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Vogelbusch HFS Starch slurry

HFS, high fructose syrup, or HFCS, high fructose corn

HFS Plants syrup, is a nutritive sweetener with a wide range of appli-

cations. It is a major commodity product in various food
applications such as beverages, pickles, ketchup and dairy

products, and is one of the most widely-used nutritive

Vogelbusch is a major global
sweeteners in the soft drinks industry. The annual growth
player in the engineering and Liquified starch
rate of the HFS market varied between 4 8 % over the
construction of industrial scale
last two decades - a trend which is expected to continue,
biotechnology plants.
at least in the near future. The main raw material for the
With up-to-date proprietary production of HFS is starch.
technology for a wide range of AMG Saccharification
During the 19th century, the first studies of starch-based
biotechnologies in conjunction
sweeteners were initiated to become independent of
with state-of-the-art separation
sucrose made from sugar cane. However, glucose syrups
techniques our plants are custom-
could not achieve a sweetness to equal that of sucrose.
designed for each application
There have been attempts to convert glucose to fructose Glucose
with focus on your product.
by a wet chemical method, but none of these processes
Our HFS plants meet all requi- have been introduced in food industry due to the high
rements regarding quality, yields, by-product and colour formation and low fructose con-
energy savings and economic centration achieved. Subsequent research activities were Filtration Steam
efficiency for todays HFS industry. aimed at establishing a enzyme-based process for con- Activated carbon treatment Filter aid

On the basis of a new techno- verting glucose to fructose. However, it still took until Ion exchange
Activated carbon
Evaporation #1
logy for enriching fructose by 1968 to establish a completely enzyme-based process for Vapour
means of chromatography, Vo- the production of HFS. Today, optimised enzymes combine
gelbusch offers an innovation optimum productivity and yields with low by-product-
for producing sweetener from formation.
Purified glucose syrup
starch. HFS is commercially available in three basic qualities. De-
Based on proprietary techno- pending on the specification it consists of approx. 42%
logy and wide-ranging know- wt. (HFS-42), 55% wt. (HFS-55) or 90% wt. (HFS-90) fructose
how acquired over 80 years in in dry substance. HFS-55 is the one used mostly in soft
the designing, erecting and drinks as it best mimics the sweetening properties of
sucrose. Isomerisation Na CO3
commissioning of biotechnolo- isomerase
gical plants on five continents, The most widely processed raw material for the manu- Isoglucose (42% fructose i.d.s.)
we have the ability to carry out facture of HFS is cornstarch (HFCS), but starch from other
all work associated with the con- sources (potatoes, wheat or tapioca) can also be used.
struction of a HFS plant begin-
ning with the first ideas through
to commissioning of your plant. Specifications
Typical services provided are: The final products produced with VOGELBUSCHs HFS Activated carbon treatment Steam
Site analysis; plants comply with the following basic specifications Ion exchange
Evaporation #2
Feasibility studies; (DS = dry substance): condensate

Raw material testing; HFS-42

Total dry matter substance: 71 1 %
Basic engineering;
Fructose: > 42% of DS HFS 42
Detail engineering; Glucose: > 51% of DS
Isoglucose (42% fructose i.d.s.)

Project management; Higher sugars: < 8% of DS

Contracting; Ash: < 0.1% of DS
pH 3.0 4.5
Supervision of erection and Eluent
commissioning; HFS-55 &
Technical assistance Total dry matter substance: 77 1 % Raffinate

Fructose: > 55% of DS

Glucose: > 38% of DS
Higher sugars: < 5% of DS
55% Fructose i.d.s. 90% Fructose i.d.s.
Ash: < 0.1% of DS
pH 3.0 4.5

Total dry matter substance: 80 1 % Steam
Evaporation #3
Fructose: > 90% of DS Vapour
Glucose: > 6% of DS condensate
Higher sugars: < 2% of DS
Ash: < 0.1% of DS
pH 3.0 4.5
we make
The process can be adapted to meet specific customer
biotechnology requirements.
work HFS 55 HFS 90
Process description ternatively, a membrane process can be used to adjusted from time to time. After the activity of
accomplish the decolourisation of the solution. a column has dropped below a minimum ac-
Liquefaction ceptable level, the column is discharged and fil-
Cations and anions are removed by passing a led with new enzyme. A special filling system
Liquefaction is carried out in a continuous
series of ion exchange columns filled with strong prevents losses of enzyme activity during pre-
process step by adding heat stable -amylase
acidic cation exchange and weak basic anion paration and filling.
to 33% starch slurry in a mixed vessel after pH
exchange resins. Exhausted resins are regene-
adjustment. After passing a jet cooker with hol-
rated with dilute hydrochloric acid (cation Clarification #2
ding loop, the slurry flashes down to 90C into
exchanger) or caustic soda (anion exchanger) re- To ensure maximum lifetime and optimum
an expansion vessel and hydrolyses in a stirred
spectively. efficiency of the resin used in the following en-
vessel where proteins may be removed.
As a dry matter content of 42% represents richment process, the isoglucose is clarified on-
Saccharification ce more in a unit comprising two fixed bed ac-
the optimum for isomerisation, the liquor is final-
This process is intended to convert dextrins ly concentrated in a vacuum evaporator before tivated carbon columns (one on-stream, one
to glucose as completely as possible with the entering the isomerisation stage. Standard de- on regeneration mode) before entering the
aid of amyloglucosidase (AMG). First both pH and sign is a double effect falling film evaporator. next cation and anion exchange units.
temperature are adjusted to obtain optimum However, to meet the customers demands re- In a vacuum evaporator a total dry matter of
conditions for enzymatic conversion. garding investment and operation costs, the 60% is gained before the isomerose syrup is
The process can be carried out as a batch pro- evaporator can also be designed to have more transported to a storage tank prior to the en-
cess or as a continuous process in a cascade of or less stages and with or without employing richment unit.
stirred tanks. Both the residence time and pro- thermal or mechanical vapour recompression.
cess conditions such as pH and temperature are Enrichment and blending
controlled to avoid by-product formation (e.g. Enrichment is carried out by a chromatogra-
isomaltose or colour precursors), ensuring ex- In order to increase sweetness of the starch phic process designed as a single simulated
cellent quality of the end product. hydrolysate, parts of the glucose are converted moving bed chromatography column separa-
into fructose with the help of immobilised iso- ting the inlet stream into a highly enriched
After saccharification, a solution with a dex- merase. The isomerisation process is carried out fructose fraction and a fraction with increased
trose equivalent (DE) of approx. 96 98 is obtai- in several parallel columns. The equilibrium for glucose content.
ned. the glucose/fructose isomerisation is approx.
51% fructose at 60C. Usually 42% fructose in The fructose fraction is used either as HFS-90
Clarification #1 or blended with isoglucose to obtain HFS-55.
d.s. isoglucose is produced as this value
Any suspended or dissolved impurities con- represents the optimum between yield and in-
tained in the syrup are removed prior to its fur- The glucose fraction is put back to isomerisa-
vestment cost. tion and/or saccharification and transformed
ther processing into isomerose. For this purpo-
se, the liquor is clarified and purified by To guarantee maximum productivity of the again partly into fructose.
enzyme (i.e. the total amount of fructose pro- Evaporation #3
duced during life time of the enzyme) both pro-
carbon treatment The final concentration adjusted by evaporati-
cess conditions and the properties of the feed
ion exchange on depends on the desired product type. HFS-
stream have to be adjusted carefully. Therefore
the feed is preheated to 60C and pH is adju- 55 is concentrated to approx. 77%, or alternati-
In a first precoat filtration step, solid impurities
sted by soda. Further magnesium ions are ad- vely HFS-90 is concentrated to 80% total dry
are removed by a vacuum drum filter.
ded as activator and sulphite for stabilisation matter to minimise transport weight of the so-
Decolourisation is carried out by adding ac- and as oxygen scavenger. lution. The concentrate is placed in storage
tivated carbon in a cascade of stirred vessels. tanks designed to the customers specific re-
The activated carbon is removed by a second As the activity of the enzymes decreases slo- quirements before ultimately being filled into
precoat filtration in a multiple tube filter. Or, al- wly the flow to the several columns has to be barrels or dispatched in bulk.

SMB chromatography plant

Consumption figures
For producing 1000 kg of HFS-55 (77% DS) the following
raw materials and utilities are necessary:
Raw material:
Starch (85% DS) 890 kg
a-Amylase 0.6 kg
Amyloglucosidase 1.4 l
Immobilised isomerase 0.08 kg
Hydrochloric acid (32%) 60 kg
Caustic soda solution (50%) 30 kg
Filter aid 15 kg
Activated carbon 15 kg
Process water 7 m3
Demineralised water 3.5 m3
Cooling water 4800 MJ
Electric energy 130 kWh
Process steam 1.7 to 3.0 t

Chromatography at its best:

VOGELBUSCHs single column simulated bed
While chromatography is a widely-used separation
technique in production of HFS, the materialisation of
this unit with just one column marks a milestone in simu-
lated moving bed (SMB) chromatography.

Principle of SMB Chromatography

The principle of chromatography is that HFS feedstock
passes the adsorbens and the feed stream is depleted of Multiple stage evaporation unit for glucose syrup
fructose as fructose is adsorbed. Desorption of the ad-
ving through the column. This causes many technical
sorbed fructose is accomplished using deionised water
problems such as abrasion. Simulated moving bed tech-
Countercurrent chromatography shows a better per- nology prevents these problems while still exploiting the
formance than batch chromatography due to a steeper advantages of countercurrent chromatography. The
gradient of concentration. Separation volume is used countercurrent operation is achieved by moving the inlet
more effectively and higher productivities and lower con- and withdrawal ports, whereas the adsorbent remains
sumptions of eluent are achieved. All this makes counter- packed in the column.
current chromatography much more feasible when com-
A typical procedure is shown in the figure below where
pared with a batch system.
the changing positions of inlet and outlet ports and the
When countercurrent chromatography is established as actual profiles of total dry matter, fructose and glucose
a real moving bed system the absorbent material is mo- are displayed.


Purity of fructose (%) Purity of fructose (%) Purity of fructose (%) Purity of fructose (%)
100 50 0 100 50 0 100 50 0 100 50 0



mp mp



50 25 0 50 25 0 50 25 0 50 25 0
Concentration (% w/w) Concentration (% w/w) Concentration (% w/w) Concentration (% w/w)

Purity of fructose in total dry matter substance (%) Process streams

mp mobile phase
Concentration of total dry matter substance (% w/w)
PFH high fructose syrup (60Bx; 42% fructose in dms) WT desorption agent (water)
Concentration of glucose (% w/w)
Concentration of fructose (% w/w) PG glucose rich fraction PF fructose rich fraction
Advantages of the VOGELBUSCH single column SMB system Benefits of VBs developments
Resin used as adsorbent changes its operating volume Decreased stress for the resin and longer lifetime due
during loading and regeneration. Other technologies
to lower hydrodynamic pressure drops;
perform this separation process in mechanically segrega-
ted chambers, where resin breathing results in a number Higher purities of end-product thanks to restricted
of disadvantages such as poor separation performance head space;
during loading due to bigger head space and high hydro-
dynamic pressure drop caused by resin expansion during Lower water consumption.
VOGELBUSCHs single column SMB chromatography al-
VOGELBUSCH solved the problem by using one single so provides further advantages:
packed bed column. Expansion and contraction of the resin
Lower investment costs;
bed occur simultaneously and both effects offset each
other. PCs and online instruments control the process. Simple construction no mechanical moving parts.

Performance Data
Various operation modes can be run for obtaining either high capacity and low water consumption or high purity.
The following table illustrates typical scenarios:

Target Capacity Water consumption Purity Yield

[kg DMS / m3 d] [m3 / m3 feed syrup] [%] [%]
High capacity 1300 1.0 90 92
High purity 750 2.0 > 96 86

Valve battery and multiple tube filters Top section of a multiple stage evaporation unit

Cascade of activated carbon vessels Drum filter used for the clarification of glucose syrup
A-1050 Wien, Blechturmgasse 11, Austria - Letters: P.O.B. 189, A-1051 Wien
Tel.: +43.1.546 61-0 - Fax: +43.1.545 29 79
office@vienna.vogelbusch.com - www.vogelbusch.com

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