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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Prevention & Wellness

MDU1033 Healthy Lifestyle

Semester 2, Session 2016/17

Paul CS Divis
Department of Paraclinical Sciences
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Discuss briefly of common STD
1. Chlamydia
2. Gonorrhea
3. Syphilis
4. Genital warts
5. Herpes

Guidelines for preventing STD

Safe sex practices

Reproductive organs

Male Female

Image: HealthGrove
1. Chlamydia
Bacteria: Chlamydia trachomatis
Transmitted through oral, anal and
vaginal sex
Can be transmitted from mother
to newborn during birth
Sex toys used by infected person
75% women and 50% men have
no symptoms
Women can develop pelvic
inflammatory diseases (PID):
damage the fallopian tubes,
ovaries and uterus
Treatment is easy by antibiotics;
infection clears within a few
1. Chlamydia
Men Women
Penile discharge Vaginal discharge
Burning and painful urination Burning or painful urination
Swollen and painful testicles Abdominal or low back pain
Pain with intercourse
Vaginal bleeding between periods
2. Gonorrhea
Bacteria: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
May exhibit similar symptoms with
Affected areas: urethra, rectum,
cervix, or throat
Transmitted through oral, anal and
vaginal sex
Can be transmitted from mother to
newborn during birth
Treated with antibiotics, and
follow-up is essential to make sure
the infection is totally gone
If not treated, it can cause PID to
women, which leads to ectopic
pregnancy and infertility
2. Gonorrhea
Men Women
Symptoms appear 2 5 days after Can be mistaken for a bladder or
infection vaginal infection
Penile discharge white, yellow, Increased vaginal discharge
green white, yellow, green
Burning and painful urination Burning or painful urination
Swollen and painful testicles Abdominal or low back pain
(although this is less common) Vaginal bleeding between periods
Burning in the throat (oral sex) Burning in the throat (oral sex)
3. Syphilis
Bacteria: Treponema pallidum
Direct contact with a syphilis sore
during vaginal, anal or oral sex
Sore are found on or around the
penis, vagina, anus, in the rectum,
in the lips, or in the mouth
Can be spread from mother to her
unborn baby.
Divided into stages (primary,
secondary, tertiary and latent), with
different signs and symptoms.
Treatment with antibiotics
(penicillin), and follow-up is
essential to make sure that the
treatment is successful. Primary syphilis sore on the
glans penis
3. Syphilis
Stages Disease progression
First few years No signs and symptoms
1. Primary stage Sore or chancre (painless ulcer) in genital area; inner part of
vagina and penis
Chancre will disappear without treatment
2. Secondary stage Skin rash rough, red or reddish brown spot on palms of hands
and bottom of feet
Lesions throughout body without itchiness
Fever, sore throat, headache, weight loss, muscle ache, fatigue
3. Tertiary stage Blood vessel, heart, nervous system (neurosyphilis) problems
Damaged internal organs
4. Latent stage Symptoms disappear for 1 20 years
Diagnosis through blood testing
Relapse symptoms
4. Genital warts
Virus: human papilloma virus (HPV), a
family of more than 100 different
strains or viruses
90% genital warts are causes by virus
strains type 6 and type 11
Genital warts small fleshy growths,
bumps or skin changes that appear on
or around the genital or anal area.
HPV takes years to show symptoms.
Treatments include topical creams
(VidaroX), laser, surgery or
4. Genital warts
Appear with variety of shapes, colours and sizes

Skin surface
Skin surface

Cauliflower-like Cristate

Skin surface Skin surface

Mushroom-shape Papular

Skin surface Skin surface

Of papillary Irregularity
5. Herpes
Virus: Herpes simplex virus type 1
(HSV1) and type 2 (HSV2)
Appearance of painful blisters on the
genitals and the surrounding areas
HSV can affect any mucous
membrane (moist lining), such as in
the mouth (cold sores)
Condition is chronic (long-term), and
virus remains in the body and can
become active
Transmitted by vaginal, anal or oral
There is no cure for genital herpes,
but symptoms can usually be
controlled using antiviral medicines
5. Herpes
Symptoms may not appear until months
or years after being exposed to the virus

Small blisters that burst to leave red

and open sores around the genitals,
rectum, thighs and buttocks
Blisters and ulcers on the cervix
Vaginal discharge in women
Painful urination
General feeling of being unwell, with
aches, pains and flu-like symptoms

Sores will eventually scab and heal

without scarring.

No. new infections

First recognised in 1984

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A virus that attacks the immune
system, and weakens your ability to

HIV/AIDS (thousands)
People living with
fight infections and diseases
The virus cannot live outside the
No cure for HIV, but treatments are

Deaths (thousands)
available to suppress the virus
AIDS is the final stage of HIV
infection, when your body can no
longer fight life-threatening 1980 1990 2000 2010
infections Evolution of the HIV epidemic from
1980 to 2015
Wang et al., 2016 (The Lancet)
Symptoms of HIV
Early infection includes a short, flu-like
illness that occurs 2 6 weeks. After
this, no symptoms are presented for

How HIV is transmitted

Transmission via body fluids (blood,
semen, vaginal and anal fluids,
breast milk), but not through saliva, Statistics from the Malaysian AIDS Councils Annual
Report 2013
sweat or urine.
Also through contaminated In 2001, ration of HIV men to women was
injecting equipment 10:1
In 2013, the ratio was 4:1

Guidelines for Preventing STDs
Main objective is to reduce prevalence of STDs
interrupting the transmission of diseases
minimising infection duration
preventing complication of infected patient

Cheng et al. (2011), WebmedCentral INFECTIOUS DISEASES, doi: 10.9754/journal.wmc.2011.002611

Guidelines for Preventing STDs
Primary Prevention
Prevention steps can be made before STD
infection occur.
By avoiding sexual contact
Educate the general public of STDs risk factors
(health education)
Practising safe sex, such as using a condom
during sex, water-based spermicides on latex
condom to provide additional protection
Avoid alcohol consumption that may lead to
risky sexual behavior
Talk face-to-face with your partner before
begin sexual activity if he/she is having the

Cheng et al. (2011), WebmedCentral INFECTIOUS DISEASES, doi: 10.9754/journal.wmc.2011.002611

Guidelines for Preventing STDs
Secondary Prevention
The steps carried out when patients find out some
signs and symptoms which resemble STDs.
See doctors when there is any unusual discharge,
sore or rashes
Early diagnosis and treatment is essential
Regular check up for STDs (especially) for those
who are sexually active and STD patients to prevent
During early pregnancy, mothers should take part
in treatment to prevent congenital syphilis
STDs patients should abstain sexual activities until
fully treated. Medical follow-up is crucial
Proper counseling might also be needed to avoid
the patients from thinking negatively about their
life. Cheng et al. (2011), WebmedCentral INFECTIOUS DISEASES, doi: 10.9754/journal.wmc.2011.002611
Safe Sex Practices
Use condoms (male or female
Delay sexual activity until you are
prepared both physically and
Limit your sex partners
Ask your sex partner about his/her
sexual history
Ask your potential sex partner about
high-risk behaviors that might increase
the risk of blood diseases (such as
Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV)
Safe Sex Practices
Monogamy Importantly, safe sex is about:
Use water-based lubricant such
as KY-Jelly to prevent tearing of Preventing sexually
skin during sexual intercourse transmitted infections
Know the symptoms of STD Avoiding unintended
Saving sex for marriage pregnancy
Staying emotionally