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2 MASS TRANSFER

Vol. 15

diffusivity, D AB (1). Also, if A and B are the more and the less mobile components, respectively, then the mutual diffusivity D AB tends to have a value between the upper and the lower limits of D AA and D BB (1).

Typical Magnitude of Diffusivity in Various Phases

Continuous phase

Diffusivity (m 2 /s)

gas (atmospheric pressure) liquid liquid held in a solid matrix polymers solid

10 5 10 9

10 10 10 12 10 14

Diffusion coefficients of common solute–solvent combinations are available in handbooks. Tables and provide some typical data. Methods of measuring dif- fusion coefficients have been described by Geankoplis (2) and Pratt (3). When dif- fusion coefficients are not available, they can be estimated as discussed next.

Diffusivities of Some Common Solutes in Dilute Liquids

Solute

Solvent

Temperature ( 8 C)

D ( 10 9 m 2 /s)

acetic acid

water

25

1.26

acetic acid

benzene

25

2.09

acetone

water

25

1.28

benzoic acid

water

25

1.21

carbon dioxide

water

20

1.50

carbon dioxide

water

25

2.00

chloroform

benzene

20

2.11

chloroform

ethanol

20

1.23

ethanol

water

25

1.24

glucose

water

20

0.60

glycerol

water

20

0.83

methanol

water

15

1.26

nitrogen

water

20

1.64

oxygen

water

20

1.80

oxygen

water

25

2.41

phenol

water

20

0.84

phenol

ethanol

20

0.80

sodium chloride

water

20

1.35

sucrose

water

20

0.45

urea

water

25

1.38

water

ethanol

25

1.13

Diffusivities of Some Large Molecules (Globular Proteins) in Dilute Aqueous Solutions

 

Molecular weight

Protein

(kg/kmol)

Temperature ( 8 C)

D ( 10 11 m 2 /s)

bovine serum albumin urease human serum albumin human fibrinogen

67,500

25

6.81

482,700

25

4.01

72,300

20

5.93

339,700

20

1.98