Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 38

RAJWEST POWER LTD.

, BARMER

NEAR BHADRESH VILLAGE, BARMER, RAJASTHAN

A PRACTICAL TRAINING REPORT

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF


THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
(Mechanical Engineering)

SUBMITTED TO
RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, KOTA

SUBMITTED BY
Name of Student University Enroll No.
NARENDRA SHARMA 13E1EAMEM4XP047

23-05-16 to 22-07-16

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, AJMER


RAJWEST POWER LTD., BARMER

NEAR BHADRESH VILLAGE, BARMER, RAJASTHAN

A PRACTICAL TRAINING REPORT

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF


THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
(Mechanical Engineering)

SUBMITTED TO
RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, KOTA

SUBMITTED BY
Name of Student University Enroll. No.
NARENDRA SHARMA 13E1EAMEM4XP047

23-05-16 to 22-07-16

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, AJMER

2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to place on record my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Sonal Agarwal Asst.
officer HR of Raj west power limited barmer for his generous guidance, help and useful
suggestions.

.
I also wish to extend my thanks to Mr. Nishant Chaudhary Asst. general manager and
training in charge and other workers for guiding and providing the knowledge related to
machinery and processes.

I am extremely thankful to Dr. Jinesh Kumar Jain, HOD, Department of Mechanical


Engineering, Government Engineering College, Ajmer, for his valuable suggestions and
encouragement.

I am also thankful to Dr. Uma Shankar Modani Training and placement officer ,
Government Engineering College, Ajmer for providing the opportunity to get this
knowledge .

Signature of Student

NARENDRA SHARMA
(13E1EAMEM4XP047)

3
CERTIFICATE

I hereby certify that I have completed the 60 days Training in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering. I did my training in RAJWEST
POWER LTD., BARMER 23-05-16 to 22-07-16.

The matter presented in this Report has not been submitted by me for the award of
any other degree elsewhere.

Signature of Student
NARENDRA SHARMA
(13E1EAMEM4XP047)

4
5
CERTIFICATE4

INTRODUCTION7

PLANTS IN RWPL12

DE MINERALIZING PLANT...........13

COAL HANDLING PLANT..14

ASH HANDLING PLANT.15

BOILER..16

AIR PREHEATER16

REHEATER...17

SUPERHEATER...17

ECONOMIZER18

TURBINE..19

TURBO GENERATOR...21

PARTS OF GENERATOR...22

MOTORS23

CONTROL ROOM.....24

TRANSFORMER AND SWITCH GEAR....26

SWITCH YARD...31

CIRCUIT BREAKER..31

SWITCH GEAR.33

EFFICIENCY.34

6
CONCLUSION.38

7
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction: The RAJWEST POWER LIMITED is ideally located in the


Barmer in the Village Bhadresh. Thermal power station is to produce electrical power
for supply undertakings. R.W.P.L is designed for ultimate capacity of 8*135 MW.
The source of water is reservoir formed by Indra Gandhi. Barmer Lignite Mining
Company Limited (BLMCL) was incorporated on 19th January, 2007 as a Joint Venture
Company between Rajasthan State Mines & Minerals Ltd. (RSMML), a Government of
Rajasthan enterprise & Raj West Power Ltd. (RWPL), a wholly owned subsidiary of JSW
Energy Limited with equity participation of 51% and 49% respectively to develop lignite
mines in two contiguous blocks viz Kapurdi and Jalipa in the district of Barmer for
supplying lignite to the mine-head located 1080 MW (8x135) capacity Thermal Power
Plant of RWPL. Jalipa and Kapurdi Lignite Mining blocks are situated within 20 kms
north of Barmer Town on NH-15 and contain the estimated insist geological reserve of
about 466 million tons of lignite.

1.2 How Electricity Is Produced

Thermal power stations burn fuels and use the resultant heat to raise steam, which drive
the turbo generator. The fuel may be Fossil (coal, oil or natural gas) of it may be
fissionable. Whichever fuel is used the object is same to convert heat into mechanical
energy in the turbine, and to convert that mechanical energy into electricity by rotating a
magnet inside a set of windings.
In the thermal power stations other raw materials are air and water. The coal, brought to
the station by the trains or by other means, travels from the coal handling plant by
conveyor belt to the coal bunkers, from where it is fed to the pulverizing mills which
grind it as fine as face powder. The finely powdered coal is then mixed with pre-heated
are in the blown into the boiler by a fan called Primary Air Fan where it burns, more like
a gas then as solid in the conventional domestic of industrial gate, with additional amount
of are called secondary air supplied by Forced Draft Fan. As the coal has been ground so
finely the resultant ash is also a fine powder. Some of it binds together to from lumps
which fall into the ash pits at the bottom of the furnace is conveyed to pits for subsequent
disposal of sale. Most of ash, still in fine particle form is carried out of the boiler to

8
precipitators as sust where it is trapped by electrodes charged with high voltage electricity.
The dust is then conveyed by the water to the disposal areas or to the Bunkers for sale
while the cleaned flue gases pass on through I.D.G.S.N to discharge up the chimney.

1.3 Need For Power Station


Rajasthan is the largest state in the country about 30% population lives in village which
are local point of development while Rajasthans mineral recourse are immense, but its
resources for power station generation not immiscible with the requirement more over the
state government has drawn up a rural of electrification program with a large demand on
agricultural load with rapid adoption and morden method of agricultural and
industrialization of towns. The mode of living of people in rural and urban areas as
changing rapidly with requirement of more power.
Rajasthan state electricity board (R.S.E.B.) completed the construction which is done by
Raj Bridge Construction Corporation (R.B.C.C.) and other auxiliaries are supplied by
Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (B.H.E.L.)

1.4 Energy Generated


Total installed capacity = 1080 MW

Total generated Electricity (In one hour) = 1080 x 1 x 103 = 10.80 lack units (Kwh).
Amount of electricity generated (in 24 hours) = 10.80 x 24 = 259.2 lack units (Kwh) .

1.5 A View Of RWPL:

TABLE 1.1 SILENT FEATURE OF RWPL. BARMER

1. LOCATION BHADRESH VILLEGE


2. CAPACITY 1080MW
[A] EACH UNIT 135 MW
[B] TOTAL UNIT 8
3. SOURCE OF WATER INDRA GANDHI NAHRA
4. BOILER
[A]TYPE CFBC

9
BALANCED DRAFT WATER
[B] CAPACITY 375 TONS/Hr
[C] PRESSURE OF STEAM 139 kg/sq. cm

[D] TEMP OF STEAM 5400C


[E] No. OF Lime MILL 1
[F] NO OF WARM UP GUNS 4
[G] EFFICIENCY 86.6 =_ 1 %
5. FUEL
A. COAL
1. TYPE STACK COAL
2. CALRIFIC VALUE 4450 Kcal/kg
3. QUANTITY USED 3074 Tones/day
4. ASH CONTENT 40 %
5. TYPE OF HANDELING BELT CONVEYER
B. OIL
2. FUEL OIL 28800 Mt/day

6. ATMOSPHERIC EMISSION
1. No OF STOCKS 3 + 2 + 1 PER UNIT
2. No OF CHIMENY 1
3. HEIGHT OF CHIMENY 180 M
4. VOLUME OF FLUE GAS 108 cubic M / sec

5. TEMP OF GAS 1400C


6. ANTI POLLUTION DEVICE 1 ESP/UNIT

7. COOLING AND CIRCULATION WATER SYSTEM


COOLING TECHNIQUE
1. DIRECT COOLING
2. COOLING TOWER
8. TURBINE
1. NUMBER 1
2. ACTUAL CAPACITY 8275 cubic M/sec
3. TYPY ACTUAL FLOW REHEAT CONDENSING
10
4. SPEED 3000 rpm
5. NO OF STAGES 9 IN HP. 12 IN IP, 4 IN LP
6. EXHAUST PRESSURE 0.10kg/sq. CM
9. GENERATOR
1. NO OF UNITS 1
2. MAKE BHEL
3. TYPE TGP 234260/2H
4. CAPACITY 125000 kw, 147060 Kva
5. VOLTAGE 10.5 kv (1 STAGE)
6. POWER FACTOR 0.85 LAGGING
7. SPEED 3000 rpm
8. MAIN EXCITER Brushless EXCITATION
9. STEAM CONSUMPTION 3.31 Kg/Kwh

11
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
BMR-I JSMR
29-L 29-L 29-L
52 52 52

29-A 29-B 29-A 29-B 29-A 29-B

BMR-II

BUS-2

BUS-1

29-A 29-B 29-A 29-B 29-A 29-B

52
52 52

GT 29

ST
GEN

Figure 1.1 single line diag

12
CHAPTER 2
PLANTS IN RWPL
The principal problem in high pressure boiler is to control corrosion and steam quality.
Intemal corrosion cost power stations a lot of loss of money. So to avoid this situation we
purify the water and remove impurities from it
The major impurities are
Un dissolved and suspended solid material

Dissolved salts and minerals

Dissolved gases

Microbiological organism

2.1 Process of purification


1. The raw water is taken from cooling water plant & reservoir.
2. The chemicals (ALUM + LIME/PAC & CL2) are added in water to remove
impurities.

3. This water is fed to flash mixer, which consist of a 90 0 rotated path for
purpose of mixing chemicals, which are added to water. In GLTPP natural
mixing is used
4. Then this water is fed to chloriflocculatar tank which consist of cylindrical
shape & two stage water is fed in internal stage & from bottom it comes to
outer stage & all impurities form flock and settle down in inner portion so it is
said.
Flocculate zone. The pure water comes to outer portion in which Cl2 is
dissolved so it is said clarifier zone.
5. The water from clariflacculatar tank is fed to filter bed in RWPL gravity bed
are used to remove impurities.
6. Then the water is fed to sump which is a big tank with no portion open. It is
to store pure water.
7. With help of pumps the water is fed to place of utilization various pumps are
A. Potable water pump for supplying drinking water.
B. Back wash water pump: for reversing cycle of water for washing
filter bed.
C. Filtered water pump: to supply water to make steam.
13
2.2 De mineralizing plant

Water mainly in plant is used for cooling purpose. In this process water must be free from
all dissolved impurities. Equipments for demineralization cum softening plant is supplied
erected by m/s wanson (Ind) ltd pune.
This plant consist of two stream each stream with activated carbon filter, weak acid,
carbon exchanger and mixed bed exchanger. The filter water to DM water plant through
250 dia header from where a header top off has been taken off to softening plant. Two
filtered water booster pumps are provided on filtered water line for meeting the pressure
requirement in D.M. plant.

2.2.1 Caution Exchanger

R H + Ca+ R2 Ca + H1

2.2.2 Anion Exchanger

R OH + Cl R Cl + OH
3
H + OH H2O
Arrangement for designing ammonia solution into de mineralized water after
mixed bed unit has been provided for phcprrection before water is taken into
becondensate transfer pump the DM eater to unit condenser as make up The softening
plant is a designed to produce 100 cubic m/hr. of softened water per stream .
DM water quality
PH 6.0 8.0

IRON NON TRACEABLE


FREE CO2 NON TRACEABLE
CONDUCTIVITY LESS THEN 0.3

SHEMONS/CM AT 200C
TOTAL SILICA LESS THAN 0.020 RPM
TOTAL ELECTROLYTE LESS THAN 1 PPM AS CACO3

14
2.3 Coal Handling Plant

The coal for GLTPP is received from RAJSTHAN STATE MINES & MINERALS
BARMER In plant there are wagon tippler to take lignite from wagons each wagon tippler
has rated unloading capacity of twelve wagon per hour including shunting and spotting
time of huge equipment for vibrating feeder of capacity 350 tons/hr each have been
provided feeding unload lignite .
A steel hoper has been provided in crusher house to receive coal and distribute it through
manually operated rack and pinion gate to two vibrating screens of 675ton/hr capacity
each. Coal above 20 mm size passes on granules for crushing and reduction in size lihnite
below 20 mm size passes granular and discharge on to crushed lignitconveyer belt.
Following permutation and combination of operation and possible with installed system
1. To transfer all crushed coal received from crusher house to live storage pipe.
2. To transfer part of received crushed lignite to plant and to balance to storage
yard.
3. To deliver the raw lignite banker part and received crushed lignite mixed with
balanced coal from the live storage pipe.
4. To transfer the plant crushed ligniteat 750 ton/hr. from the reclaim live pipe
and simultaneously stock.

TABLE 2.1 Technical data:


Nos TWO
CAPACITY 12 BOX/Hrs.
TIPPER MOTOR
MAKE SIEMENS
TYPE SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTOR
O/P 71 Kw
VIBRATING FEEDERS
TYPE ELECTRO MAGNET
CAPACITY 350 Ton/Hr
TYPE TWO CHANNAL POWER UNIT
POWER SUPLY 230 V
BUNKER LEVEL DETECTOR
TYPE TWO CHANNAL BUNKER

15
NOS 4 PER BUNKER
CRUSHER.
CAPACITY 550 Ton/Hr
FEED TO CRUSHER
CLEANING WATER JET CLEANING
MOTOR RATING* 500HP
VIBRATING SCREENS *
LOCATION* CRUSHER HOUSE
CAPACITY 675 Ton/Hr
STACKER TYPE REVERSIBLE STACKER
EFFECTIVE STACK HIGHT 9m
TRAVEL SPEED 7.5 15 m/min

2.4 ASH HANDLING PLANT:


From the ash disposal pump house ash slurry is pumped through pipes line to the
ash dump are within about 1.5 km away from the ash disposal pump house. Too separate
discharge line are provided one for each unit but only one line is seed. The ash slurry
from two units is taken in discharge line through electrically operated valves.

TABLE 2.2 Technical details of A.H.P:

Number of chimney 1
Height of chimney 180 m
Volume of flue gas 108 cubic meter per sec
Temperature of gas 140 o c
Anti-pollution device 1 ESP / unit

16
CHAPTER 3
BOILER

Boiler is a chamber where the water is being converted into steam with bumming of
lignite. The lignite is burnt on the hopper and the ash is then sent to ASH HANDLING
PLANT the heat vaporizes. The water in the tubes and the steam is generated.

3.1 Description
The boiler installed in RWPL are manufactured by BHEL. The 110 mw units boiler
weights about 6000 Mega tones tangentially fired water tube naturally circulated, over
handed type is designed for pulverized fuel coal firing using the direct firing system. The
boiler have a maximum continuous rating (MCR) at 375 Tons/Hr. at 138kg/sq. cm
pressure and 5400C temperature. The thermal efficacy of each boiler at MCR is 86.8%
four nos of ball mills at 34 Mt/hr.\. Capacity each have been installed for each boiler. Oil
burner is provided for initial startup and stabilization of low loads. The feed water temp at
MCR to economizer is expected to be the order of 2400C.
The boiler is provided with a balanced with draft fan and 2Nos of induced draft fan. Flue
gases are utilized to heat the secondary air for combustion in air pre heater installed in
the boiler rear part. The pressure.
Inside boiler is maintained time i.e. less than atmospheric pressure. So as to minimize
the pollution and losses & to prevent the accidents outside the boiler.

3.1.1 Pulverized Fuel Firing System

The boiler fuel firing system is tangentially firing system in which the fuel is introduced
from wind nozzle located in the four comers inside the boiler. The fuel firing system
consist of two elevation of outside igniters.
The cursed coal from the coal crusher is transferred into the unit coalbunker where the
coal is meant to rise stored for feeding into pulverizing mill through rotary feeders. The
rotary feeders feed the coal to pulverized mill at a definite rate.

3.1.2 Air Pre Heater


It is a heat exchanger in which some of further heat is extracted from the flue gases and is
used to heat the incoming air for combustion. Cooling of flue gases by 20% rise the plant
efficiency by 1.0%. There are two type of pre heater.

17
Recuperative type

Regenerative type
In KSTPS regenerative type of air pre heater is used. They use a cylindrical rotor
made of corrugate steel plate. The rotor is fixed on an electrical shaft rotating at a speed
of 2 4 rpm. As the rotor rotates the flue gases are pass through alternatively gas.
3.1.3 Re Heater

Re heater consist of two section


(a) Front pendent vertical spaced
(b) Rear pendant vertical spaced
The first section is located between the rear wall hanger tubes and super heater section.
The rear pendent vertically spaced section is located above the furnace between the water
cooled system steam wall tube and rear wall hanger tube. After being reheated to the
required temperature of 5400C the steam is returned to hp turbine through hot reheat line.
A de super heater section is the cold super-heated lines to control the temperature of
reheat system being admitted into turbine.

3.1.4 Super Heater

These are meant to raise the temp of steam to saturation temp of steam by absorbing heat
from outgoing gas. They also eliminate the formulation of condensate during
transportation of steam in pipelines & inside the early stage of pipe line.
Desuperheaters are provided between the final super heaters & preheaters to control
superheated steam temp. Feed water is also used as spray to control temperature.
Superheated steam is led through turbine main steam stop valve. After doing work in high
pressure turbine steam is returned to reheat through cold reheat lines.

18
3.1.5 Economizer

The function of it is to use heat of flue gas to heat up boiler fed water. It is made up of
large number of small thin walled tubes. Which are placed. Between two headers. Water
come through one head & leave through other.
.Oil cooler
.Oil filters
.Pressure gauze
.Pump

3.2 CYCLE OF OIL


TABLE 3.1 Technical Data of Boilers

Manufacturer BHEL Trihi

Type Tangentially fired radiant

Maximum continuous rating 375 Tph


Minimum continuous rating 214 Tph
Rated steam pressure 138 bar
Rated temp of steam at outlet 5400c
Efficiency 87%

TABLE 3.2 Coal as a Fuel


Calorific value 4450 Kcal/kg

Moisture content 10%

Ash content 35%

Fixed carbon 35%
Volatile matter 20%

19
3.3 Soot Blower

It is the process by which we clean the boiler tubes with the help of steam. We are well
known that a great no tubes are presented inside the boiler slowly slowly the fine ash
particles are collected on the tube surface and from a layer this is called soot. It is
required to remove. Increase thermal conductivity soot is a thermal insulator. The
steam use for this process at a pressure of 22 Kg/cm2 and temp of 5400C
There are mainly three types of soot blower are used in RWPL
1. Water wall
2. Super heater soot blower (SHSB)
3. Air pre heater soot blower (APH)

3.3.1 Water wall


There are 40 number and having travel time 1.5 minute at initial these are outside the
boiler. When soot blower starts processing the glance of it is entered inside the boiler
and then rotate and come out side again.
* Traversing motor 0.56 KW
* Rotatory Motor 0.05 KW

3.3.2 Super Heater Soot Blower

There are 28 in number and travel time. It has transverse traveling is five meter inside the
boiler. It is enter and come out in rotated motion so it is rotated in the both cases.

* Traversing motor 0.37KW


* Rotatory Motor 0.45 KW

3.4 Turbine

Turbine is a machine which consists of a shaft & it rotates solidity by the impact of
reaction of steam of working substances upon blades of a wheel. It converts the potential

20
energy or heat energy of the working substance into me mechanical energy. When
working substance is steam it is called STEAM -TURBINE.
Working of steam turbine depends upon the dynamic action of steam. The steam during
its flow through the moving blades causes a further generation of kinetic energy within
the blades and add to the propelling force which is applied to the turbine rotor such as
turbine is said Reaction - turbine .
The majority of steam turbine has two important elements
1. Nuzzle: In which the steam expands from a high pressure and a state of
comparative rest to the lower pressure and a state of comparative rapid motion.

2. Blade: in which the steam of turbine particle changes its direction and here its
momentum changes. The blades are attached to the stationary elements of the m/c or
rotor whereas in general the nozzles are attached to the stationary part of the turbine
which is usually termed as stator casing.
Although the fundamental principal on which all steam turbine operates are same , yet
the method by which these principles carried into effect vary and as a result certain type
of turbine have come into existence .

3.4.1 Description
There are three cylinder containers of turbine for each unit they are
1. HIGH PRESSURE: - it is the smallest one in it pressure of steam is highest its
inlet is connected with boiler feed Steam & outlet with intermediates inlet.
2. INTERMEDIAT PRESSURE: It is a little bit big than high pressure its inlet is
fed by outlet of high pressure & outlet is connected with low pressure
turbine low.
3. LOW PRESSURE: It is biggest in size among all cylinders it is feed by outlet of
intermediate & outlet is connected with condenser.
4. Central shaft of turbine is mechanically coupled with alternators rotor.

3.4.2 Specification
* SPEED 3000 rpm
* DIRECTION OF ROTATION CLOCKWISE
* MAX PRESSURE OF STEAM 176 atm

* MAX TEMP OF STEAM 5350C


* RATED OUTPUT 125MW

21
* ECONOMIC OUTPUT 95MW
* QUANTITY FOR FRIST FILLING 19000MW

3.5 TURBO GENERATOR :

An electrical generator is an electro mechanical machine which converts


mechanical energy into electrical energy
Generator is the main part of a power plant. The generator has stator in gas cooling
construction enclosing the stator winding, core & hydrogen coolers. The cooling
Medium hydrogen is containing within the frame and circulation by fans mounted either
at the ends of the rotor the generator is driven by directly coupled prime mover (steam
turbine in thermal plant) at counts speed of 3000rpm.

Provision has been made for circulating the cooling water in order to maintain a
constant temp of a coolant i.e. H2 as measured at the fan section side which is in touch
with the temp of the winding, core & other parts as per load.
Each generator has terminal led out of its closing and a star point is formed by sorting the
neutral sides terminal by a sorting bar. 1 phase 11000/220, 37.5kva neutral grounding
Myer whose secondary is laminated by laminated strip with mechanical ventilating holes
grounds the neutral

TABLE3.3 TURBO GENERATOR SPECIFIC ATION


(A) Stage 1
MAKE RUSSIAN
MANUFACTURER BHEL
TYPE T.G.P
APPRENT O/P 137.5MVA
ACTIVE O/P 125MW
POWER FACTOR 0.80 lagg
RATED VOLTAGE 11 KV
RATED CURRENT 7200 Amp
RATED SPEED 3000rpm
FREQUENCY 50Hz
PHASE CONNECTION DOUBLE STAR
NO OF TERMINALS 6

22
MAXIMUM O/P WITH AIR COOLING 68.75MVA
EXCITAION VOLTAGE 230V
PARTS OF GENERATOR

3.5.1 Stator Body

The stator body is a totally enclosed gas tight fabricated structure suitable ribbed to
rigidity. It is designed mechanically to with stand internal pressure & forces as an event
of unlikely event of explosion of hydrogen & oil mixture with stand pressure. The
function of stator frame is to contain and support the stator core winding, hydrogen
coolers and also path for distribution of cooling hydrogen through the generator

3.5.2 Stator Core

The rotating magnetic field flows with the core. In order to reduce the magnetizing
(eddy) current losses in the active portion of the stator core the entire core is built up of
thin lamination. The segments are stamped out from CRGO. The core contain several
pockets separated by steel spaces for radial cooling of the core.

3.5.3 Stator Winding

The stator has 3 phase double layer short pitched end bar type of winding having two
parallel paths. Each slot accommodates two bars. The lower & upper bar are displaced
from each other by one winding pitch and connected at their ends so as to form coil
groups. Each bar consists of solid as well as hollow conductors with cooling water
passing through the later alternator. Arrangements of hallows and solid conductor
ensures an optimum solution for increasing current and losses. The high voltage
insulation is provided by thermo setting insulator using mica paper type (Resin Rich)

3.5.4 Distillate Header

Ring type, water header made up of copper is provided separate for distillate inlet &
outlet in the stator of turbine side. The headers are support on insulator and insulated from
stator body. At turbine side each individual bas is connected with inlet/outlet header. The
vent pipe connection is at the top of the both inlet & outlet header.

23
CHAPTER 4
MOTORS
Motor is an electro mechanical energy conversing devise which convert electrical energy
in mechanical energy .
There are several types of motors found in a thermal plant in RWPL several thousand
motors are used.

4.1 Classification of Motors


1. High tension motor (6.6 kV)
2. Low-tension motor (440v)

It is obliviously that motor working on 440 v is called LT motors and motors working on
6.6 KV are HT motors. I will discuss only HT motors of stage I st which have two units of
110Mw each one special feature of motors section is that almost we use stand by motors
(pump, fan).
To make the continuity anyhow if any running pump or fan is fail to work automatically
other stand by motor will starts.
S.No. Name Capacity Running Stage No
1 I.D FAN 850 4 2
2. F.D FAN 300 2 -
3. P.A.FAN MPTOR 820 2 -
4. COAL MILLMOTOR 340 6 2
5. BFP MOTOR 4000 4 2
6. CEP MOTOR 225 4 2
7. CW MOTOR 560 4 2
8. AHP/HP MOTOR 290 4 2

4.1.1C.W Pumps

These are used at bottom of condenser a hot well is placed to shuck water from condenser
4.1.2C.E.P Pumps
These are used to hot well boiler drum

24
H.PMOTOR (High pressure motor): This helps use in disposal of ash one another L.P
motor mix in the ash and convert into that steam is send out of the plant with help of this
motor
LIGNITE MILL MOTOT; to mill raw coal & pulverized it

4.2 Control Room

Various measurements are taken at the control room simultaneously. The second
important part of control room is really part various relays are provided here.
There are one control room for each stage like from control room I two unit of 125 MW
is controlled. In addition there are local panel at the boiler, turbine generator set & boiler
feed pump. Unit control room basically controls the operation of unit. The operation from
various vents and chains are done locally as per the requirement. The unit control room
has a vertical panel for indicating or recording the parameter of boiler and turbine.
Control room panels
CP-1
1. FAN CONTROLLED DESK
a. ID fan (induced draft fan , 3 nos)
b. FD fan (forced draft fan , 2 nos)
c. PA fan (primary air fan, 3 nos)
2. PRESSURE CONTROL DESK
a. Fu mace pressure (5 10 mm)
b. Primary air header pressure (750 800 mm)

3. FO- wind box pressure or wind box differential pressure.

CP-II
FUEL CONTROL DESK
a. Coal oil flow
b. Oil pressure
c. Temperature of mill
d. Flow of air
e. Differential pressure of mill

25
CP-III
a. Drum level control
b. Flow of steam & water
c. Pressure of steam & water
d. Temperature of steam

CP IV
Turbine desk
a. Pressure control, load mode control.
b. Speed control

c. Ejector, control valves

CP V
Generator control panel
a. voltage, current, load mode control
b. Stator, rotor temperature.
c. for stator cooling
1. Hydrogen pressure control
2. water pressure control

In case of any defect or the unusual behavior of any of the equipment, the alarm
ring and the light on the control panel indicates the problem. The plant or the unit
trips if the problem is raised above the permissible range. The unit I & II has a
panel to control switch yard.

26
CHAPTER 5
TRANSFORMER & SWITCH GEAR

Transformer is a highly efficient static device which is used to transform electrical


energy from one voltage level to other voltage level
Transformer is made up of following parts
1. Core
2. Winding
3. On load tap changer
4. Conservator tank
5. Brushing
6. Auxiliary equipments
7. Cooing system

Figure 5.1 transformer

27
5.1 Core
It is an essential feature of power transformer. Magnetic circuit is three-limb core type
construction. Each limb has interleaved points with top & bottom yoke. The three limbs
have winding. The lamination are made up of high grade none aging, cold rolled grain
oriented silicon steel. This yolk are clamped by mean of bolts and nuts. The tapping leads
are connected on tap changer which is mounted outside the transformer.

5.2 Winding
The inner most coil near the core term low voltage winding. This is spiral coil. Axial coil
ducts are provided inside and the coil. Outside it is the high voltage winding. These are
also disc type winding provided with axial and radial ducts. Line load is taken out from
top of coil. Static rings have been provided and the line ends of H.V coil for better
impulse distribution across the coil.

5.3 Off load tap Changer


An on load tap changer is a device used for changing the taping connection of winding.
Suitable for operation while the Myer is energized on load. The tap changer is an operated
by motor operated. Driving m/c by load or remoter control and handle is fined for manual
operation in any emergency tank bodies for transformer are made from rolled steel plates
which is fabricated to from the container.

5.4 Conservator Tank


Conservator tank is of steel plate. It is designed to withstand a vacuum pressure of
755mm. They also made of rolled steel, which is fabricated to form one container.
Internal fitting and clamps are poisoned and welded initially small transformer, which
have cooling tubes such transformers, have plane tank with provision for pipe and valves
to direct and control the oil flow.

5.5 Brushing
When transformer has been connected to high voltage line care must be taken to prevent
flashover one H.V connection to earthed tank. This is done by means of bushing. The
simplest bushing is a molded high quality glazed porcelain insulated with the conductor
through its center these busing can be used up to 33kv.

5.6 Cooling System


The losses comprise of copper losses, hysterics losses and eddy current losses. In large
transformer the usual method of exciting the heat from the core subsequently coiled by
another means of radiator over which circulation by natural convection air is blown. The
later be known as air blast cooling to assist in cooling most large unit have forced oil
circulation. The oil have been pumped through transformer & cooling tubes.
Various cooling are as below-

28
Air natural cooling.
Oil natural cooling.
Forced air cooling.
Forced oil blast.
Forced oil water cooling.

5.7 Generating Transformer


In RWPL there is one generating transformer for each unit. Rating of transformer
depends on capacity of unit. The generating electricity from main generator is being feed
into feed through transformer is said generating transformer.
It is three phase power transformer it converts electrical power from low voltage to high
voltage for better transmission purpose. It is also known as main transformer. There is
provision of movement of transformer on rail in the power station. Premise during
erection a for repair and maintenance.

5.8 Unit Auxiliary Transformer

Power required for all units auxiliary are meant by UAT. One for each unit and there are
six units so six UAT are required for plant each transformer is provided with an on load
tap changer on high voltage winding each permits variation of voltage up to 10 % in ten
equal parts.
UTA gets power by taping from bus bar of primary winding of G.T. Its primary winding
is connected to 11 kV bar and secondary is connected to 6.6 kv switch gear.
When unit is running, the power requirement for the low tension panels or low tension
switch gears are provided by this transformer.

5.9 Station Transformer

A transformer used to full fill lightning load of plant (fan, lights of control room, chamber
of staff) is said station Xmer. It is a turnery type transformer which consist of two
secondary winding one is said main & other is turnery.

29
5.9.1 Specification

MANUFACTURE CROMPTON
TYPE OF CONSTRACTION CORE TYPE
TYPE OF COOLING ON/AN
TATED O/P 50/25/25 MV
RATED VOLATAGE 220/7 KV
TYPE OF WINDING L.V-HELICAL, H.V-DISC
MAX TEMP OF OIL 40 C
MAX TEMP OF WINDING 50 C
FREQUENCY 50 HZ

5.10 Instrument Transformer

In RWPL instrument transformer have very wide range in application such as


Measurement of voltage, current, power, and energy. Power factor, frequency.
Application with really in protection of system from faults like under voltage, over
current earth faults.

In all the above application the main purpose is of measurement is to convert instruments
do electrical quantity from high rating to low rating to low rating & actual measurement.

These are associate with an instrument hence named as instrument transformer instrument
transformer can be classified as below.

1. Current transformer.
2. Potential transformer.

30
Figure 5.2 potential transformer

5.10.1 Current Transformer

Current transformer is used for monitoring the current for the purpose of measurement
and protection the can be classified as
Dead tank

Inverter type

The dead tank type accommodates the secondary core inside the tank which is at ground
potential. The insulated primary passed through the porcelain and the tank and then
terminals into top chamber. The primary used in such type of construction is of u type.

The inserted secondary core are insulated to the system voltage and hence inside the top
chamber which is at the line potential before commissioning of the current transformer,
the earthlings of the power terminals and base is essential otherwise excessive high
voltage appears at the power factor terminals .

31
5.11 Switch Yard

The 220 KV switchyard has national two bused arrangement with a bus-coupled breaker.
Both the generator transformer, and these line feeder taking off from switch yard can be
taken to any of the bused, similarly two station transformer can be fed from any two
buses. Each of these line feeders has been provided with bypass isolators connected
across line isolators and breaker isolator to facilitate the maintenance of line breaker. A
description of electrical equipments at 220 kV system is as below.
1. Minimum oil circuit breaker (MOCB)
2. Isolator
3. Current transformer (C.T)
4. Potential transformer (P.T)
5. Lightning arresters
6. Earthing isolator
7. Capacitor voltage transformer (C.V.T)

MOCB provided for stage I are BHEL made are rated for 245 kv 2500 amp, 134 Mva.
Each pole has three interrupters, which are oil filled with nitrogen sealed. The three pole
of MOCB are designed for single phase individual operation of any ploe. Breaker
operation can be done only form respective pole operating mechanism by putting selector
switch on local. Inter locking scheme of circuit breaker.


Generator breaker

Station breaker

Line breaker

5.12 Circuit Breaker


A circuit breaker is a complex circuit breaking with below duties Make or break the
circuit Appropriately manage the high energy are associated with current interruption the
problem has become more acute due to interconnection of power station resulting in very
high fault levels. Rapid and successive automatic breaking and making to aid stable
system operation.

5.13 Isolator
An Isolator is a switch connected after a circuit breaker, when a circuit or a bus bar is
taken out of service by tripping the circuit breaker, the isolator is then open circuited and

32
the isolated line is earthed through earth switch so that trapped line charges are safely
conducted to ground.

5.14 Lightning arrester

Lightening arrestors are used to protect the substation. A transmission line arrester is
earthed. Valve type lightening arrester is called surge diverter. It consists of a spark gap in
series with non-linier resistor. One end of the diverter is connected to the terminal of the
equipment to be protected while other is effectively grounded. The length of the gapes so
adjusted that normal line voltage is unable to cause an across the gap but a dangerously
high voltage will break down the air insulation & form an arc.

Figure 5.3 lightning arrester

33
The property of on linier resistance is that its resistance decreased as the voltage or
current increase & vice-versa. Operation wills starts when the voltage increases to 10 %
of the rated voltage. As the gap sparks over due to over voltage the are would be a short
circuit on the power system & may cause power follow current in the arrester. Since the
characteristics of the resistor are to offer high resistance to high voltage, it prevents the
effect of short circuit. After the surge is over, The resistor offers high voltage, it prevents
the effect of short circuit. After surge is over the resistor offers high resistance to make
the gap non-conducting.

5.15 SWITCH GEAR

Switchgear is one, which makes or breaks electric circuit. Numerous problems arises in
erection, testing and commissioning of switch gear and various precaution to be made in
operation and maintenance of switch gear.

5.15.1 Requirement of switchgear

1. To permit apparatus and circuits to be conveni8ently put into or taken out


of service.
2. To permit safe isolation of apparatus automatically in faulty condition.
The switchgear used in KSTPS are outdoor type and they may be classified in the
below groups.
Stationary cubical type
In this type circuit element occupy fixed position.
Draw out type (Truck type)
In this type of switchgear the circuit breaker is installed on a carriage which can
be provide isolation.
Compound filled (sf6 filled type)
In this type of switch gear enclosed is filled with sf6 gas..
Plan proof
This type of switchgear is explosion proof.
Circular type
In which brick wall and RCC slabs separate the unit.

34
MIMIC diagram board
A switchgear on which the components are arranged in separate compartment
with metal enclosed intended to be earthed.
The switchgear used in GLTPP draw out (truck type) indoor switch gear.
Draw out type switch gear
In this type of switchgear the circuit breaker and other components are mounted
with durable carriage.
For isolation after opening their circuit breaker is lowered is lowered
mechanically by manual gears, therefore the carriage is pulled out. The
main components of draw out indoor switchgear are given below
1. Bus bar type
2. Isolating type
3. Current transformer
4. Potential transformer
5. Circuit breaker
6. Earthing arrangement
7. Label connection
8. Relay

Figure 5.4 relays

9. Inter-locking arrangements
10. Enclosing box

35
CHAPTER 6
EFFICIENCY
.
6.1 Plant Efficiency
We divide whole plant efficiency in four components:
1. cycle efficiency
2. turbo generator efficiency
3. boiler efficiency
4. auxiliary power efficiency

6.1.1 Cycle Efficiency

Cycle efficiency being the maximum possible heat energy that could obtain from any
particular set of steam conditions employed. The operation of heat reduction of condenser,
which is almost 50 % of the total available heat, makes Rankin cycle relatively inefficient
Energy available for conversion in work
Cycle n = Energy given in boiler as heat
6.1.2 Alternator Efficiency

The alternator is very efficient machine it has efficiency of order of 98% in its
losses can be categorized as;
[a] Copper & iron losses
[b] Winding losses
Operationally the plant is governed by grid requirement. For voltage we use the
Set out from generator transformer.
6.1.3 Boiler Efficiency
It depends upon
Dry flue gas loss

Wet flue gas loss

Moisture in combustion

36
CONCLUSION

The first phase of practical training has provided to quite faithful. It provides an
opportunity for encounter with such huge machines like tippler 210 MW Turbines,
Generator etc. The architecture of the power plant the way various units are linked and
the way working of whole plant is controlled make the students realize that engineering is
not just learning the structural description and working of various machine but the greater
part is of planning proper management.
It also provide on opportunity to learn technology used at proper place and time can save
a lot of labor like Wagon tippler. But there are few factors that require special mention.
Training is not carried out into its trees sprit. It is recommended that there should be some
projects specially made for students where the presence of authority should be ensured.
There should be strict monitoring of the performance of student and system of grading be
improved on the basis of work done. However training has provided too is quite faithful.
It has allowed as on opportunity to get an exposure of the practical implementation to
theoretical fundamentals.

37
REFRENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY
1 .https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&u
act=8&ved=0CDcQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbarmer.nic.in%2FGLPL.pdf&ei=W5v-
U83GJ9OSuASm1IKgDg&usg=AFQjCNGh15PMlEqUtTGKj2LCaOp7CwXlag&bvm=
bv.74035653,d.c2E

2. http://www.slideshare.net/sagar20jain/seminar-33446550

3. http://globalenergyobservatory.org/geoid/3324

4 .https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&u
act=8&sqi=2&ved=0CFMQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.needs-
project.org%2FRS1a%2FRS1a%2520D12.2%2520Final%2520report%2520concentratin
g%2520solar%2520thermal%2520power%2520plants.pdf&ei=p5z-
U8uyK8fkuQSwx4DoBw&usg=AFQjCNHdxdxqOWvvptGdfeIjmVp0sun8UA&bvm=bv
.74035653,d.c2E

5. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24747759/Thermal-Power-Station-Report

38