchymatous


bundle, while larger vascular bundles are surrounded by sclerenchymatous bundle sheath.
This extends up to the upper or lower or both epidermis.

Traditional uses [8]

160
The pressed juice of the petiole is stypic, and may be used to arrest arterial hemorrhage.
It is sometimes used in ear ache and otorrhoea, and also as stimulant and
rubefacient and also in internal hemorrhages.
Leaf juice is stimulant, expectorant, astringent, appetizer, and otalgia.
The juice expressed from the leaf stalks with salt is used as an absorbent in cases
of inflamed glands and buboes.
Cooked vegetable contains mucilage and found to be an effective nervine tonic.
Decoction of the peel is given as a folk medicine to cure diarrhea.
Increases body weight, prevents excessive secretion of sputum in asthmatic
individuals.
Juice of the corm is used in cases of alopecia.
Internally, it acts as a laxative, demulcent, anodyne, galactagogue and is used in
cases of piles and congestion of the portal system; also used as an antidote to the
stings of wasps and other insects.
Corm is used by people of the Munda tribe as a remedy for body ache.

Phytochemistry
Mainly leaves contain calcium oxalate, fibers, minerals (calcium phosphorus, etc.), and
starch, vitamin A, B, C, etc. [5]Phytochemically, these also contain flavones,
apigenin [Figure 3], luteolin [Figure 4], and anthocyanins [Figure 5]. [10]

161
CE tubers contain globulins accounting for 80% of the total tuber proteins, belonging to
two unrelated globulin families. [11] The total amino acids recorded in the tubers are in the
range of 1,380-2,397 mg/100 g. The lysine concentration was relatively low. [10]

The starch content of the flour varies from 73-76% and the starch yields are in the range
of 51-58%. The nitrogen content in the flours varies from 0.33-1.35%. The starch
contains 0.23-0.52% lipid and 0.017-0.025% phosphorus in the form of phosphate
monoester derivatives. [11]

Corm contains starch, mucilage, dihydroxysterols, fat, calcium oxalate, vitamin B, iron,
etc. [5] Besides starch, the tubers contain natural polysaccharide with 56% neutral sugars
and 40% anionic components. Steamed corms contain 30% starch and 3% sugar. [10] From
the tubers, two dihydroxysterols, 14-methyl-5-cholesta-9, 24-diene-3b, 7-diol and

162
14-methyl-24-methylene-5-cholesta-9, 24-diene-3, 7 -diol, besides b-
sitosterol [Figure 6] and stigmasterol, nonacosane and cyanidin 3-glucoside [Figure
7] have been isolated. In addition, five novel aliphatic compounds tetracos-20-en-1, 18-
diol; 25-methyl triacont-10-one; octacos-10-en-1, 12-diol; pentatriacont-1, 7-dien-12-ol
and 25-methyl-tritriacont-2-en-1, 9, 11-triol, along with nonacosane and cyanidin 3-
glucoside have been reported. An antifungal compound, 9, 12, 13-trihydroxy-(E)-10-
octadecenoic acid, and two enzymes, lipoxygenase and lipid hydroperoxide-converting
enzyme, which are responsible for the production of antifungal lipid peroxides, were
detected in taro tubers infected by Ceratocystis fimbriata0.[7]

Phytochemical investigations

163
Flavonoids
Iwashina et al. carried out isolation and identification of the flavonoids in the leaves of C.
esculenta plant. The flavonoids were identified by UV spectral analysis. They isolated
eight flavonoids viz. orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vicenin-2, orientin 7-O-glucoside,
isovitexin 3'-O-glucoside, vitexin X" -O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside [12] [Table
1] and [Figure 8].

Further, Nakayama et al. investigated anthocyanin composition in the plant. In his study,
anthocyanins were extracted with 50% methanol, further isolated by adsorption on
insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone, and purified by thin layer chromatography. The pigments
were identified by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods as pelargonidin 3-
glucoside, cyanidin 3-rhamnoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside. Levels of anthocyanins
were highest in the skin of the corm, 16.0 mg%, with equal amounts, 3.29 mg%, in both
corm and petiole. Anthocyanogens ere also present in the plant. [13]

Oxalate content

164
Huang et al. measured oxalate contents in Colocasia corms, using strong anion-exchange
column chromatography. In the study, the column was developed with a mobile phase of
3 mM phthalic acid with its pH adjusted to 3.5 using lithium hydroxide. The flow rate
was adjusted at 1.0 ml/min. The system was compatible with a conductivity detector.
Total oxalates and soluble oxalates were measured in 1 N HCl and water extracts,
respectively. Insoluble oxalate contents were the differences between them by
calculation. In nine taro cultivars, total oxalate contents were in the range of 33-156
mg/100 g of fresh weight and soluble oxalate contents in the range of 19-87 mg/100 g of
fresh weight. Insoluble oxalate contents were calculated to be 29.35-73.97% of the total
oxalate contents in tested plant corms. [14]

Ethnopharmacology

Bioactivity
Cooked vegetable contains mucilage and is an effective nervine tonic. Leaf juice is a
stimulant, expectorant, astringent, appetizer, and otalgia. The juice expressed from the
leaf stalks with salt is used as an absorbent in cases of inflamed glands and buboes.
Decoction of the peel is given as a folk medicine to cure diarrhea. The juice of the corm
is used in cases of alopecia. Internally, it acts as a laxative, demulcent, anodyne,
galactagogue and is used in cases of piles and congestion of the portal system, as well as
an antidote to the stings of wasps and other insects.

Pharmacological reports

Hypoglycemic property
Grindley et al. screened the anti-diabetic action of the CE plant. As part of the study, they
investigated carbohydrate digestion and intestinal ATPases in streptozotocin-induced
diabetic rats fed extract of the plant. In the study, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
were maintained for four weeks on the plant extract or commercial linamarin. Rats fed
commercial linamarin had significantly lower blood glucose level compared to the
diabetic rats fed normal diet. Feeding of commercial linamarin to diabetic rats
significantly decreased the activity of intestinal amylase compared to that on normal rats.
Plant extract or commercial linamarin significantly increased the activities of intestinal
disaccharidases compared to diabetic rats fed normal diet. Na + /K +ATPase activity in the
lower segment of the intestine was significantly reduced in diabetic rats compared to
normal rats. In the upper segment of the intestine, plant extract or commercial linamarin
supplementation increased the activity of the enzyme above the normal level. Those
observations reveal that the plant possesses hypoglycemic activity and that may be due to
its cyanoglucoside content. [15]

Antifungal activity

165
Yang et al. evaluated the antifungal activity of taro, along with molecular cloning and
recombinant gene expression studies. A cDNA clone, designated CeCPI, encoding a
novel phytocystatin was isolated from taro corms using both degenerated primers/reverse
transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplication and 5-/3-Rapid
amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) extension. Sequence analysis revealed that CeCPI is
phylogenetically closely related to Eudicots rather than to Monocots,
despite taro belonging to Monocot. Recombinant GST-CeCPI fusion protein was over-
expressed in Escherichia More Details coli and its inhibitory activity against papain was
identied on gelatin/sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-
PAGE). These results conrmed that recombinant CeCPI protein exhibited strong
cysteine protease inhibitory activity. Thus, the investigation clearly revealed a toxic effect
of the plant on the mycelium growth of phytopathogenic fungi. [16]

Anti-cancer action

Brown et al. evaluated in vitro anti-cancer effect of the plant on colonic adenocarcinoma
cells. In the study, soluble extracts of plant were incubated at 100 mg/ml in vitro for
antiproliferative activity against the rat YYT colon cancer cell line. 3H-thymidine
incorporation studies were conducted to demonstrate that the plant inhibited the
proliferation of these cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The greatest suppression
of YYT colon cancer growth occurred when 25% concentration was used. When plant
extract was incubated with the YYT cells after 2 days, the YYT cells underwent apoptotic
changes. The plant enhanced the proliferation of normal mouse splenocyte control cells,
suggesting that the plant is not simply toxic to all cells but even has a positive
immunostimulatory role. Thus, the plant showed the anticancer action by two distinct
mechanisms: one, by inducing apoptosis within colon cancer cells; and the second, by
non-specifically activating lymphocytes, which, in turn, can lyse cancerous cells. [17]

Hypolipidemic effect

Sakano et al. tested ethanolic extract of the taro plant (CE) along with other 130
vegetables, for inhibition of human lanosterol synthase (hOSC) in order to find the
compounds to suppress cholesterol biosynthesis. During the study, 12 samples showed
significant inhibition, while highest inhibition (55% inhibition at 300 mg/ml) was found
with taro. Moreover, examination of activity variation among eight taro cultivars
indicated that "Aichi-wase" and "Yatsugashira" had the most potent activity for hOSC
inhibition. In order to identify the active constituent of taro, ethanolic extracts of "Aichi-
wase" were partitioned with hexane and aqueous methanol and fractionated by silica gel
column chromatography. Inhibitory activity was concentrated in two major active
fractions. Further purification of these fractions by preparative high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) yielded three monogalactosyl diacylglycerols and five
digalactosyl diacylglycerols as active compounds that showed 28-67% inhibitory
activities at the concentration of 300 mg/ml. [18]

Moreover, Boban et al. studied the effects of mucilage, isolated from taro (CE),
fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum), and Dioscorea esculenta on metabolism of lipids

166
and lipoproteins by using experimental animal models. The mucilages identified were a
galactomannan from fenugreek seeds; a glucomannan from D. esculenta tubers, and an
arabinogalactan from CE tubers. Rats were fed these mucilages at a dose of 3 mg/100 g
body weight per day for 8 weeks. All these mucilages decreased the lipid levels both in
serum and tissues. Among these mucilages, glucomannan showed the most hypolipidemic
effect followed by galactomannan and arabinogalactan. Further, hepatocytes were
isolated from the livers of mucilage-fed rats. There was a decrease in the synthesis and
secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins, mainly very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL),
by hepatocytes isolated from mucilage-fed rats when compared to control (P<0.05).
Further, this was confirmed by pulse-chase analysis. Among different mucilages,
mannose-rich glucomannan showed the prominent effect, followed by galactomannan,
and mannose-free arabinogalactan showed minimal effect. The study results suggested
that the hypolipidemic effect of dietary fiber from the plant involved a decrease in hepatic
production of VLDL and that it varied with the nature of the fiber. [19]

Anti-inflammatory activity
Shah et al. investigated anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of
CE in Wistar rats using the carrageenan-induced left hind paw edema, carrageenan-
induced pleurisy, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. The ethanolic extract (100
mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. It inhibited leukocyte
migration, reduced the pleural exudates, and reduced the granuloma weight in the cotton
pellet granuloma method. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract produced
significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard and
untreated control. [20]

Nervine tonic
Manisha et al. evaluated the neuropharmacological activities of hydroalcoholic extract of
leaves of CE using several experimental models. In the study, adult Wistar albino rats
were subjected to behavior despair and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Thiopental-
induced sedation and rotarod tests were conducted on Swiss albino mice. The effects of
the plant extract on anxiety, depression, thiopental-induced sleeping time, and rotarod
performance were evaluated. The anxiolytic activity of extract (100, 200, and 400
mg/kg) per os (p.o.) was characterized by increased time spent and number of entries in
open arms in the EPM paradigm as compared to control group (P<0.001). The extract
(100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a dose-dependent significant reduction in the
duration of immobility (P<0.01) in the behavior despair test. The plant extract at doses 50
and 100 mg/kg, i.p. was found to produce a significant reduction in motor coordination
(P<0.001) and prolongation of thiopental-induced sleeping time (P<0.001). Thus, results
of the study showed that the plant possesses various neuropharmacological activities such
as anti-depressant, anxiolytic, sedative, and smooth muscle relaxant activity. [21]

Discussion and Conclusions

167
Medicinal plants are local heritage with the global importance. The world is endowed
with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Medicinal plants play an important role in the
lives of rural people, particularly in remote parts of developing countries with few health
facilities. The present review revealed that CE is utilized for the treatment of some
common diseases. In the present review, we have congregated information pertaining to
botanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies. The plant has been studied for
various pharmacological activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-
diarrheal, astringent, nervine tonic, and hypolipidemic activity. Moreover, chemically, the
plant contains various biologically active phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, sterols,
glycosides, and other micronutrients. Therefore, it is necessary to exploit it to its
maximum potential in the medicinal and pharmaceutical field.

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A new gated community in Portmore. Where do theresidents exercise? Considering that
the residents face dust bowls two both sides of the estate will they be glad to open their
windows? What are the health challenges they are likely to face if there is no
improvement in the environment?

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Cabbage

What's New and Beneficial About Cabbage


Did you know that cabbage was one of two vegetable types (the other type was
root vegetables) found to be a mainstay for prevention of type 2 diabetes in a
recent study of over 57,000 adults in the country of Denmark? In this very large-
scale study, adults who closely followed the Healthy Nordik Food Index were
found to have the lowest incidence of type 2 diabetes. Importantly, this key health
benefit was linked to six food intake categories: (1) fish, (2) rye bread, (3)
oatmeal, (4) apples and pears, (5) root vegetables, and (6) cabbage!
Researchers have now identified nearly 20 different flavonoids and 15 different
phenols in cabbage, all of which have demonstrated antioxidant activity. This
impressive list of antioxidant phytonutrients in cabbage is one key reason why an
increasing number of studies link cabbage intake to decreased risk of several
cardiovascular diseases. You can read more about these individual antioxidants in
our Health Benefits section.
In terms of price per edible cup, a report by the Economic Research Service at the
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has shown cabbage to be the second
most economical cooked vegetable in terms of price per edible cup. Only potatoes
came out slightly less expensive. The relatively low economic cost of cabbage in
comparison with most other vegetables makes this cruciferous vegetable a
nutritional bargain, especially considering the 3 excellent, 6 very good, and 11
good rankings that it achieves in our WHFoods rating system.
There are literally hundreds of varieties of cabbage grown worldwide. But of
special interest in recent research studies have been cabbage varieties that fall into
the red-purple category. It is the anthocyanin antioxidants (and in particular, a
subcategory of anthocyanins called cyanidins) that have been the focus of these
research studies. Impressively, the anthocyanins in red cabbage are a major factor
in the ability of this cruciferous vegetable to provide cardiovascular protection,
including protection of red blood cells. Blood levels of beta-carotene, lutein, and
total blood antioxidant capacity have been found to improve along with red
cabbage intake, while oxidized LDL has been found to decrease. (This reduction
in oxidized LDL is a good thing, since LDLan abbreviation which stands for
low-density lipoproteinbecomes a risk factor for blood vessel problems if
excessively present in its oxidized form.

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Cabbage turns out to be an especially good source of sinigrin. Sinigrin is one of
cabbage's sulfur-containing glucosinolates that has received special attention in
cancer prevention research. The sinigrin in cabbage can be also converted into
allyl-isothiocyanate, or AITC. This isothiocyanate compound has shown unique
cancer preventive properties with respect to bladder cancer, colon cancer, and
prostate cancer. It's also worth noting here that a second glucosinolate found in
cabbageglucobrassicincan be converted into two cancer-protective
compounds. These two compounds are indole-3-carbinol (or I3C, an
isothiocyanate) and diindolylmethane (or DIM). DIM is an interesting sulfur-
containing compound that can be produced in the stomach from I3C if the
stomach juices are sufficiently acidic. Like AITC and I3C, DIM has been shown
to have cancer-preventive properties for the specific cancer types listed above.

WHFoods Recommendations

You'll want to include cabbage as one of the cruciferous vegetables you eat on a regular
basis if you want to receive the fantastic health benefits provided by the cruciferous
vegetable family. At a minimum, we recommend 3/4 cup of cruciferous vegetables on a
daily basis. This amount is equivalent to approximately 5 cups per week. A more optimal
intake amount would be 1-1/2 cups per day, or about 10 cups per week. You can use
our Veggie Advisor for help in figuring out your best cruciferous vegetable options.

Traditional methods of steaming or boiling make cabbage watery. Traditional methods of


steaming or boiling make cabbage watery. To avoid this result and promote optimal
flavor, we recommend Healthy Sauteing cabbage. Slice cabbage into 1/8-inch slices and
let sit for 5 minutes to enhance its health-promoting benefits before cooking

Red Cabbage (Please not green and white cabbages are equally as good)

While green cabbage is the most commonly eaten variety of cabbage, we highly
recommend trying red cabbage because of its added nutritional benefits and its robust
hearty flavor. We don't think you will be disappointed. The rich red color of red cabbage
reflects its concentration of anthocyanin polyphenols, which bring along with them
unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Cabbage, red, cooked


1.00 cup
(150.00 grams)
Calories: 44
GI: very low

NutrientDRI/DV

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vitamin K79%

vitamin C69%

vitamin B620%

manganese17%

fiber16%

potassium11%

copper9%

vitamin B19%

folate9%

choline8%

phosphorus7%

vitamin B27%

selenium6%

magnesium6%

iron6%

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calcium6%

pantothenic acid5%

protein5%

vitamin B34%

This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Cabbage provides for each of the
nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food
Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by
Cabbage can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-
Depth Nutritional Profile for Cabbage, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be
found under the Food Rating System Chart.
Health Benefits
Description
History
How to Select and Store
Tips for Preparing and Cooking
How to Enjoy
Individual Concerns
Nutritional Profile
References

Health Benefits

While cardiovascular protection and decreased risk of type 2 diabetes have been areas of
increased research interest with respect to cabbage intake, it is the area of cancer
prevention that still offers the largest number of health-related studies for this cruciferous
vegetable. To date, more than 475 studies have examined the role of this cruciferous
vegetable in cancer prevention (and in some cases, cancer treatment). The uniqueness of
cabbage in cancer prevention is due to the three different types of nutrient richness found
in this widely enjoyed food. The three types are (1) antioxidant richness, (2) anti-
inflammatory richness, and (3) richness in glucosinolates.

Antioxidant-Related Health Benefits of Cabbage

Cabbage ranked in our WHFoods rating system as an excellent source of vitamin C and a
very good source of manganese. But in terms of antioxidants in the newer, phytonutrient

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category, cabbage is impressive, even among cruciferous vegetables. Polyphenols rank at
the top of the list for phytonutrient antioxidants in cabbage. In fact, one group of
researchers has described polyphenols as the primary factor in cabbage's overall
antioxidant capacity. Even white cabbage (a very lightly-colored form of green cabbage
and the most commonly eaten variety of cabbage in the U.S.) provides about 50
milligrams of polyphenols in a half-cup serving. Red cabbage makes its own unique
contribution in this area by providing about 30 milligrams of the red pigment polyphenols
called anthocyanins in each half cup. (These anthocyanins qualify not only as antioxidant
nutrients, but as anti-inflammatory nutrients as well.) The antioxidant richness of cabbage
is partly responsible for its cancer prevention benefits. Without sufficient intake of
antioxidants, our oxygen metabolism can become compromised, and we can experience a
metabolic problem called oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress, in and of itself, can
be a risk factor for development of cancer.

More than a dozen cabbage phenols have been shown to contribute to its antioxidant
capacity. These phenols are now known to include: benzoic acid, caffeic acid, cinnamic
acid, coumaric acid, dimethylbenzoic acid, gallic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid,
hydroxycinnamic acid, phenylacetic acid, rosmarinic acid, syringic acid, trimethylbenzoic
acid, and vanillic acid.

Anti-Inflammatory Benefits of Cabbage

Without sufficient intake of anti-inflammatory nutrients, regulation of our inflammatory


system can become compromised, and we can experience the problem of chronic
inflammation. Especially when combined together with oxidative stress, chronic
inflammation is a risk factor for development of cancer.

The anthocyanins found in red cabbage are well-documented anti-inflammatory


compounds and make red cabbage a standout anti-inflammatory food for this reason.
However, all types of cabbage contain significant amounts of polyphenols that provide
anti-inflammatory benefits. Anthocyanins are also compounds that fall into the general
category of polyphenols known as flavonoids, and they are definitely not the only
important flavonoids provided by cabbage. Included in the list of cabbage flavonoids are
the following anti-inflammatory compounds: artemetin, betanidin, butein, equol,
hydroxyflavone, kaempferol, luteolin, malvidin, naringenin, pelargonodin, purpurogalin,
quercitol, and tetrahydrochalcone.

Glucosinolates and Cancer Prevention from Cabbage

Given the roles of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation as risk factors for cancer, the
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory richness of cabbage would provide anti-cancer health
benefits without the addition of cabbage's glucosinolates. But glucosinolates are
cabbage's trump card with regard to "anti-cancer" benefits. The glucosinolates found in
cabbage can be converted into isothiocyanate compounds that are cancer preventive for a
variety of different cancers, including bladder cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and

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prostate cancer. Some of the key glucosinolates present in cabbage and their
corresponding isothiocyanates are listed in the chart below.

Glucosinolates in Cabbage and Their Anti-Cancer Thiocyanates


Glucosinolate Derived Isothiocyanate Isothiocyanate Abbreviation
glucoraphanin sulforaphane SFN
glucobrassicin indole-3-carbinol* I3C
sinigrin allyl-isothiocyanate AITC
glucotropaeolin benzyl-isothiocyanate BITC

* Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is not an isothiocyanate. It's a benzopyrrole, and it is only


formed when isothiocyanates made from glucobrassicin are further broken down into
non-sulfur containing compounds.

The isothiocyanates (ITCs) made from cabbage's glucosinolates act to protect us against
cancer through a variety of different mechanisms. In some cases, they help regulate
inflammation by altering the activity of messaging molecules within our body's
inflammatory system. In other cases, they improve our body's detoxification system and
leave our cells with a smaller toxic load. But the bottom line is decreased risk of cancer
from consumption of cabbage and its glucosinolates. We've seen one study, from Poland,
showing impressive reduction of breast cancer risk in women consuming large amounts
of cabbage. (In this particular study, this reduction in risk was associated with
consumption of at least 4 cabbage servings per week, in comparison with the once-per-
week serving consumed by women with higher breast cancer risk.)

In this context of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, and cancer prevention, it is worth


noting that one of the I3C (the isothiocyanate made from glucobrassicin) can be further
converted in the stomach under healthy acidic conditions to diindolylmethane (DIM),
which has also been shown to be a valuable cancer-preventive compound.

Digestive Tract Support of Cabbage

Long-established in health research is the role of cabbage juice in helping heal stomach
ulcers (called peptic ulcers), but more recent studies on cabbage have looked at the
overall health benefits of this food for the stomach and digestive tract as a whole.
Present-day studies make it clear that cabbage contains a variety of nutrients of potential
benefit to our stomach and intestinal linings. These nutrients include glucosinolates (and
the anti-inflammatory isothiocyanates or ITCs made from them), antioxidant
polyphenols, and the amino acid-like substance called glutamine. In the case of ITCs,
digestive tract benefits include proper regulation of bacterial populations of Helicobacter
pylori inside the stomach. These bacteria are normal stomach inhabitants, but their
populations can become too large and they can latch onto the stomach lining in an

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undesirable way. The ITCs made from cabbage's glucosinolates can lower the risk of
these unwanted stomach events.

It would also be wrong to move on from this issue of digestive support without
mentioning the very good fiber support provided by cabbage. At nearly 4 grams per cup
and only 44 calories, cabbage provides nearly 1 gram of fiber for every 10 calories! This
"fiber density" of cabbage actually ranks it above some our WHFoods legumes, including
our beans, lentils, and dried peas. This very low "calorie cost" of cabbage fiber makes it
easy to add fiber to your diet without adding calories. And this added fiber can be very
helpful in improving digestion of food.

Cardiovascular Support from Cabbage

Recent studies on cabbage intakeespecially studies on intake of red cabbagehave


looked carefully at the potential for cardiovascular support from this vegetable. The
results have been encouraging. Blood levels of beta-carotene, lutein, and total blood
antioxidant capacity have been found to increase along with increasing intake of red
cabbage intake. At the same time, total cholesterol, total LDL cholesterol, and total
oxidized LDL have been found to decrease. Reductions in oxidized LDL are a
particularly noteworthy finding since oxidized LDL is a known risk factor for
development of atherosclerosis. One of the ways in which cabbage intake can lower your
total and LDL cholesterol is through the process of binding with bile acids. Your liver
uses cholesterol as a basic building block to produce bile acids. Bile acids are specialized
molecules that aid in the digestion and absorption of fat, and when they are present in
your digestive tract, fiber-related nutrients in cabbage can bind together with them for
eventual excretion. Whenever this process takes place, your liver needs to replace the
excreted bile acids by drawing upon your existing supply of cholesterol, and as a result,
your cholesterol level drops down.

Description

Cabbage has a round shape and is composed of superimposed leaf layers. It is a


member of the food family traditionally known as cruciferous vegetables and is
very closely related to kale, broccoli, collards and Brussels sprouts. All
cruciferous vegetables provide integrated nourishment across a wide variety of
nutritional categories and provide broad support across a wide variety of body
systems as well.

The word "brassica" translates in Latin as "cabbage." However, this connection between
cabbage and "brassica" vegetables can sometimes be confusing.

Cabbage and all of its fellow cruciferous vegetables all belong to the family of plants
called the Brassicaceae. Despite the literal translation of "brasssica" as "cabbage,"
however, this family of plants is seldom referred to as the "cabbage family." Far more
often, it is referred to as the "mustard plant family." (Mustard, including mustard greens,
belongs to this plant family as well.) When people talk about the "brassica" family of

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plants, they are talking about the plant family that includes both cabbage and mustard.
Historically, this family of plants was most commonly referred to as the Crucifereae. For
all practical purposes, Crucifereae and Brassicaceae are interchangeable names for this
plant family. The name Crucifereae, of course, is where the term "cruciferous vegetables"
originates. All cruciferous vegetables are members of
the Brassicaceae/Crucifereae family.

Even more confusing is the very close relationship between several members of this plant
family. The genus/species combination of Brassica oleraceae is identical for all of the
following cruciferous vegetables: broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale,
and kohlrabi. These six vegetables are simply different subspecies and varieties
of Brassica oleraceae.

Because cabbage's inner leaves are protected from the sunlight by the surrounding leaves,
they are oftentimes lighter in color. However, the outer color of cabbage leaves is still the
most common way of dividing cabbage into types. For cabbage, the two basic color types
are green and red. Green cabbages can range from very dark to very light in color. (In
fact, some of the lighter-colored green cabbage varieties are actually referred to as
"white" cabbages.) The subgroup "alba" (meaning "white" in Latin) is often used to refer
to the green cabbage subgroup as a whole. Red cabbage can also range widely in color,
with some appearing deep purple in color. The subgroup "rubra" is often used to refer to
the red cabbage subgroup as a whole. You'll also sometimes hear the darkest shades of
purple cabbage being referred to as "black" cabbage.

Savoy cabbage refers to cabbage that has more crinkled or "ruffly" leaves. The leaves
may also be less densely packed together. Savoy cabbage also typically has a more
delicate texture than ordinary green or red varieties. However, there are light green, dark
green, red, and purple varieties of savoy cabbage, just like there are similar colors of non-
savoy varieties. Most of the savoy cabbage varieties commonly available in U.S. grocery
stores, however, have leaves that are lighter green or green-yellow in color. The subgroup
name "sabauda" is often used to refer to the savoy subgroup as a whole.

Once you move past these basic cabbage types, however, some of the terms that you will
hear to describe cabbage can become confusing. For example, you will sometimes hear
the term "Chinese cabbage" being used to refer to cabbage types. However, cabbage
types referred to as "Chinese" seldom belong to the Brassica oleracea genus/species of
plant, but rather, to the Brassica rapa genus/species. Brassica rapa is the genus/species
to which boy choy and turnips also belong.

Due to these close plant relationships, you may find the terms "choy" and "cabbage"
overlapping fairly extensively in common vegetable names. For example, you may find
bok choy being referred to as "white cabbage" or "Chinese cabbage" even though bok
choy does not belong to the Brassica oleracea genus species that serves as the home for
broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and kohlrabi. As mentioned earlier
in this Description section, the Brassicaceae family of plants has some very closely

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related groups and this closeness is witnessed by the common naming of cabbage and
choy plants.

Most "Chinese cabbage" sold in U.S. groceries belongs to the group Brassica
rapa subspecies pekinensis. The term "napa cabbage" is sometimes used in a way that is
synonymous with "Chinese cabbage," and this usage makes sense to us because the most
common plant group for "napa cabbage" is also group Brassica rapa subspecies
pekinensis. When the terms "Chinese cabbage" and "napa cabbage" are used in this
synonymous way, you can treat these varieties of cabbage as being readily identifiable by
their fairly large, barrel-shaped heads and their somewhat crinkly leaves. In the case of
"napa cabbage," it is also worth noting that the designation "napa" comes from the
Japanese word "nappa" rather than the region of California known as the "Napa Valley."

Yet another Brassicaceae family vegetable that you may hear being referred to as
cabbage is "Tuscan cabbage." At this point in time, the term "Tuscan cabbage" does not
have a very reliable food counterpart in the grocery store. "Cavolo nero"which literally
means "black cabbage" in Italianis most often a variety of Brassica oleracea most
closely resembling kale. In fact, "Tuscan kale" is a more common name for the seeds of
this plant than either "Tuscan cabbage" or "black cabbage." But once again, you can see
the amazing closeness in the food naming and food relationships in
this Brassicacea family of plants.

History

As you might imagine from the complicated set of descriptions above, it has been equally
complicated for plant researchers to trace the exact history of cabbage and its
development. Because of the linguistic overlap between "choy" and "cabbage" and
because of the cultivation of Brassicacea plants in Europe, Asia, and Africa, there are
some conflicting analyses of cabbage and its exact origins. Most histories, however, point
to the presence of wild cabbage in Europe as the most direct, distant ancestor of the
cabbages we currently purchase in the grocery store. However, if we lived in Europe
during the first years of wild cabbage growth over 2,000 years ago, we would be unlikely
to recognize any of those wild cabbage plants as cabbages. That's because the original
European forms of this plant were non-head-forming and much more closely resembled
cruciferous vegetables like kale or collards.

In 2014, U.S. adult intake of cabbage averaged about seven pounds per year. This volume
of intake placed cabbage in 10th place in 2014 as the most commonly consumed
vegetable. In terms of food production and the U.S. food supply chain, nearly half (45%)
of all cabbage produced for the retail marketplace is ultimately processed into coleslaw.
Production of sauerkraut accounts for another 12% of all cabbage production, and most
of the remaining cabbage is sold as produce in the form of head cabbage. The states of
California, Florida, Georgia, New York, and Texas jointly produce about 75% of the
cabbage grown in the U.S., even though cabbage is widely grown across most of the
country. About 2.2 billion pounds of cabbage are grown in the U.S. each year, with about
100 million pounds being exported and at least that amount or greater being imported

179
from other countries each year. Mexicofollowed by Canadaaccount for the majority
of cabbage imports into the U.S.

How to Select and Store

Choose cabbage heads that are firm and dense with shiny, crisp, colorful leaves free of
cracks, bruises, and blemishes. Severe damage to the outer leaves is suggestive of worm
damage or decay that may reside in the inner core as well.

There should be only a few outer loose leaves attached to the stem. If not, it may be an
indication of undesirable texture and taste. Avoid buying precut cabbage, either halved or
shredded, since once cabbage is cut, it often begins to lose its valuable vitamin C content.

At WHFoods, we encourage the purchase of certified organically grown foods, and


cabbage is no exception. Repeated research studies on organic foods as a group show that
your likelihood of exposure to contaminants such as pesticides and heavy metals can be
greatly reduced through the purchased of certified organic foods, including cabbage. In
many cases, you may be able to find a local organic grower who sells cabbage but has not
applied for formal organic certification either through the U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA) or through a state agency. (Examples of states offering state-certified organic
foods include California, New York, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington.) However, if you
are shopping in a large supermarket, your most reliable source of organically grown
cabbage is very likely to be cabbage that displays the USDA organic logo.

Put the whole head in a plastic bag in the crisper of your refrigerator. Red and green
cabbage will keep if stored this way for about 2 weeks while Savoy cabbage will keep for
about 1 week.

If you need to store a partial head of cabbage, cover it tightly with plastic wrap and
refrigerate. Since the vitamin C content of cabbage can more quickly degrade once it has
been cut, you should use the remainder within a couple of days.

Here is some background on why we recommend refrigerating cabbage. Whenever food


is stored, four basic factors affect its nutrient composition:exposure to air, exposure to
light, exposure to heat, and length of time in storage. Vitamin C, vitamin B6, and
carotenoids are good examples of nutrients highly susceptible to heat, and for this reason,
their loss from food is very likely to be slowed down through refrigeration.

Tips for Preparing and Cooking

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Tips for Preparing Cabbage

Even though the inside of cabbage is usually clean since the outer leaves protect it, you
still may want to clean it. Wash whole cabbage head under running water or remove the
thick fibrous outer leaves and cut the cabbage into pieces and then wash under running
water.

We recommend washing cabbage just prior to eating or cooking in order to help decrease
the rate of deterioration. To cut cabbage into smaller pieces, first quarter it and remove
the core. Cabbage can be cut into slices of varying thickness, grated by hand or shredded
in a food processor.

The Nutrient-Rich Way of Cooking Cabbage

From all of the cooking methods we tried when cooking cabbage, our favorite is Healthy
Saut. We think that it provides the greatest flavor. Healthy Sautsimilar to Quick
Boiling and Quick Steaming, our other recommended cooking methodsfollows three
basic cooking guidelines that are generally associated in food science research with
improved nutrient retention. These three guidelines are: (1) minimal necessary heat
exposure; (2) minimal necessary cooking duration; (3) minimal necessary food surface
contact with cooking liquid.

However, in some recent studies on cabbage cooking, different cooking methods have
been found to produce differing results. For example, when 5-minute boiling was
compared to 5-minute streaming, 5-minute microwaving, and 5-minute steaming, boiling
came out better than either steaming or microwaving for preserving the anthocyanins in
red cabbage. For retention of vitamin C in this same study, however, steaming came out
best.

Fermentation of raw cabbage has also been shown in several recent studies to provide
some health benefits that heat-based cooking methods cannot. For example, fermentation
of cabbage has been shown to result in increased formation of ascorbigen, a well-
documented antioxidant formed by the interaction of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) with
indole-3-carbinol (I3C). I3C is the isothiocyanate that can be made from glucobrassicin,
one of the glucosinolates present in cabbage. The creation of ascorbigen through cabbage
fermentation has further been shown to improve oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity
in several animal studies.

Finally, several recent studies have point out that raw cabbage can offer greater amounts
of certain nutrients that either cooked or fermented cabbage. In one study, the
incorporation of fresh, uncooked, chopped red cabbage was recommended as an optimal
way to derive nutritional benefits from this cruciferous vegetable.

Slicing Cabbage very thin before cooking and letting it sit for 5-10 minutes helps bring
out their hidden flavors and makes them more enjoyable. You can start to smell the
complex rich aroma after you cut it. This is similar to the reactions that occur that causes

181
the pungent smell when onions and garlic are cut, although the smell is not quite as
intense To Healthy Saut cabbage, heat 5 TBS of vegetable broth, chicken broth, or water
in a stainless steel skillet. Once bubbles begin to form add shredded cabbage, cover, and
Healthy Saut for 5 minutes. For great Mediterranean flavor, transfer to a bowl and toss
with Mediterranean Dressing. Ginger is a great addition to your Healthy Sauted
cabbage; you can also add rice vinegar and sesame seeds.

How to Enjoy

A Few Quick Serving Ideas


Braise red cabbage with a chopped apple and red wine. This is a child-
friendly dish since the alcohol (but not the flavor or the flavonoids) will
evaporate.
Combine shredded red and green cabbage with fresh lemon juice, olive oil,
and seasonings such as turmeric, cumin, coriander, and black pepper to
make coleslaw with an Indian twist.

Nutritional Profile

Cabbage is an excellent source of vitamin K, vitamin C and vitamin B6. It is also a very
good source of manganese, dietary fiber, potassium, vitamin B1, folate and copper.
Additionally, cabbage is a good source of choline, phosphorus, vitamin B2, magnesium,
calcium, selenium, iron, pantothenic acid, protein and niacin.

As described earlier in this food profile, cabbage is also a unique source of several types
of phytonutrients. Its overall antioxidant activity is largely due to its unusual phenol and
polyphenol content. With red cabbage, these polyphenols include antioxidant and anti-
inflammatory compounds called anthocyanins. Cabbage is also unique for it rich supply
of glucosinolates. These phytonutrients can be converted by the body into isothiocyanates
that have special detoxification and anti-cancer properties.

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart

In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for
the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to
highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart
shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source
(below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is
not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn't contain it. It
simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to
meet our rating criteria. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes
values for dozens of nutrients - not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good -
please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you'll need to glance up

182
in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we
used to calculate the food's nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how
much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart.
Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find
the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents,
the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we
established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the
government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration's "Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling."
Cabbage, red, cooked
1.00 cup
150.00 grams
Calories: 44
GI: very low
DRI/DV Nutrient World's Healthie
Nutrient Amount (%) Density Foods Rating
vitamin K 71.40 mcg 79 32.8 excellent
vitamin C 51.60 mg 69 28.5 excellent
vitamin B6 0.34 mg 20 8.3 excellent
manganese 0.33 mg 17 6.8 very good
fiber 3.90 g 16 6.5 very good
potassium 393.00 mg 11 4.6 very good
vitamin B1 0.11 mg 9 3.8 very good
folate 36.00 mcg 9 3.7 very good
copper 0.08 mg 9 3.7 very good
choline 32.10 mg 8 3.1 good
phosphorus 49.50 mg 7 2.9 good
vitamin B2 0.09 mg 7 2.9 good
magnesium 25.50 mg 6 2.6 good
calcium 63.00 mg 6 2.6 good
selenium 3.45 mcg 6 2.6 good
iron 0.99 mg 6 2.3 good
pantothenic acid 0.23 mg 5 1.9 good
protein 2.27 g 5 1.9 good
vitamin B3 0.57 mg 4 1.5 good
World's Healthiest Rule

183
Foods Rating
DRI/DV>=75% OR
excellent
Density>=7.6 AND DRI/DV>=10%
DRI/DV>=50% OR
very good
Density>=3.4 AND DRI/DV>=5%
DRI/DV>=25% OR
good
Density>=1.5 AND DRI/DV>=2.5%

In-Depth Nutritional Profile

In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an in-depth nutritional
profile for Cabbage. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients,
including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals,
fatty acids, amino acids and more.
Cabbage, red, cooked
(Note: "--" indicates data unavailable)
1.00 cup
GI: very low
(150.00 g)
BASIC MACRONUTRIENTS AND CALORIES
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)
Protein 2.27 g 5
Carbohydrates 10.41 g 5
Fat - total 0.14 g --
Dietary Fiber 3.90 g 16
Calories 43.50 2
MACRONUTRIENT AND CALORIE DETAIL
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)
Carbohydrate:
Starch -- g
Total Sugars 4.98 g
Monosaccharides 3.92 g
Fructose 1.79 g

184
Glucose 2.12 g
Galactose 0.00 g
Disaccharides 1.06 g
Lactose 0.00 g
Maltose 0.00 g
Sucrose 1.06 g
Soluble Fiber -- g
Insoluble Fiber -- g
Other Carbohydrates 1.53 g
Fat:
Monounsaturated Fat 0.01 g
Polyunsaturated Fat 0.06 g
Saturated Fat 0.02 g
Trans Fat 0.00 g
Calories from Fat 1.22
Calories from Saturated Fat 0.15
Calories from Trans Fat 0.00
Cholesterol 0.00 mg
Water 136.26 g
MICRONUTRIENTS
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)
Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
B-Complex Vitamins
Vitamin B1 0.11 mg 9
Vitamin B2 0.09 mg 7
Vitamin B3 0.57 mg 4

185
Vitamin B3 (Niacin Equivalents) 0.90 mg
Vitamin B6 0.34 mg 20
Vitamin B12 0.00 mcg 0
Biotin 0.15 mcg 1
Choline 32.10 mg 8
Folate 36.00 mcg 9
Folate (DFE) 36.00 mcg
Folate (food) 36.00 mcg
Pantothenic Acid 0.23 mg 5
Vitamin C 51.60 mg 69
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A (Retinoids and Carotenoids)
Vitamin A International Units (IU) 49.50 IU
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Activity 2.47 mcg
0
Equivalents (RAE) (RAE)
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Equivalents 4.95 mcg
(RE) (RE)
0.00 mcg
Retinol mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)
(RE)
Carotenoid mcg Retinol Equivalents 4.95 mcg
(RE) (RE)
Alpha-Carotene 0.00 mcg
Beta-Carotene 30.00 mcg
Beta-Carotene Equivalents 30.00 mcg
Cryptoxanthin 0.00 mcg
Lutein and Zeaxanthin 30.00 mcg
Lycopene 0.00 mcg
Vitamin D
Vitamin D International Units (IU) 0.00 IU 0

186
Vitamin D mcg 0.00 mcg
Vitamin E
Vitamin E mg Alpha-Tocopherol 0.18 mg
1
Equivalents (ATE) (ATE)
Vitamin E International Units (IU) 0.27 IU
Vitamin E mg 0.18 mg
Vitamin K 71.40 mcg 79
Minerals
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)
Boron 160.50 mcg
Calcium 63.00 mg 6
Chloride -- mg
Chromium -- mcg --
Copper 0.08 mg 9
Fluoride -- mg --
Iodine 3.00 mcg 2
Iron 0.99 mg 6
Magnesium 25.50 mg 6
Manganese 0.33 mg 17
Molybdenum -- mcg --
Phosphorus 49.50 mg 7
Potassium 393.00 mg 11
Selenium 3.45 mcg 6
Sodium 42.00 mg 3
Zinc 0.37 mg 3
INDIVIDUAL FATTY ACIDS
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)

187
Omega-3 Fatty Acids 0.04 g 2
Omega-6 Fatty Acids 0.03 g
Monounsaturated Fats
14:1 Myristoleic 0.00 g
15:1 Pentadecenoic 0.00 g
16:1 Palmitol 0.00 g
17:1 Heptadecenoic 0.00 g
18:1 Oleic 0.01 g
20:1 Eicosenoic 0.00 g
22:1 Erucic 0.00 g
24:1 Nervonic 0.00 g
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
18:2 Linoleic 0.03 g
18:2 Conjugated Linoleic (CLA) -- g
18:3 Linolenic 0.04 g
18:4 Stearidonic 0.00 g
20:3 Eicosatrienoic 0.00 g
20:4 Arachidonic 0.00 g
20:5 Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) 0.00 g
22:5 Docosapentaenoic (DPA) 0.00 g
22:6 Docosahexaenoic (DHA) 0.00 g
Saturated Fatty Acids
4:0 Butyric -- g
6:0 Caproic -- g
8:0 Caprylic -- g
10:0 Capric -- g
12:0 Lauric -- g
14:0 Myristic -- g

188
15:0 Pentadecanoic -- g
16:0 Palmitic 0.01 g
17:0 Margaric -- g
18:0 Stearic -- g
20:0 Arachidic -- g
22:0 Behenate -- g
24:0 Lignoceric -- g
INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)
Alanine 0.07 g
Arginine 0.13 g
Aspartic Acid 0.22 g
Cysteine 0.02 g
Glutamic Acid 0.52 g
Glycine 0.05 g
Histidine 0.04 g
Isoleucine 0.05 g
Leucine 0.07 g
Lysine 0.08 g
Methionine 0.02 g
Phenylalanine 0.06 g
Proline 0.08 g
Serine 0.09 g
Threonine 0.06 g
Tryptophan 0.02 g
Tyrosine 0.03 g
Valine 0.07 g

189
OTHER COMPONENTS
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)
Ash 0.93 g
Organic Acids (Total) -- g
Acetic Acid -- g
Citric Acid -- g
Lactic Acid -- g
Malic Acid -- g
Taurine -- g
Sugar Alcohols (Total) -- g
Glycerol -- g
Inositol -- g
Mannitol -- g
Sorbitol -- g
Xylitol -- g
Artificial Sweeteners (Total) -- mg
Aspartame -- mg
Saccharin -- mg
Alcohol 0.00 g
Caffeine 0.00 mg

Note:

The nutrient profiles provided in this website are derived from The Food Processor,
Version 10.12.0, ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon, USA. Among the 50,000+ food items
in the master database and 163 nutritional components per item, specific nutrient values
were frequently missing from any particular food item. We chose the designation "--" to
represent those nutrients for which no value was included in this version of the database.

References

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Source:- http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=19

CABBAGE
Other Names:
Brassica oleracea, Cabbage Leaf, Chou, Chou Blanc, Chou Commun, Chou Rouge, Chou
Vert, Col, Green Cabbage, Purple Cabbage, Red Cabbage, Repollo, Vitamin U, White
Cabbage.

CABBAGE OVERVIEW INFORMATION


Cabbage is a plant that is commonly eaten as a vegetable. People also use the leaves for
medicine.

Cabbage is used for stomach pain, excess stomach acid, stomach and intestinal ulcers,
and a stomach condition called Roemheld syndrome. Cabbage is also used to
treat asthma and morning sickness. It is also used to prevent weak bones (osteoporosis),
as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, colon, breast and other types of cancer.

Breast-feeding women sometimes apply cabbage leaves and cabbage leaf extracts to
their breasts to relieve swelling and pain.

How does it work?


Cabbage contains chemicals that are thought to help prevent cancer. Cabbage might
change the way estrogen is used in the body, which might reduce the risk of breast
cancer. Overall, it isn't well understood how the chemicals in cabbage might work as
medicine.

Conditions & Treatments Related to CABBAGE


Breast engorgement Treatments
Cancer Treatments
Bladder cancer Treatments
Cancer chemotherapy side effects Treatments
Cancer diagnosis Treatments
Cancer-associated anorexia Treatments
Cancer-related fatigue Treatments
Cholesterol Treatments

193
Colon cancer Treatments
Colorectal cancer Treatments
Gastric cancer Treatments
High cholesterol Treatments
Hypercholesterolemia Treatments
Hyperlipidemia Treatments
Leukemia Treatments
Lung cancer Treatments
Malignant melanoma Treatments
Melanoma Treatments
Pancreatic cancer Treatments
Prostate cancer Treatments
Rectal cancer Treatments
Skin cancer Treatments
Solid tumors Treatments
Stomach cancer Treatments
See Less

Conditions of Use and Important Information: This information is meant to supplement,


not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all
possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit
your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional
medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of
something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or
health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your
health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive


Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and
objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on
natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
Therapeutic Research Faculty 2009.

Source:- http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-171-
cabbage.aspx?activeingredientid=171&activeingredientname=cabbage

194
Cabbages health benefits / medicinal uses

Cabbages belong to the botanical family CRUCIFERAE. There are more than one
hundred types of cabbages, some are:
White cabbage, red cabbage, broccoli, collard, savoy cabbage, chinese cabbageetc

PROPERTIES
Cabbage contains

* Proteins It contains proteins ranging from 3.38% 1.39%, these proteins do not
contain all amino acids in proper proportions, thus regarded as incomplete proteins, but
can be made complete when combined with whole grains or legumes.

* Carbohydrates cabbages contains about 3%-5% of carbohydrates.

195
* Vitamins Provitamin A and vitamin C stands out among others. They also contain
significant amount of vitamin K, B and E.

* Minerals Cabbages are very rich in potassium and very low in sodium, which makes
them valuable in cases of edema and hypertension. They also contain significant amount
of Calcium, Iron, Phosphorus, and Magnesium.

* Phytochemicals These are in minute quantities but play an important role within the
body due to their anticarcinogenic effect. These substances helps in preventing/ treating
ulcers or diabetes.

Health benefits / medicinal uses of Cabbage


Cabbages medicinal applications include :

* Gastroduodenal ulcer

Cabbage has been proved effective in the treatment and prevention of gastroduodenal
ulcer. Drinking a glass of fresh cabbage juice is recommended for ulcer patients.

* Stomach disorders

A few spoonfuls of cabbage juice is an effective way of treating stomach disorders such
as imflammation, stomach pain, etc

* Intestinal disorders

Cabbage contains cellulose fiber content which is responsible for its laxative effect on
intestinal transit. It is of great value in cases of DIVERTICULOSIS and chronic
CONSTIPATION. It can also be used in expelling intestinal parasites.

* Cardiovascular disorders

Due to its richness in potassium and very low in sodium, it is effective in


treating hypeertension, arteriosclerosis, and coronary heart disease. Cabbages have a mild
diuretic effect and contains antioxidant vitamin A, E, and C, which contributes to the
regeneration of arterial walls.

* Obesity

196
Cabbages contains very few calories and also due to its richness in vitamins and minerals,
cabbage is ideal for the obese and recommended for all weight-loss diets.

* Cancer

Studies conducted on many animals have shown that cabbage consumption can prevent
the formation of cancers.

* Diabetes

Cabbage contains few carbohydrates and rich in minerals and vitamins, it is well tolerated
by diabetics.

* Scurvy

Due to its high vitamin C content, similar to that of oranges {53mg/100g}, it is


recommended for scurvy patients.

Osteoporosis and decalcification

Owing to its significant calcium content, it is ideal in cases of osteoporosis and


decalcification.

Source:- http://foodsanddiseases.com/cabbages-medicinal-applicationstreats-
ulcerstomachcardiovascular-and-intestinal-disordersdiabetesscurvycancer-and-lots-
more/

197
This is an overflowing sewage main by the Law Street- Church Street intersection, near
to the Pearnel Charles and Wolmers Arcades. During the week, this is a very busy
location, with communters going to work, children going to school, shoppers going to
purchase, small business owners going to open their shops, bars, restaurants and stores. A
large number of vehicles also pass this intersection, transporting sprays on their under
carriages, doors, bumpers and fenders among other places. What danger to public health
does this single overflowing sewage main pose? What is the estimated spatial area at
health risks from this overflowing main? What type of bacteria and viruses come to mind
on seeing this overflow? Should a the bag of a child, going to school accidentally fell into
the water, or as a result of playing fell into it, should that child pick up his or her school
bag? If the child does not pick it up, what is the expected reaction of his or her parent or
parents?

198
IRISH POTATOES

May 14, 2013

The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial Solanum tuberosum. Potatoes
prefer cooler weather, but they will grow in almost any conditions. There are literally
thousands of different varieties of potatoes grown around the world. Potatoes are seasonal
and are usually harvested, depending on the variety. They are the swollen portion of the
underground stem which is called a tuber and is designed to provide food for the green
leafy portion of the plant.

USES

Added to the culinary uses of potatoes are these;


Potatoes are used to brew alcoholic beverages such as vodka, potcheen or akvavit.
They are also used as food for domestic animals.
Potato starch is used in the food industry as, for example, thickeners and binders of soups
and sauces, in the textile industry, as adhesives, and for the manufacturing of papers and
boards.
Companies are exploring the possibilities of using waste potatoes to obtain polylactic
acid for use in plastic products; other research projects seek ways to use the starch as a
base for biodegradable packaging.

NUTRITION FACTS

The potato contains vitamins and minerals, as well as an assortment of phytochemicals,


such as carotenoids and natural phenols. A medium-size potato with the skin provides of
vitamin C, potassium, vitamin B6 and trace amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin,
magnesium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc. The fiber content of a potato with skin (2 g) is
equivalent to that of many whole grain breads, pastas, and cereals. In terms of nutrition,
the potato is best known for its carbohydrate content. The predominant form of this
carbohydrate is starch.

HEALTH BENEFIT

Potatoes provide the body with an essential source of fuel and energy, which you need
even when dieting. As a rich carbohydrate source, they help to fuel all reactions in the
body which you need for movement, thinking, digestion and cellular renewal.

199
Stress:
Potatoes are exceedingly rich in Vitamin B6, a substance needed for cellular renewal, a
healthy nervous system and a balanced mood. It is used to make neurotransmitters
substances that deliver messages from one cell to the next.
Neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine are needed for the regulation of mood
and Vitamin B6 is needed to make them.
It is also used to make adrenaline, hormones that help us respond to stress, and GABA, a
substance linked to relaxation and a feeling of wellbeing.

Gut health
A single baked potato will provide nearly 12 per cent of the daily recommended amount
of fibre, giving similar levels to whole grain breads, pastas and cereals.
High levels of dietary fibre and bulking agents support healthy digestion and regular
bowel movements, while giving a protective effect from colon cancer.
While most potato fibre is found in the skin, some of the starch in potatoes is indigestible.

Weight Gain:
Potatoes are mounds of carbohydrates and contain little proteins too. This makes it an
ideal diet for those lean and thins who desperately want to put on weight. The vitamins
like vitamin-C and B-complex also help in proper absorption of this carbohydrate.

Digestion:
Since potatoes predominantly contain carbohydrates, they are easy to digest and facilitate
digestion. This property makes them a good diet for patients, babies and those who
cannot digest hard food but need energy. But you must remember that eating too much of
potatoes regularly may cause acidity in the long run. Potatoes also contain considerable
amount of fiber or roughage, more in raw potatoes and cold ones than boiled or hot ones.

Scurvy:
The vitamin-C present in potatoes can help prevent this dreaded deficiency disease,
caused due to lack of vitamin-C. It is characterized by cracked lip corners, spongy and
bleeding gums, frequent viral infections like cold etc.

Rheumatism:
There are two aspects of this factor. Vitamins, calcium and magnesium in potatoes help
giving relief in rheumatism. Water obtained from boiling potato gives relief in
rheumatism. But due to high starch or carbohydrate content it tends to increase body
weight which may have adverse effects on rheumatic people.

200
Inflammation:
Potato is very effective in inflammation, internal or external. Since it is soft, easy
digestible and has a lot of vitamin-C (very good anti-oxidant and repairs wears and tears),
potassium and vitamin-B6, among others, it relieves inflammation of intestines and the
digestive system. It is very good diet for those who have mouth ulcers. Again, raw
smashed potato can be applied to relieve external inflammation, burns etc.

High Blood Pressure:


Since high blood pressure is caused due to a number of reasons, including diabetes,
tension, indigestion, nature of food and many such, different are the cures. Potato can be
used to relieve High Blood Pressure due to tension, indigestion etc. due to abundance of
vitamin-C and B in it, but should be avoided if it is due to diabetes. The fiber present in it
is helpful in lowering cholesterol and improves functioning of insulin in the body, which
aids to lowering of blood pressure, since there is a direct relation between the blood
pressure and the glucose level in the blood and insulin regulates this glucose level.

Brain Function:
Proper functioning of the brain depends largely on the glucose level, oxygen supply,
some members of the vitamin-B complex and some hormones, amino acids and fatty
acids like omega-3 fatty acids. Potatoes cater to almost all the needs mentioned above.
They are high in carbohydrates and thus maintain good level of glucose in the blood
which does not let brain fatigue creep in and keeps the brain active and alert. Next is
oxygen which is carried to the brain by the haemoglobin in the blood and whose main
constituent is iron. Potato contains iron too and thus aids to this function also. Next is the
turn of vitamin-B complex. Here again, potato is rich in vitamin-B6 and contains traces
of other members of this complex. In addition, it contains certain other elements like
phosphorus and zinc which are good for brain too.

Heart Diseases:
Apart from the vitamins (B-complex, C), minerals and roughage, potatoes also contain
certain substances called Carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin etc.) which are beneficial for
heart and other internal organs. But again, since it raises the glucose level in the blood
and over intake may cause obesity, which in turn can put a lot of pressure on your heart;
hence it is not recommended for obese or diabetic people.

Kidney Stones:
Kidney Stones, also known as Renal Calculi, are caused mainly due to raised level of
uric acid in blood. In such cases, high proteins should be avoided, particularly animal

201
proteins such as meat, turkey, shrimps, sea fishes, eggs, milk etc. Iron and calcium also
help form the stone. Potato is rich in both of these and normally seems not fit from this
point of view. But it is very rich in magnesium which resists accumulation or deposition
of calcium (calcification) in the kidney and other tissues, thereby proving beneficial for
treatment of renal calculi.

Source:- http://www.agro-hub.com/blog/irish-potatoes/

Potato Properties and health benefits / medicinal uses


By abbati -
Aug 11, 2014

The healing and therapeutic properties of potato are discussed in this article.

Botanical name: Solanum Tuberosum L.


Other names: Irish potato, White potato
Spanish names: Patata, Papa, Criadilla de tierra
French names: Pomme de terre

Potato is the tuber of the potato plant, Solanum tuberosum L., a herbaceous plant of the
botanical family Solanaceae. The potatoes are not formed from the roots of the plant, but
rather from the thickening of the stalks underground.
Today, potato is the most cultivated vegetable in the world with more than 1,200
varieties. Its cultivation reaches an average of 270 million metric tons per year.

PROPERTIES
As a great medicinal food, potato contains almost all nutrients in significant amounts. It is
only deficient in fats, vitamin E, vitamin B12, provitamin A and calcium. Its content are
as follows:

Carbohydrates The carbohydrate in potato is primarily made up of starch, which


represents 16% of its total content. Fructose, sucrose and glucose are also present but in
small amounts, representing only 0.4% of its total content.
NB: The starch in potato is easily digested, and does not cause flatulence.

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Proteins Potato contains significant amount of proteins, about 2% of its total content.
The proteins in potato are of high biological value, as they provide all the amino acids in
adequate proportion needed by the body to foster growth. The richness of potato in an
amino acid known as lysine, which is usually deficient in grains, makes its consumption
together with grains recommended.

Vegetable fiber Potatoes are rich in soluble vegetable fiber, representing about 1.6% of
its total content. Just about 300g of this great medicinal food, provides one-fifth of the
daily fiber needed by the body.

Vitamins Potatoes are quite rich in B complex vitamins, especially vitamin B1 and B6.
It also contains significant amounts of vitamin C, which although may lost part of this
vitamin in cooking process. The most amount of this vitamin is lost when they are fried,
and the least when they are steamed.

Minerals Potatoes are poor in calcium, but rich in manganese, copper, zinc, and other
trace elements. They are also rich in potassium, and low in sodium, thus, making them
appropriate for those suffering from hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.

HEALTH BENEFITS / MEDICINAL USES OF POTATO

From the above properties, we have seen potato as a rich medicinal food with outstanding
amount of nutrients. This makes it indicated in the following cases:

STOMACH DISORDERS
Potato is said to be the stomachs best friend. This is primarily due to two important
factors:
* Its antacid effect Since potatoes are a significant alkaline food, they become capable
of neutralizing excess acid. This effect is produced in the stomach, blood and even urine.
* Sedating substances From series of research conducted at laboratories in different
parts of the world, potato has been shown to contain small amounts of various sedative
substances which are widely used in pharmaceuticals. These natural sedative substances
act locally in the stomach, and in-turn relaxes it.
Additionally, the physical nature of potato is also considered as a factor, because the soft
texture of potato reduces the need for digestive effort in the stomach.

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From the above reasons, the consumption of potato mainly in puree form, becomes
recommended and beneficial in cases of gastritis,stomach prolapse, nervous stomach,
stomach ulcer, and stomach conditions in general.

KIDNEY DISEASE

As we have seen above, potato possess an antacid effect, which gives it the ability to
alkalize the blood and urine, aiding the elimination of toxic substances. Doing this, they
relieve the kidneys work and most importantly, purify the blood. Thus, the consumption
of potato is beneficial in cases of arthritis, kidney stones, metabolic acidosis, and excess
uric acid.

OBESITY
The consumption of potato does not in anyway cause obesity, but can be very useful in
fighting it for some reasons.
* Potatoes are rich in B group vitamins, which help metabolize carbohydrates and
minerals that prevent fluid retention in the tissues, which in-turn contributes to obesity.
* The consumption of potato also produces a sense of satiety which reduces the desire to
continue eating. This paves way for a lesser consumption of food, and at the same time
satisfaction is also achieved.

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
Since potatoes are lacking in fat, low in sodium and rich in potassium, they become ideal
in cases of arteriosclerosis, hypertension, angina (heart attack), and heart failure.

Source:- http://foodsanddiseases.com/potato-properties-health-benefits-medicinal-uses/

Knowledge center
Nutrition / Diet

204
Potatoes: Health Benefits, Facts, Research

Written by Megan Ware RDN LDReviewed by Natalie Butler, RD, LD


Last updated: Wed 12 October 2016
email

41035SHARE2

Potatoes are edible plant tubers first cultivated in the Andes. Spanish explorers
brought the potato back to Europe from their South American expeditions in the
early 16th century.

Despite the potato's widespread popularity today, it was previously thought to be


completely inedible and even poisonous.

Along with the tomato and eggplant, the potato plant belongs to the nightshade family,
some of which are truly poisonous. Today, potatoes are one of the cheapest universal
crops to produce and are available year-round.

In many cases, if a food lacks color, it also lacks necessary nutrients; potatoes, however,
are an exception.

The humble potato is vastly underrated in regards to its nutritional benefits. Due to the
increased interest in foods that are low-carb or low-glycemic index, the potato has
unjustly earned a bad reputation because of its starchy makeup, leading many to believe
that it should be cut out of the diet altogether.

However, this nutrient-dense tuber is, in fact, packed with a variety of vitamins, minerals,
and phytochemicals that ward off disease and benefit human health.
This MNT Knowledge Center feature is part of a collection of articles on the health
benefits of popular foods.
Contents of this article:
Possible health benefits of consuming potatoes
Nutritional profile of potatoes
How to incorporate more potatoes into your diet
Possible health risks
Fast facts on potatoes

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Here are some key points about potatoes. More detail and supporting information is in the
main article.
Potatoes are part of the nightshade family

Some evidence suggests that potatoes might help


reduce inflammation and constipation
A medium potato contains around 164 calories and contains 30 percent of the
recommended daily B6 intake

Possible health benefits of consuming potatoes

Potatoes have more nutritional benefits than often thought.

Consuming fruits and vegetables of all kinds has long been associated with a reduced risk
of many lifestyle-related health conditions. Below are some of the potential health
benefits of potatoes:

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1) Bone health

The iron, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, and zinc in potatoes all contribute to the
building and maintenance of bone structure and strength.
Iron and zinc play crucial roles in the production and maturation of collagen. Though
phosphorus and calcium are both important in bone structure, the careful balance of the
two minerals is necessary for proper bone mineralization - consumption of too much
phosphorus with too little calcium can result in bone loss.

2) Blood pressure

Maintaining a low sodium intake is essential for maintaining a healthy blood pressure,
however, increasing potassium intake may be just as important because of its vasodilation
effects.
According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, fewer than 2
percent of American adults meet the daily 4,700 milligram recommendation.
Also, potassium, calcium, and magnesium (all present in the potato) have been found
to naturally decrease blood pressure.

3) Heart health

The potato's fiber, potassium, vitamin C, and vitamin B6 content, coupled with its lack
of cholesterol, all support heart health.

Potatoes contain significant amounts of fiber, which helps lower the total amount
of cholesterol in the blood, thereby decreasing the risk of heart disease. In one study,
those who consumed 4,069 milligrams of potassium per day had a 49 percent lower risk
of death from ischemic heart disease compared with those who consumed less potassium
(about 1,000 milligrams per day).

4) Inflammation

Choline is an important and versatile nutrient present in potatoes; it helps with sleep,
muscle movement, learning, and memory. Choline also helps to maintain the structure of

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cellular membranes, aids in the transmission of nerve impulses, assists in the absorption
of fat, and reduces chronic inflammation.

5) Cancer

Potatoes contain folate, which plays a role in DNA synthesis and repair, thus preventing
the formation of cancer cells from mutations in the DNA.
Fiber intake from fruits and vegetables like potatoes are associated with a lowered risk
of colorectal cancer. Vitamin C and quercetin function as powerful antioxidants that help
protect cells against free radical damage.

6) Digestion and regularity

Because of their fiber content, potatoes help to prevent constipation and promote
regularity for a healthy digestive tract.

7) Weight management and satiety

Dietary fibers are commonly recognized as important factors in weight management and
weight-loss by functioning as "bulking agents" in the digestive system. These compounds
increase satiety and reduce appetite, making an individual feel fuller for longer and
thereby lowering overall calorie intake.

8) Metabolism

Potatoes are a great source of vitamin B6, which plays a vital role in energy metabolism
by breaking down carbohydrates and proteins into glucose and amino acids. These
smaller compounds are more easily utilized for energy within the body.

9) Skin

Collagen, the skin's support system, relies on vitamin C as an essential nutrient that
works in our bodies as an antioxidant to help prevent damage caused by the sun,

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pollution, and smoke. Vitamin C also promotes collagen's ability to smooth wrinkles and
improve overall skin texture.

Nutritional profile of potatoes

One medium potato contains:

164 calories

0.2 grams of fat

0 grams of cholesterol

37 grams of carbohydrate
4.7 grams of dietary fiber

4.3 grams of protein

The same serving provides the following percentage of your daily requirements:

2 percent calcium

51 percent vitamin C

9 percent iron

30 percent vitamin B6

12 percent magnesium

25 percent potassium

Potatoes also provide phosphorus, niacin, folate, choline, and zinc.

Unlike processed potato products like French fries and potato chips, whole, unprocessed
potatoes have very little sodium (only 13 milligrams, less than 1 percent of the suggested
daily limit).

Potatoes also contain a compound known as alpha-lipoic acid, which helps the body to
convert glucose into energy.

Some evidence suggests that alpha-lipoic acid can help control blood glucose levels,
improve vasodilation, protect against retinopathy in diabetic patients, and help preserve
brain and nerve tissue.

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Quercetin, a flavonoid found in potato skin, possesses powerful anti-inflammatory
properties and antioxidant capabilities that protect the body's cells from free radical
damage.

How to incorporate more potatoes into your diet

Boil potatoes then dice and mix with eggs, celery, onion, and mayonnaise.

Select potatoes that are firm, un-bruised, and relatively smooth and round. Avoid potatoes
that show any signs of decay, which may appear in the form of wet or dry rot, or any
roots.

It is best to buy potatoes that are unpackaged and unwashed (premature washing removes
the protective coating on potato skins) in order to avoid bacterial buildup.

Potatoes should be stored between 45-50 degrees Fahrenheit in a dark, dry environment
such as a cellar or pantry. Exposure to sunlight can lead to the formation of solanine, and
storing potatoes in the refrigerator causes their starch content to be converted to sugar,
imparting an unpleasant flavor.

Potatoes should not be stored around onions because both vegetables emit natural gases
that cause the other to decay.

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Fully grown potatoes have a shelf life of up to 2 months, but spoiled potatoes can
negatively affect the other potatoes surrounding them. Remove rotted potatoes from the
rest of the group to prevent further spoilage.

Since much of the vitamin, mineral, and fiber content of potatoes are found in their skin,
it is best to consume potatoes with the skin left on. Scrub potatoes under running water
and remove any bruises or deep eyes with a paring knife. Use a stainless steel knife
instead of carbon steel in order to prevent the metal from reacting with the
phytochemicals in the vegetable, which may cause discoloration.

Source:- http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/280579.php

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Bananas

Wonderfully sweet with firm and creamy flesh, bananas come prepackaged in their own
yellow jackets and are available for harvest throughout the year.
The banana plant grows 10 to 26 feet and belongs to the Musaceae family of plants along
with plantains.
The cluster of fruits contain anywhere from 50 to 150 bananas with individual fruits
grouped in bunches, known as "hands," containing 10 to 25 bananas.

Banana, fresh
1.00 medium
(118.00 grams)
Calories: 105
GI: low

NutrientDRI/DV

vitamin B625%

manganese16%

vitamin C14%

potassium12%

fiber12%

copper10%

biotin10%

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This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Bananas provides for each of the
nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food
Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by
Bananas can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-
Depth Nutritional Profile for Bananas, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be
found under the Food Rating System Chart.
Health Benefits
Description
History
How to Select and Store
How to Enjoy
Individual Concerns
Nutritional Profile
References

Health Benefits

Creamy, rich, and sweet, bananas are a favorite food for everyone from infants to elders.
They could not be more convenient to enjoy, and they are a good source of both vitamins
and minerals, as well as fiber.

Cardiovascular Health and Bananas


A first type of cardiovascular benefit from bananas is related to their potassium content.
Bananas are a good source of potassium, an essential mineral for maintaining normal
blood pressure and heart function. Since one medium-sized banana contains a whopping
400-plus mg of potassium, the inclusion of bananas in your routine meal plan may help to
prevent high blood pressure and protect against atherosclerosis.
The effectiveness of potassium-rich foods such as bananas in lowering blood pressure has
been demonstrated by a number of studies. For example, researchers tracked over 40,000
American male health professionals over four years to determine the effects of diet on
blood pressure. Men who ate diets higher in potassium-rich foods, as well as foods high
in magnesium and cereal fiber, had a substantially reduced risk of stroke. We've also seen
numerous prospective clinical research trials showing substantial reductions of blood
pressure in individuals eating the potassium-rich DASH Diet.
A second type of cardiovascular benefit from bananas involves their sterol content. While
bananas are a very low-fat food (less than 4% of their calories come from fat), one type
of fat that they do contain in small amounts are sterols like sitosterol, campesterol, and
stigmasterol. As these sterols look structurally similar to cholesterol, they can block the
absorption of dietary cholesterol. By blocking absorption, they help us keep our blood
cholesterol levels in check.
A third type of cardiovascular benefit from bananas involves their fiber content. At about
3 grams per medium banana, we rank bananas as a good source of fiber. Approximately
one-third of the fiber in bananas is water-soluble fiber. For one medium-sized banana,
this amount translates into 1 gram of soluble fiber per banana. Soluble fiber in food is a

213
type of fiber especially associated with decreased risk of heart disease, making regular
intake of bananas a potentially helpful approach to lowering your heart disease risk.

Bananas' Digestive Benefits


Bananas are a fascinating fruit in terms of their carbohydrate and sugar content. Even
though bananas are a fruit that tastes quite sweet when ripecontaining 14-15 grams of
total sugarbananas receive a rating of low in their glycemic index (GI) value. GI
measures the impact of a food on our blood sugar. This low GI value for bananas is most
likely related to two of their carbohydrate-related qualities.
First, as mentioned previously, a medium-size banana contains about 3 grams of total
fiber. Fiber is a nutrient that helps regulate the speed of digestion, and by keeping
digestion well-regulated, conversion of carbohydrates to simple sugars and release of
simple sugars from digesting foods also stays well-regulated.
Within their total fiber content, bananas also contain pectins. Pectins are unique and
complicated types of fiber. Some of the components in pectins are water-soluble, and
others are not. As bananas ripen, their water-soluble pectins increase, and this increase is
one of the key reasons why bananas become softer in texture as they ripen. As their
water-soluble pectins increase, so does their relative concentration of fructose in
comparison to other sugars. This increase in water-soluble pectins and higher
proportional fructose content helps normalize the rate of carbohydrate digestion and
moderates the impact of banana consumption on our blood sugar. The bottom line here
are some surprisingly digestion-friendly consequences for a fruit that might be casually
dismissed as being too high in sugar to be digestion-friendly.
Similar to the importance of their water-soluble pectins is the digestive importance of
fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in bananas. FOS are unique fructose-containing
carbohydrates that are typically not broken down by enzymes in our digestive tract.
Instead, they move along through the digestive tract until they reach our lower intestine
and get metabolized by bacteria. This process helps maintain the balance of "friendly"
bacteria (for example, Bifidobacteria) in our lower intestine, and as a consequence, it also
supports our overall digestive health.
In one study involving female participants, eating two bananas each day for two months
led to significant increases in Bifidobacteria. Along with these increased levels
of Bifidobacteria, participants also experienced fewer gastrointestinal problems and more
regular bowel function when compared to other women in the study who drank a banana-
flavored beverage that did not contain any actual banana.

Athletic Performance and Bananas


The unique mix of vitamins, minerals, and low glycemic carbohydrates in bananas has
made them a favorite fruit among endurance athletes. Their easy portability, low expense,
and great taste also help support their popularity in this exclusive group.
A 2012 study of distance cyclists found that eating the equivalent of about one half a
banana every 15 minutes of a three-hour race was just as good at keeping energy levels
steady as drinking an equivalent amount of carbohydrate and minerals from a processed
sports beverage. Bananas have long been valued by athletes for prevention of muscle
cramps. Since bananas are a good source of potassium, and since low potassium levels
are known to contribute to risk of muscle cramps, it is logical to think about the

214
potassium content of bananas as being the reason for fewer muscle cramps after
consumption of bananas. There is actually some recent research in support of this
reasoning. In a recent study, consumption of one or two bananas prior to an hour of
exercise was shown to keep blood potassium levels higher after the training. But there are
still some big unanswered questions here, since researchers are not convinced that low
potassium levels are the most frequent cause of muscle cramps with training.

Description

Bananas are elliptically shaped fruits "prepackaged" by Nature, featuring a firm, creamy
flesh gift-wrapped inside a thick inedible peel. The banana plant grows 10 to 26 feet in
height and belongs to the family Musaceae. Banana fruits grow in clusters of 50 to 150,
with individual fruits grouped in bunches, known as "hands," of 10 to 25 bananas.
Bananas abound in hundreds of edible varieties that fall under two distinct species: the
sweet banana (Musa sapienta, Musa nana) and the plantain banana (Musa paradisiacal).
Sweet bananas vary in size and color.
While we are accustomed to thinking of sweet bananas as having yellow skins, they can
also feature red, pink, purple and black tones when ripe. Their flavor and texture range
with some varieties being sweet while others have starchier characteristics. In the United
States, the most familiar varieties are Big Michael, Martinique and Cavendish. Plantain
bananas are usually cooked and considered more like a vegetable due to their starchier
qualities; they have a higher beta-carotene concentration than most sweet bananas.

History

Bananas are thought to have originated in Malaysia around 4,000 years ago. From there,
they spread throughout the Philippines and India, where in 327 B.C. Alexander the
Great's army recorded them being grown.
Bananas were introduced to Africa by Arabian traders and discovered there in 1482 A.D.
by Portuguese explorers who took them to the Americas, the place where the majority of
bananas are now produced.
Bananas were not brought to the United States for sale in markets until the latter part of
the 19th century and were initially only enjoyed by people in the seacoast towns where
the banana schooners docked; because of the fruit's fragility, they were unable to be
transported far.
Since the development of refrigeration and rapid transport in the 20th century, bananas
have become widely available. Today, bananas grow in most tropical and subtropical
regions with the main commercial producers including Costa Rica, Mexico, Ecuador and
Brazil.

How to Select and Store

Since bananas are picked off the tree while they're still green, it's not unusual to see them
this color in the store. Base your choice of bananas depending upon when you want to
consume them. Bananas with more green coloration will take longer to ripen than those
more yellow in hue and/or with brown spots.

215
Bananas should be firm, but not too hard, bright in appearance, and free from bruises or
other injuries. Their stems and tips should be intact. The size of the banana does not
affect its quality, so simply choose the size that best meets your needs.
At WHFoods, we encourage the purchase of certified organically grown foods, and
bananas is no exception. Repeated research studies on organic foods as a group show that
your likelihood of exposure to contaminants such as pesticides and heavy metals can be
greatly reduced through the purchased of certified organic foods, including bananas. If
you are shopping in a large supermarket, your most reliable source of organically grown
bananas is very likely to be bananas that display the USDA organic logo.
While bananas look resilient, they're actually very fragile and care should be taken in
their storage. They should be left to ripen at room temperature and should not be
subjected to overly hot or cold temperatures. Unripe bananas should not be placed in the
refrigerator as this will interrupt the ripening process to such an extent that it will not be
able to resume even if the bananas are returned to room temperature.
If you need to hasten the ripening process, you can place bananas in a paper bag or wrap
them in newspaper, adding an apple to accelerate the process. Ripe bananas that will not
be consumed for a few days can be placed in the refrigerator. While their peel may
darken, the flesh will not be affected. For maximum flavor when consuming refrigerated
bananas, remove them from the refrigerator and allow them to come back to room
temperature. For the most antioxidants, eat fully ripened fruit.
Bananas can also be frozen and will keep for about 2 months. Either puree them before
freezing or simply remove the peel and wrap the bananas in plastic wrap. To prevent
discoloration, add some lemon juice before freezing.

How to Enjoy

In addition to being eaten raw, bananas are a wonderful addition to a variety of recipes
from salads to baked goods.
A few quick serving ideas:
A peanut butter and banana sandwich drizzled with honey is an all-time favorite comfort
food for children and adults alike.
Add chopped bananas, walnuts and maple syrup to oatmeal or porridge.
Try our Tropical Breakfast Risotto in the Recipe File.
If you'd like even more recipes and ways to prepare bananas the Nutrient-Rich Way, you
may want to explore The World's Healthiest Foods book.

Individual Concerns

Bananas and Latex-Fruit Syndrome

Latex-fruit syndrom is a health problem related to the possible reaction of our immune
system to certain proteins found in natural rubber (from the tree Hevea brasiliensis) and
highly similar proteins found in certain foods, such as bananas. For helpful information
about this topic, please see our article, An Overview of Adverse Food Reactions.

216
Nutritional Profile

Bananas are a very good source of vitamin B6 and a good source of manganese, vitamin
C, potassium, dietary fiber, potassium, biotin, and copper.

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart

In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for
the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to
highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart
shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source
(below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is
not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn't contain it. It
simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to
meet our rating criteria. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes
values for dozens of nutrients - not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good -
please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you'll need to glance up
in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we
used to calculate the food's nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how
much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart.
Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find
the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents,
the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we
established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the
government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration's "Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling." Read more background
information and details of our rating system.
Banana, fresh
1.00 medium
118.00 grams
Calories: 105
GI: low
DRI/DV Nutrient World's Healthies
Nutrient Amount (%) Density Foods Rating
vitamin B6 0.43 mg 25 4.3 very good
manganese 0.32 mg 16 2.7 good
vitamin C 10.27 mg 14 2.3 good
fiber 3.07 g 12 2.1 good
potassium 422.44 mg 12 2.1 good
biotin 3.07 mcg 10 1.8 good
copper 0.09 mg 10 1.7 good

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World's Healthiest
Foods Rating Rule
DRI/DV>=75% OR
excellent
Density>=7.6 AND DRI/DV>=10%
DRI/DV>=50% OR
very good
Density>=3.4 AND DRI/DV>=5%
DRI/DV>=25% OR
good
Density>=1.5 AND DRI/DV>=2.5%

In-Depth Nutritional Profile

In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an in-depth nutritional
profile for Bananas. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients,
including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals,
fatty acids, amino acids and more.
Banana, fresh
(Note: "--" indicates data unavailable)
1.00 medium
GI: low
(118.00 g)
BASIC MACRONUTRIENTS AND CALORIES
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)
Protein 1.29 g 3
Carbohydrates 26.95 g 12
Fat - total 0.39 g --
Dietary Fiber 3.07 g 12
Calories 105.02 6
MACRONUTRIENT AND CALORIE DETAIL
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)
Carbohydrate:
Starch 6.35 g
Total Sugars 14.43 g
Monosaccharides 11.60 g

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Fructose 5.72 g
Glucose 5.88 g
Galactose 0.00 g
Disaccharides 2.83 g
Lactose 0.00 g
Maltose 0.01 g
Sucrose 2.82 g
Soluble Fiber -- g
Insoluble Fiber -- g
Other Carbohydrates 9.45 g
Fat:
Monounsaturated Fat 0.04 g
Polyunsaturated Fat 0.09 g
Saturated Fat 0.13 g
Trans Fat 0.00 g
Calories from Fat 3.50
Calories from Saturated Fat 1.19
Calories from Trans Fat 0.00
Cholesterol 0.00 mg
Water 88.39 g
MICRONUTRIENTS
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)
Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
B-Complex Vitamins
Vitamin B1 0.04 mg 3
Vitamin B2 0.09 mg 7

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Vitamin B3 0.78 mg 5
Vitamin B3 (Niacin Equivalents) 0.96 mg
Vitamin B6 0.43 mg 25
Vitamin B12 0.00 mcg 0
Biotin 3.07 mcg 10
Choline 11.56 mg 3
Folate 23.60 mcg 6
Folate (DFE) 23.60 mcg
Folate (food) 23.60 mcg
Pantothenic Acid 0.39 mg 8
Vitamin C 10.27 mg 14
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A (Retinoids and Carotenoids)
Vitamin A International Units (IU) 75.52 IU
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Activity 3.78 mcg
0
Equivalents (RAE) (RAE)
Vitamin A mcg Retinol Equivalents 7.55 mcg
(RE) (RE)
0.00 mcg
Retinol mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)
(RE)
Carotenoid mcg Retinol Equivalents 7.55 mcg
(RE) (RE)
Alpha-Carotene 29.50 mcg
Beta-Carotene 30.68 mcg
Beta-Carotene Equivalents 45.43 mcg
Cryptoxanthin 0.00 mcg
Lutein and Zeaxanthin 25.96 mcg
Lycopene 0.00 mcg
Vitamin D

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Vitamin D International Units (IU) 0.00 IU 0
Vitamin D mcg 0.00 mcg
Vitamin E
Vitamin E mg Alpha-Tocopherol 0.12 mg
1
Equivalents (ATE) (ATE)
Vitamin E International Units (IU) 0.18 IU
Vitamin E mg 0.12 mg
Vitamin K 0.59 mcg 1
Minerals
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)
Boron 122.14 mcg
Calcium 5.90 mg 1
Chloride 93.22 mg
Chromium 0.93 mcg 3
Copper 0.09 mg 10
Fluoride 0.00 mg 0
Iodine 9.44 mcg 6
Iron 0.31 mg 2
Magnesium 31.86 mg 8
Manganese 0.32 mg 16
Molybdenum -- mcg --
Phosphorus 25.96 mg 4
Potassium 422.44 mg 12
Selenium 1.18 mcg 2
Sodium 1.18 mg 0
Zinc 0.18 mg 2
INDIVIDUAL FATTY ACIDS
nutrient amount DRI/DV

221
(%)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids 0.03 g 1
Omega-6 Fatty Acids 0.05 g
Monounsaturated Fats
14:1 Myristoleic 0.00 g
15:1 Pentadecenoic 0.00 g
16:1 Palmitol 0.01 g
17:1 Heptadecenoic 0.00 g
18:1 Oleic 0.03 g
20:1 Eicosenoic 0.00 g
22:1 Erucic 0.00 g
24:1 Nervonic 0.00 g
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
18:2 Linoleic 0.05 g
18:2 Conjugated Linoleic (CLA) -- g
18:3 Linolenic 0.03 g
18:4 Stearidonic 0.00 g
20:3 Eicosatrienoic 0.00 g
20:4 Arachidonic 0.00 g
20:5 Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) 0.00 g
22:5 Docosapentaenoic (DPA) 0.00 g
22:6 Docosahexaenoic (DHA) 0.00 g
Saturated Fatty Acids
4:0 Butyric 0.00 g
6:0 Caproic 0.00 g
8:0 Caprylic 0.00 g
10:0 Capric 0.00 g
12:0 Lauric 0.00 g

222
14:0 Myristic 0.00 g
15:0 Pentadecanoic 0.00 g
16:0 Palmitic 0.12 g
17:0 Margaric 0.00 g
18:0 Stearic 0.01 g
20:0 Arachidic 0.00 g
22:0 Behenate 0.00 g
24:0 Lignoceric 0.00 g
INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)
Alanine 0.05 g
Arginine 0.06 g
Aspartic Acid 0.15 g
Cysteine 0.01 g
Glutamic Acid 0.18 g
Glycine 0.04 g
Histidine 0.09 g
Isoleucine 0.03 g
Leucine 0.08 g
Lysine 0.06 g
Methionine 0.01 g
Phenylalanine 0.06 g
Proline 0.03 g
Serine 0.05 g
Threonine 0.03 g
Tryptophan 0.01 g
Tyrosine 0.01 g

223
Valine 0.06 g
OTHER COMPONENTS
DRI/DV
nutrient amount
(%)
Ash 0.97 g
Organic Acids (Total) 0.75 g
Acetic Acid 0.01 g
Citric Acid 0.32 g
Lactic Acid 0.00 g
Malic Acid 0.42 g
Taurine -- g
Sugar Alcohols (Total) 0.01 g
Glycerol -- g
Inositol -- g
Mannitol -- g
Sorbitol -- g
Xylitol 0.01 g
Artificial Sweeteners (Total) -- mg
Aspartame -- mg
Saccharin -- mg
Alcohol 0.00 g
Caffeine 0.00 mg
Note:

The nutrient profiles provided in this website are derived from The Food Processor,
Version 10.12.0, ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon, USA. Among the 50,000+ food items
in the master database and 163 nutritional components per item, specific nutrient values
were frequently missing from any particular food item. We chose the designation "--" to
represent those nutrients for which no value was included in this version of the database.

References

224
Duan X, Cheng G, Yang E, et al. Modification of pectin polysaccharides during
ripening of postharvest banana fruit. Food Chemistry, Volume 111, Issue 1, 1
November 2008, Pages 144-149.
Gylling H, Plat J, Turley S, et al. Plant sterols and plant stanols in the
management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Atherosclerosis 2014;232:346-60.
Miller KC. Plasma potassium concentration and content changes after banana
ingestion in exercised men. J Athl Train 2012;47:648-54.
Mitsou EK, Kougia E, Nomikos T, et al. Effect of banana consumption on faecal
microbiota: a randomized, controlled trial. Anaerobe 2011;17:384-7.
Nieman DC, Gillitt ND, Henson DA, et al. Bananas as an energy source during
exercise: a metabolomics approach. PLoS One 2012;7:e37479.
Oliveira L, Freire CS, Silvestre AJ, et al. Lipophilic extracts from banana fruit
residues: a source of valuable phytosterols. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:9520-4.
Prabha P, Karpagam T, Varalakshmi B, et al. Indigenous anti-ulcer activity of
Musa sapientum on peptic ulcer. Pharmacognosy Res 2011;3:232-8.

Source:- http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=7

Medicinal Properties of the Banana Plant / Banana Tree


Written by Vanessa Jones , Lari Warjri | Medically Reviewed by Dr. Simi Paknikarthilaka Ravi on Feb
12, 2016

About
The banana tree is actually the largest herbaceous flowering plant in the world which on
an average is 20 - 25 feet tall.There is a lot more to this humble fruit than meets the eye.
This starch-rich fruit doubles as a meal many a time.

225
There are various varieties and shapes and sizes of bananas. It has been found that
bananas have curative properties both scientifically and traditionally. Birds and animals -
especially monkeys and elephants love bananas.

There are many healing and medicinal properties of


bananas:

The high content of iron in bananas increases the production of hemoglobin in the
blood -therefore they are very good for anemia.

They regulate bowel movement - whether it is constiption or diarrhea. Our elders


believed that eating a banana after every meal improved digestion significantly.

When you suffer from a hangover - a banana milkshake with honey can give you
immense relief. Cold milk soothes the stomach lining and bananas with honey build up
depleted blood sugar levels.

Bananas are exceedingly good for students as the rich source of potassium can make a

226
person very alert; the fruit is often called a brain tonic

Bananas work well as a snack for people who have high blood pressure as they are
wholesome with low salt levels.

For those suffering from depression, bananas are good as they contain a protein called
serotonin which is also called the happy hormone as it makes one feel happy and
relaxed.

Bananas can be eaten frequently to treat ulcers as they neutralize acidity in the
stomach. This soft and smooth fruit cannot irritate the stomach walls.

For pregnant women suffering from morning sickness, eating bananas in between
meals helps immensely in settling the queasiness in the stomach.

Eating bananas helps people give up smoking as this fruit is rich in vitamin C, A, B6
and B12. Bananas contain potassium and magnesium as well, which help the body
recover from nicotine withdrawal.

Bananas have an antacid effect, so people who experience heartburn find relief on
eating a banana.

Potassium is a vital mineral which normalizes heartbeat while regulating the bodys
water balance. As banana is a rich source of potassium, it re-balances disturbances of
fluids in the body.

For weight watchers, banana is an excellent snack in place of crisps and chocolates.
Research found that food craving during high pressure work could be assuaged safely and
in a healthy manner by eating a banana every 2-3 hourly as it is a high carbohydrate food
that controls blood sugar levels.

Topically, the peel of a banana with the yellow side on top can be taped to a warts. It
will shrivel and fall off.

The peel of a banana fruit can be rubbed on a mosquito bite with good effect, the
stinging sensation stops and the swelling also reduces.

A ripe banana mashed and applied on the face is great at moisturizing and nourishing
tired and dry skin.

Banana Stem:

When a bunch of bananas is harvested, the stem/tree is cut away. The tender inner stem is
used as food and has many medicinal properties as well.

Layers of hard outer stem are peeled away and only the tender inner stem is used. It is

227
very fibrous, so the thread fiber has to be cleaned. The stem is chopped into small bits
and soaked in buttermilk or diluted yogurt for half hour. In Southern parts of India, it is
cooked as a vegetable and eaten along with rice.

The banana stem has fiber this is very beneficial for those on a weight-loss program.
It is also a rich source of potassium and vitamin B6 which helps in the production
of insulin and hemoglobin.
Eating banana stem once a week keeps high blood pressure in control.
Banana stem also maintains fluid balance within the body. It is a diuretic and helps
detoxify the body.
The popular belief is that eating banana stem is very good for kidney stones.

Banana Flower:

The banana flower grows at the end of a bunch of bananas. It is a leafy maroon colored
cone with cream colored florets layered inside. These florets need to be cleaned well
before they are cooked as a vegetable.
The banana flower is rich in vitamins, flavonoids and proteins.
The flower has been used in traditional medicine to treat bronchitis, constipation and
ulcer problems.
It eases menstrual cramps.
The extracts of banana flower have antioxidant properties that prevent free radicals and
control cell and tissue damage.

Banana Plant Leaves:

In India and Asia, banana leaves are used like aluminum foil. They are used to wrap food
prior to steaming and grilling. The leaf makes an excellent platter and food served on
these leaves tastes delicious. The leaves are not eaten but while steaming food some of
the polyphenols are imparted to the food.

Red Skinned Bananas:

The peel of this type of bananas is a maroon red color and they are plumper than normal
bananas. They are also highly nutritious - the vitamin C content depends on how red the
banana is. The potassium content is high - more or less like the yellow bananas. The
flavor of red bananas is unique and they are delicious and rare.

Bananas, raw
The nutritional values of "Bananas, raw" per 100 grams are:

228
Nutrition Summary

Total Calories 89

Protein 1.1 g

Fat 0.4 g

Carbohydrate 22.8 g

Nutrients Amount %Daily Value

Calcium, Ca 5 mg 0.5 %

Copper, Cu 0.08 mg 3.9 %

Iron, Fe 0.26 mg 1.44 %

Magnesium, Mg 27 mg 6.75 %

Manganese, Mn 0.27 mg 13.5 %

Phosphorus, P 22 mg 2.2 %

Potassium, K 358 mg 10.23 %

Selenium, Se 1 mcg 1.43 %

Sodium, Na 1 mg 0.04 %

Zinc, Zn 0.15 mg 1%

Vitamin A 64 IU 1.28 %

Vitamin C 8.7 mg 14.5 %

Vitamin B6 0.37 mg 18.35 %

Vitamin E 0.1 mg 0.33 %

Vitamin K 0.5 mcg 0.62 %

Riboflavin 0.07 mg 4.29 %

Thiamin 0.03 mg 2.07 %

Folate, DFE 20 mcg 5%

229
Nutrition Summary

Total Calories 89

Niacin 0.66 mg 3.32 %

Sugars 12.23 g

Fiber 2.6 g 10.4 %

Cholesterol 0 mg 0%

Water 74.91 g

Carotene, alpha 25 mcg

Carotene, beta 26 mcg

Choline 9.8 mg

Lycopene 0 mcg

View all +
Data source: USDA Nutrient Database, R25
*Percent Daily Values (%DV) are based on a 2,000 calorie reference diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower based on your individual
needs.

Banana Tree Facts


The scientific name for banana is musa sapientum, which means fruit of the wise
men. Banana plant is a perennial herb that grows from a bulk of rhizome.

The fruit grow in large hanging bunches where it has about 10 to 20 fingers. A cluster of
banana is called a hand and a single banana is called a finger. It grows in humid, tropical
areas and is the worlds largest herb.

230
Banana Tree-Medical- Facts

Bananas are low in calories and have no fat, sodium and cholesterol contents. They
contain vitamin C, potassium, fiber, and vitamin B6.

Rubbing the inside part of a banana peel on a mosquito bite or on a poison ivy will help
keep it from itching and getting inflamed.

If you rub the inner part of the banana peel on a scrape or burn, it helps reduce the pain,
keep the swelling down and keep the wound from getting infected.

The inside part of the banana peel has potassium, magnesium and manganese content in
it that can help whiten your teeth naturally. Rub the inside part of the banana peel on your
teeth for about two minutes every night.

A headache can be cured by rubbing a banana peel on your forehead.

The phosphorous and potassium content in bananas and banana peel can make great
fertilizer when mixed with garden soil.

Bananas are healthy snack that have high nutritional value.

The water content in banana is around 75 percent.

Bananas can be found in different colors, including red, yellow and green. They grow in
large hanging bunches.

The fiber taken from banana plants can be used to make clothes.

Banana leaves are large and flexible and are used as eco-friendly, disposable plates or
food containers.

231
Banana flower is used as a vegetable in Asian cuisine and consumed either raw or
steamed or used in curries.

The tender stem or inner core of the banana tree trunk is also used to make healthy
salads or eaten as a lightly cooked curry in Indian cuisine.

The inner part of the banana peel can be used to clean and polish leather shoes. Bananas
are slightly radioactive but the level of radiation is not high enough to cause harm.
Published on Dec 04, 2012
Last Updated on Feb 12, 2016

Source:- http://www.medindia.net/patients/lifestyleandwellness/medicinal-
properties-of-the-banana-plant-reference.htm

7 Amazing Medicinal Properties of the


Banana Plant
Posted on:
Tuesday, October 16th 2012 at 2:00 pm
Written By:
Sayer Ji, Founder
This article is copyrighted by GreenMedInfo LLC, 2012
Visit our Re-post guidelines

232
There is much more than meets the eye with the banana. A household favorite, a lost-
leader at the grocery store, a metaphor for psychiatric problems, a mainstay of comic slap
stick, the banana has woven itself deeply into human affairs, on both gut and mental
levels. And this relationship is at least 10,000 years old, as far as conscious human
cultivation of the species goes.
But, many do not realize that the banana is more than just an exceptionally starch-rich
fruit, but has a complex biochemistry, with pharmacologically active properties. Bananas
actually contain the catecholamines dopamine[i] and norepinephrine,[ii] the very same
adrenal hormones released in the human body when it undergoes the typical "fight-or-
flight" response. It is believed that the banana plant uses the biosynthetic pathway for
catecholamines when under the stress of attack to fight off infectious pathogens such as
in crown rot disease.[iii] Some varieties excrete a form of serotonin in their sap, [iv] and
there is even mention in the biomedical literature of the discovery of the NSAID drug
naproxen (trade name Aleve) within the banana cultivar Musa acuminate. Sound crazy?
Well, that's to be expected from a fruit we commonly associate with a state of unbridled
madness.
But the banana has a secret second life. It has been observed slyly practicing medicine
without a license, and indeed, seems readily equipped with the following nutritional
"super powers"....

Green Banana Is Anti-Diarrhea

Before a banana is ripened, while it is in its green state, it contains starches which are
resistant to digestion, but have been studied in combination with pectin to significantly

233
reduce intestinal permeability and fluid loss in those suffering with bouts of diarrhea.
[v] [vi] Even when used without pectin, green banana has been found to hasten recovery
of acute and prolonged childhood diarrhea when managed at home in rural Bangladesh.
[vii]
Banana Is Anti-Ulcer Activity
Banana powder has been studied to prevent ulcer formation induced by a variety of
drugs, including aspirin, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, prednisolone, cysteamine, and
histamine. Researchers have found that banana powder treatment not only strengthens
mucosal resistance against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing cellular
proliferation.[viii] One of the anti-ulcer compounds identified within unripe banana is the
flavonoid known as leucocyanidin, and which is particularly effective against aspirin-
induced erosion.[ix]
Banana Peel Suppresses Prostate Gland Growth
Banana peel has been found to suppress testosterone-induced prostate gland enlargement.
[x]

Banana Stem Extract suppresses Oxalate Kidney Stones

A water extract of banana stem extract has been found to suppress the formation of
oxalate-associated kidney stones in the animal model, leading researchers to conclude
that it "may be a useful agent in the treatment of patients with hyperoxaluric
urolithiasis."[xi]
Banana Consumption Protects the Skin Against UV-Light Damage

UV-B light induced skin damage may be prevented or reduced through the consumption
of bananas, with a protective effect against loss of skin elasticity.[xii]
Banana Has Anti-Diabetic Properties
Banana flower extract has been studied in a type 1 diabetic model,[xiii] and has been
found to have both antioxidant and blood sugar lowering effects. Banana root extracts
have been discovered to contain blood sugar lowering properties comparable in efficacy
to the drug glibenclamide (trade name Glyburide).[xiv] Also, unripe banana
contain starches resistant to hydrolysis and therefore beneficial to diabetics.[xv]
Banana Contains a Variety of Anti-Infective Compounds
Banana contains compounds with demonstrable anti-MRSA activity,[xvi] anti-HIV
replicative activity,[xvii] [xviii] and following metabolic transformation by fungi, anti-
leishmanicidal activity.[xix] The leaves of the plant are used in many centers in India
during the care of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and other extensive
blistering disorders which can result in deadly sepsis in the absence of treatment.[xx]

234
RESOURCES
[i] K Kanazawa, H Sakakibara. High content of dopamine, a strong antioxidant, in
Cavendish banana. J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Mar ;48(3):844-8. PMID: 10725161
[ii] J M FOY, J R PARRATT. A note on the presence of noradrenaline and 5-
hydroxytryptamine in plantain (Musa sapientum, var. paradisiaca). J Pharm
Pharmacol. 1960 Jun ;12:360-4. PMID: 13824274
[iii] L Lassois, C De Clerck, P Frettinger, L De Lapeyre De Bellaire, P Lepoivre,
M Hassam Jijakli. Catecholamine biosynthesis pathway potentially involved in
banana defense mechanisms to crown rot disease. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci.
2011 ;76(4):591-601. PMID: 22702179
[iv] Pongsagon Pothavorn, Kasipong Kitdamrongsont, Sasivimon Swangpol,
Siripope Wongniam, Kanokporn Atawongsa, Jisnuson Savasti, Jamorn Somana.
Sap phytochemical compositions of some bananas in Thailand. J Agric Food
Chem. 2010 Aug 11 ;58(15):8782-7. PMID: 20681667
[v] G H Rabbani, Telahun Teka, Shyamal Kumar Saha, Badiuz Zaman, Naseha
Majid, Makhduma Khatun, Mohammad A Wahed, George J Fuchs. Green
banana and pectin improve small intestinal permeability and reduce fluid
loss in Bangladeshi children with persistent diarrhea. Dig Dis Sci. 2004
Mar;49(3):475-84. PMID: 15139502
[vi] G H Rabbani, T Teka, B Zaman, N Majid, M Khatun, G J Fuchs. Clinical
studies in persistent diarrhea: dietary management with green banana or
pectin in Bangladeshi children. Gastroenterology. 2001 Sep;121(3):554-60.
PMID: 11522739
[vii] G H Rabbani, C P Larson, R Islam, U R Saha, A Kabir. Green banana-
supplemented diet in the home management of acute and prolonged
diarrhoea in children: a community-based trial in rural Bangladesh. Trop
Med Int Health. 2010 Oct;15(10):1132-9. PMID: 20831671
[viii] R K Goel, S Gupta, R Shankar, A K Sanyal. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of
banana powder (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) and its effect on mucosal
resistance. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986 Oct;18(1):33-44. PMID: 3821133
[ix] D A Lewis, W N Fields, G P Shaw. A natural flavonoid present in unripe
plantain banana pulp (Musa sapientum L. var. paradisiaca) protects the
gastric mucosa from aspirin-induced erosions. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999
Jun;65(3):283-8. PMID: 10404428
[x] Kiichiro Akamine, Tomoyuki Koyama, Kazunaga Yazawa . Banana peel
extract suppressed prostate gland enlargement in testosterone-treated
mice. Dermatol Surg. 2005 Jul;31(7 Pt 2):855-60; discussion 860.
PMID: 19734683
[xi] P K Poonguzhali, H Chegu. The influence of banana stem extract on urinary
risk factors for stones in normal and hyperoxaluric rats. Br J Urol. 1994 Jul ;
74(1):23-5. PMID: 8044524
[xii] Jarupa Viyoch, Khuanrudee Mahingsa, Kornkanok Ingkaninan. Effects of
Thai Musa species on prevention of UVB-induced skin damage in mice. Food
Chem Toxicol. 2012 Sep 8 ;50(12):4292-4301. Epub 2012 Sep 8.
PMID: 22986089

235
[xiii] S P Dhanabal, M Sureshkumar, M Ramanathan, B Suresh. Hypoglycemic
effect of ethanolic extract of Musa sapientum on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus
in rats and its relation with antioxidant potential. J Nutr. 2010 Aug;140(8):1462-8.
Epub 2010 Jun 16. PMID: 16260406
[xiv] E O Adewoye, V O Taiwo, F A Olayioye. Anti-oxidant and anti-
hyperglycemic activities of musa sapientum root extracts in alloxan-induced
diabetic rats. J Med Chem. 2010 Oct 28;53(20):7365-76. PMID: 20175413
[xv] J Thakorlal, C O Perera, B Smith, L Englberger, A Lorens . Resistant starch
in Micronesian banana cultivars offers health benefits. Pac Health Dialog. 2010
Apr;16(1):49-59. PMID: 20968236
[xvi] Qian Zhang, Wenyi Kang. [Active compounds from rhizomes of Musa
basjoo]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010 Sep;35(18):2424-7. PMID: 21141492
[xvii] Allen H K Cheung, Jack H Wong, T B Ng. Musa acuminata (Del Monte
banana) lectin is a fructose-binding lectin with cytokine-inducing
activity. Phytomedicine. 2009 Jun;16(6-7):594-600. Epub 2009 Feb 4.
PMID: 19195858
[xviii] Michael D Swanson, Harry C Winter, Irwin J Goldstein, David M
Markovitz. A lectin isolated from bananas is a potent inhibitor of HIV
replication. J Biol Chem. 2010 Mar 19;285(12):8646-55. Epub 2010 Jan 15.
PMID: 20080975
[xix] Juan Romn Luque-Ortega, Silvia Martnez, Jos Mara Saugar, Laura R
Izquierdo, Teresa Abad, Javier G Luis, Jos Piero, Basilio Valladares, Luis
Rivas. Fungus-elicited metabolites from plants as an enriched source for new
leishmanicidal agents: antifungal phenyl-phenalenone phytoalexins from the
banana plant (Musa acuminata) target mitochondria of Leishmania donovani
promastigotes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 May;48(5):1534-40.
PMID: 15105102
[xx] C R Srinivas, V Shanmuga Sundaram, B Appala Raju, S Karthick Prabhu, M
Thirumurthy, A C Bhaskar. Achieving asepsis of banana leaves for the
management of toxic epidermal necrolysis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol.
2006 May-Jun;72(3):201-2. PMID: 16766833

Health Benefits Of Banana Tree ( Uses

Stem/Flower/Leaves/Peel)
There is a famous western medicines say, An Apple a day keeps the doctor away, in
the same way Ayurveda have its own saying Eating a banana will keep you away from
all diseases. Compare to apple banana have four times more proteins, five times vitamin
A and iron, three times the phosphorus, two times carbohydrate and twice other vitamins
and minerals.

236
This golden fruit of tropical regions contains all the essential nutrients needed for health.
This fruit is known to be a store of vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates. It contains
vitamins A, B, B-6 beside calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium etc. Raw bananas contain
about 20 to 25 percent starch. Then during the maturation process the starch is almost
converted with assimilable sugar.

Ayurveda View On Banana

Ayurveda is one of the worlds oldest holistic healing systems based on the five basic
elements of nature that influence the three humors (doshas) of the body. Ayurveda
recommends banana as the first solid food for babies. The yellow skin Banana can cures
most diseases caused by the three humors (vata, pitta and kapha). Although it balances
vata and pitta doshas it may increase kapha dosha if not properly digested. An interesting
feature is that bananas can reduce your weight causes obesity and at the same time it can
build the body. Ayurveda also recommends feeding of banana to anemic children.

237
According to the Ayurveda texts such as Sushruta Samhita explain the benefits of
banana that can be used as both fruit and vegetables. They note that the banana is only the
plant whose stem, flower, leaves; skin means whole plant is full of medicinal properties.
It also keeps the body cool by balancing the vata and pitta dosha.

Medicinal Uses Of Banana Stem:


When harvesting bananas the tree so called stem is cut away. The tender inner part of the
stem can be used as vegetable. The stem are very fibrous so it is necessary to clean the
fiber yarn properly .The stems are cut into a smaller pieces and soaked in buttermilk or
diluted yogurt for half an hour and can be consume. In southern part of India it is cooked
as a vegetable and eaten with rice.

The banana stem are of rich fiber so it very beneficial for those people with a weight loss
program .In addition it have good amount of potassium and vitamin B6 that helps in the
production of insulin and increase hemoglobin . It is also beneficial to a person having
blood pressure.Eating banana stem once a week will keep blood pressure under control. It
also helps to maintain fluid balance within the body and detoxify the body.
Medicinal uses of Banana Flower:

The flower grows at the end of a bunch of bananas it is cone shape redish brown with
cream colored florets layers in inner part .It can be used as vegetable, it should be
thoroughly cleaned before being cooked. The banana flower is rich in proteins, vitamins
and flavonoids. The flower has been used as traditional medicine to treat various illnesses
such as constipation, ulcer and bronchitis problems also helpful in menstrual cramps

Medicinal uses of Banana Plant Leaves:

In southern part of India using banana leaves in daily life have a traditional look they
serve food in banana leaves. For them Banana leaf is considered a sign of purity and
therefore people consider big meal to be served in a banana leaf. The medicinal benefits
of banana leaf juice is that it is an amazing cleanser. It is very beneficial for cleaning

238
bowel if taken half a glass once a week, leaf juice mixed with warm water can also be
used for gargling. It provides relief from sore throat, can be crushed and applied to the
skin. It is also beneficial in skin irritations, Heals burns and other minor injuries

Medicinal uses of Banana Peel:

Banana peel or so called skin is rich in polyphenols and carotenoids that are
phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. The Studies have found that unripe banana
peel contains more antioxidants properties than ripe banana.
The other antioxidant properties found in banana peel is lutein, which is known to
reduce oxidative stress and neutralize free radicals in various parts of body including the
skin.The lutein found in banana peel is also known for providing nutritional substance
to eyes reducing the risk of macular degeneration and cataracts, filter out harmful UV
rays which damage the eyes and protect cells in the eyes from free radicals damage .The
researchers suggest a minimum of 6 mg 10 mg of lutein is required daily to be healthy
and fit that can be obtained from dark green leafy vegetables, spinach and fruits, so why
not from banana peel instead of throwing it away.

Other Curative Properties of Banana


Banana is used as traditional medicine in India and the ancient Persia it is called the
golden fruit due to the secret of perpetual youth nature. Today banana is known to
consume for the healthy digestion. It create a feeling of youth as it have calcium ,
phosphorus and nitrogen all of which then work to build sound and regenerated tissues.
Below is some more benefit of eating banana.

Kidney Disorders :

Banana fruit have low protein and salt and are rich in carbohydrates that are useful to
person having kidney disorders. It is also useful in different aliments such as uremia, a
toxic condition of the blood cause due to kidney congestion and dysfunction. In such
cases bananas must only being taken for three to four days, the consumption of bananas is

239
eight to nine per day. The banana are suitable for all persons with kidney problems,
including nephritis .
Note: The person suffering from kidney failure must avoid it as it have high content of
potassium that can harm kidney.
Urinary disorders:

The banana stem juice is a well-known remedy for urinary disorders. It improves the
functional efficiency of kidney and liver thereby reduces the pains and diseased condition
in them. It clears the excretion organs in the abdominal portion and helps to eliminate
toxins in form of urine. It has been found that it is helpful in the treatment for removal of
kidney stones, gall bladder, and prostate. It is advisable to mix this juice with the juice of
ash gourd for best result.

Allergies:
The banana fruit is very useful for those people who are allergic to certain foods causing
a result of skin rashes.It is also useful in aliment such as digestive disorders or asthma.
Unlike many other protein-rich foods they contain an amino acid which the people cannot
tolerate and causes them allergy. But bananas contain only benign amino-acids that are
not allergic. Even though it may not causes allergic reactions, but in some individuals
who are allergic should avoid it.

Constipation and diarrhea:

Bananas is well known remedy for both constipation and diarrhea it normalize the
functions of the colon in the large intestine to absorb large amounts of water for proper
bowel moments. It is beneficial in constipation due to its richness of pectin that functions
as water absorbent and gives them greater production ability. It functions to change the
bacteria in the intestines from harmful type bacilli to beneficial acidophilus bacilli.

240
Menstrual disorders:

The uses of Banana flower is known to be best natural remedy for menstrual disorders. If
it is taken with curd it is very useful for menstrual disorders such as excessive menstrual
bleeding and pain. Banana flower helps to increase progesterone hormone which reduces
the bleeding.

This section is not written for Jamaicans who cook and eat
green bananas, rather than trying to eat them raw.

Precautions : Banana should be consume only when it is fully ripe or else it cannot
be digested in the small intestine, which then fermented in the large intestine , often
causing wind problem.
Bananas should not be stored in a refrigerator as it prevents it from ripening. The person
suffering from kidney failure or kidney related problem must not consume banana as it
has high content of potassium that is unhealthy for such person.

Source:- http://www.ayurvedicindia.info/how-many-calories-in-a-banana/

Jackfruit Health Benefits


Jackfruit, scientifically known as Artocarpus heterophyllus, belongs to the Moraceae
family and is native to certain parts of Southeast and Southern Asia. Asian cuisine
commonly uses this fruit as a condiment to various curries and other dishes. This fruit
usually grows in abundance during the summer. Some of the nutritional information and
facts about jackfruit are as under:

A cup of raw jackfruit contains approximately 155 calories where only 4 calories
come from its fat content.
Jackfruit is low in sodium, cholesterol, and saturated fats.
It is a rich source of vitamins A, C, riboflavin, niacin, thiamine, and folate.
It also contains important minerals like magnesium, calcium, iron, potassium,
phosphorous, copper, zinc, manganese, and selenium.
It is a rich source of dietary fiber and provides almost 11% of the daily fiber
requirement.
It does not contain any sugar, which makes it a good fruit for health conscious
individuals.

241
The nutrients found in jackfruit have powerful anti-cancer, anti-aging, anti-
ulcerative, and anti-hypersensitivity properties that are valuable in the treatment of a
number of diseases.
Chinese medicine uses jackfruit as a treatment for fighting the effects of alcohol
in the body.
Apart from being a tasty fruit, there are various health benefits of jackfruit.
Its high nutritional value is very beneficial in the treatment, cure, and prevention of a
number of ailments and disorders. Some of the main health benefits of jackfruit
concerning specific disorders are as under:

Diabetes:

Most doctors do not recommend eating jackfruit for patients of diabetes. However,
consumption of jackfruit leaves may help in improving glucose tolerance in both type-2 and
normal diabetes patients.

Cancer:

Jackfruit contains phytonutrients that have powerful anti-cancer properties. These


phytonutrients help in eliminating free cancer causing radicals from the body and slow
down the degeneration of cells in the body, which may lead to a number of degenerative
disorders.

Constipation:

One of the medicinal uses of jackfruit is the treatment of problems like constipation.
Jackfruits are rich in fiber and have powerful laxative properties that help in facilitating
bowel movements, thereby preventing and treating constipation.

Skin and eye care:

Jackfruits contain powerful anti-aging properties that slow down the degeneration of skin
cells and make the skin look younger. They are a rich source of vitamin A that is essential in
maintaining healthy eyesight.

High blood pressure:

Being a rich source of potassium, jackfruits are very effective in lowering high blood
pressure and controlling the heart rate.

Bone health:

Jackfruits are also effective in maintaining good bone health. They are a rich source of
magnesium that helps in the absorption of calcium and strengthens the bones.

242
Anemia:

Jackfruits being a rich source of iron help in preventing anemia and improving blood
circulation in the body.

Asthma:

Another one of the medicinal uses of jackfruit is the treatment of asthma and other upper
respiratory tract problems. Experts believe that the root and extracts of jackfruit are
effective in controlling asthma and alleviating the symptoms associated with this condition.

Ulcers:

Jackfruit contains strong anti-ulcerative properties that not only help cure ulcers but also
prevent a number of other digestive system disorders.

Jackfruit For Pregnant Women

Most experts recommend not eating jackfruit during pregnancy, simply because of a lack
of scientific evidence about its safety during pregnancy. The popular myth among
pregnant women is that eating jackfruit during pregnancy may induce a miscarriage. This,
however, is not true. It is always advisable to eat this fruit in limited quantities because it
contains powerful laxative properties that may cause diarrhea in pregnant women and
hamper the health of both the mother and the child. Jackfruit, like most fruits, is loaded
with nutrients that may actually be beneficial during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Some
of the advantages of eating this fruit during pregnancy are:

It is a rich source of vitamin A that is crucial for proper cell production, eyesight,
and fetal development during pregnancy.
It is a rich source of niacin (vitamin B3) that helps regulate hormones, boosts
immunity, and controls stress levels in pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Side Effects Of Jackfruit

Although jackfruit has a number of health benefits, it is also important to consider some
of its side effects on health. Some of the common side effects are as follows:

Jackfruits may cause an allergic reaction in people suffering from birch pollen
allergies.
It may increase coagulation in people suffering from blood disorders.
It may alter the tolerance levels of glucose in diabetes patients.
The seeds of jackfruit may have an immunostimulative effect in patients
undergoing immunosuppression therapy or patients with tissue transplants.

243
Those trying to get pregnant should avoid jackfruit as it may inhibit sexual
arousal, libido, performance, and vigor in men.
(source:- http://www.diethealthclub.com/health-food/jackfruit.html)

Jackfruit and Its Many Functional Components


as Related to Human Health: A Review
Authors
Shrikant Baslingappa Swami,
1.

N. J. Thakor,
1.

P. M. Haldankar,
1.

S. B. Kalse
1.

First published: 16 October 2012Full publication history


DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00210.x View/save citation
Cited by (CrossRef): 15 articlesCheck for updates

Abstract
Abstract: Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is an ancient fruit that is widely
consumed as a fresh fruit. The use of jackfruit bulbs and its parts has also been reported
since ancient times for their therapeutic qualities. The beneficial physiological effects
may also have preventive application in a variety of pathologies. The health benefits of
jackfruit have been attributed to its wide range of physicochemical applications. This
review presents an overview of the functional, medicinal, and physiological properties of
this fruit.

Introduction
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) trees belong to the family Moraceae. They
grow abundantly in India, Bangladesh, and in many parts of Southeast Asia (Rahaman
and others 1999). It is one the most significant evergreen trees in tropical areas and
widely grown in Asia including India. It is a medium-size tree typically reaching 28 to 80
ft in height that is easily accessible for its fruit. The fruit is borne on side branches and
main branches of the tree. Average weight of a fruit is 3.5 to 10 kg and sometimes a fruit

244
may reach up to 25 kg. Different parts of jackfruit are shown in Figure 1. There are 2
main varieties of jackfruits: one is small, fibrous, soft, and mushy, and the carpels are
sweet, with a texture like that of a raw oyster the other variety is crisp and crunchy, but
not very sweet. The large seeds from this nonleguminous plant are also edible, even
though they are difficult to digest (Siddappa 1957). A single seed is enclosed in a white
aril encircling a thin brown spermoderm, which covers the fleshy white cotyledon.
Jackfruit cotyledons are fairly rich in starch and protein (Singh and others 1991). The
search for lesser known and underutilized crops, many of which are potentially valuable
as human and animal food has included jackfruits which have been the focus of research
in recent years.

Figure 1.

Different parts of jackfruit: (A) jackfruit; (B) cutting section of jackfruit; (C) jackfruit
flesh; (D) jackfruit seed.

The fruit provides about 2 MJ of energy per kg/wet weight of ripe perianth (Ahmed and
others 1986). Jackfruit has been reported to contain high levels of protein, starch,
calcium, and thiamine (Burkill 1997). The seeds may be boiled, or roasted and eaten or
boiled and preserved in syrup like chestnuts. Roasted, dried seeds are ground to make
flour that is blended with wheat flour for baking (Morton 1987). The composition of
jackfruit perianth and seed has been reported (Bobbio and others 1978; Morton
1987; Selvaraj and Pal 1989; Hossain and others 1990; Rahman and others 1999). At
least one study has reported on functional properties of jackfruit flour (Odoemelam
2005).
In addition to its ripe fruit, which has a unique flavor, the jackfruit seed is widely
consumed as a dessert or an ingredient in Asian culinary preparations. The jackfruit seeds
are used in cooked dishes and its flour is used for baking. Jackfruit seeds are fairly rich in
starch (Singh and others 1991). Mature jackfruits are cooked as vegetables, and used in
curries or salads (Narasimham 1990). Ripe fruits can be eaten raw, or cooked in creamy
coconut milk as dessert, made into candied jackfruit or edible jackfruit leather. In India,
the seeds are boiled in sugar and eaten as dessert (Roy and Joshi 1995). Jackfruit is also
used for further processing. For instance, jackfruit leather and jackfruit chips can be made
from dried jackfruit pulp (Nakasone and Paull 1998). Pureed jackfruit is also
manufactured into baby food, juice, jam, jelly, and base for cordials (Roy and Joshi
1995). Jackfruits are made into candies, fruit-rolls, marmalades, and ice cream. Other
than canning, advances in processing technologies too, have pushed toward more new

245
products (Narasimham 1990). Freeze-dried, vacuum-fried, and cryogenic processing are
new preservation methods for modern jackfruit-based products. Various parts of the
jackfruit tree have been used in medicine and its wood as an important source in the
timber industries (Roy and Joshi 1995).
It is now widely accepted that the beneficial effects of fruits and vegetables for the
prevention of certain diseases are due to the bioactive compounds they contain
(Galaverna and others 2008). Recent years have seen increased interest on the part of
consumers, researchers, and the food industries into how food products can help maintain
health; and the role that diet plays in the prevention and treatment of many illnesses has
become widely accepted (Vinuda-Martos and others 2010). The aim of this review was
to present an overview of the functional, medicinal, and physiological properties of the
jackfruit.
Phytochemistry
A. heterophyllus contains various chemical constituents as several flavone colorings,
morin, dihydromorin, cynomacurin, artocarpin, isoartocarpin, cyloartocarpin,
artocarpesin, oxydihydroartocarpesin, artocarpetin, norartocarpetin, cycloartinone, and
artocarpanone (Rama Rao and others 1973). The heartwood of jackfruit on analysis
yields moisture (6.7%), glucosides (38.0%), lipids (0.7%), protein (1.7%), and cellulose
(59.0 %) (Perkin and Cope 1895). The jackfruit also contains free sugar (sucrose), fatty
acids, ellagic acid, and amino acids like arginine, cystine, histidine, leucine, lysine,
metheonine, theonine, tryptophan, and others. (Pavanasasivam and Sultanbawa 1973).
Bark from the main trunk contains betullic acid and two new flavone pigments including
cycloheterophyllin (C30H30O7) (Chawdhary and Raman 1997). Heterophylol, a phenolic
compound with a novel skeleton, was obtained from A.heterophyllus (Chun-Nan and
Chai-Ming 1993). The leaves and stem have shown the presence of sapogenins,
cycloartenone, cycloartenol, -sitosterol (Nath and Chaturvedi 1989), and tannins, and
they have shown estrogenic activity. The root contains -sitosterol, ursolic acid, betulinic
acid, and cycloartenone (Dayal and Seshadri 1974).
Jacalin, the major protein from A. heterophyllus seeds, is a tetrameric two-chain lectin
combining a heavy chain of 133 amino acid residues with a light chain of 20 to 21
amino acid residues. It is highly specific for the O-glycoside of the disaccharide
Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Gal1-3GalNAc), even in its sialylated form. This
property has made jacalin suitable for studying various O-linked glycoproteins,
particularly human IgA1 (Suresh Kumar and others 1982). Jacalin's uniqueness in being
strongly mitogenic for human CD4+T lymphocytes has made it a useful tool for the
evaluation of the immune status of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus
HIV-1 (Pereira-da-Silva and others 2006). Two novel 2,4,6-trioxygenated flavanones,
heteroflavanones A and B, were isolated from the root bark of A. heterophyllus.Their
structures were elucidated as 5-hydroxy-7,2,4,6-tetra methoxyflavanone and 8-(,-
dimethylallyl) 5-hydroxy-7,2,4,6-tetra methoxyflavanone (Chai-Ming and Chun-Nan
1993; Chun-Nan and others 1995). Three phenolic compounds were characterized as
artocarpesin [(5,7,2,4-tetrahydroxy-6--methylbut-3-enyl) flavone], norartocarpetin
(5,7,2,4-tetrahydroxyflavone), and oxyresveratrol (trans-2,4,3,5-tetrahydroxystilbene)
by spectroscopic methods (Venkataraman 2001) . The anti-inflammatory effects of these
isolated compounds were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on the
production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW

246
264.7 murine macrophage cells. These 3 compounds exhibited potent anti-inflammatory
activity (Jha and others 1997). The carotenoids of A. heterophyllus were identified as
the carotenes -carotene, -carotene, -zeacarotene, -zeacarotene, and -carotene-5,6-
epoxide, as well as a dicarboxylic carotenoid, crocetin (Chandrika and others 2004).

Chemical Composition of Jackfruit


Jackfruit contains vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, potassium, iron,
sodium, zinc, and niacin among many other nutrients. Jackfruit has a low caloric content:
100 g of jackfruit only contains 94 calories (Mukprasirt and Sajjaanantakul 2004).
Jackfruit is a rich source of potassium with 303 mg found in 100 g of jackfruit. Studies
show that food rich in potassium helps to lower blood pressure.
Another benefit of eating jackfruit is that it is a good source of vitamin C. The human
body does not make vitamin C so one must eat food that contains vitamin C to reap its
health benefits. The health benefits of vitamin C are that it is an antioxidant that protects
the body against free radicals, strengthens the immune system, and keeps our gums
healthy (Umesh and others 2010).

Jackfruit contains phytonutrients: lignans, isoflavones, and saponins that have health
benefits that are wide ranging. These phytonutrients have anticancer, antihypertensive,
antiulcer and antiaging properties. The phytonutrients found in jackfruit, therefore, can
prevent forming of cancer cells in the body, can lower blood pressure, can fight against
stomach ulcers, and can slow down the degeneration of cells that make the skin look
young and vitae. Jackfruit also contains niacin that is known as vitamin B3 and necessary
for energy metabolism, nerve function, and the synthesis of certain hormones. A portion
of 100 g of jackfruit pulp provides 4 mg niacin (Soobrattee and others 2005). The
recommended daily amount for niacin is 16 mg for males and 14 mg for females.
(Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2000).
Jackfruit root has been found to help those suffering from asthma. Boiling the root of the
jackfruit and extracting and consuming it with its high nutritional content have been
found to control asthma. Jackfruit root has also been used to treat skin problems. The
extract of jackfruit root is believed to be able to help cure diarrhea and fever (Samaddar
1985).

Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)


The jackfruit is a rich source of phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds, and
offers opportunities for the development of value-added products, such as neutraceutical
and food applications to enhance health benefits (Umesh and others 2010).

Phytonutrients are natural compounds found in plant-based foods that give plants their
rich pigmentation, as well as their distinctive taste and aroma. They are essentially the
plant's immune system and offer protection to humans as well (Umesh and others 2010).

247
There are thousands of phytonutrients that may help prevent cancer as well as provide
other health benefits (Ko and others 1998). Phytoestrogens are naturally
occurring polycyclic phenols found in certain plants that may, when ingested and
metabolized, have weak estrogenic effects. Two important groups of phytoestrogens are
isoflavones and lignans present in jackfruit pulp.

Phenolic Compounds
Total phenolic content in jackfruit is 0.36 mg GAE/100 g DW [milligrams of Gallic acid
equivalent per gram of dry weight] (Wongsa and Zamaluddien 2005). Consumption of
fruits and vegetables has been recognized for reducing risk of chronic diseases such as
cardiovascular disease (Dembinska-Kice and others 2008). Phenolic compounds in
fruits and vegetables have been suggested to be a major source of bioactive compounds
for health benefits. However, their phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were
underestimated in their inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant to
hyperglycemia. Natural sources of phenolic compounds and inhibitors of digestive
enzymes from food sources have provided an opportunity for low-cost dietary
management for cardiovascular diseases (McDougall and others 2005).
Natural polyphenol can range from simple molecules (phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids,
flavonoids) to highly polymerized compounds (lignins, melanins, tannins), with
flavonoids representing the most common and widely distributed subgroup (Soobrattee
and others 2005). Chemically phenolic acids can be defined as substances that possess
an aromatic ring bound to one or more hydrogenated substituents, including their
functional derivatives (Marine and others 2001). Flavonoids are low-molecular-weight
compounds consisting of 15 carbon atoms, arranged in a C6-C3-C6 configuration.
Essentially, the structure consists of 2 aromatic rings joined by a 3-carbon bridge, usually
in the form of a heterocyclic ring (Balasundram and others 2006).
Antioxidants
The pulp of ripe jackfruit is eaten fresh and used in fruit salads. It possesses high
nutritional value; every 100 g of ripe fruit pulp contains 18.9 g carbohydrate, 1.9 g
protein, 0.1 g fat, 77% moisture, 1.1 g fiber, 0.8 g total mineral matter, 20 mg calcium, 30
mg phosphorus, 500 mg iron, 540 I.U. vitamin A, 30 mg thiamin, and 84 calories
(Samaddar 1985). The jackfruit also contains (Table 1) useful antioxidant compounds
(Ko and others 1998).

Table 1. Composition of jackfruit (100 g edible portion).

248
Sr. No Composition Young fruit Ripe fruit Seed

1. Source: Arkroyd and others (1966), Narasimham (1990), Gunasena and others (1996), Azad (2000).

A Proximate analysis

1 Water (g) 76.2 to 85.2 72.0 to 94.0 51.0 to

2 Protein (g) 2.0 to 2.6 1.2 to 1.9 6.6 to

3 Fat (g) 0.1 to 0.6 0.1 to 0.4 0.40 to

4 Carbohydrate (g) 9.4 to 11.5 16.0 to 25.4 25.8 to

5 Fibre (g) 2.6 to 3.6 1.0 to 1.5 1.0 to

6 Total sugars (g) 20.6

B Minerals and vitamins

1 Total minerals (g) 0.9 0.87 to 0.9 0.9 to

2 Calcium (mg) 30.0 to 73.2 20.0 to 37.0 50.0

3 Magnesium (mg) 27.0 54.0

4 Phosphorus (mg) 20.0 to 57.2 38.0 to 41.0 38.0 to

5 Potassium (mg) 287 to 323 191 to 407 246

6 Sodium (mg) 3.0 to 35.0 2.0 to 41.0 63.2

7 Iron (mg) 0.4 to 1.9 0.5 to 1.1 1.5

8 Vitamin A (IU) 30 175 to 540 10 to 1

249
Sr. No Composition Young fruit Ripe fruit Seed

9 Thiamine (mg) 0.05 to 0.15 0.03 to 0.09 0.25

10 Riboflavin (mg) 0.05 to 0.2 0.05 to 0.4 0.11 to

11 Vitamin C (mg) 12.0 to 14.0 7.0 to 10.0 11.0

Among the chemical constituents (Table 2) jackfruit contains useful antioxidants


(Devasagayam and others 2001), which prevent many human diseases. Antioxidants
are substances that neutralize free radicals or their actions (Sies 1996). Nature has
endowed each cell with adequate protective mechanisms against the harmful effects of
free radicals: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase,
thioredoxin, thiols, and disulfide bonding are buffering systems in every cell.
Antioxidants regarded as compounds are able to delay, retard, or prevent the oxidation
process (Halliwell 1997). The natural antioxidants in fruits and vegetables have gained
increasing interest among food scientists, nutrition specialists, and consumers, as they are
claimed to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and promote human health (Ribeiro and
others 2007).

Table 2. Epidemiological studies on antioxidants in human from jackfruit.

Sr. No Diseases Antioxidants

1. Source: Devasagayam and others (2004).

1 Gastric cancer Vit E, -carotene, selenium

2 Lung cancer in smokers Vit E, -carotene and both together

3 Prostate cancer Vit E

4 Lung cancer in workers exposed-Carotene + vit A


to asbestos

5 Myocardial infarction Vit E

6 Coronary heart disease -caroten

250
Sr. No Diseases Antioxidants

7 Hypertension Vit C

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble free radical scavenger. The daily


recommended dietary allowance is 60 mg. In jackfruit 12 to 14 mg vitamin C is present
per 100 g (Narasimham 1990), which is the part of the normal protecting antioxidant.
Vitamin E (-tocopherol) is an essential nutrient that functions as a chain-breaking
antioxidant and can prevent the propagation of free radical reactions on all cell
membranes of the human body. Other nonenzymatic antioxidants include carotenoids,
flavonoids, and related polyphenols, such as -lipoic acid and glutathione. Apart from the
carotenoids beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein, other carotenoids also function as
important antioxidants and they quench 1O2. They are mainly present as coloring
pigments in plants and also function as potent antioxidants at various levels (Sies
1996; Cadenas and Packer 1996; Kagan and others 2002).
Carotenoid Composition
The jackfruit contains many carotenoids (De Faria and others 2009), including all-trans-
-carotene which an important anntioxidant for human health (Cadenas and Packer
1996). Jackfruit- containing carotenoids can be important for the prevention of several
chronic degenerative diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular disease,
cataract, age-related macular degeneration (Krinsky and others 2003; Stahl and Sies
2005). The carotenoids present in jackfruit are shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Concentration (g/100 g fresh weight) of carotenoids in different


jackfruit.

Carotenoids Values Carotenoids Values

1. Source: De Faria and others (2009).

All-trans-neoxanthin 8.85 5.73 All-trans-zeinoxanthin 1.72 1.20

251
Carotenoids Values Carotenoids Values

9-cis-Neoxanthin 6.87 4.25 9-cis-Zeinoxanthin 0.90 1.12

All-trans-neochrome 0.88 1.11 All-trans-- 0.35 0.60


cryptoxanthin

All-trans- 2.06 0.90 All-trans-- 1.21 0.45


luteoxanthin cryptoxanthin

cis-Antheraxanthin 1.12 0.36 15-cis--Carotene 0.18 0.31

9-cis-Violaxanthin 7.05 5.97 13-cis--Carotene 2.45 1.40

cis-Luteoxanthin 0.34 0.42 All-trans--carotene 1.24 0.93

All-trans-lutein 37.02 20.34 All-trans--carotene 29.55 15.46

All-trans-zeaxanthin 0.96 1.20 9-cis--Carotene 0.79 0.30

Total carotenoids 107.98 51.46

The main carotenoids in jackfruit were shown to be all-trans-lutein (24% to 44%), all-
trans--carotene (24% to 30%), all-trans-neoxanthin (4% to 19%), 9-cis-neoxanthin (4%
to 9%), and 9-cis-violaxanthin (4% to 10%) (De Faria and others 2009). Since
inconclusive or incorrect identification of carotenoids present in jackfruit is found in the
literature, it is strongly recommended to accomplish a correction in the future of these
carotenoids (Pfander and others 1994; Liaaen-Jensen 1995; Schiedt and Liaaen-
Jensen 1995; De Rosso and Mercadante 2007). The major carotenoids from jackfruit
were determined by open column or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
by Tee and Lim (1991), Setiawan and others (2001), and Chandrika and others
(2005).
However, De Faria and others (2009) claim the minimum criteria for analysis were not
fulfilled for the carotenoid identification and were only based on the elution order on the
chromatographic system, UV-visible spectra characteristics, and sometimes chemical
reactions. This identification procedure also resulted in the identification of crocetin,
among other carotenoids, in jackfruit (Chandrika and others 2005). However, up to
now, crocetin and its derivatives were only found in saffron and gardenia (Pfister and
others 1996; Caballero-Ortega and others 2007). Lycopene was also identified, despite

252
the soft color of the jackfruit pulp (Setiawan and others 2001). Some 18 carotenoids
were successfully separated, identified, and quantified by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS; and 14
were detected for the first time in jackfruit (De Faria and others 2009). Chandrika and
others (2005) studied the carotenoid composition of jackfruit (A. heterophyllus sinhala:
Waraka) kernel using HPLC and visible spectrophotometry and to determine the
bioavailability and bioconversion of carotenoids present in jackfruit kernel by monitoring
(i) the growth and (ii) levels of retinol and carotenoids in the liver and serum of Wistar
rats provided with jackfruit incorporated into a standard daily diet. Carotenoid pigments
were extracted using petroleum ether/methanol and saponified using 10% methanolic
potassium hydroxide. Six carotenoids were detected in jackfruit kernel. The carotenes -
carotene, -carotene, -zeacarotene, -zeacarotene, and -carotene-5,6-epoxide and a
dicarboxylic carotenoid, crocetin, were identified, corresponding theoretically to 141.6
retinol equivalents (RE) per 100 g. Jackfruit is a good source of provitamin A
carotenoids, though not as good as papaya (Chandrika and others 2005). Thus,
increased consumption of ripe jackfruit could be advocated as part of a strategy to
prevent and control vitamin A deficiency. Carotenoids are lipid-soluble, secondary plant
metabolites in jackfruit and other fruits reported to confer positive health-promoting
effects when consumed in the diet, and plant carotenoids are the most important source of
provitamin A in the human diet (Kopsell and Kopsell 2006). There is increasing
evidence that these carotenoids can protect humans against certain specific chronic
ailments, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related macular degeneration
(Mayne 1996; Giovannucci 1999). From a dietary standpoint, carotenoids are common
examples of compounds classified as antioxidants. Carotenoids are pigments responsible
for the yellow-reddish color of many foods and are related to important functions and
physiological actions, preventing several chronic-degenerative diseases. Carotenoids are
a class of natural pigments responsible for the yellow-reddish color of many fruits,
vegetables, animals, algae, and microorganisms. Besides their colorant properties,
carotenoids are related to important functions, especially physiological actions.
The important role that carotenoids perform in plants, and the potential positive benefit
they impart on human health, has stimulated increased interest in this group of secondary
plant metabolites.

Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit


There is no one definition of the term functional food. It is used in many contexts,
including references to technological advances, food marketing, and food regulatory
norms (Palou and others 2003). This term has already been defined several times
(Roberfroid 2002) and there is still no unified accepted definition for this group of foods
(Alzamora and others 2005). In most countries, there is no legal definition of the term
and drawing a border line between conventional and functional foods is challenging even
for nutrition and food experts (Niva 2007).
Several working definitions used by professional groups and marketers have been
proposed by various organizations in several countries.

In the United States, functional foods are not officially recognized as a regulatory
category by the FDA. However, several organizations have proposed definitions for this

253
rapidly growing food category, most notably the International Food Information Council
(IFIC) and the Institute of Food Technologists. The IFIC considers as functional foods
those that include any food or food component that may have health benefits beyond
basic nutrition (IFIC 2009). Similarly, a recent report of the Institute of Food
Technologists (IFT 2009) defined functional foods as foods and food components that
provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition (for the intended population). These
substances provide essential nutrients often beyond quantities necessary for normal
maintenance, growth, and development, and/or other biologically active components that
impart health benefits or desirable physiological effects.
The European Commission (EC) Concerted Action on Functional Food Science in
Europe regards a food as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect
beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects,
in a way that is relevant to either an improved state of health and well being and/or
reduction of risk of disease. In this context, functional foods are not pills or capsules, but
must remain foods and they must demonstrate their effects in amounts that can normally
be expected to be consumed in the diet (European Commission 1999).
The concept of functional food is complex and may refer to many possible aspects,
including food obtained by any process, whose particular characteristic is that one or
more of its components, whether or not that component is itself a nutrient, affects the
target function of the organism in a specific and positive way, promoting a physiological
or psychological effect beyond the merely nutritional (Vinuda-Martos and others
2010).
The positive effect of a functional food may include the maintenance of health or well
being, or a reduction in the risk of suffering a given illness (Alvarez and others 2003).
Functional food may be obtained by modifying one or more of the ingredients, or by
eliminating the same (Alvarez and others 2003). To develop these types of products, one
must evaluate consumer perceptions, the most important quality aspects being that they
taste good, appear wholesome, and have nutritional value (Garcia-Segovia and others
2007). Also, Alvarez and others (2003) describe that any functional food must be safe,
wholesome, and tasty.
Jackfruit conforms to this definition in several ways, although the establishment of any
function would involve identifying the bioactive components to help specify their
possible beneficial effects on health.

Functional Properties
At present, there is great interest in the scientific community in the functional properties
of jackfruit (antioxidant, anticancer, or to fight vascular diseases and skin diseases) and
its derivates such as wafers, chips, seed flour, peel, and so on. The jackfruit could be
considered a functional food because it has valuable compounds in different parts of the
fruit that display functional and medicinal effects (Figure 2).

254
Figure 2.

Principal functional and medicinal effects of jackfruit.

The very concept of food is changing from a past emphasis on health maintenance to the
promising use of foods to promote better health to prevent chronic illnesses. Functional
foods are those that provide more than simple nutrition; they supply additional
physiological benefit to the consumer. Because dietary habits are specific to populations
and vary widely, it is necessary to study the disease-preventive potential of functional
micronutrients in the regional diets. Indian food constituents such as spices, as well as
medicinal plants with increased levels of essential vitamins and nutrients (such as vitamin
E, lycopene, vitamin C, bioflavonoids, thioredoxin), provide a rich source of compounds
like antioxidants that can be used in functional foods (Devasagayam and others 2004).
We agree with Lansky and Newman (2007) who indicated that much deeper
investigation into this rapidly growing field is required to assess the overall value and
safety of jackfruit as an intact fruit or of various extracts derived from jackfruit
components.
Jackfruit seed powder contains manganese and magnesium elements (Barua and Boruah
2004). Seeds also contain 2 lectins namely jacalin and artocarpin. Jacalin has been proved
to be useful for the evaluation of the immune status of patients infected with human
immunodeficiency virus 1 (Haq 2006).
Theivasanthi and Alagar (2011) studied the antibacterial effect of nanosized particles of
Jackfruit seed against E. coli and B. megaterium microbes and revealed the efficacy of
jackfruit seed nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent. Specific surface area (SSA) of
jackfruit seed nanoparticles has concluded that jackfruit seed nanoparticles can lend
antimicrobial effects to hundreds of square meters of its host material. Jackfruit seeds
may therefore be developed into therapeutic agents capable of treating infectious diseases
and preventing food contamination by food-borne pathogens. Jackfruit seeds could be
processed into dual-functional food ingredients possessing antimicrobial activities.
Likewise, analysis results of SSA of 2 different bacteria conclude that SSA of bacteria
plays a major role while reacting with antimicrobial agents. This study suggests that
jackfruit seed powder has a lot of potential in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paper,
bio-nanotechnology industries, especially its uses as thickener and binding agent.

255
Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
Jackfruit seed contains phenolic compounds (Soong and Philip Barlow 2004) and about
6.03 mg/g extracted nonreducing sugar (Nualla-ong and others 2009) that is a prebiotoc.
Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients. It is a part of oligosaccharide and
nonreducing sugar that stimulate the growth and activity of bacteria in the digestive
system that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance.
Prebiotics are carbohydrate. The composition of food classified as prebiotics include
oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, such as fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), galacto-
oligosaccharide (GOS), inulin, and xylo-oligosaccharide, which are nonreducing sugar.
Prebioteics can be extracted by cleaning the jackfruit seed with water then grounded in a
blender to size of 1 to 2 mm. The seeds can be extracted with 50% ethanol using batch
extractor. To concentrate the extract solution it should be filtered by vacuum filter and
then evaporated by rotary vacuum evaporator. Evaporated extract of jackfruit seed can be
crystallized. The crystallizing temperature of prebiotics is 55 to 64 C (by using
differential scanning calorimeter) and the best temperature to obtain the highest percent
of nonreducing sugar is 58 C. Moreover, percentage of nonreducing sugar increases with
increasing mixing speed and the best of mixing speed is 100 rpm (Thitipong Rugwong
and others 2010).
Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
Various jackfruit plant parts, including the bark, wood, leaves, fruit, and seeds, may
exhibit a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Caution is advised in patients taking
antibiotics due to possible additive effects. Jackfruit seeds may increase the risk of
bleeding when taking with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples
include aspirin, anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin (Coumadin) or
heparin, antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix), and nonsteroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) or naproxen (Naprosyn,
Aleve).

Jackfruit leaves may improve glucose tolerance in normal and type 2 diabetes patients. It
also inhibits the growth of Fusarium moniliforme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
However, there are conflicting data regarding jackfruit's antifungal activity.

Human Disorders and Health


Any condition that interferes with the normal functioning of the body is called a disease.
In other words, disease may be defined as a disorder in the physical, physiological,
psychological or social state of a person caused due to nutritional deficiency,
physiological disorder, genetic disorder, pathogen, or any other reason. Jackfruit has
antioxidant properties that plays vital role to cure the following human disorder and
improving health.

256
Cardiovascular health
One of the major risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease is
dyslipidemia. It is mainly characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol (LDLC) and/or reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)
(Esmaillzadeh and Azadbakht 2008).
Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to contribute to atherosclerosis
and cardiovascular disease (Heinecke 2006). Oxidation of LDL lipids is thought to
render the lipoprotein atherogenic, because oxidized LDL is more readily taken up by
macrophages via scavenger receptors (Heinecke 1998).
Epidemiological studies have shown that high concentrations of serum total cholesterol
and LDL-C are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (Russo and others
2008) and could produce atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, a major degenerative disease of
arteries involves a series of inflammatory and oxidative modifications within the arterial
wall (Fan and Watanabe 2003). Oxidative excess in the vasculature reduces levels of
the vasodilator nitric oxide, causes tissue injury, promotes protein oxidation and DNA
damage, and induces proinflammatory responses (Xu and Touyz 2006). Oxidative stress
induces inflammation by acting on the pathways that generate inflammatory mediators
like adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Valko and others 2007).
The functional components of jackfruit to reduce the various diseases such as lowering
blood pressure, preventing heart disease and strokes, preventing bone loss and improving
muscle and, nerve function, reducing homocysteine levels in the blood. The potassium in
the jackfruit is found to help in lowering blood pressure and reversing the effects of
sodium that causes a rise in blood pressure that affects the heart and blood vessels. This
helps in preventing heart disease and strokes. Potassium also helps in preventing bone
loss and improves muscle and nerve function. Another heart-friendly property found in
the jackfruit is due to vitamin B6 that helps reduce homocysteine levels in the blood thus
lowering the risk of heart disease (Fernando and others 1991).

Improving skin health


Damage to the skin occurs as a consequence of the natural aging process and damage is
exacerbated in chronically sun-exposed skin (photoaging) (Lavker 1995). Prolonged
exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been identified as a cause of serious adverse
effects to human skin, including oxidative stress, premature skin aging, sunburn, immune
suppression, and skin cancer (Widmer and others 2006).
As stated before, benefit of eating jackfruit is that it is a good source of vitamin C. The
human body does not make vitamin C naturally so we must eat food that contains vitamin
C to reap its health benefits.

Jackfruit is gluten-free and casein-free, thus offer systemic anti-inflammatory benefits to


skin. Jackfruit also contains antioxidants and has vitamin C, flavonoids, potassium,
magnesium and fiber. Vitamin C is vital to the production of collagen, a protein that
provides skin with structure and gives it its firmness and strength (Babitha and others
2004).

257
Improving stomach ulcer
Stomach ulcer is one type of peptic ulcer. A stomach ulcer is sometimes called a gastric
ulcer. (The most common type of peptic ulcer is a duodenal ulcer.). A stomach ulcer is
usually caused by an infection with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. A 4 to 8 wk
course of acid-suppressing medication will allow the ulcer to heal. In addition, a 1-wk
course of 2 antibiotics plus an acid-suppressing drug will usually clear
the Helicobacter pylori infection. This usually prevents the ulcer recurring again.
(Clinical Knowledge Summaries 2008). Gastric ulcer can result from persistent erosions
and damage of the stomach wall that might even become perforated and develop into
peritonitis and massive hemorrhage as a result of inhibition in the synthesis of mucus,
bicarbonate, and prostaglandins (Wallace 2008). Various factors can contribute to the
formation of gastric ulcer, especially the infection of stomach by Helicobacter pylori
(Phillipson and others 2002), also frequent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs) (Bighetti and others 2005), and consumption of alcohol (Bandyopadhyay
and others 2002). The success of commercially available antiulcer drugs in the treatment
of gastric ulcer is usually overshadowed by various side effects. For examples, H2-
receptor antagonists (such as cimetidine) may cause gynecomasia in men and
galactorrhea in women (Feldman and Burton 1990), while proton-pump inhibitors (such
as omeprazole and lansoprazol) can cause nausea, abdominal pain, constipation and
diarrhea (Franko and Richter 1998; Reilly 1999). Due to those side effects there is a
need to find new antiulcerogenic compound(s) with potentially less or no side effects and
medicinal plants have always been the main sources of new drug candidates for the
treatment of gastric ulcer (Borrelli and Izzo 2000; Rates 2001).
One of the plants that have been traditionally used in Indian and Malay folklore medicine
to treat gastric ulcer is A. heterophyllus L.

Improving digestion
The presence of high fiber content (3.6 g/100 g) in the jackfruit prevents constipation and
produces smooth bowel movements. It also offers protection to the colon mucous
membrane by removing carcinogenic chemicals from the large intestine (colon)
(Siddappa 1957).

Strengthening the bone

Jackfruit is rich in magnesium (27 mg/100 g in young fruit and 54 mg/100 g in seed)
(Gunasena and others 1996). It is a nutrient important in the absorption of calcium and
works with calcium to help strengthen the bone and prevents bone-related disorders such
as osteoporosis (Singh and others 1991).
Preventing anemia
Jackfruit also contains iron (0.5 mg/100 g), which helps to prevent anemia and also helps
in proper blood circulation (Singh and others 1991).

258
Maintaining a healthy thyroid gland
Copper (10.45 mg/kg) plays an important role in thyroid gland metabolism, especially in
hormone production and absorption and jackfruit is loaded with this important
microminerals (Gunasena and others 1996).
Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
Jackfruit seeds are a good source of starch (22%) and dietary fiber (3.19%)
(Hettiarachchi and others 2011). Jackfruit seed contains lignans, isoflavones, saponins,
all phytonutrients and their health benefits are wide-ranging from anticancer to
antihypertensive, antiaging, antioxidant, antiulcer, and so on (Omale and Friday 2010).
Boiled Jackfruit seeds are very tasty and nutritious snacks, jackfruit seeds, which taste
like chestnuts, appeal to all taste. They may be boiled or roasted and eaten or boiled and
preserved in syrup like chestnuts.

Bobbio and others (1978) reported protein, crude lipid, and carbohydrate contents of
jackfruit seeds as 31.9%, 1.3%, and 66.2%, respectively. The protein content reported
was very high probably, because the seeds were reported to have been collected from
fruits of various trees and no variety was reported. Kumar and others (1988) also
reported on the composition of seeds from 2 varieties of jackfruit. Protein, crude lipid,
and carbohydrate content were 17.8% to 18.3%, 2.1% to 2.5%, and 76.1%, respectively.
There have been few studies on jackfruit seeds. Bobbio and others (1978) reported some
physicochemical properties, such as pasting characteristics of jackfruit seed
starch. Kumar and others (1988) studied the proximate compositions of 2 varieties of
jackfruit seeds and reported considerable biochemical differences between them. The
starch content of the seed increased with maturity and different locations gave different
seed contents (Rahman and others 1999).
Seeds makeup around 10% to 15% of the total fruit weight and have high carbohydrate
and protein contents (Bobbio and others 1978; Kumar and others 1988). Seeds are
normally discarded or steamed and eaten as a snack or used in some local dishes. As fresh
seeds cannot be kept for a long time, seed flour can be an alternative product, to be used
in other food products. There have been few studies on jackfruit seeds. Some functional
properties of jackfruit seed flour and its protein digestibility was reported by Singh and
others (1991). Amylose content of jackfruit seed starch was 32% (Tulyathan and others
2002). Jackfruit seed extract was found to inhibit the proteolytic activities of different
animal pancreatic preparations effectively (Bhat and Pattabiraman 1986). The fresh
seed contains crude proteins (606 g), fat (0.4 g), carbohydratres (38.4 g), fiber (1.5 g), ash
(1.25 to 1.50 g), and moisture (51.6 to 57.77 g) (Morton 1987). Information on food
value per 100 g of edible portion of dried seed is scarce. The presence of antinutritional
factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitors has been reported, resulting in digestive
ailment when eaten raw (Morton 1987).
Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
Jackfruit seed flour has great potential in the food industry, especially as thickener and
binding agent in various food systems (Ocloo and others 2010). Some functional
properties of jackfruit seed flour and its protein digestibility was reported by Singh and
others (1991). The composition of seed flour is shown in Table 4, the minerals

259
composition of jackfruit seed flour is shown in Table 5. The composition of flour depends
on the nature of the seeds. When flour was prepared from seeds without removing the
thin brown spermoderm, the crude fiber content was 2.36%, close to that reported
by Singh and others (1991). Tulyathan and others (2002) reported on the good ability
of the flour to bind water and lipid. The flour had good capacities for water absorption
(25%) and oil absorption (17%) (Table 6) and the Brabender amylogram (6%
concentration) of seed starch showed that its pasting temperature was 81 C; and its
viscosity was moderate, remained constant during a heating cycle, and retrograded
slightly on cooling. The starch showed an A-type X-ray powder diffraction pattern
(Tulyathan and others 2002).

Table 4. Physicochemical properties of jackfruit seed flour.

No. Indices Values (% dry matter)

1. Source: Ocloo and others (2010).

1 Moisture 6.09 0.01

2 Crude fat 1.27 0.01

3 Ash 2.70 0.02

4 Protein 13.50 0.06

5 Fibre 3.19 0.01

6 Carbohydrate 79.34 0.06

7 Energy(kcal/100 g) 382.79 1.20

8 pH 5.78 0.01

9 Titratable acidity (as lactic acid) 1.12 0.03

10 Bulk density (g/cm) 0.80 0.02

Table 5. Minerals composition of jackfruit seed flour.

260
No. Minerals Values (mg/kg)

1. Source: Ocloo and others (2010).

1 Calcium 3087 166

2 Magnesium 3380 388

3 Iron 130.74 12.37

4 Zinc < 0.01

5 Potassium 14781 256

6 Manganese 1.12 0.11

7 Copper 10.45 0.89

8 Sodium 60.66 2.01

Table 6. Functional properties of jackfruit seed flour.

No. Indices Values

1. Source: Ocloo and others (2010).

261
No. Indices Values

1 Water absorption capacity (%) 25.00 1.67

2 Fat absorption capacity (%) 17.00 1.37

3 Foaming capacity (%) 25.34 0.02

4 Foam stability (%) 33.00 0.01

5 Swelling power (g/g) 4.77

Other Properties
Preliminary research findings suggest that, in addition to its potential benefits for heart,
skin, ulcer, cancer, and so on, the jackfruit may confer a multitude of other health-
promoting effects in the body.
Antiviral Properties
Jackfriut lectin (JFL) from A. heterophyllus has been found to have inhibitory activity in
vitro with a cytopathic effect toward herpes simplex virus type HSV-2. Varicellazoster
virus (VZS) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) (Wetprasit and others 2000). Several plant
lectins have been shown to inhibit infectivity of viruses. For example, jackfruit has been
found to inhibit in vitro infection of HIV-1 without preventing the virus from binding to
the host cell (Favero and others 1993). The antiviral activity of JFL in response to HSV-
2 and CMV, either before or after viral infection of cell monolayers, was observed at
different doses. This result differed markedly from the lack of effect reported for
collectin, mannan-binding protein, and bovine conglutinin on HSV-2. This result suggest
that JFL may act either on the surface of the host cell or directly on the viral envelope,
thereby inhibiting viral infectivity (Favero and others 1993).
Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
In higher animals acetylcholine (ACh) is associated with the transmission of nerve
impulses. It has also been found in the free-living protozoon Paramecium (Bayer and
Wense 1936), in the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum (Stephenson and Rowatt 1947),
in the parasite Trypanosoma rhodesiense (Bulbring and others 1949), and in the gill
plates of the mussel Mytilus edulis (Bulbring and others 1953). In these lower
organisms there is no transmission of nerve impulses, but, since ACh is associated with
such motor activity as ciliary movement, Bulbring and others (1953) have suggested
that ACh might act in these organisms as a local hormone. In plants ACh has so far been
found only in ergot, Claviceps purpurea (Ewins 1914), and in the nettles Urtica urens and
Urtica diocia (Emmelin and Feldberg 1947). The present communication reports
another rich plant source of ACh-the seed and leaf of the Malayan jackfruit, Artocarpus
integra.

262
Pharmacological tests, comparative assays, and chemical precipitation have established
that the seed and the leaves of the jackfruit tree, Artocarpus integra, contain considerable
amounts of acetylcholine (ACh). The average values of ACh were 564 g/g of seed, 300
g/g of midribs of leaves, and 60 g/g of whole leaves (Robert Chun Yu 1955).
Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
Uses of jackfruit in traditional medicine are shown in Table 7 and below.
Table 7. Putative use of jackfruit in local medicine.

No. Plant part Use

1. Source: Haq (2006).

1 Roots An extract of roots is used in treating skin diseases,


asthma and diarrhea.

2 Leaves An extract from leaves and latex cures asthma, prevents


ringworm infestation and heals cracking of feet.
Leaf extract is given to diabetics as a control
measure.

Heated leaves are reported to cure wounds,


abscesses and ear problems and to relieve pain.
An infusion of mature leaves and bark is used
to treat gallstones. A tea made with dried and powdered
leaves is taken to relieve asthma.
The ash of jackfruit leaves burned with maize and
coconut shells is used alone or mixed with coconut
oil to heal ulcers.

3 Flowers Crushed inflorescences are used to stop bleeding in


open wounds.

4 Fruits Ripe fruits are laxative.

5 Pulp The jackfruit pulp and seeds are nutritious tonic and useful
in overcoming the influence of alcohol on the system.

6 Seed The seed starch is given to relieve biliousness. Roasted


seeds are regarded as an aphrodisiac.
Increased consumption of ripe jackfruit kernels alleviates

263
No. Plant part Use

vitamin A deficiency.
Extract from fresh seeds cures diarrhea and dysentery.
Extract from seeds (or bark) helps digestion.

7 Bark An extract from bark and rags (nonedible portion of ripe


fruits) or roots helps cure dysentery.
The bark is made into poultices. Ash produced by burning
bark can cure abscesses and ear problems.

8 Latex Mixed with vinegar, the latex promotes healing of abscesses, sna
glandular swellings.

9 Wood The wood has a sedative property; its pith is said to aid
abortion.

Root
The root of the jackfruit tree forms the remedy for skin diseases, fever, and
diarrhea.
The jackfruit root extract is said to help heal fever and diarrhea.
The jackfruit root has been discovered to be good for those being affected by
asthma.

Leaves
The leaves of the jackfruit tree are useful for curing fever, boils, and skin
diseases. When heated, they prove useful in curing wounds.
To heal ulcers, the ash of jackfruit leaves is used when burnt with corn and
coconut shells and used either alone or mixed with coconut oil.

Latex
The latex of the fruit is helpful in treating dysopia, ophthalmic problems, and
pharyngitis.
The latex can also be mixed with vinegar to heal abscesses, snakebites, and
glandular swellings.

Fruit

264
Fruit is useful in overcoming the influence of alcohol on a person.
Jackfruit is abundant with potassium and it is said to be useful in decreasing
blood pressure.
Jackfruit has phytonutrients with health benefits covering many claims from
anticancer to antihypertensive properties.
Jackfruit turns out to be an excellent way to obtain vitamin C that is recognized
for its substantial antioxidant properties.
Jackfruit is recognized to have antiulcer qualities and is said to be good for
individuals experiencing indigestion.
With antiaging benefits, the jackfruit may help reduce the damage of cells to
make skin appear supple and younger.
Jackfruit is an excellent source of proteins, carbohydrates, and also vitamins.
The fruit may help reduce and cure tension as well as nervousness.
As it has very few calories plus a very small quantity of fat, jackfruit is useful
for individuals on a low-calorie diet.
Seed
The seeds starch is believed to be useful in relieving biliousness, while the
roasted seeds are regarded as an aphrodisiac.
The seeds and pulp of jackfruit are considered as a cooling as well as a
nutritious tonic.
Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
Many jackfruit products have been developed, notably jackfruit juice, candy, and a fruit
bar from ripe jackfruit. Unripe jackfruit pulp can be made into flakes, which can be
preserved for a long time. Jackfruit seed is used in some biscuit factories of Tamil Nadu
and is of high demand there; various bakery products using jack seed flour are made into
cookies and murukku (The Hindu 2010).

The various products developed from jackfruit in Karnataka are candy, finger chips, fruit
bars, fruit leather, halvah, papad, ready-to-serve beverages, toffee, and milk-based
srikhand, ice cream, and kulfi. Half-ripened bulbs can be processed into bulb powder and
this is then utilized for the preparation of traditional snacks such as pakoda, biscuits, and
muffins (The Hindu 2008).

The State Board of Horticulture Mission and Center for Innovation in Science and Social
Action (CISSA), Kerala, October 2011, organized a Mobile Jack Bazaar in that as
many as 20 jackfruit products were displayed at the mobile market set up in an altered car
which will move through major points in a city and sell solar dried
jackfruit,chakkakkuru peda,jackfruit wine, chakka varatti, jackfruit jam, fresh
jackfruit arils, jackfruit chips, and more. Haridoss (2009) prepared recipes for jackfruit
papad, chips, sambar, and kadabu that are useful Malenadu recipes during the jackfruit
season. Breakfast items like tellevu (a kind of dosa), roti, vada, bonda, and dosa and
dinner items like suttevu, priaju, sole kochchalu, undalikalu, bajji, chakke paladya, sole
paladya, and palya and some are made out of jackfruit peel, namely hadigadde playa and
sole hasi. Value-added products from jackfruit are shown in Figure 3.

265
Figure 3.
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Different value-added products from jackfruit.
Jackfruit jam
The fruit pulp can be used to make jam. The addition of a synthetic flavoring agent such
as ethyl or n-butyl ester of 4-hydroxybutyric acid at 100 and 120 ppm, respectively, will
greatly improve the taste of the jackfruit products (Technical Manual for Small-Scale
Fruit Processors 2004).
Many other fruit jams in supermarkets are mixed with a generous amount of sugar, which
increases the risk for diabetes. On the contrary, jackfruit jam is full of natural sugars and
low in calories making it an ideal food source to reduce body weight.
Jackfruit wine
The ripe jackfruit contains a good amount of fermentable sugar, which may be exploited
for the commercial production of vinegar and wine. Amit and Ambarish (2010) reported
that the maximum alcohol content in jackwine was 10% (v/v), with a sugar utilization of
14% of total sugar solids. These early results show promise for the use of this fruit for
commercial wine production. A certain maturity level and ripeness of jackfruit (29 to 30
Brix) are essential for the production of jackfruit wine.
The jackfruit wine may protect against antioxidant and DNA damage and could become a
valuable source of antioxidant rich neutraceuticals. Additionally, the wine could be a
commercially valuable by-product for the jackfruit growers (Umesh and others 2011).

Fermented beverages
Products like fermented beverages, especially fruit wine and vinegar from ripe jackfruit
using food processing and biotechnological techniques, will not only reduce losses of
fruit material but also make the fruit products available during the off season and
generate income and also employment opportunities in rural areas.

266
Dahiya and Prabhu (1977) studied alcoholic beverages made by fermentation of
jackfruit pulp. The tribal people of Nagaland, Tripura, and other eastern hilly areas of
India consume jackfruit wine. The wine contains 7% to 8% (v/v) alcohol.
Junkai and Wang (2008) reported that when using jackfruit as the main material,
jackfruit wine was produced by temperature-controlled fermentation. With comparative
tests, the optimal processing parameters were determined. The addition amount of
pectinase was 100 mg/L, SO2 content was 50 to 100 mg/L, fermentation temperature was
24 oC, sugar content was adjusted to 21% and the active dry yeast was 5%.
Fermented jackfruit preserves vitamin C, widely used supplements as it is best known as
the nutrient which helps to prevent colds and infections. One cup of fermented jackfruit
can supply the body a very good amount of this potent antioxidant.
Dehydrated jackfruit
Diamante (2009) reported that dehydrated jackfruit is a nutritious snack item when made
from ripe jackfruit pulp. It is golden-yellow to orange and has a chewy texture with a
sweet and sour taste.
Unlike other dehydrated products it is free from sulfite preservatives thus it will not
trigger allergic reaction in sensitive consumer.
Jackfruit chips
Jagadeesh and others (2006) reported on the preparation of jackfruit chips. The starch
content and dry matter content of the raw material determines the yield of the processed
product. Flake thickness, bulb length, total sugar solids, and reducing sugars were found
to be important for improving the yield and quality of jackfruit chips.
Molla and others (2008) stated that preparation of jackfruit chips is very simple and can
easily be done. The bulbs are cut into 4 cm 2 cm slices. The cut slices are blanched in
water for 10 min. Then the slices are weighed and immersed in 0.1% KMS for 15 min
using 2 kg of solution per kg of bulb material. After sieving the water, the slices are dried
using a mechanical dryer to assure less oil absorption in the subsequent frying. The slices
are fried in oil and stirred with a narrow wooden rod maintaining the temperature at 70 oC
for 1 h and 60 oC for another 6 h. When the slices are of light yellow color the chips are
taken from saucepan. These prepared chips are mixed with some salt and spices in a
bowl. Then the processed chips can be packed in various packaging materials or
containers. Considering moisture content (%), weight gain (%), quality aspects, and
sensory attributes like crispiness, color, flavor, and overall acceptability, metal foil
pouches were found most suitable for packaging jackfruit chips. The prepared chips can
be stored at ambient conditions in metalex foil for 2 mo without loss of organoleptic
quality.
The nutrients in jackfruit will still remain and also it retains its own original color, flavor,
and texture after frying. The jackfruit chips are rich in vitamin E, y-oryzanol (an
antioxidant that may help prevent heart attacks), and phytosterols (compounds believed to
help lower the cholesterol adsorption in the body) which are helpful in providing health
benefits.
Jackfruit leather
Jackfruit leather is dried sheets of fruit pulp. It has a soft, rubbery texture, and a sweet
taste. It can also be made from a mixture of fruits, and sugar, chopped nuts, or spices can

267
be added to vary the flavor. It can be eaten as a snack food instead of a boiled sweet. It
can also be used as an ingredient in the manufacture of cookies, cakes, and ice cream
(International Centre for Underutilized Crops, UK, 2004).

Several bakery products such as biscuits, muffins masala vada, flour, and chapathi also
developed from the jackfruit seed. The rind is also a very good source of pectin, which
was extracted from it. Different value-added products from jackfruit are shown in Figure
4.

Figure 4.
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Value-added products from jackfruit: (A) dehydrated jackfruit; (B) jackfruit cake; (C) jackfruit
chips; (D) jackfruit leather (Phanaspoli).

Conclusion
The consumption of jackfruit has grown in recent years due to its reported health
benefits. Jackfruit and its pulp and seeds are rich sources of several high-value
compounds with potential beneficial physiological activities. The rich bioactive profile of
jackfruit makes it a highly nutritious and desirable fruit crop. Research has offered ample
evidence that routine dietary supplementation with jackfruit may protect against and even
improve several disease conditions, including stomach ulcer and cardiovascular disease;
it may even help to prevent and arrest the development of certain cancers, in addition to
protecting the health of the mouth and skin. Side effects are very rare. Using standardized
jackfruit products offer consumers a way of reaping the broad spectrum of health benefits
of this fruit.

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Langka
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.
JACKFRUIT
Mu bo luo

Scientific names Common names


Artocarpus brasiliensis Ortega Lanka (Ilk.)
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Langka (Ilk., Tag., Bis.)
Artocarpus maximus Blanco Nangka (Bis. Tag., Ibn.)
Artocarpus nanca Noronha [Invalid] Nanka (Bis., Sul.)
Artocarpus philippensis Lam. Jack fruit (Engl.)
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names


ASSAMESE: Konthal, Konto phol, Kontok phol, Kontoki.
BENGALI: Kathal.
CHINESE: Shu bo luo, Niu du zi guo, Bo luo mi, Mu bo luo.
DANISH: Jackfrugttrae.
DUTCH: Nangka.
FRENCH: Jacquier.
GERMAN: Indischer Brotfruchtbaum, Jackfrucht, Jackfruchtbaum.
GUJARATI: Phannasa.
HINDI: Cakki, Katahal, Kathal, Kanthal.
ITALIAN: Falso albero del pane.
JAPANESE: Nagami pannoki, Paramitsu.
KANNADA: Halasina hannu, Halasu, Panasero.
KHMER: Khnor.
KOREAN: Baramil
LAOTIAN: Mai mi, Mak mi, Mi.
MALAY: Nangka (Indonesia, Bali), Nangka bubor, Keledang (Timor).
MALAYALAM: Chakka.
MARATHI: Phanas.

279
NEPALESE: Rukh kutaherr.
ORIYA: Panasa.
PERSIAN: Derakhte nan.
PORTUGUESE: Jaca.
SANSKRIT: Panasah, Panasam.
SINHALESE: Jak, Kos.
SPANISH: Arbol del pan, Fruta del pobre, Jaca, Jaka, Jaqueiro.
SWAHILI: Fenesi.
SWEDISH: Jacktrad.
TAMIL: Palaa, Palavu.
THAI: Khanun, Makmee, Maak laang.
VIETNAMESE: Mit.

Botany
Langka is a smooth tree reaching a height of 8 to 15 meters. Leaves are alternate,
leathery, elliptic-oblong to obovate, entire or sometimes 3-lobed, 7 to 15 centimeters
long, the apex and base both pointed. Female heads are embraced by spathaceous,
deciduous, stipular sheaths, 5 to 8 centimeters long. Sepals are two. Spike is 5 to 15
centimeters long. Fruit is green to greenish-yellow when ripe, fleshy, hanging on short
stalks from the main stem or from large branches in old trees, oblong with pyramidal
projections, 25 to 60 centimeters long. Seeds are numerous, oblong, 2.5 to 4 centimeters
long. The testa is thin, coriaceous, surrounded by an edible luscious pulp.

Distribution
- Cultivated throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes.
- In some regions, spontaneous.
- Prehistoric introduction from Malaya or tropical Asia.
- Also occurs in India to Malaya, and is now cultivated in most tropical countries.

Constituents
Jackfruit contains morin and a crystalline constituent, cyanomaclurin.
Cyanomaclurin reported to contain a phoroglucinol group and is probably isomeric with
catechins.
Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids,
and saponins.
Chemical analysis yields moisture 28.50%, sugars (saccharose, fructose, glucose)
5.48%, fixed oil 6.64%, essential oil 0.15%, other extracts 22.39%, protein 18.85%,
cellulose 14.47%, inorganic matter 3.52%.
Pulp (lamukot) of the fruit contains vitamin C.
Good source of provitamin A carotenoids.
Of the components of essential oil, piperonal is noted.
Study yielded a new flavonone, a new prenylflavone, a novel phenolic compound,
heterophylol and nine known flavonoids.

280
Study of seeds showed a high carbohydrate content; oil content was 11.39%. Elemental
analysis yielded high potassium content of 2470.00 ppm, followed by sodium,
magnesium and calcium. (27)
Evaluation of ethyl acetate extract of leaves yielded ursolic content of 376.5 mg/g.
Elemental analysis yielded calcium 39.4%, potassium 29.6%, magnesium 2.06^, iron
0.99%, sulphur 1.83%, zinc 0.08%, strontium 0.23%, manganese 0.13%, and aluminum
0.0005%. (see study below) (29)
Chemical analysis of A. heterophyllus wood yielded: ashes 15.5 g/kg, sodium nitrate-
alcohol cellulose 467.6 g/kg, holo-cellulose 709.8 g/kg, pentosan 212.6 g/kg, acid-soluble
lignin 44.9 g/kg, acid insoluble lignin 237.4 g/kg, organic solvent soluble lignin 248.3
g/kg. Phenolic hydroxyl content of organic solvent yielded soluble lignin 0.25 mmol/g.
Trace element contents yielded: Fe 959 g/ g, Mn 9.37 g/g, Cu 5.60 g/g, Zn 17.1 g/g,
Ca 2.26 mg/g, Mg 433g/g, Na 28.1g/g, K 1.05 mg/g, Al 46.2 g/g, and Pb 0.603 g/g.
(31)

Properties
Root is considered antiasthmatic.
Ripe fruit is sweet, cooling, demulcent, nutritive, laxative, aphrodisiac.
Unripe fruit is acrid, astringent, carminative and tonic.
Pulp or flesh surrounding the seed is aromatic, cooling and tonic.
Seeds are sweet, diuretic, aphrodisiac.
Bark is considered sedative.

Parts utilized
Leaves, fruit, bark, seeds

Uses
Nutrition / Edibility
- The young fruit is also a vegetable.
- Fruit has a high carbohydrate content.
- Seeds are very rich in starch, but a poor source of calcium and iron.
- The pulp or flesh (lamukot) surrounding the seeds is rich, yellow, sweet and aromatic,
rich in vitamin C, eaten fresh or cooked or preserved.
- The seeds are boiled or roasted.
- The unripe fruit can be pickled.
- In India, the unripe fruit used in the preparation of pickles.
Folkloric
Skin diseases, ulcers and wounds: Ash of burnt leaves applied on wounds and ulcers as
cicatrizant.
Burnt ashes of leaves (preferably fresh) with coconut oil, and as ointment, also used for
ulcers and wounds.
Diarrhea, fever and asthma: A decoction of the root (preferably chopped into small
pieces before boiling) of the tree, three to four cups daily.
Glandular swelling and snake bites: Apply the milky juice of the tree.
When mixed with vinegar, it is especially beneficial for glandular swelling and
abscesses, promoting absorption and suppuration.

281
Leaves used for fever, wounds, abscesses,
The ripe fruit is laxative; in large quantities, it produces diarrhea.
The roasted seeds believed to have aphrodisiac properties.
Pulp envelopes or arils of seeds considered cooling, tonic and nutritious China.
In India, the leaves and bark of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Mangifera indica, boiled
in water, are used as postpartum bath, to rejuvenate the mothers after delivery.
Starch of seeds given in bilious colic.
In China, roasted seeds used as aphrodisiac.
Root extract used for asthma , fever and diarrhea.
Bark is considered sedative.
In Sri Lanka and India, extracts of mature leaves used for treatment of diabetes.
In China, pulp of fruit also considered useful in suppressing alcohol in the body.
In Indian medicine, bark used in fever, boils, wounds, skin diseases.
In Mauritius, used for diabetes.
In Ayurvedic medicine, hot water extract of mature leaves used for treatment of
diabetes.
Others
Lambanog additive: Fruit used to flavor and age lambanog; locals believe it increases
alcohol potency.
Adhesive: Tree latex is used as bird lime; and when heated makes a good cement for
china.
Rope: Bark sometimes used for making rope and cloth.
Dye: Wood has limited use as source of yellow dye.

Studies
Anti-Inflammatory: Study isolated flavonoids including: 1-cycloartomunin, 2-
cyclomorusin, 3- dihydrocycloartomunin, 4- dihydroisocycloartomunin, 5- cudraflavone
A, 6- cyclocommunin, 7-artomunoxanthone, 8- cycloheterohyllin, 9- artonin A, 10-
artonin-B, 11- artocarpanone, 12- artocarpanone A, 13, 14, 15 -heteroflavanones A, B and
C. Many of the compounds exhibited varying degrees of antiinflammatory activities
inhibitory effects on chemical mediator release from mast cells, neutrophils and
macrophages. (1)
Inhibition of Melanin Biosynthesis / Artocarpanone: Study showed the extract of AH to
be one of the strongest inhibitor of tyrosinase activity. Study isolated Artocarpanone,
which inhibited both mushroom tyrosinase activity and melanin production in B16
melanoma cells and presents as a potential as a remedy for hyperpigmentation in human
skin. (2)
Inhibition of Melanin Biosynthesis / Melanoma Cells: Structure-Activity Relationship
of Prenyl-Substituted Polyphenols from Artocarpus heterophyllus as Inhibitors of
Melanin Biosynthesis in Cultured Melanoma Cells: Study isolated flavone-based
polyphenols which were found to be active inhibitors of the in vivo melanin biosynthesis
in B16 melanoma cells. (3)
Antibacterial: Multibeneficial natural material: Dye from heartwood of Artocarpus
heterophyllus Lamk: Material isolated could be used as a direct dye for wool and silk;
with antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, B. cereus, S. aureus, E coli, K pneumonia.

282
Source of Provitamin A carotenoids: Analysis of carotenoids in ripe jackfruit
(Artocarpus heterophyllus) kernel and study of their bioconversion in rats: Study showed
jackfruit to be a good source of provitamin A carotenoids (not as good as papaya). (5)

Antioxidant activity / Scavenging Activity: Study showed prenylated flavonoid with


more antioxidant than non-prenylated flavonoid. () Study isolated prenylflavones
cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B which inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation
and also show radical scavenging activity. (6)
Hypoglycemic / Anti-Diabetic: Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of
mauritius for possible -amylase inhibitory effects in vitro: Of several medicinal plants
studied in Mauritius, only Artocarpus heterophyllus significantly inhibited a-amylase
activity in vitro indicating that AH could act as a starch blocker to decrease post-prandial
glucose peaks. (7) Study in male Wistar rats showed the flavonoid fraction of the leaf of
AH to have a higher hypoglycemic effect than the sulfonylurea drug tolbutamide with no
significant effects on the liver, kidney and heart. (8) Study of jackfruit extract showed
potential as antidiabetic agent with antioxidant activity and inhibition of hemoglobin
glycation lowering HbA1c. (30)
Sexual Competence Inhibition: Study sought to resolve the conflicting beliefs on the
roasted seeds of AH - its aphrodisiac activity vs the claim that use of the seeds prior to
coitus disrupts sexual function. Study in rats utilizing a seed suspension markedly
inhibited libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigor and performance while also causing mild
erectile dysfunction. The results suggest that AH seeds do not have aphrodisiac activity,
at least, in rats.(10)
Cytotoxicity / Anti-Tumor: Study showed the methanol extract to have maximum
cytotoxicity on HEp2 cells with cell aggregation, cell rounding and cell death. Results
suggest a potential use of the crude extract from the tegmen of AH as an antitumor agent.
(12)
Anti-Inflammatory / Bark: Study of a methanolic extract of A. heterophyllus on a
carrageenan-induced model in albino rats showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory
activity. (13)
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study of ethyl acetate fraction of A.
heterophyllus leaves in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant lowering of serum
glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Study concludes the EA fraction contains one
or more hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic principles with a potential for further
development for diabetes treatment. (14)
Improved Glucose Tolerance / Type-2 Diabetes: Study showed the extracts of both
Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia significantly improved glucose
tolerance in both normal subjects and diabetic patients.
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant Pathway: Ethanol and butanol extracts
showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats through an
oxidative pathway that may be attributed to flavonoid contents. (18)
Jacalin / Seed-Derived Lectin / Immunobiologic Applications: Jacalin, a major lectin
protein from the jackfruit seed has been found strongly mitogenic for human CD4+ T
lymphocytes. It has been found to have diverse applications: as a tool for evaluation of
immune status in HIV-1, isolation of hum plasma glycoproteins, investigation of IgA
-nephropathy, and detection of tumors. (19)

283
Seed Starch Binding Property: Study showed the starch obtained from A. heterophyllus
fruit seeds showed comparable binding properties. (20)
Latex / Protease 48-kDa / Antimicrobial: A protease isolated and purified from crude
latex of a jackfruit tree, designated as antimicrobial protease-48 kDa or AMP48 inhibited
the growths of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 and clinical isolated Candida
albicans. (21)
Nutritional Assessment of Jackfruit Meal/ Protease / Antimicrobial: In Sri Lanka, the
jackfruit is consumed either as main meal or supplement. A nutritional assessment of a
meal composed of flesh (80% available carbohydrate) and seeds (20% available
carbohydrate) showed it to be a good source of starch (22%) and dietary fiber, and
categorized as a low GI meal. (22)
Antitumor / Tegmen: Study evaluated crude extracts from the tegmen of Artocarpus
heterophyllus for in vitro antitumor activity. A methanol extract yielded the maximum
polyphenol content and showed maximum cytotoxicity on HEP2 cells, with cell
aggregation, cell rounding, and cell death. Results suggest a potential as an antitumor
agent.
(23)
Cytotoxicity / A549 Cell Line: A methanolic extract of A. heterophyllus showed
excellent cytotoxicity against A549 cell line, but had no activity against HeLa and MCF-7
cell lines. Results showed potential cytotoxicity against lung cancer, with no toxicity to
normal cells (HEK293 cell line) as compared to methotrexate. (24)
Wound Healing / Leaves: Study of a methanol leaf extract on excision would healing
model showed significant wound healing activity, comparable with standard (Betadine).
The period of epithelization of the extract treated group was higher than the control
group. (25) Study showed ex-vivo wound healing activity of flavonoid rich fraction of an
ethyl acetate extract of leaves using porcine skin wound healing model. (see constituents
above) (29)
Cartotenoid Composition / Bioconversion: Study of fruit kernels yielded six
carotenoids: -carotene, -carotene, -zeacarotene, -zeacarotene and -carotene-5,6-
epoxide and a dicarboxylic carotenoid, crocetin. Serum retinol concentrations in rats
supplemented with jackfruit carotenoids were significantly higher than control. Study
suggest a satisfactory biological conversion of provitamin A in jackfruit kernel. (28)
Adsorbent for Methylene Blue: Methylene blue is the most common of dyes in its
category, generally used for dyeing cotton and silk. Study evaluated removal of
methylene blue in batch sorption experiments using jackfruit leaf powder. Results showed
JLP can be effectively used for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions. The
desorption increased by decreasing the pH of the solution (32)
Mucilage / Sustained Release Tablets: Study evaluated the release modifying potential
of mucilage extracted from A. heterophyllus in the formulation of oral sustained release
tables of diclofenac sodium. Results showed AH mucilage can be used as drug release
modifier in a particular concentration range and as binding agent in formulating sustained
release tablets. (33)
Adsorbent / Activated Carbon from Peel: Study evaluated the effectiveness of an
adsorbent prepared from jackfruit peel, an agricultural waste, for removal of phenol, 2
chlorophenol, 4chlorophenol, 2,4dichlorophenol from aqueous solutions. Results
showed the activated carbon can be economical for removal of phenols. (34)

284
Latex / Antimicrobial / Dental Application: Study evaluated the potential use of
different components of jackfruit in dental health. Results showed the antibacterial and
antifungal activities of protease isolated from jackfruit latex. Potential less expensive
dental applications are presented i.e., as cementing medium, irrigation solution, denture
cleaning solution, and use for dental microbiology. (35)
Gold Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Fruit: Study reported on the cost-effective end
ecofriendly synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous fruit extracts of AH. The gold
nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, esp. E. coli
and Streptobacillus. (36)
Jacalin / Seed Lectin / Anticancer: Study evaluated jacalin, a protein extract from AH
seed, against human breast cancer (MCF7) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299).
Results showed jacalin was more effective than crude protein and was more active
against MCF7 compared to H1299 cancer cells. (37)
Hepatoprotective / Inhibition of FeCl3 induced Hepatic lipidperoxidation / Peel: Study
evaluated three vegetables viz., A. heterophyllus, Colocasia esculenta (taro) and
Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin) for in-vitro inhibition of FeCl3 induced LPO. Jackfruit peel
showed the maximum inhibition at lowest concentration. The hepatoprotective potential
was attributed to polyphenol and flavonoid contents. (38)
Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study reports on a simplistic method for
synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using a leaf extract. The silver nanoparticles
demonstrated potent antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and Bacillus subtilis
and antifungal activity against A. niger and the yeast, Pichia pastoris. (39)
Pectin from Jam: Study reports that jackfruit is a promising industrial source of pectin
which can be successfully applied in food gel system such as fruit jams. It can
significantly reduce wastage and waste disposal problems associated with handling jack
fruits.(40)
Jackfruit Wine: Study reports on the process optimization for the fermentation of wine
from Jackfruit. The wine also showed good antioxidant activity while also exuding a
sweet aroma Wine production provides value addition while decreasing post harvest loss.
(41)
Jackfruit Seed Starch as Thickener and Stabilizer: Study showed jackfruit seed starch is
suitable as a thickener and useful as a stabilizer in a high acid sauce. (42)

Availability
Wildcrafted.
Commercial fruiting.
Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.
Last Update October 2015

Photos Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange


OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: /Langka Leaves / Metallic-winged Sunbird Female 1/320
sec., f/5.6, ISO 800 / - Ely Teehankee / Click on Image to go to source page /
BirdPhotoPh
SOURCES

285
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antiinflammatory Flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus and Artocarpus communis. /
Bah-Luh Wei, Jing-Ru Weng et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53 (10), pp 38673871 /
DOI: 10.1021/jf047873n
(2)
Structure-Activity Relationship of Prenyl-Substituted Polyphenols from Artocarpus
heterophyllus as Inhibitors of Melanin Biosynthesis in Cultured Melanoma Cells
(3)
Inhibitory Effect of Artocarpanone from Artocarpus heterophyllus on Melanin
Biosynthesis / Enos Tangke Arung et al / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin Vol. 29
(2006) , No. 9 1966
(4)
Multibeneficial natural material: Dye from heartwood of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk
(5)
Analysis of carotenoids in ripe jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) kernel and study of
their bioconversion in rats / UG Chandrika et al / Journal of the Science of Food and
Agriculture . Volume 85 Issue 2, Pages 186 - 190 / DOI 10.1002/jsfa.1918
(6)
Inhibitory effect of prenylated flavonoid in Euchresta japonica and Artocarpus
heterophyllus on lipid peroxidation by interaction of hemoglobin and hydrogen peroxide
(7)
Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of mauritius for possible a-amylase
inhibitory effects in vitro / Kotowaroo M.I. et al / PTR. Phytotherapy research. 2006, vol.
20, no3, pp. 228-231 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1839
(8)
HYPOGLYCAEMIC ACTION OF THE FLAVONOID FRACTION OF ARTOCARPUS
HETEROPHYLLUS LEAF / Chandrika U. G., Wedage W.S. et al / Research Paper / Afr.
J. Trad. CAM (2006) 3 (2): 42 - 50
(9)
Flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus / Chun-Nan Lin et al / Phytochemistry
Volume 39, Issue 6, August 1995, Pages 1447-1451 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(95)00135-T
(10)
Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds inhibits sexual competence but not fertility of male rats./
Ratnasooriya, W D (WD) and Jayakody, J R A C (JR) / Indian journal of experimental
biology 2002-Mar; vol 40 (issue 3) : pp 304-8
(11)
Scavenger and Antioxidant Properties of Prenylflavones Isolated From Artocarpus
Heterophyllus / Feng N Ko, Zhi J Cheng et al / Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol
25, Issue 2, 15 July 1998, Pages 160-168 /
doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00031-8
(12)
Polyphenol analysis and Antitumor activity of Crude extracts from Tegmen of Artocarpus
heterophyllus / Nanda Kumar Rajendran et al / The Internet Journal of Alternative
Medicine ISSN: 1540-2584
(13)

286
Anti-inflammatory activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus bark / Umesh K. Jain et al / Der
Pharmacia Sinica, 2011, 2 (2):127-130
(14)
Evaluation of the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of an ethyl acetate fraction of
Artocarpus heterophyllus (jak) leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / S.
Chackrewarthy, M. I. Thabrew et al / Pharmacogn Mag. 2010 JulSep; 6(23): 186190. /
doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.66933.
(15)
A study of traditional mother care plants of rural communities of South Kerala / NP
Rajith, M Navas, N Anish et al / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 9 (1), Jan
2010, pp 203-208.
(16)
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(17)
Sorting Artocarpus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL
MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright 1997 - 2000 The University
of Melbourne.
(18)
Antioxidant activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit) leaf extracts:
remarkable attenuations of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-diabetic
rats. / Omar HS, El-Beshbishy HA, Moussa Z, Taha KF, Singab AN. /
ScientificWorldJournal. 2011 Apr 5;11:788-800.
(19)
Jacalin: a jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seed-derived lectin of versatile
applications in immunobiological research. / Kabir S. / J Immunol Methods. 1998 Mar
15;212(2):193-211.
(20)
Isolation and Evaluation of Starch of Artocarpus heterophyllus as a Tablet Binder /
Narkhede Sachin B*, Atul R. Bendale, Anil G. Jadhav, Khushbu Patel, G. Vidyasagar /
International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol. 3, No.2, pp 836-840, April-June
2011
(21)
Antimicrobial activity of a 48-kDa protease (AMP48) from Artocarpus heterophyllus
latex. / Siritapetawee J, Thammasirirak S, Samosornsuk W. / Eur Rev Med Pharmacol
Sci. 2012 Jan;16(1):132-7.
(22)
Nutritional assessment of a jackfruit (Artocarpu / s heterophyllus) meal / UPK
Hettiaratchi, S Ekanayake, J Welihinda / Ceylon Medical Journal > Vol 56, No 2 (2011) >
de Zoysa
(23)
Polyphenol analysis and Antitumor activity of Crude extracts from Tegmen of Artocarpus
heterophyllus. / N Rajendran, J Ramakrishnan / The Internet Journal of Alternative
Medicine. 2008 Volume 7 Number 2.
(24)
Cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus against A549, Hela
and MCF-7 cell lines

287
/ Rajesh M.Patel and Sahil K.Patel / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (07);
2011: 167-171
(25)
Wound healing properties of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. / Nilesh Gupta, U.K. Jain,
A.K. Pathak / avpayurveda.com
(26)
Artocarpus heterophyllus / Synonyms / The Plant List
(27)
Comparative study of the chemical composition and mineral element content of
Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds and seed oils. / Ajayi IA / Bioresour
Technol. 2008 Jul;99(11):5125-9.
(28)
Analysis of carotenoids in ripe jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) kernel and study of
their bioconversion in rats / Chandrika Udumalagala Gamage, ER Jansz, Narada D
Warnasuriya / JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
85(2):186 - 190 JANUARY 2005
(29)
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF ARTOCARPUS
HETEROPHYLLUS LAM. (MORACEAE) ON EX-VIVO PORCINE SKIN WOUND
HEALING MODEL / K Periyanayagam, V Karthikeyan / Innovare Journal of Life
Sciences, Vol 1, Issue 1, April-June 2013
(30)
Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Jackfruit (Artocarpus Heterophyllus) Extract /
Agung Biworo, Efrilia Tanjung, Iskandar, Khairina, and Eko Suhartono / Journal of
Medical and Bioengineering Vol. 4, No. 4, August 2015
(31)
Study on Chemical Compositions and Elements of Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam Wood /
C. J. Chen, X. T. Yang, J. J. Luo, W. Qin / Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 168-170,
pp. 805-808, Dec. 2010 / DOI 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.168-170.805
(32)
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) leaf powder: An effective adsorbent for removal of
methylene blue from aqueous solutions / Md. Tamez Uddin, Md. Rukanuzzaman, Md.
Maksudur Rahman Khan and Md. Akhtarul Islam / Indian Journal of Chemical
Technology, Vol 16 March 2009, pp 142-149
(33)
Evaluation of Release Modifying Potential of Artocarpus Heterophyllus (Jackfruit)
Mucilage in the Formulation of Diclofenac Sodium Sustained Release Matrix Tablets /
Yogesh Joshi*, Ratendra Kumar, U.V.S. Teotia, Satyanandam Sade / AJPHR- American
Journal of Pharmacy and Health Research
(34)
Adsorption of Phenol and Substituted Chlorophenols from Aqueous Solution by
Activated Carbon Prepared from Jackfruit (artocarpus heterophyllus) PeelKinetics and
Equilibrium Studies / Seema Jaina & Radha V. Jayarama* /
Separation Science and Technology, Volume 42, Issue 9, 2007 /
DOI:10.1080/15275920701313608
(35)

288
ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS (JACKFRUIT) POTENTIAL UNEXPLORED IN
DENTISTRY- AN OVERVIEW / Rao Jitendra*, Singh Kalpana, Singh Shweta, Mishra
Sunit Kumar, Bajpai Manish / Universal Journal of Pharmacy, 2014, 03 (01): Page 50-55
(36)
One-step synthesis of highly-biocompatible spherical gold nanoparticles using Artocarpus
heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) fruit extract and its effect on pathogens / Nagaraj
Basavegowda, Gowri Dhanya Kumar, Bozena Tyliszczak, Zbigniew Wzorek, Agnieszka
Sobczak-Kupiec / Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 2015, Vol 22, No
1, 8489
(37)
Effect of Lectin from Artocarpus Heterophyllus Seed on Cancer Cell Lines / Zuraidah M.
A., Mimi Sakinah A. M, Wan Azizi W. S. / Journal of Life Sciences and Technologies
Vol. 2, No. 2, December 2014
(38)
Hepatoprotective activity of three vegetable peel extracts: an in vitro study / D Yamini, K
Anand / Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine, Vol 13, 2009
(39)
Studies on antibacterial and antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using
Artocarpus heterophyllus leaf extract / Rebecca Thombre, Fenali Parekh, Parvathi
Lekshminarayanan, Glory Francis / Biotechnol. Bioinf. Bioeng. 2012, 2(1):632-637
(40)
Sensory Evaluation of Jam Produced From Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) /
Ihediohanma.N.C., Okafor D.C. and Adeboye, A.S. / IOSR Journal of Agriculture and
Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS), Volume 7, Issue 5 Ver. II (May. 2014), PP 41-43
(41)
Process Optimization for Fermentation of Wine from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus
Lam.) / Nirmal Sharma*, Sonam Palmoo Bhutia, and Danesh Aradhya / J Food Process
Technol 4:204.doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000204
(42)
Physico-chemical properties of jackfruit seed starch (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and its
application as a thickener and stabilizer in chilli sauce / Kategunya Rengsutthi,
Sanguansri Charoenrein* / LWT - Food Science and Technology 44 (2011) 1309e1313
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the
information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to
the new link page.

289
1. Medindia

2. Diet and Nutrition

3. Health Benefits of Jackfruit


Health Benefits of Jackfruit
What is a Jackfruit?
Health Benefits of Jackfruit
Jackfruit Recipes
Jackfruit Beauty and Health Tips
References
Written by Shaun DMello | Article Reviewed by Dietitian Shirley Johanna on May
26, 2015
Rating :12345
Rate This Article : 12 34 5

What is a Jackfruit?
The jackfruit holds the distinction of being the largest tree-borne fruit
as a single jackfruit can weigh over 35 kgs. However, most jackfruits
that hit the market are about 5 to 10 kgs. The jackfruit belongs to the
mulberry family and is native to South and Southeast Asia. Experts
believe that it originated in the South-western rain forests of India.

The jackfruit is similar to the durian in appearance as well as aroma.


The jackfruit has the same prickly rind as the durian with conical-
shaped spikes that surround the fleshy pods of fruit within. The durian
is well known for its noxious aroma and while the jackfruit has a
distinctive musky odour, it is not quite as strong or unpleasant as the
durian. The flesh of the jackfruit is fibrous and has a sweet tropical
taste. The flavour is best described as a combination of a pineapple
and a banana with hints of mango.

290
Health Benefits of Jackfruit
Boosts Energy Levels: Jackfruits contain simple sugars like
fructose and sucrose. These sugars are absorbed readily and easily
by our bodies and so eating a small serving of this fruit will give you
an immediate energy boost. You can have a bowl of refrigerated
jackfruit as a post-workout snack to help you recover quicker.
Jackfruit for Vision: Jackfruits contain many nutrients that
support eye health including beta-carotene, Vitamin A, Lutein and
Zeaxanthin. Beta carotene is synthesised by our bodies and gets
converted into Vitamin A. Vitamin A is critical for good eye sight as
it is needed for proper vision in low light. It also supports the normal
functioning of the cornea and conjunctival membranes. Lutein and
zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids that are deposited in high
quantities in the retina where they filter harmful light and protect
and maintain healthy cell function. The human body cannot
synthesize these nutrients, which is why they have to be included in
our daily diet plans. Make jackfruit a part of your regular diet to
reduce your risk of cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration.

291
Prevents and Cures Anemia: Jackfruits contain many of the
vitamins and minerals that are required for the production of blood.
This includes Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Vitamin E as well as copper,
manganese and magnesium. Iron deficiency anemia is the most
common type of anemia. The human body requires iron in order to
produce haemoglobin, which carries oxygen to every cell in the
body. Lower levels of iron result in lower levels of hemoglobin, which
results in the organs receiving less oxygen, and this hampers their
functioning. Jackfruits are a good source of iron and so including
them in your regular diet plan will help to prevent and even cure
iron deficiency anemia.
Jackfruit to Control Diabetes: People with diabetes are
advised to limit their intake of sweet foods but they are allowed to
eat fruits in moderation. Jackfruits contain carbohydrates, which is
why it is important to keep a track of your serving size; however,
they also contain several vitamins and minerals, which will help
reduce your risk of diabetic complications. Scientists who studied
the relationship between jackfruit and diabetes found that diabetic
patients who were given extracts of jackfruit had improved glucose
tolerance as compared to those who were not given the extract.
Jackfruit leaves have long been a part of traditional medicine for
diabetes in India and recent research on the effect of the leaves of
the jackfruit tree on diabetic rats found that they contain certain
chemicals that help to reduce blood sugar levels. All preliminary
results indicate that jackfruit leaves can help to stabilize blood
sugar levels in humans and can be used to control diabetes.
Supports Bone Health: Jackfruits contain calcium which is
essential for good bone health. Calcium is required for the formation
and maintenance of bones. Consuming jackfruit on a daily basis will
help to prevent and manage bone problems such as arthritis
and osteoporosis. Jackfruits also contain potassium, which helps to
reduce calcium loss, and this in turn increases bone density-making

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bones stronger and less prone to problems. Jackfruits are a good
source of magnesium, which is required for the proper absorption of
calcium within the body. They also contain modest amounts of
manganese, phosphorous and zinc which are minerals that are
required for optimum bone health.

Aids Digestion: Jackfruits contain plenty of soluble and


insoluble fibre. 100 grams of jackfruit provide 1.5 g of fibre, which is
approximately 5% of a persons recommended daily allowance.
The dietary fibre in jackfruits helps to bulk up stools and keep them
soft so that they can easily pass through the digestive system.
Soluble fibre attracts water and forms a gel during digestion, which
binds to fat and reduces cholesterol absorption. Insoluble fibre
absorbs water but does not dissolve and so it helps to prevent
constipation and other digestive disorders.
Promotes Heart Health: Jackfruits contain potassium, which is
essential in controlling blood pressure and heart rate. A diet that is
high in potassium will also reduce the risk of heart attacks and
strokes. Jackfruits are also an excellent source of Vitamin B6, which
is a heart-friendly vitamin. Jackfruits also contain resveratrol, which
has cardio-protective effects and can help to treat cardiovascular
diseases such as ischemia, hypertension and atherosclerosis.
Jackfruit Seeds as a Low GI Meal: People who need to
manage their blood glucose levels through a dietary regimen can
include jackfruit seeds as part of their diet. Jackfruit seeds are a
good source of starch and dietary fibre. Boiled or steamed jackfruit
seeds with a few simple condiments can make a delicious and more
importantly low Glycemic Index (GI) meal. Low GI foods are foods
that do not cause a spike in blood sugar levels.

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Jackfruit Recipes
Raw Jackfruit Curry

Ingredients

400 gms raw jackfruit

100 gms (1/2 cup) yogurt

4 ripe tomatoes

2 small onions

2 green chillies

tsp Turmeric powder

1 tsp Coriander powder

tsp Cumin seeds

1 tablespoon ginger garlic paste

2 tablespoon mustard oil

11/2 teaspoons salt

1 tbsp Green coriander leaves


Method

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Cut the jackfruit into 1-inch cubes and cook it in a pressure
cooker until it whistles 3 times. Take the cooker off the stove and
allow the cubes to cool before draining any excess liquid.

Heat the oil in a deep saucepan and then add the chillies,
turmeric, coriander powder and cumin seeds. Stir over a low flame
for about a minute and then add the sliced onions to the pan. Once
the onions are almost done, add the tomatoes. Stir well and cover
the pan. Allow this to cook for 2 minutes and then add the salt and
ginger garlic paste and cook for an additional 2-3 minutes until the
tomato pieces soften.

Add the yogurt to the pan and stir thoroughly over a low flame
until there are no lumps left in the curry. Add cup of water if the
curry is too thick. Add the boiled jackfruit cubes and cover the pan
and let the contents simmer for 7-10 minutes over a low flame.

Chop the green coriander leaves and use this as a garnish while
serving.

Jackfruit Seed Stir Fry

Ingredients

3 cups jackfruit seeds, parboiled

2 medium sized onions, sliced

1 tomato, diced

1/2cup coconut, grated

1 raw mango, diced

1/2 teaspoon mustard seeds

1 teaspoon coriander seeds

1/2 teaspoon cumin seed powder

1/2 teaspoon turmeric powder

6-8 garlic cloves, chopped

2 tablespoon cooking oil

Salt to taste
Method

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Heat the oil in a deep saucepan and then add the mustard seeds.
When the seeds start to sputter, add the coriander seeds, cumin
seed powder, turmeric powder and garlic. Allow it to cook on low
heat for a minute or two.

Add the sliced onions to the pan and then saut until the onions
are soft then add the tomatoes. Stir well and cover the pan. Allow
this to cook for 2 minutes or until the tomato pieces become soft.
Slice the jackfruit seeds in half and add these to the pan along
with the raw mango and a few pinches of salt (as per your taste).
Cover the pan and let the contents simmer for 3-5 minutes over a
low flame. Check the seeds with a fork to find out if they are
sufficiently softened. Turn off the heat and add the grated coconut
and stir thoroughly to ensure that the ingredients are completely
mixed. Garnish with chopped green coriander leaves and serve with
rice or rotis.

Jackfruit Beauty and Health Tips


There are certain myths of Jackfruit that have been around for so long
that they are considered to be true despite all scientific evidence to the
contrary. Here are a few:
Jackfruit during Pregnancy: One of the most popular
misconceptions is that eating jackfruit during pregnancy will result
in a miscarriage. There is no medical evidence to support this and in
fact, a normal sized serving of this fruit will help ensure that both
you and your baby get the nutrition that you require.
Jackfruit for Weight Loss: Although jackfruits do contain a
significant amount of natural sugars, they are also very high in
nutrition and dietary fibre. This means that including a large serving
of jackfruit in your healthy diet plan will help to keep you full for a
longer period and reduce your hunger pangs. It is also a low calorie
treat that will satisfy your sugar cravings so that you can cut down
on your intake of processed sugar.

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Jackfruit Seeds for Hair Care: Jackfruit seeds are chockfull
of vitamins and minerals that will keep your scalp clean and healthy.
Soak a couple of jackfruit seeds overnight and then grind them into
a paste along with a little water the next morning. Apply this paste
to your scalp and let it remain for at least an hour before rinsing it
off and then washing your hair as usual. Do this regularly and you
will notice that your hair is manageable and less frizzy.

Jackfruit, raw
The nutritional values of "Jackfruit, raw" per 100 grams are:

Nutrition Summary

Total Calories 95

Protein 1.7 g

Fat 0.4 g

Carbohydrate 23.2 g

Nutrients Amount %Daily Value

Calcium, Ca 24 mg 2.4 %

Copper, Cu 0.08 mg 3.8 %

Iron, Fe 0.23 mg 1.28 %

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Nutrition Summary

Total Calories 95

Magnesium, Mg 29 mg 7.25 %

Manganese, Mn 0.04 mg 2.15 %

Phosphorus, P 21 mg 2.1 %

Potassium, K 448 mg 12.8 %

Selenium, Se ~

Sodium, Na 2 mg 0.08 %

Zinc, Zn 0.13 mg 0.87 %

Vitamin A 110 IU 2.2 %

Vitamin C 13.7 mg 22.83 %

Vitamin B6 0.33 mg 16.45 %

Vitamin E 0.34 mg 1.13 %

Vitamin K ~

Riboflavin 0.06 mg 3.24 %

Thiamin 0.1 mg 7%

Folate, DFE 24 mcg 6%

Niacin 0.92 mg 4.6 %

Sugars 19.08 g

Fiber 1.5 g 6%

Cholesterol 0 mg 0%

Water 73.46 g

Carotene, alpha 6 mcg

Carotene, beta 61 mcg

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Nutrition Summary

Total Calories 95

Choline ~

Lycopene 0 mcg

View all +
Data source: USDA Nutrient Database, R25
*Percent Daily Values (%DV) are based on a 2,000 calorie reference diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower
based on your individual needs.
To See Full Nutrition Facts & Analysis For Jackfruit, Raw - Click Here
Published on May 25, 2015
Last Updated on May 26, 2015

Jackfruit, raw
Developed by Medindia Content Team
Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on Apr 10, 2013
View Nutrition information about Jackfruit, raw.
Avoid extra calories by making healthy food choices. Calories requirement varies
depending on factors such as age, sex and lifestyle. The nutrition data below provides
all the required information about food types that are available in the stores. Navigate
through different individual categories like Nutrition Facts, Calories, Vitamins,
Minerals, Fats & Fatty Acids, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino-acids, Sterols and
others.
Nutrition Facts

Calories

Vitamins

Minerals

Fats & Fatty Acids

Carbohydrates

Proteins & Amino acids

Sterols

Others

Recalculate Nutrition Data based on Serving size

299
Calculate

Nutrition Facts
Serving Size 100 grams

Amount Per Serving

Calories 95 Calories from Fat 5

% Daily Value*

Total Fat 1g 1%
Saturated Fat 0g 1%
Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg 0 %
Sodium 2mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 23g 8 %
Dietary Fiber 1.5g 6%
Sugar 19g
Protein 2g 3%

Vitamin A 2% Vitamin C 23%


Calcium 2% Iron 1%
*Percent Daily Values (%DV) are based on a 2,000 calorie reference diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower based on your individual needs.

Medindia.net
Download Printable Label

Nutrition summary

Calories Fat Carbs Protein


95 0.64g 23.2 g 1.7 g
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Calories
Nutrient kcal kjoules %DV

Total Calories 95 397.5 4.75%

From Carbs 83.7 350.2

300
Nutrient kcal kjoules %DV

Total Calories 95 397.5 4.75%

From Fat 5.36 22.4

From Protein 5.78 24.2

Percent breakdown of 95 total Calories (kcal)

Protein 6.08% (1.7 g x 3.4 Kcal/g = 5.8 kcal)

Fat 5.64% (0.64 g x 8.37 Kcal/g = 5.4 kcal)

Carbohydrate 88.11% (23.25 g x 3.6 Kcal/g = 83.7 kcal)

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Vitamins
Nutrient Amount %DV

Betaine ~

Carotene, alpha 6 mcg

Carotene, beta 61 mcg

Choline ~

Cryptoxanthin, beta 5 mcg

Folate, DFE 24 mcg 6%

Folate, food 24 mcg 6%

Folate, total 24 mcg 6%

Folic acid 0 mcg

Lutein + zeaxanthin 157 mcg

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Nutrient Amount %DV

Lycopene 0 mcg

Niacin 0.92 mg 4.6 %

Pantothenic acid 0.24 mg 2.35 %

Retinol 0 mcg

Riboflavin 0.06 mg 3.24 %

Thiamin 0.1 mg 7%

Tocopherol, beta 0.03 mg

Tocopherol, delta 0 mg

Tocopherol, gamma 0 mg

Vitamin A 110 IU 2.2 %

Vitamin B12 0 mcg 0%

Vitamin B6 0.33 mg 16.45 %

Vitamin C 13.7 mg 22.83 %

Vitamin D ~

Vitamin E 0.34 mg 1.13 %

Vitamin K ~
~ Data not available

Protein and Amino Acids


Nutrient Amount %DV

Protein 1.72 g 3.44 %

Essential Aminos

Histidine 0.03 g

Isoleucine 0.07 g

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Nutrient Amount %DV

Leucine 0.1 g

Lysine 0.07 g

Methionine 0.03 g

Phenylalanine 0.05 g

Threonine 0.09 g

Tryptophan 0.03 g

Valine 0.09 g

Non-essential Aminos

Arginine 0.14 g

Alanine 0.09 g

Aspartic acid 0.17 g

Cystine 0.02 g

Glutamic acid 0.19 g

Glycine 0.09 g

Hydroxyproline ~

Proline 0.02 g

Serine 0.1 g

Tyrosine 0.1 g

Methionine 0.03 g

Phenylalanine 0.05 g
~ Data not available

Fats and Fatty Acids

303
Nutrient Amount %DV

Fat 0.64 g 0.98 %

Saturated fatty acids 0.2 g 0.98 %

Butanoic 0g

Hexanoic 0g

Octanoic 0g

Decanoic 0.03 g

Dodecanoic 0g

Tridecanoic ~

Tetradecanoic 0g

Pentadecanoic 0g

Hexadecanoic 0.13 g

Heptadecanoic 0g

Octadecanoic 0.01 g

Eicosanoic 0g

Docosanoic 0g

tetracosanoic 0g

Monounsaturated fatty acids 0.16 g

Tetradecenoic 0g

Pentadecenoic 0g

Hexadecenoic 0.02 g

Heptadecenoic 0g

Octadecenoic 0.13 g

Eicosenoic 0g

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Nutrient Amount %DV

Docosenoic 0g

Polyunsaturated fatty acids 0.09 g

Octadecadienoic 0.02 g

Octadecatrienoic 0.08 g

Eicosadienoic 0g

Eicosatrienoic 0g

Eicosatetraenoic 0g

Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) 0g

Docosapentaenoic (DPA) 0g

Docosahexaenoic (DHA) 0g
~ Data not available

Good Fats vs Bad Fats

Fatty Acids

Minerals
Nutrient Amount %DV

Calcium, Ca 24 mg 2.4 %

Copper, Cu 0.08 mg 3.8 %

Fluoride, F ~

Iron, Fe 0.23 mg 1.28 %

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Nutrient Amount %DV

Magnesium, Mg 29 mg 7.25 %

Manganese, Mn 0.04 mg 2.15 %

Phosphorus, P 21 mg 2.1 %

Potassium, K 448 mg 12.8 %

Selenium, Se ~

Sodium, Na 2 mg 0.08 %

Zinc, Zn 0.13 mg 0.87 %


~ Data not available

Carbohydrates
Nutrient Amount %DV

Carbohydrate 23.25 g 7.75 %

Fiber 1.5 g 6%

Sugars 19.08 g

Fructose 9.19 g

Galactose 0g

Glucose (dextrose) 9.48 g

Lactose 0g

Maltose 0g

Sucrose 0.42 g
~ Data not available

Sterols

Nutrient Amount %DV

Beta-sitosterol ~

Campesterol ~

306
Nutrient Amount %DV

Cholesterol 0 mg 0%

Stigmasterol ~
~ Data not available

Other Nutrients

Nutrient Amount

Energy 397 g

Alcohol 0g

Water 73.46 g

Ash 0.94 g

Caffeine ~

Theobromine ~
~ Data not available
Percent Daily Values (%DV) are for adults or children aged 4 or older, and are based on a
2,000 calorie reference diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower based on your
individual needs.
Note : Folate value based on the analysis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate
References :
1. Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA, National Food and Nutrient Anlaysis Program
Wave 12i, 2008
Data source: USDA Nutrient Database, R25

(Source:- http://www.medindia.net/patients/lifestyleandwellness/health-benefits-of-jackfruit.htm)

Breadfruit

15 Benefits Of Breadfruit And Its


Nutritional Value
By Vineetha in Fruits January 4, 2014 0 Comment

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Image: Shutterstock

Breadfruit is a tropical fruit, belonging to the Moraceae family. It is related to other exotic
fruits like breadnut, jackfruit, figs and mulberries. Breadfruit is a staple food in many tropical
regions. The fruit can be roasted, baked, fried and even boiled before consumption. The flesh
of the breadfruit has a nice fragrance and a sweet taste.

Breadfruit Health Benefits


Scientifically known as Artocarpus camansi, breadfruit is a highly sought after fruit due to its
medicinal properties. Some of its health benefits include:

1. Cardiovascular health:
Breadfruit is an excellent source of potassium. This heart-friendly nutrient reduces blood
pressure in the body and regulates the heart rate by minimizing the effects of sodium. It
conducts electrical charges that drive muscular contraction in the skeletal system including
the heart. Dietary fiber helps reduce cholesterol by preventing its absorption in the gut. It
lowers bad cholesterol (LDL), while elevating good cholesterol (HDL) in the body. It
decreases the triglyceride levels, which is one of the main causes of heart attacks.

2. Resistance against infections:


Breadfruit contains good amounts of antioxidants, which help the body to develop resistance
against infectious agents. It also scavenges harmful free radicals from the body that lead to
aging and other age-related diseases.

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3. Source of Energy:
One cup of breadfruit provides 60 grams of carbohydrates, the primary source of energy in
the body. It is very beneficial for athletes and gym goers.

4. Diabetes:
Fiber in breadfruit inhibits the absorption of glucose from the food we eat, thus controlling
diabetes. It contains compounds, which are needed by the pancreas for producing insulin in
the body.

5. Aids digestion:
Fiber in breadfruit flushes out the toxins from the intestine, aiding in proper functioning of
the bowel and intestines. It prevents digestion-related diseases like heartburn, acidity, ulcer
and gastritis, eliminating toxic compounds from the gut. Breadfruit protects the colons
mucous membrane by warding off cancer-causing chemicals from the colon.

6. Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids:


Breadfruit contains relatively high amounts of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, which are
vital for the proper development of the mind and body.

7. Dental health:
Eating toasted breadfruit flower can help relieve toothache. Applying crushed breadfruit
leaves on the tongue can also cure thrush.

Breadfruit Skin benefits


8. Prevents Excessive Skin Inflammation:
Fresh breadfruit extracts may help to reduce unwanted inflammation. It inhibits the activity
of pro-inflammatory enzymes and prevents the overproduction of nitric oxides, thus
preventing excessive inflammation.

9. Collagen Production:
Drinking breadfruit juice helps to even out the skin tone and firm the skin by rejuvenating its
appearance. The high amount of Vitamin C in breadfruit helps in the production of collagen,
a protein which provides elasticity to the skin.

10. Encourages New Cell Growth:


The antioxidants in breadfruit provide an effective shield against sun rays and sun damage. It
also encourages the growth of new cells to make the damaged skin appear smooth and young.

11. Cures Skin Infections:


Ashes of the breadfruit leaves are useful for curing skin infections.

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12. Treats Skin Diseases:
The latex of the breadfruit tree is applied on skin surfaces affected by skin diseases like
eczema, psoriasis and inflammation.

Breadfruit Hair benefits


13. Nourishes Hair:
Breadfruit contains several hair-friendly nutrients, which are required for maintaining the
health of the hair. Vitamin C in breadfruit facilitates the absorption of minerals and provides
nourishment to the hair.

14. Treats Dandruff, Itchiness & Hair Breakage:


Breadfruit is a good source of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, which naturally condition
the hair, reducing hair breakage. The fatty acids present in breadfruit regulate the sebum
production in the scalp, reducing dandruff and itchiness. It also inhibits scalp inflammation
and cell death, preventing hair loss.

15. Promotes Hair Growth:


The moderate amounts of iron in breadfruit improve blood circulation in the scalp,
stimulating the hair follicles to promote hair growth.

Breadfruit Nutritional value

Breadfruit
Nutritive Value per 100 g. (USDA)

Principle Nutrient Value Percentage of RDA

Energy 103 Kcal 5%

Carbohydrates 27.12 g 21%

Protein 1.07 g 2%

Total Fat 0.20 g 1%

Cholesterol 0 mg 0%

Dietary Fiber 4.9 g 13%

Vitamins Nutrient Value Percentage of RDA

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Folates 14 g 3.5%

Niacin 0.900 mg 6%

Pyridoxine 0.100 mg 8%

Riboflavin 0.030 mg 2%

Thiamin 0.110mg 9%

Vitamin A 0 IU 0%

Vitamin C 29 mg 48%

Vitamin E 0.10 mg 1%

Vitamin K 0.5 g <1%

Electrolytes Nutrient Value Percentage of RDA

Sodium 2 mg 0%

Potassium 490 mg 10.5%

Minerals Nutrient Value Percentage of RDA

Calcium 17 mg 2%

Copper 0.084 mg 9%

Iron 0.54 mg 7%

Magnesium 25 mg 6%

Manganese 0.060 mg 2.5%

Phosphorus 30 mg 4%

Selenium 0.6 g 1%

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Zinc 0.12 mg 1%

Phyto-nutrients Nutrient Value Percentage of RDA

Carotene- 0 g

Crypto-xanthin- 0 g

Lutein-zeaxanthin 22 g
Breadfruit contains moderate levels of essential vitamins and minerals. It is rich in riboflavin,
iron, niacin, thiamin, iron and phosphorus. It contains minerals like potassium, copper, iron,
magnesium, calcium, zinc, manganese, selenium and phosphorus. It also contains adequate
levels of protein. 100 grams provide 7.4 grams, approximately 23% of the recommended
amount. It is low in saturated fats, cholesterol and sodium.
Like other tropical fruits, breadfruit also contains high amounts of calories. 100 grams of
breadfruit provides 102 calories. It contains small amounts of flavonoids and antioxidants in
the form of xanthin and leutin. Breadfruit contains high amounts of Vitamin C. 1 medium
breadfruit provides 29 mg of vitamin, amounting to 48% of the recommended daily
allowance.

Breadfruit leaves have been used as herbal


remedy in various countries

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Breadfruit leaves are good to lower high blood pressure and they are favourite medicinal
herbs among Jamaicans.

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is one of Jamaica's favourite food. We eat breadfruit for
breakfast, we eat it for lunch and of course we eat it at dinner time. It can be boiled,
roasted or baked and eat with our national dish, ackee and codfish also called salt-fish.
However, the roasted one is the favourite among most Islanders.

Breadfruit is a species of the flowering tree in the mulberry family, Moraceae. It is native
to the Philippines but was brought to Jamaica by Captain William Bligh from Tahiti in
1973 on his second trip to the South Pacific.

The trees are found all over Jamaica, in every yard, as well as along the streets and the
plants are reproduced by sending out suckers all around the main tree which can be easily
replanted elsewhere.

The leaves, the fruit, and the sap that runs from the tree are all utilized by most
individuals in Jamaica. I remembered as a child, one of my aunts would always tie a few
quail crushed breadfruit leaves on her forehead to alleviate headache. Today some
individuals still practice this habit because they say it is very effective to ease their
headaches as well as migraines.

The tea and its health benefits

A tea which is also made from the leaves is very effective to treat hypertension or high
blood pressure. I grew up to see my grandmother, mother and aunts using the leaves to
make a tea and they did not wait until they were sick to utilize it. The tea can also be used
as a preventative medicine. It will be able to normalize the blood pressure and it is also
used to treat diabetes. It has been researched and discovered that the
leaves containcamphorol. It is good for weak bladder and it is also used as a bio-
insecticide.

The sap
Many individuals are ignorant of the fact that we can also used the sap or milk which
runs from the bark of the tree to treat contagious ailments of the skin to prevent
these ailments from spreading and also to promote healing. This is done by applying the
milk directly to the ailments. Therefore, the breadfruit leaves are really accompanied by
the sap as well as the fruit to be used as medicinal herbs for herbal therapy.

Source:- http://www.medicinalherbs-4u.com/breadfruit-leaves.html

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Health Benefits of Breadfruit Leaf Tea
Published on July 7, 2015

Dr. Paul Haider


FollowDr. Paul Haider
Spiritual Teacher and Master Herbalist

Lots of people have heard about Breadfruit, that is what the movie Mutiny on the

Bounty was all about. Giving water to Breadfruit trees instead of giving water to the

sailors. But Breadfruit Leaves also have great healing powers such as lowering blood

pressure, its great for inflammation, preventing cancer, cardiovascular disease, kidney

disease, and much more.

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Breadfruit or Panna (Artocarpus altilis) and many other common names is a starchy fruit

that grows in the Pacific and Caribbean islands, Hawaii, Philippines, India, Africa, Sri

Lanka, Tahiti, Jamaica, Indonesia, Trinidad, Brazil, Barbados, an other tropical places.

Breadfruit has a bit of a nutty flavor and is used in main dishes and even desserts. The

fruit is large from 5 to 20 lbs with a white creamy texture inside. When the white sap

starts to drip from the fruit you know its ripe and ready to cook.

But the leaves of the Breadfruit Tree are also very healing.

First of all Breadfruit Leaves must be prepared. Take two yellow leaves that are still

clinging to the tree (do not use leaves that drop to the ground), chop them up and allow

them to dry in the sun until completely dry. Use a stainless steel pot, not aluminum

because Breadfruit Leaves reacts with aluminum. Then boil the dried leaves in two liters

of water until half the water is gone. Then add more water to bring the water level back to

315
2 liters, then bring to a boil again, and then let the tea cool. The resulting tea is red in

color, and the tea is bitter and thus stevia or honey must be added to make it drinkable.

Store in a glass jar in the frig.

For cardiovascular disease drink one cup of Breadfruit Tea daily to prevent and promote

healing of cardiovascular disease and lower blood pressure. Breadfruit Tea is very anti-

inflammatory and thus helps to prevent inflammation which is the first step towards

creating disease.

For lowering cholesterol drink one cup of Breadfruit Tea daily and also drink one cup

daily for healing kidney disease. Also there are some indications that Breadfruit Leaf Tea

can also help prevent cancer because its very anti-inflammatory in action.

For skin rashes, itching, and other minor skin irritations drink one cup of Breadfruit Tea

daily. Again this tea contains powerful anti-inflammatory agents that help to put and end

to minor skin problems.

Drinking one cup of Breadfruit Leaf Tea daily can help with inflammatory conditions of

the liver. And Breadfruit Leaf Tea can also help with gout because it works as a good

diuretic thus removing uric acid from the body.

Breadfruit Tea contains B Vitamins for good mood and vitality, it contains camphor and

tannins which is great for inflammation and its also calming plus helps with allergic

reactions, a good antispasmodic agent, and reduces swelling, redness, and pain.

Breadfruit Tea should be used under the supervision of a good herbalist because it does

contain camphor and in large doses of camphor could cause major health challenges. And

Breadfruit Leaf Tea should not be used by women who are pregnant or children.

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Dr. Paul Haider - Master Herbalist

Source:- https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/health-benefits-breadfruit-leaf-tea-dr-paul-

haider

Health Benefits of Breadfruit


What is Breadfruit?
Health Benefits of Breadfruit
Health Benefits of Breadfruit Leaves
Breadfruit Recipes
References
Written by Vishruta Biyani | Article Reviewed by Dietitian Shirley Johanna on Nov 02, 2016

What is Breadfruit?
Breadfruit, botanically known as artocarpus altilis, is a large fruit obtained from tall,
tropical rain-forest fruiting trees growing in areas like Hawaii, Samoa and Caribbean in
the mulberry family. A staple in Pacific Islands from where it spread to Africa, breadfruit
is quite similar to jackfruit but ranks higher on nutrition. It has prickly skin, a lumpy
green flesh and a potato-like texture.

With an impressive array of health benefits, this exotic fruit is now being hailed as
a wonder food. Breadfruit is an apt ingredient for a range of commercial
products because of its high starch content, pale color and mild flavor.

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Similar to its bounty of nutritional benefits, breadfruit can be cooked and eaten in
different styles.

Immature breadfruit possesses a flavor similar to artichoke hearts and is eaten as a


vegetable. Pureed breadfruit makes an excellent food for babies whereas dried breadfruit
is ground into flour and can substitute any flour for preparing bread and baked
goods. Mature breadfruit tastes like a baked potato when cooked and can easily
replace potato in many recipes, including chips and French fries.

Health Benefits of Breadfruit


Breadfruit is packed with nutrients, which lower cholesterol, fight infections, promote
youthful skin and healthy hair. Since it contains good amount of fiber that reduces the
rate of glucose absorption, it is a diabetic friendly food. It is brimming with the heart
friendly nutrient potassium that regulates blood pressure and heart rate.

Breadfruit benefits the body as it contains Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, which
stimulate skin and hair growth, regulate metabolism and promote bone health.

Good for Weight Watchers

Breadfruit is an ideal food for those on a weight loss program, since it is low in calories
and high on nutrition. Being a high fiber food, it provides satiety without drastically
increasing calorie consumption.

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Develops Resistance to Infections

Breadfruit contains plenty of antioxidants, which build resistance against infections and
boost the immune system. It scavenges from the harmful effects of free radicals that can
otherwise lead to aging, age-related diseases and cancer.

Brimming with Goodness of Fiber

At 4.9 grams of fiber per 100 grams, breadfruit is one of the highest fiber-rich fruits.

Dietary fiber is associated with a wide range of health advantages like reducing
cholesterol levels by preventing its absorption, curing constipation, lowering blood
pressure and protecting the colon mucous membrane by warding off cancer-causing
chemicals from the colon.

Nourishes Hair

Breadfruit contains several hair-friendly nutrients, essential for maintaining healthy hair.
Being a Vitamin C rich food, it facilitates the absorption of minerals particularly iron,
which provide adequate nourishment to hair. Iron improves blood circulation in the scalp,
stimulates hair follicles and promotes hair growth. The fatty acids present in breadfruit
regulate sebum production, reduce dandruff and itchiness. It also inhibits scalp
inflammation and cell death, which keeps hair fall in control.

319
Good for Skin

Drinking breadfruit juice gives skin a glowing and youthful appearance. The Vitamin C
content in breadfruit promotes collagen production that provides elasticity to skin.
Breadfruit inhibits the activity of pro-inflammatory enzymes and prevents overproduction
of nitric oxides, thus preventing skin inflammation.

Health Benefits of Breadfruit Leaves


The health benefits of breadfruit leaves lies in its blend of compounds like acid
hidrosianat, asetilcolin, ribofavlin and tannins.

Regular consumption of breadfruit leaves treats kidney damage, lowers uric


acid and blood sugar levels.
Breadfruit leaves are also effective in curing hepatitis, dental pain, rashes and
an enlarged spleen.
Research conducted by Chinese researchers concluded that the leaves of
breadfruit are very useful for treating cardiovascular problems.

Health Concerns

If youre eating the leaves of breadfruit as a therapeutic treatment, avoid consuming


singkon leaves and spinach leaves. You should also avoid eating red meat because it will
thicken blood causing muscle cramps.

Breadfruit Recipes

320
Breadfruit Curry

Ingredients:

1 tsp coriander seeds


1 tsp cumin seeds
1 tsp vegetable curry powder
1 breadfruit, peeled and cut into 3cm pieces
2 halved green chillies
100 g finely chopped onion
1 sprig curry leaves
tsp turmeric powder
tsp freshly ground black pepper

1 inch cinnamon stick


500 ml coconut milk
3 garlic cloves

salt
100 ml coconut cream
For Tempering:

50 ml vegetable oil
1 tsp mustard seeds
1 sprig curry leaves
sliced onion
Method:

Dry roast coriander and cumin seeds along with vegetable curry powder in a small
pan until it turns dark brown.

Place all the ingredients except the coconut cream in a saucepan and simmer for
10-12 minutes.

For the tempering, heat the oil in a pan. Add mustard seeds, curry leaves and
onion and cook for a couple of minutes. Add the tempered spices to the curry and stir
continuously.

Now, while stirring continuously, add coconut cream and cook for 3- 4 minutes
till the gravy becomes thick and the breadfruit is soft and tender.

Season with salt and serve hot.

Breadfruit, raw

321
The nutritional values of "Breadfruit, raw" per 100 grams are:

Nutrition Summary

Total Calories 103

Protein 1.1 g

Fat 0.4 g

Carbohydrate 27.1 g

Nutrients Amount %Daily Value

Calcium, Ca 17 mg 1.7 %

Copper, Cu 0.08 mg 4.2 %

Iron, Fe 0.54 mg 3%

Magnesium, Mg 25 mg 6.25 %

Manganese, Mn 0.06 mg 3%

Phosphorus, P 30 mg 3%

Potassium, K 490 mg 14 %

Selenium, Se 0.6 mcg 0.86 %

Sodium, Na 2 mg 0.08 %

Zinc, Zn 0.12 mg 0.8 %

Vitamin A 0 IU 0%

Vitamin C 29 mg 48.33 %

Vitamin B6 0.1 mg 5%

Vitamin E 0.1 mg 0.33 %

Vitamin K 0.5 mcg 0.62 %

Riboflavin 0.03 mg 1.76 %

322
Nutrition Summary

Total Calories 103

Thiamin 0.11 mg 7.33 %

Folate, DFE 14 mcg 3.5 %

Niacin 0.9 mg 4.5 %

Sugars 11 g

Fiber 4.9 g 19.6 %

Cholesterol 0 mg 0%

Water 70.65 g

Carotene, alpha 0 mcg

Carotene, beta 0 mcg

Choline 9.8 mg

Lycopene 0 mcg

View all +

Source:-
http://www.medindia.net/patients/lifestyleandwellness/health-
benefits-of-breadfruit.htm

Watermelon
Food as Medicine:
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Cucurbitaceae)

Editors Note: Each month, HerbalEGram highlights a conventional food and briefly
explores its history, traditional uses, nutritional profile, and modern medicinal research.

323
We also feature a nutritious recipe for an easy-to-prepare dish with each article to
encourage readers to experience the extensive benefits of these whole foods. With this
series, we hope our readers will gain a new appreciation for the foods they see at the
supermarket and frequently include in their diets. The basic materials for this series were
compiled by dietetic interns from Texas State University in San Marcos and the
University of Texas at Austin through the American Botanical Councils (ABC) Dietetic
Internship Program, led by ABC Education Coordinator Jenny Perez. We thank Becky
Nichols (TSU, 2013) for her research and work on watermelon.

History and Traditional Use

Range and Habitat

The watermelon is the largest edible fruit grown in the United States: an annual trailing

plant with fruits that can can grow from 5-50 pounds and vines that can reach up to 20 in

length.1,2 Each fruit forms from a yellow flower, and the spherical or ovoid fruit is

typically smooth and green, or green with lighter banded stripes. The watermelon is

native to the Kalahari Desert in Africa, and it thrives in well-draining, sandy soil.

Currently, watermelons are cultivated all over the world, with Asia producing 60% of

watermelons globally.2,3 The United States ranks fifth in global watermelon

production.4 Forty-four states grow watermelons, including Texas, Florida, Georgia, and

California, which collectively produce 2/3 of all the watermelons domestically.

Phytochemicals and Constituents

Watermelon contains an array of important vitamins and minerals including vitamin A,

vitamin C, vitamin B-6, potassium, and beta-carotene.1,5,6 Watermelon also contains the

important bioactive compounds citrulline and lycopene. Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant

and anti-cancer agent.7-9 Watermelons vitamin C content may be linked to reducing blood

pressure, as does its smaller amounts of vitamins B6 and E.8 The human body converts

324
beta-carotene into vitamin A, which promotes healthy eyes, a strong immune system, and

healthy skin.10 Vine fruits like watermelon are a good source of potassium, a crucial

electrolyte for nerve and muscle function. Potassium is an essential nutrient as the body

ages, as it decreases high blood pressure and reduces the risk of kidney stones, stroke,

and bone density loss.11,12

Citrulline is a precursor to the amino acid arginine and is involved in the process of

removing nitrogen from the blood and eliminating it through urine.13,14 Arginine is a

precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide in the body, which is a vasodilator (blood

vessel-widening agent). Conditions that benefit from vasodilation, such as cardiovascular

diseases, erectile dysfunction, and headaches may benefit from increased arginine intake.

Arginine also helps the body make protein, which boosts muscle growth, enhances

wound healing, combats fat accumulation, and stimulates the immune system.

Though the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is more well-known as a source for lycopene

(and in fact, its name is derived from lycopersicum), lycopene is a carotenoid found in

many red foods, including watermelon, papaya (Carica papaya), pink grapefruit (Citrus

x paradisi), and red carrots (Daucus carota subsp. sativus).15 A powerful antioxidant,

lycopene may help prevent heart disease and has shown a potent ability to protect the

body from free radicals, which may play a role in the development of heart disease,

Alzheimers disease, and many cancers. Lycopene may also boost sperm counts and

lower the risk of prostate cancer.

Historical and Commercial Uses

Though native to the African Kalahari desert, where the watermelon gourd was often

used as a canteen, the cultivation of watermelon spread quickly, and other cultures

325
adopted it as a beneficial, healing food. Ancient Egyptians used watermelon to treat

reproductive problems such as erectile dysfunction and prostate inflammation. The

peoples of Russia and Central Asia used watermelon as a diuretic and to cleanse the

blood.16,17 In Traditional Chinese Medicine, watermelon is considered cooling and

moistening, producing a diuretic effect, and commonly is used to treat thirst, edema, and

inflammation of the kidney and urinary tracts.18 Because watermelon is 92% water, many

traditional uses of watermelon overlap with current uses, including hydration, cleansing,

and eliminating impurities.4 Since watermelon is digested relatively quickly, the folk

traditions of the Papua New Guinea aborigines known as Onabasulu advised against

eating watermelon and other juicy fruits after a heavy meal or if suffering from a

stomachache.19

African cuisine treats the watermelon as a vegetable and uses the entire fruit: seeds, rinds,

and flesh.20The seeds are eaten as snacks, added to dishes, or ground into flour for use in

baked goods. The rind can be stir-fried, stewed, candied, pickled, or grilled. The flesh is

eaten or juiced, but it can also be fermented into alcohol; in the southern part of Russia,

the juice is combined with hops to make beer.

Modern Research

The traditional uses for watermelon as a medicine are beginning to gain scientific

confirmation, particularly in regards to its applications against erectile dysfunction,

dehydration, kidney disease, and anti-aging concerns. Watermelons antioxidant and

nutrient content defends against many different conditions.

Current research shows that citrulline in watermelons has beneficial effects on the heart,

dilating the blood vessels and improving blood flow.6 In one clinical study, obese

326
participants with pre-high blood pressure or stage-one high blood pressure significantly

reduced their ankle and brachial systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean

arterial pressure, and carotid wave reflection with ingestion of citrulline from

watermelons.21 A review of consumption of citrulline from watermelon demonstrated

improvements in glycemic control and circulatory problems in diabetics, a reduction in

cardiovascular risk factors, and increased levels of arginine, an essential amino acid.

Because arginine is involved in maintaining the health of the reproductive, pulmonary,

renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and immune systems, citrulline is of increasing interest in

the realm of scientific study. Studies show that citrulline is more bioavailable in the body

than arginine, making it a better candidate for arginine deficiency diseases such as renal

carcinoma, chronic inflammatory diseases, or blood cell diseases like sickle cell anemia

and malaria.14,22 Citrulline research also has shown promising results of becoming a

biomarker for bowel problems of the small intestine as well as kidney failure.13

Lycopenes powerful antioxidant properties have been shown to reduce the risks of

prostate, lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers. However, due to its antioxidant effect it

seems to interfere with chemo and radiation therapy.7,23 In addition to being an

antioxidant, lycopene has been shown to be heart-protective and lowers LDL

cholesterol.23 In one study, lycopene ingestion showed a reduction in the risk for stroke,

especially ischemic strokes in men.24 Finally, lycopene has been linked to a reduction in

cardiovascular risks.25

Nutrient Profile26

Macronutrient Profile

(Per 1 cup diced watermelon [approx. 152 g]):

327
46 calories
1 g protein
11.5 g carbohydrate
0.2 g fat

Secondary Metabolites

(Per 1 cup diced watermelon [approx. 152 g]):

Excellent source of:

Vitamin C: 12.3 mg (20.5% DV)


Vitamin A: 865 IU (17.3% DV)

Very good source of:

Potassium: 170 mg (4.9% DV)

Also provides:

Magnesium: 15 mg (3.8% DV)


Vitamin B-6: 0.07 mg (3.5% DV)
Thiamin: 0.05 mg (3.3% DV)
Vitamin E: 0.08 mg (3% DV)
Manganese: 0.06 mg (3% DV)
Dietary Fiber: 0.6 g (2.4% DV)
Iron: 0.4 mg (2.2% DV)
Phosphorus: 17 mg (1.7% DV)
Folate: 5 mcg (1.3% DV)
Calcium: 11 mg (1.1% DV)

DV = Daily Value as established by the US Food and Drug Administration, based on a


2,000 calorie diet.

Recipe: Pickled Watermelon Rinds

Adapted from Bon Apptit27

For an equally delicious condiment without the wait, use these ingredients to make
watermelon rind chutney: increase sugar to 1 cups, water to 1 cup, and finely mince
the ginger. Bring all ingredients to a boil in a large pan, then simmer for 45-60 minutes
until the rind is translucent and tender and the liquid reduces and thickens. Remove
whole spices before serving.

328
Ingredients:

4 lbs of watermelon
1 serrano chili, thinly sliced, seeds removed if desired
1-inch piece of fresh ginger, peeled and thinly sliced
2 star anise pods
1 tablespoon kosher salt
1 teaspoon black peppercorns
1 cup sugar
1 cup apple cider vinegar

Directions:

1. Using a vegetable peeler, remove the tough green outer rind from watermelon;
discard.
2. Slice watermelon into 1-thick slices. Cut away all but 1/4 of flesh from each
slice; reserve flesh for another use. Cut rind into 1 pieces for roughly 4 cups of
rind.
3. Bring chili, ginger, star anise, salt, peppercorns, sugar, vinegar, and 1/2 cup of
water to a boil in a large, non-reactive saucepan, stirring to dissolve sugar and
salt.
4. Add watermelon rind. Reduce heat and simmer until just tender, about 5 minutes.
Remove from heat and let cool to room temperature, setting a small lid or plate
directly on top of rind to keep submerged in brine, if needed.
5. Transfer rind and liquid to an airtight container; cover and chill at least 12 hours.

Hannah Bauman

References

1. Graper D. Year of the Watermelon. March 25, 2013. IGrow site. Available here.
Accessed June 22, 2015.
2. Watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris). Botanical-Online website. Available here.
Accessed June 22, 2015.
3. Kiple AF, Ornelas KC. The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press; 2000.
4. FAQs: Fun Facts. National Watermelon Promotion Board site. Available here.
Accessed June 22, 2015.
5. Pons L. Exploring Important Medicinal Uses for Watermelon Rinds. February 21,
2003. United States Department of Agriculture website. Available here. Accessed
June 22, 2015.
6. Santa Ana R. Watermelon May Have Viagra-Effect: Secrets of Phyto-nutrients
Are Being Unraveled. June 30, 2008. AgriLife website. Available here. Accessed
June 22, 2015.

329
7. van Breemen RB, Pajkovic N. Multitargeted therapy of cancer by
lycopene. Cancer Letters. 2008;269(2):339-351.
8. Das U. Exploring the actions of vitamin C. US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health. 2001;165(1):13-14.
9. Herrera E, Barbas C. Vitamin E: action, metabolism and perspectives. Pubmed.
2001;57(2):43-56.
10. Ehrlich SD. Beta-carotene. June 21, 2013. University of Maryland Medical Center
website. Available here. Accessed June 22, 2015.
11. Sefcik, L. Why is Potassium Important in the Diet? February 18, 2015.
Livestrong.com website. Available here. Accessed June 22, 2015.
12. Seth A, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Kamensky V, et al. Potassium intake and risk of
stroke in women with hypertension and nonhypertension in the Women's Health
Initiative. Stroke. 2014;45(10):2874-80.
13. Bahri S, Zerrouk N, Aussel C, Moinard C, Crenn P, Curis E. et al. Citrulline:
From metabolism to therapeutic use. Nutrition. 2013;29(3):479-484.
14. Diaz M, Viegas J, Martins M, Aguayo E. Bioactive compounds from flesh and by-
product of fresh-cut watermelon cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and
Agriculture. 2010;91(5):805-812.
15. Weil, A. Vitamin Library: Lycopene. Andrew Weil, MD website. Available here.
Accessed June 22, 2015.
16. Gordestsky J, OBrien J. Urology and the scientific method in ancient
Egypt. Urology. 2009;73(3):476-479.
17. Pieroni A, Gray C. Herbal and food folk medicines of Russlanddeutschen living in
Kunzelsau/Talacker, south-western Germany. Phytotherapy Research.
2008;22(7):889-901.
18. Pitchford P. Healing with Whole Foods. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic
Books; 1993.
19. Meyer-Rochow V. Food taboos: their origins and purposes. Journal of
Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine Online. 2009;5(18):1-10.
20. An African Native of World Popularity. Our Vegetable Travelers. Texas A&M
University; 2000. Available here. Accessed June 22, 2015.
21. Figueroa A, Sanchez-Gonzalez M, Wong A, Arjmandi B. Watermelon extract
supplementation reduces ankle blood pressure and carotid augmentation index in
obese adults with prehypertension or hypertension. American Journal of
Hypertension. 2012;25(6):640-643.
22. Morris M. Arginases and arginine deficiency symptoms. Curr Opin Clin Nutr
Metab Care. 2012;15(1):64-70.
23. Seren S, Liberman R, Bayraktar U, et al. Lycopene in cancer prevention and
treatment. American Journal of Therapeutics. 2008;15(1):66-81.
24. Karppi J, Laukkanen J, Sivenius J, Ronkainen K, Kurl S. Serum lycopene
decreases the risk of stroke in men: A population-based study. Neurology.
2012;79(15):1540-1547.
25. Palozza P, Catalano A, Simone RE, et al. Effect of lycopene and tomato products
on cholesterol metabolism. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;61:126-134.

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26. Basic Report: 09326, Watermelon, raw. Agricultural Research Service, United
States Department of Agriculture website. Available here. Accessed June 22,
2015.
27. Pickled Watermelon Rind. Bon Apptit. August 2014. Available here. Accessed
June 22, 2015.

American Botanical Council, 6200 Manor Rd, Austin, TX 78723


Phone: 512-926-4900 | Fax: 512-926-2345 | Email: abc@herbalgram.org

The information on this site is intended for educational purposes only and is not a
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Source:- http://cms.herbalgram.org/heg/volume12/07July/FaM_Watermelon.html?

ts=1491577764&signature=171dd0364f66904d9d314c377d964ac0

Watermelon lycopene and allied health claims


Ambreen Naz,*,1 Masood Sadiq Butt,2 Muhammad Tauseef Sultan,3 Mir Muhammad
Nasir Qayyum,4 and Rai Shahid Niaz5
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract
Go to:

Background
Accumulating evidences have established a consensus that fruits are concentrated source
of natural components thus having health promoting properties (Butt et al., 2008[19]).
Plant based diet contains several bioactive ingredients with vital role to perform various
metabolic functions like growth, development and protective mechanism against
physiological threats. In this context, phytochemicals are of significance importance as
they improve the human health through distinct pathways. The plants that are rich sources
of bioactive molecules include garlic, ginger, tea, ginseng, black cumin, mulberry,
raspberry etc. (Butt et al., 2009[20]). Researchers are focusing on exploitation of natural

331
resources for dietary regimen against life threatening ailments (Lucier and Lin,
2001[74]).
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), botanically considered as a fruit, belongs to the
family Cucurbitaceae (Edwards et al., 2003[37]). It is native to Kalahari desert of Africa
but nowadays, it is also cultivated in tropical regions of the world. In the pages of history,
its first harvest was documented 5000 years ago in Egypt that later spread to other part of
the world. Presently, China is the top producer followed by Turkey, United States, Iran
and Republics of Korea (Zohary and Hopf, 2000[119]; Lucier and Lin, 2001[74]; Naz et
al., 2013[89]). Watermelon is a valued source of natural antioxidants with special
reference to lycopene, ascorbic acid and citruline. These functional ingredients act as
protection against chronic health problems like cancer insurgence and cardiovascular
disorders (Zhang and Hamauzu, 2004[118]; Omoni and Aluko, 2005[91]; Fenko et al.,
2009[40]). Lycopene is characterized by its distinctive red color in fruits and vegetable
(Mutanen and Pajari, 2011[87]).
During the last few decades, presence of appreciable quantity of lycopene in watermelon
has motivated the farmers/growers to cultivate high red flesh varieties. Overall, twelve
hundred cultivars of watermelon are produced worldwide while the four most promising
cultivars are picnic, icebox, yellow flesh and seed less (Chalabi et al., 2006[23]; Helyes et
al., 2009[48]). This review article intends to enlighten the readers regarding rich
nutritional profile of the watermelon with special focus on lycopene and its therapeutic
aspects like prevent oxidative stress, cancer, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and macular
disorders.
Go to:

Classification and nutritional profile


Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) has association with cucumber, pumpkin, squash and
gourds; belonging to family Cucurbitaceae (Edwards et al., 2003[37]). Fruit of this plant
is major consumed portion and variations in growth characteristics determine its end use
quality (Maynard, 2001[79]; Oms-Oliu et al., 2009[93]). Considering the nutritional
profile, consumption of 100 g watermelon provides 30 kcal. It contains almost 92 %
water and 7.55 % of carbohydrates out of which 6.2 % are sugars and 0.4 % dietary fiber.
It is enriched with carotenoid, vitamin C, citrulline, carotenoids and flavonoids and fat
and cholesterol free, thus considered as low caloric fruit (Leskovar et al., 2004[69];
Bruton et al., 2009[17]). Additionally, watermelon is rich source of -carotene acts as an
antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A.
Besides the presence of lycopene, it is a source of B vitamins, especially B1 and B6, as
well as minerals such as potassium and magnesium (Huh et al., 2008[50]). Watermelon
contains phenolics quite comparable with that of other fruits (Kaur and Kapoor,
2001[63]; Jaskani et al., 2005[55]). It is an inexpensive and nutritious source that is
readily available to all socio-economic groups of Pakistan throughout the summer season.
Its consumption depends on number of factors e.g. availability, income, age, gender,
racial and ethnic norms. In this context, per capita consumption in Asian communities is

332
almost 3 times greater as compared to other part of globe (Dermesonlouoglou et al.,
2007[33](Fig. 1)).

Figure 1

Aroma contributing volatiles


In various fruits, flowers and spices monoterpens and norisoprenoids (apocarotenals) are
the key compounds producing characteristic scent. In case of watermelon, distinctive
aroma is imparted by medium- and short-chain fatty acids along with geranial, -ionone
and neral that are some of the norisoprenoid and monoterpene compounds. However,
esters are absent unlikely as in most fruits i.e. strawberry, banana, melon etc. (Tadmor et
al., 2005[111]). In-vitro evidences have supported that fruit scents are degraded
carotenoids by the action of lipoxygenases, peroxidases and dioxygenases. However, it is
also interesting to know that citral that is an aromatic compound of lemon grass, lemon
basil and various lemon scented plants is a combination cis- and trans-monoterpene,

333
neral and geranial. Several gathered information have supported its biosynthesis in
lycopene rich fruits as in watermelon and tomato (Micol et al., 2007[81]).
Go to:

Watermelon: a potential source of lycopene


Earlier, only tomato and its products were considered as potential sources of lycopene but
now there are proven facts that watermelon also contains appreciable amount of cis-
configured lycopene. Thus consumer is gradually shifting towards watermelon and its
allied products for their health concerns. Nevertheless, the quantity of lycopene varies
depending upon the variety and growing conditions (Fish and Davis, 2003[41]). Overall,
lycopene ranges from 2.30-7.20 mg/100 g fresh weight bases, present in crystalline form
in cell (Huh et al., 2008[50]; Chaoensiri et al., 2009[25]; Artes-Henandez et al., 2010[9]).
More interestingly, lycopene contents of red fleshed watermelon are almost 40 % higher
than tomato i.e. 4.81 and 3.03 mg/100 g, respectively. However, yellow orange and
yellow colored fleshed have relatively less lycopene content i.e. 3.68 and 2.51 mg/100 g,
respectively (Jaskani, 2005[55]; Choudhary et al., 2009[28]). In tomato, lycopene is
available in relatively higher quantity after heat treatment due to break down of protein-
carotenoid complex. In contrast, lycopene from watermelon is available directly to the
human body just after consumption (Edwards et al., 2003[37]; Perkins-Veaize and
Collins, 2004[94]; Jaskani et al., 2006[56]; Saftner et al., 2007[103]).
Storage conditions are also cardinal that significantly affect the concentrations of
lycopene, phenolics and vitamin C contents. The higher ratio of lycopene to carotene in
watermelon i.e. 1:12 yields remarkable antioxidant capacity (Mort et al., 2008[85]).
Owing to this specific characteristic, foods high in lycopene contents are referred as
functional foods (Shi and Maguer, 2000[107]; Collins et al., 2005[30]; Jiang and Lin,
2007[59]; Davis et al., 2008[32]).
Go to:

Synthesis route of lycopene


A complex mechanism persists in the biosynthesis of lycopene that starts when
chlorophyll degrades to yield white colored leucoplast thus yielding specialized red color
pigmented organelles i.e. chromoplast (Bowen et al., 2002[15]). Lycopene is a carotenoid
that is produced as an intermediate product of xanthophylls production; -cryptoxanthin,
zeaxanthin, leutin etc. Carotenoids are basically formed by 40-C isoprenoids (5-C
isoprene unit), called tetraprenoids. A stepwise addition of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP)
takes place with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) giving rise 20-C precursor,
geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). On desaturation of GGPP, 11 conjugated double
bonds are produced that exist as lycopene in nature. From this point cyclic conversion
takes place converting it to - and -carotene that on oxidation produce xanthophylls
(Ishida and Bartley, 2005[53]).
Lycopene crystals are in voluminous red color found in the form of small globules
suspended throughout the fruit (Chandrika et al., 2009[24]). At cellular level lycopene is
present in thylakoid membrane as protein-lycopene complex due to its lipophilic nature.

334
It is well documented that lycopene is present in all-trans form within the fruit that is
transformed from cis-configured lycopene due to the action of carotenoid isomerase
enzyme. However, in case of watermelon absence of this enzyme keep it in its cis-form
(Akhtar et al., 1999[2]; Bangalore et al., 2008[10]).
Go to:

Lycopene: structure and physicochemical properties


Lycopene is a vibrant tetrapenic carotenoid with molecular formula of C40H56 (Figure
2(Fig. 2)) and contains 11 conjugated and 2 unconjugated double bonds (Fish et al.,
2002[42]). It is an acyclic isomer and open-chain analogue of -carotene that
undergoes cis-trans isomerization when interact with light, temperature and chemicals
(Ollanketo et al., 2001[90]). A great majority of studies have demonstrated that human
blood serum contains both cis- and trans-isomeric forms of lycopene whereas the plants
have only trans-configuration except watermelon (Klipstein-Grobusch et al., 2000[65];
Tadmor et al., 2005[111]). Some isomeric forms of lycopene are also depicted in Figure
2(Fig. 2). Among different configurations, 5-cis form is more stable with strong
antioxidant potential as compared to all-trans, 7-cis, 9-cis, 11-cis, 13-cis and 15-cis (Arab
and Steck, 2000[8]; Chasse et al., 2001[26]; Lewinsohn et al., 2005[71]; Alquzar et al.,
2009[4]).

C full text: EXCLI J. 2014; 13: 650660.


Published online 2014 Jun 3.
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335
Figure 2

Numerous publications have reported that the amount of lycopene affected significantly

as a function of storage time and temperature of watermelon. It has been observed that

the lycopene content at storage temperature of 5 C varied from 7.8 to 8.1 mg/100 g that

increased to 8.1 to 12.7 mg/100 g at 20 C (Mokbe, 2005[84]; Choudhary et al.,

2009[28]). Data from various studies have shown an increasing trend of lycopene and -

336
carotene contents of watermelon at higher storage temperatures. It has been suggested

that the carotenoids producing enzymes pathways are sensitive to temperature (Oms-Oliu

et al., 2009[92]). The details of physical properties of lycopene are given in Table 1(Tab.

1).

PMC full text: EXCLI J. 2014; 13: 650660.


Published online 2014 Jun 3.
Copyright/License Request permission to reuse

Table 1

Absorption pathway
Lycopene efficiently absorbs when supplemented with fat owing to its lipophilic
characteristics (Rao and Agarwal, 1999[97]). Its assimilation is dependent on
chylomicron micells mediated mechanism, facilitates its movement from gastrointestinal

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tract towards body tissues. The isomeric form of lycopene also affects the absorption e.g.
trans-isomeric form is less adsorbed as compared to cis-isomeric configuration (Collins
et al., 2005[30]; Rupasinghe and Clegg, 2007[102]). Presences of fat as well as cis-
isomeric forms facilitate lycopene absorption afterwards, it resides in the adipose tissues,
liver, prostate and adrenal glands. After ingestion of lycopene-based food, disruption
carotenoids occur within the low pH environment of stomach where lycopene get
attached to the protein to pass through intestinal leumen. The resultant lycopene-protein
complex breakdown and lycopene joins chylomicron in blood stream from where it goes
to target tissue via hepatic pathway (Jian et al., 2005[57]; Gao et al., 2008[45]). The
detailed mechanism of lycopene absorption and its storage is described in Figure 3(Fig.
3).

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Figure 3

Absorption pathway of lycopene

Lycopene health claims


Lycopene has potential to prevent various chronic ailments like dyslipidemia, diabetes,
oncogenesis, neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis etc. The protective aspects are
ascribed to the singlet oxygen scavenging ability. Numerous metabolic syndromes arise

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due to high free radicals formation reacting with macromolecules thus oxidizing proteins,
lipids and DNA. Lycopene protects humans from various pathogenic attacks responsible
for an array of diseases (Ilic and Misso, 2012[52]; Sesso et al., 2005[106]). Several
authors have reported that lycopene holds nutraceutical potential and being antioxidant
provides protection against free radicals and oxidative damage (Krinsky, 1998[66]; Rao
and Agarwal, 1999[97]; Choksi and Joshi, 2007[27]). Free radicals are produced in the
body during oxidation reduction reaction however, excessive production deteriorates
body defense mechanism, cell membrane and organelles. These degenerative processes
resulted in life threatening ailments (Humberto, 2000[51]; Heber and Lu, 2002[47];
Perkins-Veazie and Collins, 2006[95]). The presence of large number of double bonds is
responsible for its fairly high free radical scavenging or singlet oxygen quenching ability
even better than - and -carotene, lutein and -tocopherol (Rivero et al., 2001;[101]
Perkins-Veazie and Collins, 2004[96]). Lycopene provides protection against
degenerative disorders via mechanisms like gap-junction communication, gene function
regulation, phase II drug-metabolizing pathways and carcinogenic metabolism (Arab and
Steck, 2000[8]; Collins et al., 2004[29]). It has been established through epidemiological
studies that lycopene plays a role in maintaining normal cellular differentiation and
division (Giovannucci et al., 2002[46]; Choudhary et al., 2009[28]). Lycopene scavenges
free radicals at cellular level due to its attachment in cell membrane thereby may prevent
hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia along with allied dysfunctions (Marinova et al.,
2005[77]; Fisher and Frazee, 2006[43]).

a. Oxidative stress
Oxidative stress is an etiological factor in the onset of various metabolic dysfunctions.
There are proven facts that uncontrolled oxidation leads to generate excessive reactive
oxygen species (ROS), causative agent of many ailments that can address through
antioxidants/phytochemicals rich diets (Butt et al., 2009[20]). Excessive production of
free radicals leads to atherosclerosis by inactivation of nitric oxide and impairment of
endothelium dependent vasodilatation. The ROS are produced continuously in normal
metabolic pathways. The diet, smoking, exercises and environmental variables may
enhance the production of ROS (Weisburger, 2002[116]; Espin et al., 2007[39]; Migliore
and Copped, 2009[82]). Despite, antioxidants have ability to start repairing through
chain-chain interaction with oxidized biomolecules (Holden et al., 1999[49]; Kauer-
Sant'Anna et al., 2009[62]). Diet based therapy indicated a significant role of lycopene in
the reduction of oxidative damage of DNA and lymphocytes and short term improvement
in LDL oxidation (Alshatwi et al., 2010[5]).
The oxidative balance disrupts during production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that
successively generate double allylic hydrogen atom and initiate oxidation of lipid.
Meanwhile, neutrophils catalyze the synthesis of hypochlorous acid that causes oxidative
injury in terms of cellular damage. In this milieu, body produces defense
enzymes i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px).
Superoxide dismutase acts as first line defense by producing singlet oxygen into
hydrogen peroxide. However, GSH-Px and catalase enzymes convert hydrogen peroxide
into water. Generally, these enzymes work in harmony but in case of ROS over
production, interruption may occur resulting necrosis or apoptosis. In such cases, dietary

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lycopene acts as a therapeutic agent to combat excessive ROS production (Erdman et al.,
2009[38]).
Oxidative stress plays a vital role in the prevalence of chronic diseases. Free radicals are
linked with various disease pathogenesis as diabetes, cardiovascular complications,
osteoporosis, cancer and cataracts (Ratnam et al., 2006[100]). Lycopene significantly
restored the antioxidant enzymes including glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide
dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) whilst decreased the levels of lipid
peroxide malondialdehyde (MDA) in hypertensive patients (Bose and Agrawal,
2007[14]). Similarly, lycopene was found to be effective in reducing MDA and increasing
GSH levels in coronary artery disease (Misra et al., 2006[83]). Later, Kim et al.
(2011[64]) examined the effect of lycopene in smoker men with low fruit and vegetable
intake through a double blind randomized controlled study. They concluded that lycopene
significantly reduces oxidative stress and ameliorates endothelial function (Pennathur et
al., 2010[94]).
Likewise, Dogukan et al. (2011[35]) probed lycopene against cisplatin-induced lipid
peroxidation and nephrotoxicity in male wistar rats. A significant decrease in renal bax
protein was observed in rats administrated on lycopene; an indicator of low oxidative
stress. Earlier, Devaraj et al. (2008[34]) determined the response of lycopene
supplementation on oxidative stress markers. For the reason, human subjects were
provided lycopene for two months following LDL and MDA assessment. Lymphocytes
were also analyzed to observe any deleterious effect. Comparison of subjects with
lycopene restricted group showed a marked decrease in LDL oxidation and TBAR
value i.e. 17 and 21 %, respectively. Previous literature has delineated the protective role
of lycopene rich food against DNA damage in normal and cancer cells (Liu et al.,
2005[73]; Scolastici et al., 2008[105]). Likewise, a reduction in lipid peroxidation
products i.e. TBARS (21 %) and DNA damage markers were observed in the fibroblast of
monkey. In case of rats, lycopene injection for five days with a dose level 10 mg/kg/day
showed reduction in lipid peroxidation and prostate tissue protection against Fe-induced
oxidative damage (Matos et al., 2006[78]).
Various interventional studies have described the interaction between reduced
dyslipidemia and lycopene consumption. The lycopene rich diets have potential to reduce
lipid peroxidation, one of the leading factors of hypercholesterolemia. In a case study,
Mackinnon et al. (2011[75]) noticed an inverse association of dietary lycopene with
oxidative stress and positive impact on bone integrity. Effect of no lycopene diet was
determined in postmenopausal women of 50 to 60 years. Blood serum was analyzed for
protein thiols and thiobarbituric-malondialdehyde reactive substances along with bone
turn over markers; alkaline phosphatase and cross-linked N-telopeptide. Inferences of
research indicated that dietary restrictions of lycopene for one month resulting
tremendous increase in oxidative stress biomarkers with allied bone resorption.
Similarly, a study was conducted in human subjects to find out the role of lycopene
enriched functional juice and vitamin C. The core objective was to measure the effect of
lycopene (20.6 mg/day) and vitamin C (435 mg/day) against the biomarkers of
inflammation and oxidative stress. Blood serum was examined for lipid status, TBAR and
antioxidant capacity. The decrease in TBAR (19 to 22 %) and rise in glutathione value

340
(17 to 20 %) was recorded. It has been observed that functional juice led to a decline in
total cholesterol (Jacob et al., 2008[54]). A completely randomized cross over study was
conducted to probe the role of lycopene in suppression of oxidative stress using lycopene
based capsules. Purposely, twelve healthy subjects were administrated on these capsules
and a reduction in lipid oxidation was observed. The oxidative stress
biomarkers i.e. TBAR and glutathione showed significant changes. The glutathione value
raised up to 23.6 %, whereas, a decrease of 20 % in TBAR value was noticed (Rao and
Shen, 2002[98]). Lycopene attenuates lifestyle related disorders without imparting any
deleterious effects on hematological aspects. Accordingly, Jonker et al. (2003[60])
conducted a three months study to investigate any toxic effect of lycopene in wistar rats.
Blood assay was performed to evaluate the red and white blood cell count, hemoglobin,
thrombocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. The summary of hematological
aspects revealed non-significant effect of lycopene supplementation. Moreover,
histopathological examination did not reflect any adverse sign. The health benefits of
lycopene are depicted in Figure 4(Fig. 4).

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Published online 2014 Jun 3.
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Figure 4

Health benefits of lycopene

b. Nutrigenomics and cancer insurgence


Presently, a number of evidences are available indicating direct linkages between food
active components and cell genomic with special reference to cancer treatment.
Nutrigenomics is a broader term that explains interaction of nutrient with gene
expression. Being active dietary component, lycopene interferes at various stages of
cancer development i.e. DNA mutation and tumor metastasis thus have direct impact on
gene and inhibit mutation (Nahum et al., 2001[88]). However, understanding of lycopene
and gene interaction has not yet been well established and needs further research.

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Lycopene is likely to be associated in the production of phase I and II enzymes that are
essential for metabolism of carcinogen within the physiological system. Phase I enzyme
has potential to activate the carcinogen whilst phase II enzyme is responsible for
attaching polar group to the activated carcinogen that facilitates its excretion.
Furthermore, it activates antioxidant response element transcription system within the
body to inhibit carcinogenesis, mutagenesis and some other forms of toxicity (Linnewiel
et al., 2009[72]; Butt et al., 2013[18]).
Lycopene is a viable antioxidant and beyond this property also attributed for its
antiproliferative effects against oncological incidences. Its functionality is associated in
diminishing the insulin growth factor thus lowering rate of cancer prevalence.
Researchers have unified their opinions on inverse association between blood lycopene
level and risk of various cancer types. This individualized approach is also supported by
mechanistic exploration with different cell cultures and animal models (Fenko et al.,
2009[40]). It has direct relation with phase I and II enzymes and also protects cell
membrane, DNA and other macromolecules by reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, it
is involved in regression of cancer by interrupting cancer cell growth cycle, apoptosis,
hormone regulation and carcinogen metabolism (Butt et al., 2013[18]).
Numerous case studies have indicated chemopreventive role of lycopene regarding
aerodigestive tract cancers (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus). Accordingly, an
oncological efficacy trial was carried out on hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis
induced by 7, 12-dimethylbenzanthracene using lipid peroxidation, glutathione reductase
and glutathione S-transferase as biomarkers of chemoprevention. After 2 weeks,
biochemical measurements revealed modulating effect of lycopene against buccal pouch
cancer and enhancing activities of glutathione redox cycle enzymes (Bhuvaneswari et al.,
2001[13]). In a similar study, combined effect of lycopene, vitamin C, flavonoids and
phytosterols was established in the regression of aerodigestive tract carcinoma (Stefani et
al., 2000[109]).
Colorectal cancer is one of most prevalent malignancy related to colon. Many type of
tumorogenesis are accelerated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway that
in turn stimulates transcription and protein translation, essential for cell growth, survival
and progression. Cumulative evidences suggested that lycopene could suppress
proliferation of colon cancer through modulation of PI-3k. For the purpose, concomitant
effect of lycopene and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was determined in human subjects. It
was observed that combination of lycopene and EPA inhibit cell growth at higher
concentration and somehow reduce at low concentration (Tang et al., 2009[112]).
Previous studies have reinforced lycopene association with reduced cancer risk. A case
study on colorectal cancer explicated that the patients with colorectal adenomas (a type of
polyp proved as precursor of colorectal cancer) had significant lower level of lycopene
(35 %) as well as -carotene (25.5 %) compared to healthy adults. Administration of
lycopene at early stages has ability to slow down cancer cell progression (Slattery et al.,
2000[108]).
It has been reported from the research in the Harvard University that the subjects
consuming appreciable dosage of lycopene have resistance against various cancer lines
especially prostrate (Dahan et al., 2008[31]). An inverse correlation exists between the

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consumption of high lycopene and prostate cancer as observed through a research
intervention. Men with high consumption of lycopene in diet reported 25 % less
incidences of prostate cancer and overall 44 % reduced risk of other cancers (Tang,
2009[112]). According to Ansari et al. (2004[7]), lycopene therapy has an effective role in
the prevention of hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer. In current frantic
incidences of cancer, lycopene must be administrated at early onset of prostate cancer due
to its relative innocuous nature rather than chemotherapy and growth factor inhibitors.
Afterwards, Kanagaraj et al. (2007[61]) reviewed lycopene impact on the components of
insulin growth factors (IGF); found a significant decrease in the proliferation of cells
treated with lycopene.
Carcinomas of breast, ovary and endometrium are hormone dependent and have some
biological similarities. Numerous epidemiological studies have presumed that diet and
nutrition play a preventive role in progression of hormone related cancer milieu. Chalabi
et al. (2004[22]) studied breast cancer lines for BRCA1 and BRCA2 for transcription and
translation. According to their findings, lycopene dietary sources have direct relation on
oncogenesis and developed nutrigenomic link of lycopene. It was hypothesized that
lycopene derivatives may act as ligands and regress tumorogenesis. Likewise, females
consuming ample amount of watermelon have five times less likely risk of cervical
cancer (Rao et al., 2007[99]; Wu et al., 2007[117]; Moussa et al., 2008[86]). The cascade
of events is due to high anti-proliferative properties of lycopene as compared to - and -
carotene (Levi et al., 2001[70]). Lycopene also hold the ability to control autocrine and
paracrine system a contributory factor in the development of the endometrial cancers and
malignant tumors (Salman et al., 2007[104]).

c. Cardiovascular complications

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is contributed by sedentary lifestyle and reported as a


leading cause of mortality. Cardiac risk is elevated due to consumption of high
cholesterol diet resulting subacute chronic inflammation. Distinctively, LDL-cholesterol,
serum amyloid A (SAA) and inter-cellular adhesion molecule (ICMA-1) are the risk
factors thereby facilitate atherosclerosis progression and cardiovascular events
(Verschuren et al., 2011[114]).
Hypercholesterolemia is a condition in which serum lipid level increases especially
cholesterol and low density lipoproteins (LDL) that further leads to atherosclerosis.
Dietary lycopene exert cardio-protective effects due to their high antioxidant activity
(Cauz