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Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public

Green Building Guidelines, UAE

Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works
Green Building Guidelines, UAE New Buildings These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works

New

Buildings

These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works new projects (new buildings) in the Emirates; adaptations to existing buildings are not part of this document.

new projects (new buildings) in the Emirates; adaptations to existing buildings are not part of this
new projects (new buildings) in the Emirates; adaptations to existing buildings are not part of this
new projects (new buildings) in the Emirates; adaptations to existing buildings are not part of this
new projects (new buildings) in the Emirates; adaptations to existing buildings are not part of this
new projects (new buildings) in the Emirates; adaptations to existing buildings are not part of this

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new projects (new buildings) in the Emirates; adaptations to existing buildings are not part of this
new projects (new buildings) in the Emirates; adaptations to existing buildings are not part of this
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Prepared by TEC Project Team Najeeb M. Al-Ali, MSc, BEng; Mohsen M. Aboulnaga, PhD, MSc,
Prepared by TEC Project Team Najeeb M. Al-Ali, MSc, BEng; Mohsen M. Aboulnaga, PhD, MSc,
Prepared by TEC Project Team Najeeb M. Al-Ali, MSc, BEng; Mohsen M. Aboulnaga, PhD, MSc,
Prepared by TEC Project Team Najeeb M. Al-Ali, MSc, BEng; Mohsen M. Aboulnaga, PhD, MSc,
Prepared by TEC Project Team Najeeb M. Al-Ali, MSc, BEng; Mohsen M. Aboulnaga, PhD, MSc,
Prepared by TEC Project Team Najeeb M. Al-Ali, MSc, BEng; Mohsen M. Aboulnaga, PhD, MSc,
Prepared by TEC Project Team Najeeb M. Al-Ali, MSc, BEng; Mohsen M. Aboulnaga, PhD, MSc,
Prepared by TEC Project Team Najeeb M. Al-Ali, MSc, BEng; Mohsen M. Aboulnaga, PhD, MSc,
Prepared by TEC Project Team Najeeb M. Al-Ali, MSc, BEng; Mohsen M. Aboulnaga, PhD, MSc,

Prepared by TEC Project Team

Najeeb M. Al-Ali, MSc, BEng; Mohsen M. Aboulnaga, PhD, MSc, BSc; Fahad Al Qassim, MBA; Eisa Al Hammadi, BSc; Mohamed Sami, BSc / ا – ىد ا ا – ا ا – ـ ا ـ أ آ ا ذ ا – ا ا

MoPW Project Team

Zahra Al Aboodi; Fraeed Al Kathiri; Ibrahim Al Khamiri; Mahmood mustafa Abu Al Shawareb; Afifa bin Hamad; Kusai R. Kulaib; Ahmed Alwa’ael

ا أ/س ا - آ ا - د / ا – برا ا أ د ا – ى ا ها إ /س ا – ى ا ا – ىد ا ة هز / ا ةد

ى ا /س ا – ىد ا ة هز / ا ةد This document is prepared

This document is prepared by the project joint team between The Executive Council (TEC), Government of Dubai and Ministry of Public Works (MoPWs) UAE.

of Dubai and Ministry of Public Works (MoPWs) UAE. DOCUMENT VERSIONS First issued on DOCUMENT NUMBER:

DOCUMENT VERSIONS First issued on

DOCUMENT NUMBER: MoPWs – 01-290109-01 29 th January 2009

NUMBER: MoPWs – 01-290109-01 29 t h January 2009 ©TEC and MoPW 2009 The contents of

©TEC and MoPW 2009 The contents of the documents is belong TEC and MoPWs. No part or section will be copied or circulated outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.

copied or circulated outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.
copied or circulated outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.
copied or circulated outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.
copied or circulated outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.
copied or circulated outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.
copied or circulated outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.
copied or circulated outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.
copied or circulated outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.
copied or circulated outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.

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copied or circulated outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.
copied or circulated outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.
Contents Glossary 8 Executive Summary   13 Introduction 14 Background Project Outlines and
Contents Glossary 8 Executive Summary   13 Introduction 14 Background Project Outlines and

Contents

Contents Glossary 8 Executive Summary   13 Introduction 14 Background Project Outlines and

Glossary

8

Executive Summary

 

13

Introduction

14

Background Project Outlines and Framework Design development Building Types Green Building Guidelines Group I: Envelop Efficiency

 

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Criterion:

Glazing Façade‘s Wall Insulations (non-glazed)

24

Criterion:

25

Criterion:

Shading Glazing and Building Orientations Daylighting Clearstory Windows Skylights: Sun-optic Glare Control Photosensors Light Colour Materials

26

Criterion:

28

Criterion:

30

Criterion:

33

Criterion:

34

Criterion:

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Criterion:

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Criterion:

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Group II: Cooling Systems

 

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Criterion:

Under-floor Cooling/Heating Radiant Cooling

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Criterion:

40

Criterion:

Solar Absorption Cooling (SAC) District Cooling (DC)

42

Criterion:

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Group III: Energy Efficiency

 

46

Criterion:

Site Selection Air Conditioning Efficiency

47

Criterion:

49

Criterion:
Criterion:

CFC-free Refrigerants

 

51

Criterion:

Lighting Fixtures and Lighting Bulbs Motion and Control Sensors Swimming Pools Solar Water Heating (SWH) CO 2 Sensors (Thermal Comfort) Renewable Energy

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Criterion:

55

Criterion:

56

Criterion:

57

Criterion:

59

Criterion:

60

Criterion:

Building Management Systems (BMS) and Smart Devices

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Group IV: Water Use and Efficiency

 

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Criterion:

Water Fixtures

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Smart Devices 61 Group IV: Water Use and Efficiency   62 Criterion: Water Fixtures 63 6
Smart Devices 61 Group IV: Water Use and Efficiency   62 Criterion: Water Fixtures 63 6
Criterion: Water-efficient Landscaping 64 Criterion: Water Collection – Condensation and Rain 67
Criterion: Water-efficient Landscaping 64 Criterion: Water Collection – Condensation and Rain 67

Criterion:

Water-efficient Landscaping

64

Criterion:

Water Collection – Condensation and Rain

67

Criterion:

Recycled Water (Grey Water)

59

Group V: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)

61

Criterion:

Operable Windows

62

Criterion:

Ventilation Systems and Ceiling Fans

63

Criterion:

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)

64

Criterion:

Low-emitting (VOCs) Materials

66

Criterion:

Clean Materials and Chemical Pollutions

67

Criterion:

Smoking and Non-smoking Zones

68

Criterion:

Noise and Acoustics Controls

69

Criterion:

Water Tanks (shading and insulations)

72

Group VI: Site Heat Island

74

Criterion:

High Reflective Roofs (Cool Roofs)

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Criterion:

Site’s Material Configuration

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Criterion:

Bright (Light) Colour Material for Pavements

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Criterion:

Sloped/Cascaded (Staggered) Roofs

79

Criterion:

Green Roofs

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Appendices I-IVX (1-14)

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Appendix I: Grouping of Green Building Criteria: short listing Analysis

85

Appendix II: Glazing — SHGC, SC and LSG

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Appendix III: Insulation Materials

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Appendix IV: Photosensors

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Appendix V: Emergency Exits Lighting and Efficient Bulbs

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Appendix VI: Lighting Fixtures and Motion Sensors

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Appendix VI: Swimming Pools – Covering Materials

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Appendix VIII: Solar Water Heating Systems

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Appendix IX: Water Fixtures

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Appendix X: Operable Windows and Ventilation Systems

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Appendix XI: Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)

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Appendix XII: Cool Roof Materials and Solar Reflectance Index

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Appendix XIII: Bright (Light) Colour Materials for Pavements

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Appendix IVX: Sloped/Cascaded (Staggered) Roof

120

Bright (Light) Colour Materials for Pavements 119 Appendix IVX: Sloped/Cascaded (Staggered) Roof 120 7 | P
Bright (Light) Colour Materials for Pavements 119 Appendix IVX: Sloped/Cascaded (Staggered) Roof 120 7 | P
Bright (Light) Colour Materials for Pavements 119 Appendix IVX: Sloped/Cascaded (Staggered) Roof 120 7 | P

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Bright (Light) Colour Materials for Pavements 119 Appendix IVX: Sloped/Cascaded (Staggered) Roof 120 7 | P
Bright (Light) Colour Materials for Pavements 119 Appendix IVX: Sloped/Cascaded (Staggered) Roof 120 7 | P
Glossary Air Change/Hour (ACH) The term “Air Change per Hour” is defined as the part
Glossary Air Change/Hour (ACH) The term “Air Change per Hour” is defined as the part

Glossary

Air Change/Hour (ACH)

The term “Air Change per Hour” is defined as the part of the total volume of air inside the building that is replaced by a volume of outside air per hour. Normally, 1 ACH is adequate for minimum ventilation requirements.

Air Gap or Cavity

Air gap is an insulation media. It is a cavity wall insulation that is injected into the cavity between the inner and outer leaves of brickwork that make up the external wall of the building. There are a variety of different insulating materials with different air gap widths. By combining with the still captive air, the insulation acts as a barrier to heat gain or loss.

air, the insulation acts as a barrier to heat gain or loss. Air Leakage The air

Air Leakage The air leakage rating (AL) is a measure of how much air leaks through the crack between the window’s sash and frame*. Heat loss and gain occur by infiltration through cracks in the window assembly. The lower the AL, the less air will pass through cracks in the window assembly. An air leakage rating (AL) of 0.30 cfm/sq.ft or less is recommended.

Ballast Electrical ballast is a device intended to limit the amount of current flowing in an electric circuit. Fluorescent lamps require a ballast to stabilize the lamp and to provide the initial striking voltage required to start the arc discharge. This increases the cost of fluorescent luminaries, though often ballast is shared between two or more lamps. Electromagnetic ballasts with a minor fault can produce an audible humming or buzzing noise.

Brightness differences

Attributes to a visual sensation according to which an area appears to emit more or less light.

Cool Roof The term “cool roof” refers to a roof surface that reflects much of the sun's energy. A cool roof replaces or coats existing roofs to reflect the infrared or “hot” spectrum that is produced by the sun, in order to improve a roof’s reflectivity to more energy-efficient levels. Most roofing types have cool options available including metal, tile, roofing membranes, reflective coatings and shingles. While a cool roof reflects a high percentage of the sun’s heat, conventional dark coloured roofs generally absorb more of the sun’s heat. Much of the heat absorbed is re-emitted into the conditioned space within the building, hence increasing the need for air-conditioning.

Cool Daylighting It is known as cooling load avoidance daylighting and not a new term. It is a descriptive term to differentiate daylighting design the takes into consideration whole building energy impacts of integrated daylighting design from designs that do not do this. Cool daylighting is truly a whole building approach to daylighting that looks to not only reducing electric lighting needs but to reduce (or at minimum not increase) cooling loads within the daylight building.

Daylighting

The amount of visible light transmitted into building spaces.

Daylight Distribution

It is the amount of light scattered on the floor area as a ratio of the total daylight entering the space.

area as a ratio of the total daylight entering the space. Daylight Factor (DF) It is

Daylight Factor (DF) It is the ration of the illumination at a point on a given plane due to the light received directly or indirectly from the sky of assumed or known luminance distribution, to the illuminance on a horizontal plane due to an unobstructed hemisphere of this sky. The contribution of direct sunlight to both illuminances is excluded.

of direct sunlight to both illuminances is excluded. Daylight Illumination It is a series of spectral

Daylight Illumination

It is a series of spectral power distribution curves based on measurements of natural

Level (DIL)

daylight and recommended by the CIE. Values are defined for the wavelength region 300 to 830nm.

Daylight Technologies

A set of systems used in building to provide effective lighting inside buildings such as light well, light Shelves, etc…

Disability glare

It took place when a light source reflects from or otherwise covers the visual task, like a veil, obscuring the visual target, reducing its contrast and making the viewer less able to see and discriminate what is being viewed.

Discomfort glare

It arises when light from the side of the task is much brighter than the light coming from the task. The eyes attempt to focus on the light from the task, but so much extra light is entering the eye from the side that the visual processes are confused and it is difficult to concentrate for long periods.

Direct Radiation

The amount of short-wave radiation received on horizontal or vertical surfaces.

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Direct Radiation The amount of short-wave radiation received on horizontal or vertical surfaces. 8 | P
Direct Radiation The amount of short-wave radiation received on horizontal or vertical surfaces. 8 | P
Displacement It is an air distribution system in which incoming air originates at floor level
Displacement It is an air distribution system in which incoming air originates at floor level

Displacement

It is an air distribution system in which incoming air originates at floor level and rises to exhaust

Ventilation (DV)

outlets at the ceiling.

dB (db)

It is abbreviation for decibel, the logarithmic acoustical unit scale for sound levels.

Efficacy

The ratio of light produced to energy consumed. It's measured as the number of lumens produced divided by the rate of electricity consumption (lumens per watt).

Emissivity Emissivity is a measure of how much heat is emitted from an object by radiation. Heat is transferred to and from objects through three processes: conduction, convection, and radiation. For instance, on a hot day, heat will be conducted through a window from the outside, causing the inside pane to become warm. Low-emissivity, or low-e, coatings are put on window panes to reduce the amount of heat they give off through radiation. In hot climates, where the outside of the window will typically be hotter than the inside, low-e coatings work best on the interior of the outside window pane. In cold climates, where the inside of the window is typically hotter than the outside, the low-e coatings work best on the inside window pane, on the side that faces toward the outside.

Fenestration

It is the arrangement and design of windows in a building.

Fin

It is an extended control element placed on the exterior facades of the building and fixed vertically on the sides of an opening (a window). It reflects and redirects natural light which falls laterally upon the fin to the inside; used to create shad cast shadow on the facades and block solar radiation.

shad cast shadow on the facades and block solar radiation. Foot Candle (FC): It is a

Foot Candle (FC): It is a measurement of the intensity of illumination. A foot candle is the illumination produced by one lumen distributed over a 1-square-foot area. For most home and office work, a 30–50 foot candle of illumination is sufficient. For detailed work, 200 foot candles of illumination or more allows more accuracy and less eyestrain. For simply finding one's way around at night, 5–20 foot candles may be sufficient.

Glare The excessive brightness from a direct light source that makes it difficult to see what one wishes to view. A bright object in front of a dark background usually will cause glare. Bright lights reflecting off a television or computer screen or even a printed page produces glare. Intense light sources, such as bright incandescent lamps, are likely to produce more direct glare than large fluorescent lamps. However, glare is primarily the result of relative placement of light sources and the objects being viewed.

Glazing

It is a sheet of glass or plastic panes in a window, door, or skylight.

Glazing Factor

It is the ratio of glazing areas to room area.

Grey water:

It is the waste water generated from showers and baths wash including soaps contents, laundry water and other drainage water but excluding toilet water. It may or may not include kitchen water and kitchens are often equipped with garbage grinders. It is also known as waste water discharged from lavatories, bathtubs, showers, clothes washers, and laundry trays.

Fenestration

The word “Fenestration” comes from the Latin root word fenestra, which means an opening such as a window.

Heat Gain

It is the transfer of heat from outside to inside by means of conduction, convection, and radiation through all surfaces of the building’s envelope.

Heat Island

Heat island refers to urban air and surface temperatures that are higher than nearby rural areas. Many cities and suburbs have air temperatures up to 5.6°C (10°F) warmer than the surrounding natural land cover. Heat Island contributes to high energy use, mainly for cooling in hot climates

Illumination

The distribution of light on a horizontal surface. The purpose of all lighting is to produce illumination.

Insulating Glass (IG)

It is a two or more pieces of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single glazed unit with one or more air spaces in between (known also as double glazing).

Insulation

Construction materials used for protection from noise, heat, cold or fire.

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double glazing). Insulation Construction materials used for protection from noise, heat, cold or fire. 9 |
double glazing). Insulation Construction materials used for protection from noise, heat, cold or fire. 9 |
Lighting The electrical light received at work station. Artificial or industrial lighting consumes 15% of
Lighting The electrical light received at work station. Artificial or industrial lighting consumes 15% of

Lighting

The electrical light received at work station. Artificial or industrial lighting consumes 15% of the household’s electrical energy use.

Lighting & Daylighting

The quantity and quality of light around us determine how well we see, work, and play. Light affects our health, safety, morale, comfort, and productivity.

Lighting Fixture A lighting fixture or luminaire is an electrical device used to create artificial light or illumination. A complete lighting fixture unit consists of the light source or lamp, the reflector for directing the light, an aperture (with or without a lens), the outer shell or housing for lamp alignment and protection, an electrical ballast, if required, and connection to a power source.

Light-to-Solar-Gain Ratio Light-to-Solar-Gain Ratio (LSG) is a measure of the ability of a glazing to provide light without excessive solar heat gain. It is the ratio between the visible transmittance of a glazing and its solar heat gain coefficient.

Light Shelves (LS)

LS are light control elements usually positioned horizontally above eye level in a vertical pass through (glazed) component to mainly protect the interior spaces to the openings against direct solar radiation, obstructing and redirecting light to the interior ceiling.

Skylight

An opening located in a horizontal or tilted roof. It permits the zenithal entry of daylight increasing the luminic level of the lower space under the skylight. It can also assist in providing ventilation.

Light Tracking Skylights It is a special type of skylight that follow the direction and movement of the sun throughout the day to get the daylight into the interior space. With most skylights, the downward sunlight beaming can be obtained down into your house when the sun is overhead.

Light-well

It is also known as light duct. It is an interior light space which conducts natural light to interior spaces of the building. Its surfaces are finished with high reflective materials.

Low-E Glass Low-E glass gives a year-round energy savings and comfort by helping manage the sun's energy and the cooling system energy in your building. A Low-E glass is coated with microscopically-thin, optically transparent layers of silver sandwiched between layers of antireflective metal oxide coatings. In the summer, Low-E glass let in visible sunlight while blocking infrared and ultraviolet solar energy that drives up cooling costs and damages curtains, window treatments, carpeting and furnishings. And in the winter, Low-E glass products offer greater comfort and reduced heating costs by reflecting room- side heat back into the room.

Lumen

Lumen is a measurement of light emitted by a lamp. As reference, a 100-watt incandescent lamp emits about 1750 lumens.

Motion Sensors Motion Sensors and its control unit automatically turn indoor or outdoor lights on when they are needed (when motion is detected) and turn them off a short while later. They are very useful for indoor lighting to save energy and for outdoor security and utility lighting provided by incandescent lamps. Because utility lights and some security lights are needed only when it is dark and people are present, the best way to control might be a combination of motion sensor and Photosensors.

Operable Window

It is the window that can be opened for ventilation.

Overhang

It is a control element which is part of the building itself protruding horizontal from the façade above a

Photosensors Photosensors are electronic control units that automatically adjust the output level of electric lights based on the amount of light detected. Lighting control devices enable occupants to control their lighting environment by either dimming the lights or switching them on and off. Some control devices, such as light switches, manual dimmers, and window blinds, can be directly accessed and controlled by occupants. Others, such as occupancy sensors, timers, and Photosensors, often are designed to take the place of occupant actions.

Prismatic Glazing

It is a control element placed in a pass through component (glazed) which share two environments redirecting light by its optical-geometrical characteristic.

Reflectance (Ceiling)

It is a surface that enable light returns the incidence visible radiation used to alter the special distribution of light.

that enable light returns the incidence visible radiation used to alter the special distribution of light.
that enable light returns the incidence visible radiation used to alter the special distribution of light.
Seasonal Affective Disorder Seasonal Affective Disorder, also known as SAD, winter depression or the winter
Seasonal Affective Disorder Seasonal Affective Disorder, also known as SAD, winter depression or the winter
Seasonal Affective Disorder Seasonal Affective Disorder, also known as SAD, winter depression or the winter

Seasonal Affective Disorder Seasonal Affective Disorder, also known as SAD, winter depression or the winter blues is an affective, or mood, disorder. Most SAD sufferers experience normal mental health throughout most of the year, but experience depressive symptoms in the winter or summer. The condition in the summer is often referred to as Reverse Seasonal Affective Disorder. This phenomena result from poor indoor lighting and insufficient Daylighting in building spaces or a combination of both.

Reflective Glass

Window glass coated to reflect radiation striking the surface of the glass.

Shading Coefficient Shading Coefficient (SC) is a measure of the ability of a window or skylight to transmit solar heat, relative to that ability for 1/8-inch clear, double- strength, and single glass. It is being phased out in favour of the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), and is approximately equal to the SHGC multiplied by

1.15. It is expressed as a number without units between 0.00 and 1.00. The lower a window's SHGC or

SC, the less solar heat it transmits, and the greater are its shading ability.

Shading device

It is a device that designed and mounted on the building’s facades to obstruct, reduce or diffuse solar radiation fall in on this facades and partially protect it against heat gain.

SHGC Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) is the fraction of incident solar radiation admitted through a window, both directly transmitted and absorbed and subsequently released inward. SHGC is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. The lower a window's solar heat gain coefficient, the less solar heat it transmits. A SHGC of 0.40 or less is recommended in warm climates.

Solar Reflectance Index SRI is a value that incorporates both solar reflectance and emittance in a single value to represent a material's temperature in the sun. SRI quantifies how hot a surface would get relative to standard black and standard white surfaces. It is calculated using equations based on previously measured values of solar reflectance and emittance as laid out in the American Society for Testing and Materials Standard (ASTM) E 1980. It is expressed as a fraction (0.0 to 1.0) or percentage (0% to 100%).

Solar Reflectance

Solar reflectance, occasionally called “Albedo”, is to measure of the ability of a surface material to

“Albedo”

reflect sunlight – including the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths – on a scale of 0.0 - 1.0.

Spandrel The term spandrel is used to indicate the space between the top of the window in one story and the sill of the window in the story above in a building with more than one floor. It is typically employed in cladding facades with curtain walls. In insulating units, or as laminated glass, spandrel glass is typically specified for buildings' non-vision areas to mask construction materials. Even refurbished buildings covered in a combination of vision and spandrel glass can appear to be constructed entirely of glass.

Sunlight

Sun-optics skylight system

It is the direct portion of the daylight coming directly from the sun at a specific location which is not diffused on arrival.

it is a type of a skylight that track the solar movement to capture daylight and it is equipped with optic devices

Sustainable development means improving people’s quality of life in a way that maintains the capacity of the planet over the long term. Human security, prosperity and wellbeing depend on a healthy and abundant environment. The sustainable use of natural resources, pollution prevention, and conservation of natural habitats are central to alleviating poverty and improving the quality of life.

Top lighting

Light that enters through the top part of the interior space such as clearstories, light duct or light well, and skylights, etc…

Task Lighting

Facilitates particular tasks that require more light than is needed for general illumination, such as under-counter kitchen lights, table lamps, or bathroom mirror lights.

Thermal Bridge Thermal Bridge is known as heat leak, or short-circuiting. It is common that heat flows through a path of least resistance than through insulated paths. Insulation around a bridge is of little help in preventing heat gain or loss due to thermal bridging; the bridging has to be rebuilt with smaller or more insulative materials. For example, an insulated wall which has a layer of rigid insulating material between the studs and the finish layer. When a thermal bridge is desired, it can be a heat source, heat sink or a heat pipe.

and the finish layer. When a thermal bridge is desired, it can be a heat source,
and the finish layer. When a thermal bridge is desired, it can be a heat source,
Thermal Emittance Thermal Emittance of a material refers to its ability to release absorbed heat.
Thermal Emittance Thermal Emittance of a material refers to its ability to release absorbed heat.

Thermal Emittance Thermal Emittance of a material refers to its ability to release absorbed heat. Scientists use a number between 0 and 1, or 0% and 100%, to express Emittance. With the exception of metals, most construction materials have emittance above 0.80.

Thermal Resistance (R)

R- value measures insulating power and the higher the R-value, the better the insulating power. The R- value is the inverse of the U-value (1/U = R).

power. The R- value is the inverse of the U-value (1/U = R). Translucent Glass It

Translucent Glass

It is a glass that allows only a portion of light to pass through, making objects seen through it appears unclear; opaline is in this category. It is used in buildings facades and skylights to offset the excessive Daylighting or sunlight in summer and reduce glare.

U-Value (U-factor) is a measure of how well heat flows through an object (thermal conductivity). It is also referred to as the heat transfer coefficient or the coefficient of heat transmission. The U-value is measured by how much heat in W (Btu) flows through a certain area (ft 2 ) each hour for a certain temperature difference

K (°F), so it is measured in W/m 2 K (Btu/ft 2 hr°F). The U-value is the reciprocal of the R-value (1/R = U). The lower the U-value, the better the insulation value of the material. Many building and insulation products have their U-value indicated on their label. A U-value of 0.35 or less is recommended in cold climates. Nonetheless, in warm climates a low U-value is helpful during hot days or whenever heating

is needed, but it is less important than Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC).

Vegetated Roof (VR) A VR or green roof is “a building that its roof is either partially or completely covered in plants”. It also defined as they must be a stable living ecosystem that makes the urban environment more liveable, efficient and sustainable. A green roof consists of vegetation and soil, or a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane. Additional layers, such as a root barrier and drainage and irrigation systems may also be included. Green roofs can be used in many applications, including industrial facilities, residences, offices, and other commercial property. It is widely used in Europe and the USA to save energy consumption and reduce the impact of urban heat island.

Visual Acuity Visual acuity (VA) is acuteness or clearness of vision, especially form vision, which is dependent on the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye, the sensitivity of the nervous elements, and the interpretative faculty of the brain. Visual acuity depends upon how accurately light is focused on the retina (mostly the macular region); it is largely affected by the insufficient or poor level of indoor lighting or Daylighting, and surrounding environment.

Visible Light Transmission The visible light transmittance (VLT) is an optical property that indicates the amount of visible light transmitted through the glass. VLT is expressed as a number between 0.0 and 1.0. The higher the VLT, the more daylight is transmitted. A high VLT is desirable to maximize daylight. In hot climate it should not be below 0.30 and not above 0.60.

VOCs Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are molecules containing carbon and varying proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and chlorine. They are the "precursors" that react in sunlight and heat to form ground-level ozone.

Watt

A watt is the absolute unit of power equal to the work done at the rate of one joule per second.

Window azimuth

It is the angle which the window is tilted normal to the sun; it measured from the North as 180 deg.

180 to

Window’s sill

a control element placed horizontally on the bottom of a window opening. It reflects and redirects natural light that falls upon the sill increasing the luminic level in the interior spaces.

sill increasing the luminic level in the interior spaces. * The rating reflects the leakage from
sill increasing the luminic level in the interior spaces. * The rating reflects the leakage from
sill increasing the luminic level in the interior spaces. * The rating reflects the leakage from
sill increasing the luminic level in the interior spaces. * The rating reflects the leakage from

* The rating reflects the leakage from a window exposed to a 25-mile-per-hour wind, and is measured in cubic feet per minute per linear foot of sash crack.

exposed to a 25-mile-per-hour wind, and is measured in cubic feet per minute per linear foot
exposed to a 25-mile-per-hour wind, and is measured in cubic feet per minute per linear foot
Executive Summary The Green Building Guidelines is a scheme set off by The Executive Council
Executive Summary The Green Building Guidelines is a scheme set off by The Executive Council

Executive Summary

The Green Building Guidelines is a scheme set off by The Executive Council (TEC), Government of Dubai and the Ministry of Public Works (MoPW), based on the request of the Ministry of Public Works, to develop the guidelines for Sustainable/Green Building for the new projects under the jurisdiction of MoPW; intended to be carried out in all Emirates of the U.A.E. In addition, these guidelines represent a bundle of green building elements that will be largely adopted by the League of Arab States (LAS). It is understood that each Arab country will appropriately exploit and implement these guidelines accordingly to properly suite its’ socio-economic structure, urban settings and regulations, and technological advancement, and above all priorities.

As per the directives of his Highness Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan President of The UAE for the need to achieve Sustainability as part of the UAE’s Strategic plan and the emergence of the idea of the project after the courageous announcement and eminent directive of His Highness Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, UAE Vice President, Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai to make new buildings being constructed in Dubai by January 2008 eco-friendly and meet the highest international standards suitable for Dubai and UAE. This announcement, that reflects the bold vision and stride of His Highness, is directed to withstand the current environmental challenges and preserve the environment of the UAE in general and Dubai in particular. It also bound for rigorous implementation of the highest international safety and eco-friendly standards in all avenues of life to profoundly ensure a safe and secure living style for all citizens and residents in the UAE.

The intents of such project are mainly to save energy, conserve water, improve health conditions and lower CO 2 emission generated by the cooling and water demands required for new buildings. The project is structured to include the guidelines for new buildings; according to its nature, type and location.

This project is considered as part of a well thought plan to make new buildings being constructed in these emirates livable and healthier, and to a larger extent, contributes towards creating and maintaining sustainable built environments and eco-friendly cities. Also, it reflects the joint efforts of Dubai Government and Ministry of Public Works in spreading the awareness on sustainable/green buildings and participating in the international endeavor to combat global environmental challenges such as Climate Change, making the UAE the first country in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to acknowledge and adopt such approach.

This report represents the green building guidelines for new projects to be carried out by the Ministry of Public Works (MoPW). It highlights the shortlisted Green Building elements in the six focal categories groups: Envelope Efficiency, Cooling Systems, Energy Efficiency, Water use and Efficiency, Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), and Site Heat Island. In this project, we portray the developed guidelines for new buildings. Each template highlights the intent, specifications, technical data, and the building types covered by such guidelines. In principles, these guidelines will fundamentally lead to huge saving in both energy and water use, enhance indoor environmental quality, improve health conditions, increase the productivity of buildings’ occupants, lower the emissions of the green house gases (GHG) mainly, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and contribute towards the reduction of Global Warming and counterbalance Climate Change, above all contribute to boost the economy of all emirates.

This project is a joint effort between The Executive Council (TEC), Government of Dubai and the Ministry of Public Works (MoPW), and this report is an outcome of such joint effort. Two teams representing each party participated in developing these guidelines.

Note: These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works new projects (new buildings) in all Emirates; adaptations to existing buildings are not part of this document. These guidelines are intended for buildings that only fall under the jurisdiction of UAE Ministry of Public Works.

guidelines are intended for buildings that only fall under the jurisdiction of UAE Ministry of Public
guidelines are intended for buildings that only fall under the jurisdiction of UAE Ministry of Public
guidelines are intended for buildings that only fall under the jurisdiction of UAE Ministry of Public
Objectives The objective of this project is to establish the Green Building Guidelines that will
Objectives The objective of this project is to establish the Green Building Guidelines that will

Objectives

The objective of this project is to establish the Green Building Guidelines that will be applied to the new projects under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Works (MoPW). The nature of the MoPW projects was reviewed in order to relate each criterion of these guidelines to the relevant building type. The buildings’ types were reviewed and endorsed by the MoPW team for the analysis.

The current building regulations that are concerned with the overall building performance, water and energy consumption rates, and indoor environmental quality as well as their environmental impact were reviewed, with the intention to develop Green Building Guidelines for the Ministry of Public Works. These guidelines will be fully utilized and implemented on the new project that are commissioned and supervised by the MoPWs across the UAE. Anticipated savings due to the implementation of the green building guidelines, in some of the elements with emphases on Dubai, are listed in Figure 1.

the elements with emphases on Dubai, are listed in Figure 1. Anticipated Saving from implementing Dubai
Anticipated Saving from implementing Dubai Green Building Policy 80% 70% 75% 60% 40% 30% 30%
Anticipated Saving from implementing Dubai Green Building Policy
80%
70%
75%
60%
40%
30%
30%
20%
12%
9%
10%
6%
0%
Heating &
Lighting
Cooling
water Heating
Domestic
Water
Total Consumption
Anticipated Savings

Fig.1 Anticipated percentage of savings resulting from implementing the Green Building Guidelines

resulting from implementing the Green Building Guidelines Introduction A review on the Green House Gases (GHG)

Introduction

A review on the Green House Gases (GHG) emission in various emirates has been conducted. GHG emissions in Dubai as an example, resulting from electricity and water desalinization at all power stations, were presented in Figure 2. The data shown are gathered from DEWA for total emission in 2003-2007. Figure 3 illustrates Dubai total energy generated in 2006.

Figure 3 illustrates Dubai total energy generated in 2006. DEWA Emission of Green House Gases 2006
DEWA Emission of Green House Gases 2006 (g/hw/ hr) CO2 - Equivalents (10 4 )
DEWA Emission of Green House Gases 2006
(g/hw/ hr)
CO2 - Equivalents (10 4 )
NMVOC
Particulates
SO2
23%
4%
3%
0%
NOx
24%
CO2 (10 4 )
23%
CO
20%
N2O
CH4
1%
2%
Dubai Total Energy Generated 2006 Systems Energy Requirments 22274.272 (GWh) Energy improted Exported Energy to
Dubai Total Energy Generated 2006
Systems Energy Requirments 22274.272 (GWh)
Energy improted
Exported Energy to
Dubai (GWh)
from ADWEA
106.298
(GWh)
0.48%
2010.924
8.52%
DEWA Energy
Requirements
(GWh)
20370.101
91%

Fig.2 Dubai GHG emissions resulting from electricity generation and water desalinization (all power stations)

Fig.3 DEWA annual power energy requirements against demands

Source: DEWA 2006, Dubai

(all power stations) Fig.3 DEWA annual power energy requirements against demands Source: DEWA 2006, Dubai 14
(all power stations) Fig.3 DEWA annual power energy requirements against demands Source: DEWA 2006, Dubai 14
Federal Water Use and Energy Consumption Rates The federal water consumption and electricity use rates
Federal Water Use and Energy Consumption Rates The federal water consumption and electricity use rates

Federal Water Use and Energy Consumption Rates

The federal water consumption and electricity use rates in the Northern Emirates including Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al Khaima and Fujairah (excluding Umm Al Qwain) representing the 5 main zones (Middle, Eastern B, Eastern A, Western A and Northern) are illustrated in Figure 4. Also, the ADDC water and energy consumptions are highlighted in Figure 5 and 6. Finally, the ADDC total water and energy use are shown in Figure 7 and 8. It is clear from Figure 5 that water use is higher in both domestic and government buildings whereas for energy consumption it was higher in domestic, commercial, and government buildings.

10000 9008 9000 7879 8000 6804 7000 6496 6375 6339 5595 6000 4854 4921 4609
10000
9008
9000
7879
8000
6804
7000
6496
6375
6339
5595
6000
4854
4921
4609
5000
4000
2356
2129
3000
1934
1679
1748
1490
1188
957
1004
2000
867
1212
822
615
674
683
1000
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
Middle
Eastern B
Eastern A
Western A
Northern

Fig.4 Water consumption in northern emirates in million gallons (not including Umm Al Qwain) Data Source: MoPWs

45,000,000,000 40,000,000,000 35,000,000,000 30,000,000,000 25,000,000,000 20,000,000,000 15,000,000,000
45,000,000,000
40,000,000,000
35,000,000,000
30,000,000,000
25,000,000,000
20,000,000,000
15,000,000,000
10,000,000,000
5,000,000,000
0
Domistic
Commercial
Government
Agriculture
Industrial
Other
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007

Fig.5 ADDC Water Use in Million Gallons Data Source: MoPWs

85,984,656,793.00 82,811,570,766.00 79,557,774,786.00 67,619,968,132.00 36,031,372,097.00 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
85,984,656,793.00
82,811,570,766.00
79,557,774,786.00
67,619,968,132.00
36,031,372,097.00
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007

Fig.7 ADDC Total Water Use in Gallons Data Source: MoPWs

7,000,000,000 6,000,000,000 5,000,000,000 4,000,000,000 3,000,000,000 2,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 0 Domistic
7,000,000,000
6,000,000,000
5,000,000,000
4,000,000,000
3,000,000,000
2,000,000,000
1,000,000,000
0
Domistic
Commercial
Government
Agriculture
Industria l
Other
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007

Fig.6 ADDC Energy Consumption in kWh Data Source: MoPWs

14,972,207,843 14,216,698,317 13,106,569,494 13,150,421,335 11,309,736,802 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
14,972,207,843
14,216,698,317
13,106,569,494
13,150,421,335
11,309,736,802
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007

Fig.8 ADDC Total Energy Consumption in kWh Data Source: MoPWs

11,309,736,802 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Fig.8 ADDC Total Energy Consumption in kWh Data Source: MoPWs
11,309,736,802 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Fig.8 ADDC Total Energy Consumption in kWh Data Source: MoPWs
The annual water and electricity use per sector in Dubai, for example, are portrayed in
The annual water and electricity use per sector in Dubai, for example, are portrayed in

The annual water and electricity use per sector in Dubai, for example, are portrayed in Figure 9 and 10. However, the water consumption as a result of using inefficient fixtures is shown in Figure 11 whereas the savings due to the use of efficient fixtures is depicted in Figure 12. Water consumption in an office building in the USA and that saved by using efficient flushing apparatus are illustrated in Figure 13 and Figure 14. The heat losses due evaporation and ventilation are also presented in Figure 15 and Figure 16. Also, the numbers of swimming pools are shown in Figure 17 and Figure 18. Finally, Figure 19 portrays the water use in different countries including Dubai.

Dubai Water Consumption 2006 Total = 64,926 MIG Source: DEWA 7,092 3,311 11% 5% 16,009
Dubai Water Consumption 2006
Total = 64,926 MIG
Source: DEWA
7,092
3,311
11%
5%
16,009
38,514
25%
59%
Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Governement

Fig.9 Dubai annual water consumption per sector

Dubai Electricity Consumption per Sectors Total = 21475 GWh Source:DEWA 2006 1,999 1,475 9% 6,
Dubai Electricity Consumption per Sectors
Total = 21475 GWh
Source:DEWA 2006
1,999
1,475
9%
6, 580
7%
31%
2,356
11%
9,065
42%
Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Others (Governement)
Station Aux and Disalinations

Fig.10 Dubai annual electricity consumption per sector

Data Source: DEWA ADEWA, SEWA, FEWA

Typical Inefficient Indoor Water Use in the USA ( 80 gallon per person per day
Typical Inefficient Indoor Water Use in the USA
( 80 gallon per person per day (300 Liter /Day/Person )
Dishwashers
Toilet Leaks
3%
5%
Toilets
28%
Clothes washer
22%
Bath
Showers
9%
Faucets
21%
12%
Toilets
Showers
Faucets
Bath
Clothes washer
Dishwashers
Toilet Leaks
Typical Water Consumption in a Residentail Bldg. (California) Other Domestic Dishwashers 2.2% Leak Toilets 1.4%
Typical Water Consumption in a Residentail Bldg. (California)
Other
Domestic
Dishwashers
2.2%
Leak
Toilets
1.4%
13.7%
26.7%
Clothes
washer
Showers
21.7%
16.8%
Faucets
Bath
15.7%
1.7%
Toilets
Showers
Faucets
Bath
Clothes washer
Dishwashers
Other Domestic
Leak

Fig.11 USA water consumption in an inefficient building

Fig.12 Typical water consumption using efficient fixtures

Source: Rock Mountain Institute (RMI), USA

Watrer Use distribution in a typical office building Domestic (toilets, urinals, faucets, etc.), cooling/heating, and
Watrer Use distribution in a typical office building
Domestic (toilets, urinals, faucets, etc.), cooling/heating, and landscaping uses
9%
41%
20%
2%
1%
27%
Domestic
Kitchen
cooling /heating
once through cooling
lanscaping
Misc./UAF
Water Use in Homes in USA with Standard, 1.6 Gallon, & Dual Flush Toilets 18.8
Water Use in Homes in USA with Standard, 1.6 Gallon, & Dual Flush Toilets
18.8
9.1
6.9
3.61
1.54
1.25
Non-conserving
Home
Conserving home
(1.6 gpf toilet)
Conserving home
(dual flush toilet)
Avg. Gallons / Person / Day
Avg. Gallons / Flush

Fig.13 Water use in a typical office building, in the USA

Fig.14 Water saving by adopting efficient flushing apparatus

Source: Rock Mountain Institute (RMI), USA

Outdoor Energy Heat losses Losses gto ground and others 10% Radiation to sky 20% Evaporation
Outdoor Energy Heat losses
Losses gto ground
and others
10%
Radiation to
sky 20%
Evaporation
70%
Indoor Energy Heat losses Others 3% ventilation 27% Evaporation 70%
Indoor Energy Heat losses
Others
3%
ventilation
27%
Evaporation
70%

Fig.15 Heat losses due to evaporation, radiation and ground

Fig.16 Heat losses due to evaporation, ventilation and other

Source: eere.energy.org

radiation and ground Fig.16 Heat losses due to evaporation, ventilation and other Source: eere.energy.org 16 |
radiation and ground Fig.16 Heat losses due to evaporation, ventilation and other Source: eere.energy.org 16 |
Dubai Swimming Pools Capacity 2003 - 2007 583 2003 232 351 627 2004 231 396
Dubai Swimming Pools Capacity 2003 - 2007 583 2003 232 351 627 2004 231 396
Dubai Swimming Pools Capacity 2003 - 2007 583 2003 232 351 627 2004 231 396
Dubai Swimming Pools Capacity
2003 - 2007
583
2003
232
351
627
2004
231
396
695
2005
306
389
587
2006
272
315
324
Total = 2816
2007
130
194
Total swimming pools
Residential Commercial and Hotels
Individual villas
Dubai Current & Projected Swimming Pools Number of Swimming Pools 6339 184% Increase 2233 283
Dubai Current & Projected Swimming Pools
Number of Swimming Pools
6339
184%
Increase
2233
283 %
Increase
583
2003 2007
2011

Fig.17 Number of swimming pools by building types

Fig.18 Licensed & projected swimming pools

Source: Building Department, Dubai Municipality 2007

International Water Consumption 2007 Belgium 107 Nertherland/Austria 125 Germany 127 Denmark 131 UK/Finland 150
International Water Consumption 2007
Belgium
107
Nertherland/Austria
125
Germany
127
Denmark
131
UK/Finland
150
Jordan
150
France
164
sweden
190
Norway
200
Japan
254
Spain
265
Canada
310
USA
360
Dubai
515
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Liters per Person per Day (Lpd)

Fig.19 Water consumption in different countries

Source: DEFRA 2006 (www.edie.ne) and DEWA 2006

Background

The projected sectors in the USA that have Green Building activities by sector are shown in Figure 20. Green Buildings are more beneficial in terms of return on investments, building values, staff productivity, health and well- being as well as economy. It is clear from Figure 21 that an increase of about 15 percent for 3 indicators; return on investments, building value, and staff productivity can be achieved and at least 10 percent for health and well-being of occupants. By-in-large, the 3 major sectors that have most of the green building activities are public facilities, educational and commercial forming about 75 percent followed by health care facilities at 11 percent. Based on the analysis most of the MoPW projects are falling in the 1 st , 2 nd and 4 th sector (public services, educational and health care).

Green Building Activity by Sector R&D Industrial Transportation 5% 4% 1% Hotel/ Residential Public Facilities
Green Building Activity by Sector
R&D
Industrial
Transportation
5%
4%
1%
Hotel/ Residential
Public Facilities
5%
30%
Health Care
11%
Commercial
20%
Educational
24%

Fig.20 Sectors expected to have the most Green Building activities

Source: Green Building Market Barometer www.greenbuildingnews.com

17 | P a g e

have the most Green Building activities Source: Green Building Market Barometer www.greenbuildingnews.com 17 | P a
have the most Green Building activities Source: Green Building Market Barometer www.greenbuildingnews.com 17 | P a
Return on Investments Bu ilding Value green buildings Staff Productivity conventional buildings Health &
Return on Investments
Bu ilding Value
green
buildings
Staff Productivity
conventional
buildings
Health & Well-being o f Occupants
%0
%10 %20 %30 %40 %50 %60 %70 %80 % 90 %100
Fig.21 Be nefits from Green buildings compared to conventional build ings
The MoPW’s scope of work a nd projects’ profile
The scope of work and project’s pro file of the Ministry of Public Works are highlighted in
Design and Construct
Roads and Bridges
Design and Construct
Government
Buildings
Maintenance of
Government Buildings
Maintenance of Roads
and Bridges
Fig.22 The scope of work of the Ministry of Public Works’ Project s
Source: www.mopw.gov.ae
Educational
(Schools and
KG's)
Government
Buildings
Hosptials
(Officies)
MoPW' s
Roads and
Government
Bridg es
Fishing an d
Sea Ports
Projects
UAE
National
Polices HQs
Residential
Villas
Massjids
Fig.23 Projects profile of the Ministry of Public Works
Source: www.mopw.gov.ae
and clinics, and police facilities; b)
recreation: leisure; c) religious:
schools; e) residential: low-rise offic es and villas; and f) industrial: factories and warehou ses.

Figure 22 and Figure 23.

About Hundred (100) Green Buildin g criteria were identified. Analyses were carried out to record the impact of these

criteria on building types. The buil ding types included in analysis are: a) public service s; airports and ports, hospitals

mosques; d) educati onal: universities, colleges and

To study and group these element s stakeholders’ barriers were proposed, assessed an d evaluated (Appendix 1). The results of the analysis led to the sel ection of 53 criteria in total. It was then shortlisted to 43 elements.

18 | P a g e

Project Outlines and F ramework

The following figure illustrates the f ramework and approach and phases of the project. Fig.24
The following figure illustrates the f ramework and approach and phases of the project.
Fig.24 Project’s outlines and scope of work
The final shortlist
Features
Features
final Shortlist
Guidelines
100 Criteria
53 Criteria
43 Criteria
6 Groups
Fig.25 Methodolog y and procedures of the project analysis to prioritising Gre en Building criteria
Design development
the design phase to be effective, it i s vital to define the owner’s objectives (i.e., MoPW)
sustainable and green goals, and
minimize the potential of elevating
but the costs will definitely be incre ased.
Fig.26 Impact of the e arly design input on potential for sustainability and other b
ilding’s life-cycle
Source: ASHRAE Green Guide 2006, ASHRAE Inc.
life-cycle Source: ASHRAE Green Guide 2006, ASHRAE Inc. The impact of the 43 shortlisted Gr een
life-cycle Source: ASHRAE Green Guide 2006, ASHRAE Inc. The impact of the 43 shortlisted Gr een

The impact of the 43 shortlisted Gr een Building criteria on stakeholders and building ty pes was carried out to identify the features and develop the guidel ines as shown in Figure 25.

The course of action in the de sign process is the first crucial component in produc ing a sustainable building. For

and the set of criteria including

baselines (benchmarks) before commencing the de sign process. This is mainly to project costs. A sustainable “green” building can b e delivered much easier in the

early phases of the project, and it c an be decreased as the process develops as shown in Figure 26. It could be achieved

19 | P a g e

Green Building Criteria and Related Groups The following chart (Fig.27) depicts the six groups identified
Green Building Criteria and Related Groups The following chart (Fig.27) depicts the six groups identified

Green Building Criteria and Related Groups

The following chart (Fig.27) depicts the six groups identified with the selected green building criteria including alternative cooling systems; envelop (fabric) efficiency; energy efficiency; water efficiency; indoor environmental quality; and site and heat island. Nonetheless, the eliminated elements in these guidelines are shown in Figure 28.

elements in these guidelines are shown in Figure 28. Cooling Systems Building Fabric Efficiency Energy
Cooling Systems Building Fabric Efficiency Energy Efficiency Water Efficiency Indoor Air Quality Site & Heat
Cooling Systems
Building Fabric
Efficiency
Energy Efficiency
Water
Efficiency
Indoor Air
Quality
Site &
Heat
Island

District Cooling, Solar Absorption Cooling Floor Cooling, Chilled Water Walls, Radiant Cooling,

Cooling Floor Cooling, Chilled Water Walls, Radiant Cooling, Site Selection Building’s Orientation, AC Equipment

Site Selection Building’s Orientation, AC Equipment Efficiency, CFC-free Refrigerants, Electrical Lighting, Control Sensors, Smart Control Devices, Thermal comfort, Water Heating , Swimming Pools, Electrical Cables, Renewable Energy, Ventilation.

Shading Devices, External Wall Insulation, Glazing, Daylighting, Glazing Orientation, Glazing Area and Type, Glazing Characteristics, Skylights.

Glazing Area and Type, Glazing Characteristics, Skylights. Water Fixtures , Rain Water, Water Efficient Landscaping,

Water Fixtures , Rain Water, Water Efficient Landscaping, Condensation, Recycled Water, Non-desalinated Water for AC.

Condensation, Recycled Water, Non-desalinated Water for AC. Low-emitting Materials (VOCs), High-emitting Materials

Low-emitting Materials (VOCs), High-emitting Materials (VOC’s), Operable Windows, Ventilation Systems, Chemical & Pollution, CO 2 Sensors, Non-smoking & Smoke Control, Noise and Acoustic Control.

Non-smoking & Smoke Control, Noise and Acoustic Control. Roof Shapes, High Reflective Roofs, High Emissivity

Roof Shapes, High Reflective Roofs, High Emissivity Materials, Green Roofs, Site Configuration.

High Emissivity Materials, Green Roofs, Site Configuration. Fig.27 Green Building criteria and its related groups

Fig.27 Green Building criteria and its related groups

Fig.27 Green Building criteria and its related groups Shading Devices, External Wall Insulation, Glazing,
Shading Devices, External Wall Insulation, Glazing, Daylighting, Photo-sensors devices District Cooling , Floor
Shading Devices,
External Wall Insulation,
Glazing,
Daylighting,
Photo-sensors devices
District Cooling ,
Floor Cooling,
Chilled Water Walls,
Radiant Cooling,
Solar Absorption Cooling,
Site Selection,
AC Equipment Efficiency,
CFC-free Refrigerants,
Cooling Systems
(schools),
Lighting Fixtures,
Lighting bulbs and systems
Motion Control Sensors,
Clear Storey Windows,
Glazing Orientation,
Building Orientation,
Glazing Area and Type,
Glazing Characteristics ,
Skylights,
Light Color External Paints,
Glare Control.
Building Fabric
BMS - Smart Control Devices ,
Efficiency
Energy Efficiency
Thermal comfort,
Solar Water Heating ,
Swimming Pools,
Electrical Cables,
Renewable Energy,
Efficient & Passive Ventilation,
Water Fixtures ,
Rain Water (irrigation),
Water Efficient Landscaping,
Condensation,
Recycled Water (Grey Water) ,
Non-desalinated Water for AC,
Collecting AC surplus water,
Waste Treatment Plants .
Clear Storey Windows,
Landscape lighting.
Water Efficiency
Indoor Air
Quality (IAQ)
Low-emitting Materials (VOCs),
High-emitting Materials (VOC’s),
Operable Windows,
Ceiling Fans,
Ventilation Systems,
Chemical & Pollution,
CO 2 Sensors,
Non-smoking & Smoke Control (safety),
Noise and Acoustic Control,
Water Tanks (shading and insulation).
Site &
Heat
Roof Shapes (schools) ,
High Reflective Roofs,
High Emissivity Materials,
Green Roofs (Rsdl),
Site Configuration.
Island

Fig.28 Eliminated Green Building criteria and its related groups

Eliminated Green Building criteria and its related groups Note: The elements highlighted in Blue are optional

Note: The elements highlighted in Blue are optional and that in Red are added elements whereas the crossed ones are these eliminated in the analysis to match the MPWs projects’ requirements.

whereas the crossed ones are these eliminated in the analysis to match the MPWs projects’ requirements.
whereas the crossed ones are these eliminated in the analysis to match the MPWs projects’ requirements.
Proposed Mandatory and Optional Elements The following chart portrays the elements that are proposed to
Proposed Mandatory and Optional Elements The following chart portrays the elements that are proposed to

Proposed Mandatory and Optional Elements

The following chart portrays the elements that are proposed to be mandatory and those to be optional (the latter are highlighted in blue). It is clear from the chart that Group I has no optional element whereas Group II, III, IV, V, VI have 2, 2, 3, 1 and 2 respectively (Figure 29).

IV, V, VI have 2, 2, 3, 1 and 2 respectively (Figure 29). I. Envelope II.
I. Envelope II. Cooling III. Energy IV. Water Efficiency Systems Efficiency Efficiency V. Indoor Air
I. Envelope
II. Cooling
III. Energy
IV. Water
Efficiency
Systems
Efficiency
Efficiency
V. Indoor Air
Quality
VI. Site & Heat
Island
• Glazing
• Floor Cooling (Schools)
• Site Selection,
• Water Fixtures,
• Low-emitting Materials
• High Reflective Roofs,
Wall Insulations (non-
glazed Façades),
• Radiant Cooling,
• AC Equipment
• (VOCs),
Rain Water Collection
• High Emissivity
• Efficiency,
District Cooling,
for Irrigation,
• Materials,
Operable Windows,
Shading,
• Solar Absorption
• CFC-free Refrigerants,
• Water Efficient
• Ceiling Fans,
• Site Configuration,
Daylighting,
Cooling.
• Lighting Fixtures,
Landscaping,
• Chemical & Pollution,
• Green Roofs (Res.),
Clear Storey Windows,
• Lighting Bulbs and
Glazing Orientation,
Systems,
Recycled Water (Grey
Water),
• CO 2 Sensors,
• Roof Shapes (schools).
• Non-smoking & Smoke
Building Orientation,
• Motion Control
Sensors,
Non-desalinated Water
for AC,
Control (safety),
Glazing Area & Type,
• Noise and Acoustic
• Collecting AC Surplus
Thermal comfort,
Glazing Characteristics,
Control,
• Water,
Solar Water Heating ,
• Water Tanks (Shading
Skylights,
• Waste Treatment
& Insulation),
• Light Color External
Paints,
Swimming Pools
Plants.
• Efficient & Passive
Ventilation,
• Ventilation Systems,
(Supply air through
• Glare Control,
•Photo-sensors Devices
(Schools).
Floor or Walls) .
Clear Storey Windows
(schools & others) ,
• Landscape Lighting
• Renewable Energy
• BMS- Smart Control
Devices
• Renewable Energy • BMS- Smart Control Devices Fig.29 Mandatory and optional Green Building criteria and

Fig.29 Mandatory and optional Green Building criteria and its related groups

and optional Green Building criteria and its related groups Building Types The following 11 building types

Building Types

The following 11 building types represent 6 folds that were included in the analysis and applied to the MoPW projects:

I. Public Services

Airports and Ports Hospitals and Clinics

Sea ports and its service facilities (as presidential grants only) Buildings that are used for medical purposes and treatments including medical clinics institutions Police headquarters, facilities, centre and stations

Police facilities

II. Recreation

Leisure

Sports and recreation facilities including theaters

III. Religious

Religious

Buildings in which people gather for religious activities such as mosques (masjids)

IV. Educational

Schools Buildings that are used for academic or technical classroom instruction, such as

elementary, middle, or high schools Universities & Colleges Buildings used for academic or vocational classroom instruction, such as lecture room with the vicinities of college or university campuses as well as related facilities on campus

Training Centres

Buildings that are used for technical classroom instruction, such as training centre’s, driving and aviation, and hospitality instructions and training

V. Residential

Low-rise offices/ residences:

Villas

Buildings that are less than 10 floors and used for residential and office purposes Detached or attached residential buildings (privately owned and used)

VI. Industrial

Warehouses

Buildings used to store goods, manufactured products, merchandise, raw materials, or personal belongings (self-storage).

21 | P a g e

to store goods, manufactured products, merchandise, raw materials, or personal belongings (self-storage). 21 | P a
to store goods, manufactured products, merchandise, raw materials, or personal belongings (self-storage). 21 | P a
Green Building Guidelines (new buildings) The guidelines presented hereafter are concerned with new buildings that
Green Building Guidelines (new buildings) The guidelines presented hereafter are concerned with new buildings that

Green Building Guidelines (new buildings)

The guidelines presented hereafter are concerned with new buildings that to be handled, designed, supervised, and commissioned by The Ministry of Public Works (MoPW). These guidelines encompass more than 40 criteria in total representing 6 main groups. These elements are listed as follows:

Group I: Envelop Efficiency

1. Glazing

2. Wall Insulations (non-glazed Façades)

3. Shading

4. Glazing and Building Orientations

5. Daylighting

6. Clearstory Windows

7. Skylights: Sun-optic

8. Glare Control

9. Photo-sensors Devices

10. Light Colour External Paints

9. Photo-sensors Devices 10. Light Colour External Paints Group II: Cooling Systems 1. Under-floor Cooling/Heating 2.

Group II: Cooling Systems

1. Under-floor Cooling/Heating

2. Radiant Cooling

3. Solar Absorption Cooling

4. District Cooling

Group III: Energy Efficiency

1. Site Selection

2. Air-conditioning Efficiency

3. CFC-free Refrigerants

4. Lighting Fixtures and Lighting Bulbs

5. Motion Control Sensors

6. Solar Water Heating

7. Swimming Pools

8. Thermal Comfort (CO 2 Sensors)

9. Renewable Energy

10. BMS-Smart Control Devices and Systems

Group IV: Water Use and Efficiency

1. Water Efficient Fixtures

2. Water Efficient Landscaping

3. Recycled Water (Grey Water)

4. Condensation and Rain Water Collections

5. Non-desalinated Water for AC

Group V: Indoor Environmental Quality – IEQ

1. Operable Windows

2. Ventilation Systems and Ceiling Fans

3. Indoor Air Quality

4. Low-emitting (VOCs) Materials

5. Clean Materials and Chemical Pollutions

6. Smoking and Non-smoking Zones

7. Noise and Acoustics Controls

8. Water Tanks (shading and insulations)

Group VI: Site Heat Island

1. High Reflective Roofs (Cool roofs)

2. Site’s Materials Configuration

3. High Emissivity and Reflective Materials for Pavements

4. Roof Shapes

5. Green Roofs

Note: The following elements of the guidelines are depicted for the application to new buildings not the existing buildings.

elements of the guidelines are depicted for the application to new buildings not the existing buildings.
elements of the guidelines are depicted for the application to new buildings not the existing buildings.
Group I: Envelop Efficiency 1. Glazing 2. Wall Insulations (non-glazed Façades) 3. Shading 4. Glazing
Group I: Envelop Efficiency 1. Glazing 2. Wall Insulations (non-glazed Façades) 3. Shading 4. Glazing

Group I: Envelop Efficiency

1. Glazing

2. Wall Insulations (non-glazed Façades)

3. Shading

4. Glazing and Building Orientation

5. Daylighting

6. Clearstory Windows

7. Skylights: Sun-Optic

8. Glare Control

9. Photo-sensors Devices

10. Bright Colour External Materials and Paints

To ensure sustainability of the external envelop of a building, many issues should be considered and judged, for example, the glazing that is used for the building’s fabric must take into account the following factors:

a. Energy performance (requirements)

b. Heat gains and losses

c. Shading and sun control

d. Thermal comfort

e. Water vapour and condensation control

f. Ultraviolet control

g. Color effects

h. Daylighting

i. Visual requirements (privacy, glare, and view)

j. Acoustic control

k. Safety

As glazing is the larger portion of the building’s facades and is the part that mainly gain and lose heat quickly, the optimum choice of windows and glazing systems will predominantly depend on certain criteria, including: the building use, the local climate, utility rates, and building orientation. When considering the selection of the glazing for each façade of the building many factors and characteristics must be taken into account such as:

Window/ glazing Solar Heat Gain Coefficient/Factor

Glazing shading coefficient (SC),

Glass Visible Transmittance or Light transmission (Tv- glass or Lt-glass),

Window U-value, and

Others.

(SHGC or SHGF),

Another major element to ensure a holistic high building performance is achieved and efficiency requirements are met is daylighting. Daylighting is a system approach that should be fully addressed but natural light isn't simply a feature to be added to the design process, it is rather a central design principle that drives the entire design of buildings hence, the following should be considered:

Orientation and footprint,

Climate, region and general availability of natural light,

How Buildings use energy ,

When the window opens,

Urban vs. suburban,

Floor to floor and floor to ceiling heights,

Window to wall ratios,

Placement of glazing toplighting, sidelighting or both,

Glazing performances: SHGF, SC, U-value, and visible light transmittance,

Exterior and interior shading and solar control,

Integration with electric lighting systems: lighting power densities, controls and electric lighting design,

Reduced cooling loads via cool daylighting and energy efficient envelope and equipment,

Interior design: colour, reflectance, furniture selection, and

Floor plan; how far will daylight penetrate into deeper spaces?

The next part will highlight the green building guidelines for Group 1, Building Envelop, which is part of the short listed elements. These are 10 elements for group 1.

Group 1, Building Envelop, which is part of the short listed elements. These are 10 elements
Group 1, Building Envelop, which is part of the short listed elements. These are 10 elements
Criterion: Glazing Group: Envelop Efficiency Guideline no.: 1 Statement: All glazing areas on external
Criterion: Glazing Group: Envelop Efficiency Guideline no.: 1 Statement: All glazing areas on external

Criterion:

Glazing

Group:

Envelop Efficiency

Guideline no.:

1

Statement: All glazing areas on external façades or any exposed internal glazing of new Buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC). SHGC shall be 0.30 and max 0.37. Consequently, the Shading Coefficient (SC) shall be 0.25 – 0.30 maximum provided a Visible Light (VL) not exceeding 0.60 is achieved and LSG over 1.40 and maximum 1.80 is maintained.

Intent:

Reducing heat gain through the building’s façades to minimize cooling load and decreasing growth in peak electric generating capacity consequently, saving energy and lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types:

All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, health, recreation (leisure), educational, religious, and residential as well as Industrial (factories) except warehouses.

Specifications: Solar Heat Gain coefficient (SHGC) or often called Solar Heat Gain Factor (SHGF), the percentage of solar heat gain transmitted through the fenestration product as a whole. SHGC is function of the Shading Coefficient (SC) multiply by a constant factor (1.19). The SHGC values can range from around 0.2 to 0.8 or less depending on coatings, tinting, frame area relative to glass areas, and other factors. The lowest SHGF values are typically found in windows with Low-E coatings formulated to reduce solar gains (Refer to Appendix II).

 

a.

Ensure that glazing shall be always double-glazing with Low-E coatings on the interior of outside pane (Fig.30).

b.

Allow thermal break to eliminate thermal bridges in glazing above 40% aluminium sections.

c.

Make sure that Northern facades of buildings shall be designed for passive solar cooling and

 

have glazing with medium SHGC of 0.37 to allow for maximum VL of 0.80 and beneficial for solar heat gain in winter months (Dec. – Feb.).

 

d.

Apply SHGC of 0.30 in case the glazed facades of the building are tilted 15° to 45° from the north direction (north-east, north-west).

e.

Ensure that East and West facades receiving plenty of undesirable sun have SHGC of 0.30.

f.

Guarantee that the Shading Coefficient (SC) for glazing areas on facades oriented towards the North shall be as low as 0.25 and maximum 0.35. For facades facing East, South, and West it should be 0.25 and not to exceed 0.30.

g.

Allow for the glazed shaded lobbies of parking areas in buildings to have SHGC of 0.37 - 0.45 with SC = 0.42 and 0.48 to ensure VL of 0.6 and 0.8 respectively.

h.

Apply SHGC of 0.37 - 0.45 with SC = 0.42 and 0.48 to ensure VL of 0.6 and 0.8, and LSG of 1.60 and 1.80 respectively for glazed areas for showrooms should have.

i.

Use double glazing in open outdoors at offices building and building’s entrances or revolving ones.

j.

Ensure that the roof glazing in shopping malls, exhibitions, universities, schools and hospitals

 

, solar time in summer days.

etc

shall have partially or totally translucent to minimize solar heat gain building up during

Technical Data:

 

SHGC

SC

U-value

VL

LSG

0.30 - 0.37 (SHGC = SC x 1.19)

0.25 and not above 0.30

below 1.5 W/m 2 °K

above 0.30 but not to exceed 0.60

above 1.25 and maximum of 1.80

but not to exceed 0.60 above 1.25 and maximum of 1.80 Fig.30 Different types of Low-E
but not to exceed 0.60 above 1.25 and maximum of 1.80 Fig.30 Different types of Low-E
but not to exceed 0.60 above 1.25 and maximum of 1.80 Fig.30 Different types of Low-E
but not to exceed 0.60 above 1.25 and maximum of 1.80 Fig.30 Different types of Low-E
but not to exceed 0.60 above 1.25 and maximum of 1.80 Fig.30 Different types of Low-E
but not to exceed 0.60 above 1.25 and maximum of 1.80 Fig.30 Different types of Low-E
but not to exceed 0.60 above 1.25 and maximum of 1.80 Fig.30 Different types of Low-E

Fig.30 Different types of Low-E and solar control glazing

Image sources: www.filmcote.co.uk / www.pentagonprotection.com/ www.yourglass.com

Refer to Appendix II.

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Image sources: www.filmcote.co.uk / www.pentagonprotection.com/ www.yourglass.com Refer to Appendix II. 24 | P a g e
Image sources: www.filmcote.co.uk / www.pentagonprotection.com/ www.yourglass.com Refer to Appendix II. 24 | P a g e
Criterion: Façade‘s Wall Insulations (non-glazed) Group: Envelop efficiency Guideline No.: 2
Criterion: Façade‘s Wall Insulations (non-glazed) Group: Envelop efficiency Guideline No.: 2

Criterion:

Façade‘s Wall Insulations (non-glazed)

Group:

Envelop efficiency

Guideline No.:

2

Statement: All façades and external claddings of new buildings shall be probably insulated to meet the standards drawn in accordance to thermal insulation for energy savings. The thermal resistance (R) of the external walls and roofs shall be equal to 2.86—5.00 m 2 °K/W and the corresponding Heat Transmission Coefficient (U-value) not to exceed 0.25—0.35W/m 2 °K. Radiant barrier insulation shall be used to block 95 percent radiant heat impinging on walls.

Intent:

Reducing heat gain through the building fabric to minimize the cooling load and peak demands consequently, conserving energy, lowering carbon emissions and combat global warming.

Building Types:

All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational, religious, and residential as well as industrial (factories) except warehouses.

Specifications:

 

a. Ensure that all insulation materials are complying with ASHRAE Standards and ASTM tests.

b. Introduce the air gap cavity as an insulation medium. The air gap should be 50mm (2 inches) to make the total external wall 30cm, i.e., 12 inches (refer to Appendix III).

c. Make sure that spandrels or windows frame combining many aluminium sections to have thermal break to eliminate thermal bridges.

d. Use reflective insulations “Radiant Barrier” or “radiant chips” with a low emittance below 10 percent and high reflectance above 90 percent to block solar radiant heat flow into the buildings’ envelop.

e. Make sure the thermal insulation value of such material meet the above U-value for roof in case part of the roof is open (skylight) and Teflon is used instead of glazing.

Technical Data:

Thermal resistance (R) External Walls Roof

Heat Transmission Coefficient (U-value) External Walls Roof

Fire resistance (fire rated wall)

Types of Thermal insulation Mineral wool Packing (fire stopping) Installing building insulation Building insulation materials Super insulation R-value (insulation) Passive house Zero energy building Wool insulation

2.86 – 5.00 m 2 °K/W Equal or below 2.86 m 2 °K/W Equal or below 5.00 m 2 °K/W

0.25 – 0.35 W/m 2 °K not to exceed 0.35 W/m 2 °K not to exceed 0.25 W/m 2 °K

1-2 hrs

0.35 W/m 2 °K not to exceed 0.25 W/m 2 °K 1-2 hrs Fig.31 Different wall
0.35 W/m 2 °K not to exceed 0.25 W/m 2 °K 1-2 hrs Fig.31 Different wall
0.35 W/m 2 °K not to exceed 0.25 W/m 2 °K 1-2 hrs Fig.31 Different wall
0.35 W/m 2 °K not to exceed 0.25 W/m 2 °K 1-2 hrs Fig.31 Different wall
0.35 W/m 2 °K not to exceed 0.25 W/m 2 °K 1-2 hrs Fig.31 Different wall
0.35 W/m 2 °K not to exceed 0.25 W/m 2 °K 1-2 hrs Fig.31 Different wall

Fig.31 Different wall insulation materials

Image sources: www.fiberglass--insulation.com / www.yixinky.com

Refer to Appendix III.

25 | P a g e

materials Image sources: www.fiberglass--insulation.com / www.yixinky.com Refer to Appendix III. 25 | P a g e
materials Image sources: www.fiberglass--insulation.com / www.yixinky.com Refer to Appendix III. 25 | P a g e
Criterion: Shading Group: Envelop Efficie ncy Guideline no.: 3 Statement: Shading device s on external
Criterion:
Shading
Group:
Envelop Efficie
ncy
Guideline no.:
3
Statement:
Shading device
s on external façades or any exposed glazed areas o f new buildings shall meet the
standards dra wn in accordance to reducing Solar Heat Gain on g lazed facades. Shading devices
shall be incorp orated to provide shade and shadow to control the
these surfaces and minimize heat transmission during solar hours.
excessive sunlight impinging on
Intent:
Reducing hea
t gain through the building’s façades to minimiz e cooling load and ensure a
comfortable w orkplace, decreasing growth in peak electric gen erating capacity consequently,
saving energy and lowering carbon emissions.
Building Types:
All types of ai
r-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, r ecreation (leisure), and health,
educational, re ligious, residential and industrial.
Specifications:
a.
Ensure that
glazing areas are always shaded with shading device s (Fig.32).
b.
For glazing
on the northern facades there is no need for shad ing devices unless the building
shape is elli iptical (Fig.33).
c.
Incorporate
appropriate shading devises on Eastern and Wester n facades that receive plenty of
undesirable
direct solar radiation from the sun to minimise sol ar heat gain, especially on the
peak hours
in hot summer months, i.e., morning from 8.00 to
12.00am and afternoon from
2.00pm to
6.00pm.
d.
Add shadin g elements underneath the skylight or atrium if th ese skylights are covering the
opened roo f or atrium to control the direct sun beams and redu ce glare.
e.
Design the building to shad itself and benefit from the surroundi ngs.
f.
Use exterio r shadings to minimize heat gain during hot summer months (Fig.34, 35 & 36).
g.
Give west a nd south windows and glazed area shading priorities.
h.
Make glaze d areas on the external facades that receive solar
radiation recessed inwards to
minimise di irect heat gain in hot summer months.
i.
Install fixe d shading devices in all applications but if the bud get allows then use movable
devices to s ynchronize with the solar movement
j.
Break up o verhangs can be used for less projection.
k.
Use landsca pes to rationally provide shad/shadow on the buildin g facades.
Technical Data:
South faca des
Horizontal shading devices and elements (Fig.32)
Eastern an d western facades
vertical/horizontal (sloped ) shading devices (Fig.32)
Type
Light shelves, overhangs, h orizontal louvers, vertical
Louvers, and dynamic trac king or reflecting systems
a) Recessed glazing on South facade
b ),
c),
d) horizontal shading devices on western facades
e) landscape to provide shadow
f) Shading near glazed areas
g) vertical
devices
h) shading entrances
i) shading devices: skyligh t
j) internal louvers for shading
Fig.32 Differen t types of shading devices for shading glazed areas and buil ding facades
Images source: Authors

26 | P a g e

Fig.33 Shading devices on an elliptical shape to control heat gain from east and west
Fig.33 Shading devices on an elliptical shape to control heat gain from east and west
Fig.33 Shading devices on an elliptical shape to control heat gain from east and west

Fig.33 Shading devices on an elliptical shape to control heat gain from east and west directions

Images source: Authors

gain from east and west directions Images source: Authors Fig.34 Types of external light shelves for
gain from east and west directions Images source: Authors Fig.34 Types of external light shelves for
gain from east and west directions Images source: Authors Fig.34 Types of external light shelves for
gain from east and west directions Images source: Authors Fig.34 Types of external light shelves for
gain from east and west directions Images source: Authors Fig.34 Types of external light shelves for
gain from east and west directions Images source: Authors Fig.34 Types of external light shelves for

Fig.34 Types of external light shelves for shading

Images source: Authors

www.chicagogreenworks.com

www.ksarchitects.com/ www.yourenergyoptions.com

www.ksarchitects.com/ www.yourenergyoptions.com Fig.35 Shading devises and light shelves to ensure maximize
www.ksarchitects.com/ www.yourenergyoptions.com Fig.35 Shading devises and light shelves to ensure maximize
www.ksarchitects.com/ www.yourenergyoptions.com Fig.35 Shading devises and light shelves to ensure maximize
www.ksarchitects.com/ www.yourenergyoptions.com Fig.35 Shading devises and light shelves to ensure maximize
www.ksarchitects.com/ www.yourenergyoptions.com Fig.35 Shading devises and light shelves to ensure maximize
www.ksarchitects.com/ www.yourenergyoptions.com Fig.35 Shading devises and light shelves to ensure maximize

Fig.35 Shading devises and light shelves to ensure maximize shading and ensure adequate daylighting Centre for Disease Control (CDC) Arlen Spectre Headquarters and Emergency Operations Centre in Atlanta

Image source: www.aia.org

Operations Centre in Atlanta Image source: www.aia.org Fig.36 Shading and light shelves to provide shading enhance
Operations Centre in Atlanta Image source: www.aia.org Fig.36 Shading and light shelves to provide shading enhance
Operations Centre in Atlanta Image source: www.aia.org Fig.36 Shading and light shelves to provide shading enhance
Operations Centre in Atlanta Image source: www.aia.org Fig.36 Shading and light shelves to provide shading enhance

Fig.36 Shading and light shelves to provide shading enhance natural daylighting and save energy

Images Source: www.hku.hk

and light shelves to provide shading enhance natural daylighting and save energy Images Source: www.hku.hk 27
and light shelves to provide shading enhance natural daylighting and save energy Images Source: www.hku.hk 27
and light shelves to provide shading enhance natural daylighting and save energy Images Source: www.hku.hk 27
and light shelves to provide shading enhance natural daylighting and save energy Images Source: www.hku.hk 27
and light shelves to provide shading enhance natural daylighting and save energy Images Source: www.hku.hk 27
and light shelves to provide shading enhance natural daylighting and save energy Images Source: www.hku.hk 27
and light shelves to provide shading enhance natural daylighting and save energy Images Source: www.hku.hk 27
Criterion: Glazing and Building Orientations Group: Envelop Efficiency Guideline no.: 4 Statement: All
Criterion: Glazing and Building Orientations Group: Envelop Efficiency Guideline no.: 4 Statement: All

Criterion:

Glazing and Building Orientations

Group:

Envelop Efficiency

Guideline no.:

4

Statement: All new buildings shall be properly oriented to benefit from the correct site directions to minimise heat gain into the building fabric, maximize the benefit for natural light, and allow for good cross- ventilation plus solar capturing in case PV panels to be installed on the building facades. Large glazed facades shall first benefit from the Northern direction and be minimized on Eastern and Western facades.

direction and be minimized on Eastern and Western facades. Intent: Reducing heat gain through the building’s

Intent:

Reducing heat gain through the building’s façades to minimize cooling load and decreasing growth in peak electric generating capacity consequently, saving energy and lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types:

All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health, educational, religious, and residential as well as industrial.

Specifications:

 

a. Maximize the site's potentiality to achieve the best possible climate orientation for new buildings in hot dry and hot humid climates such as of the UAE.

b. Give orientation the priority to exclude the sun year-round and maximize the exposure to cooling breezes when possible in hot humid and hot dry climates with few heating requirements.

c. Align new buildings towards the East-West axis where windows face either north or south directly so that glazed areas and facades, receive maximum hot morning and afternoon sun radiation.

d. Design new buildings with large Northern windows to take in cool, diffuse North light.

e. Minimize the height of the window on the South side (strip windows work well), and shade the window from direct sunlight. When the sun is high in the South sky, a canopy or a tree makes an excellent sunshade.

f. Minimize windows on East-West, especially west-facing windows; due to the sun is low in the morning and evening and perpendicular on theses facades, creating a lot of glare and excessive solar heat gain.

g. Ensure that the optimum directional orientation is given. This depends on the site specific factors and local landscape features such as trees, hills, or other buildings that may shade the space during certain times of the day.

h. Align new buildings North side of the new buildings to capture direct sunlight in winter months (Dec. – Feb.) when the sun is in the Northern sky, permitting windows to create passive indoor heating when needed.

i. Give orientation of buildings with rectangular shapes (long axis) towards East-West, so the walls facing these directions receive less direct sun radiation in the summer months. Nonetheless, passive solar heat gain occurs on the south side of the building in winter months (Dec. – Feb.).

j. Incorporate PV panels on the main and lager building facades of new buildings. This should be oriented on South-facing facades within 30 o to the East or West of true South to provide around 90 percent of the maximum static solar collection potential.

k. Locate larger glazing areas on the Northern facades to reduce heat gain hence, cooling loads.

l. Give proper orientation to large glazing areas to reduce the solar heat gain during solar time and maximize cooling during comfortable months (November – April).

m. In case the site, urban sittings or municipal plot direction, is not correctly placed towards North or South then the direction of the building shall take advantage from the best direction.

Technical Data:

For North-South sites on the South axis of the street it should be wide enough to allow for an entry at the front as well as private North-facing spaces. Set new buildings back to accommodate a North-facing garden or trees (Fig. 37).

Sites along the North-South direction are the best solution due to good access to Northern sun yet have minimum potential for overshadowing by adjacent buildings. In summer, nearby buildings provide protection from low East and West sun.

by adjacent buildings. In summer, nearby buildings provide protection from low East and West sun. 28
by adjacent buildings. In summer, nearby buildings provide protection from low East and West sun. 28
• Sites running East-West should be wide enough to accommodate North-facing outdoor space. Overshadowing by
• Sites running East-West should be wide enough to accommodate North-facing outdoor space. Overshadowing by

Sites running East-West should be wide enough to accommodate North-facing outdoor space. Overshadowing by nearby buildings is more likely to occur on these sites.

North is the best direction to locate windows, living areas, and large office spaces. If the view is to the south avoid large areas of glass so that heat gain is minimized. West-facing or East- facing glazed facades will create overheating in summer months if not properly shaded.

create overheating in summer months if not properly shaded. Fig.37 Site subdivision with predominantly North and
create overheating in summer months if not properly shaded. Fig.37 Site subdivision with predominantly North and

Fig.37 Site subdivision with predominantly North and South facing orientation

Image source: www1.eere.energy.gov

South facing orientation Image source: www1.eere.energy.gov • In case the site is having a poor orientation

In case the site is having a poor orientation or limited solar access due to constraints; urban settings and regulations, an energy efficient building is still achievable through careful design.

In hot dry climates Surface to Volume ratio (S: V) should be kept low to minimize heat gain

(Fig.38).

Trees orientation on sites: Shade to the South-West and West is very important for blocking peak solar gain in late afternoon summer. Ensure that trees are located less than 30ft from the building to maximize shading on building surfaces (Fig.39).

building to maximize shading on building surfaces (Fig.39). a) Example of minimum and maximum shape V/S
building to maximize shading on building surfaces (Fig.39). a) Example of minimum and maximum shape V/S
building to maximize shading on building surfaces (Fig.39). a) Example of minimum and maximum shape V/S

a) Example of minimum and maximum shape V/S Ratio

b) Relationship between Volume to Surface Ratio

Fig.38 Impact of Volume to Surface Ratio (V/S) on heat gain

Image source: www.learn.londonmet.ac.uk)

on heat gain Image source: www.learn.londonmet.ac.uk ) Fig.39 Site running East-West with a building facing
on heat gain Image source: www.learn.londonmet.ac.uk ) Fig.39 Site running East-West with a building facing
on heat gain Image source: www.learn.londonmet.ac.uk ) Fig.39 Site running East-West with a building facing

Fig.39 Site running East-West with a building facing North-South and landscape orientation

Image source: www1.eere.energy.gov/ www.fsec.ucf.edu

building facing North-South and landscape orientation Image source: www1.eere.energy.gov/ www.fsec.ucf.edu 29 | P a g e
building facing North-South and landscape orientation Image source: www1.eere.energy.gov/ www.fsec.ucf.edu 29 | P a g e
Criterion: Daylighting Group: Envelop Efficiency Guideline no.: 5 Statement: All spaces in new buildings
Criterion: Daylighting Group: Envelop Efficiency Guideline no.: 5 Statement: All spaces in new buildings

Criterion:

Daylighting

Group:

Envelop Efficiency

Guideline no.:

5

Statement: All spaces in new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to Daylighting provision. Glazing areas on external façades shall be selected to ensure good provision and distribution of Daylighting. Internal spaces in new buildings should be exposed to sunlight; enough to make these spaces healthier and meet sunlight and daylight requirements for health standards. At least 70 percent of the floor areas should have daylight well distributed across to allow occupants to effectively perform their activity inside buildings.

Intent: Reducing the building’s electrical energy consumption and decreasing growth in peak electric generating capacity consequently, saving energy and lowering carbon emissions. In addition, maximizing occupant productivity and reducing possible cases of building-related illnesses, thus, significantly improve life-cycle cost and reducing operating costs.

Building Types:

All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health, educational, religious, and residential as well as industrial including factories and warehouses.

Specifications:

General

a.

Sunlight transmitted through building facades for health requirements

Ensure building’s spaces to receive sunlight beam for at minimum of an hour in 90 percent of all residential spaces and 80 percent of other building types;

Use Sun-optics skylight system on building's roof to control the direct Solar Heat Gain (SHG) from the sun.

b.

Daylight Factor (DF)

Achieve the minimum Daylight Illumination Level (DIL) of 275 Lux (27 Fc), an equivalent to 3 on work stations.

c.

Daylight distribution:

Distribute light to illuminate a minimum of 70 percent on each regular occupied floor area;

Achieve a minimum Glazing Factor of at least 3 percent in 70 percent of all occupied areas.

Specific

d.

Ensure that at least 70 percent or more of the floor area shall be designed to receive natural daylight and ensure good distribution especially, deeper spaces. This is to reduce the human

eye adjustments to high levels of luminance due to even distribution (by and large, better lighting quality can be provided if light is reaching a task indirectly such as that bounced from a white walls, i.e., directly from a natural or artificial source).

e.

Increase perimeter daylight zones — extend the perimeter footprint to maximize the usable Daylighting area.

f.

Maximize the use of toplighting and reduce sidelighting to ensure good distribution.

g.

Allow daylight penetration high in the building’s spaces. Windows located high in a wall or in roof monitors and clerestories will result in deeper light penetration and reduce the likelihood of excessive brightness.

h.

Make sure that daylight is reflected within a space to increase room brightness. Light shelves, if properly designed, should have the potential to increase room brightness and decrease window brightness.

i.

Use different building orientations to benefit from different Daylighting strategies; for example, light shelves which are effective on south façades shall be used though are ineffective on the eastern or western facades.

j.

Incorporate slope ceilings to direct more light into spaces. Sloping the ceiling away from the fenestration area will help in further increasing the surface brightness of the ceiling.

k.

Avoid direct beam daylight on critical visual tasks. Poor visibility and discomfort will result if excessive brightness differences occur in the vicinity of critical visual tasks.

l.

Filter daylight before entering. The harshness of direct light can be filtered by vegetation, curtains, louvers, or the like, and will also help distribute light.

m.

Incorporate daylight technologies such as light tracking skylights, translucent light wells and

prismatic glazing, etc sunlight or daylight.

,

to daylight provision for spaces that by-product, aren’t receiving

glazing, etc sunlight or daylight. , to daylight provision for spaces that by-product, aren’t receiving 30
glazing, etc sunlight or daylight. , to daylight provision for spaces that by-product, aren’t receiving 30
n. Isolated spaces, with smaller windows and internal corridors shall have daylighting technologies incorporated to
n. Isolated spaces, with smaller windows and internal corridors shall have daylighting technologies incorporated to

n. Isolated spaces, with smaller windows and internal corridors shall have daylighting technologies incorporated to capture natural light during the day, such as light wells (ducts) and light shelves to boost and increase the daylight environments.

o. Incorporate light shelves, light wells, and roof light trackers to capture daylight.

p. Use the building’s north and south facades for daylight strategy to achieve best daylight direction and application and avoid the use of eastern and western direction (Fig.40).

Technical Data:

Daylight deeper penetration into the building spaces. The depth of the room is not less than about two and one-half times (2 ½) the distance between the top of a window and the sill.

Keep reflectance of the building spaces at the following values to significantly impact daylight performance:

Ceiling

over 80 percent

Wall

above 50 percent

Floors

around 20 percent

Wall above 50 percent Floors around 20 percent Fig.40 Direction where Daylighting should be best utilized
Wall above 50 percent Floors around 20 percent Fig.40 Direction where Daylighting should be best utilized

Fig.40 Direction where Daylighting should be best utilized

Fig.40 Direction where Daylighting should be best utilized a) 6x6 skylight to illuminate a1000 Sq.ft a

a) 6x6 skylight to illuminate a1000 Sq.ft a 50FC+ fc for an 8 hr Daylighting

to illuminate a1000 Sq.ft a 50FC+ fc for an 8 hr Daylighting b) section through the

b) section through the skylight

fc for an 8 hr Daylighting b) section through the skylight b) 4x8 fixture to illuminate

b) 4x8 fixture to illuminate a 1200 Sq.ft a 50FC+ fc for an 8 hr Daylighting

Fig.41 Types of skylights used in building

8 hr Daylighting Fig.41 Types of skylights used in building a) Shilton school, WN- USA b)

a) Shilton school, WN- USA

of skylights used in building a) Shilton school, WN- USA b) Light shelves c) cool daylighting
of skylights used in building a) Shilton school, WN- USA b) Light shelves c) cool daylighting

b) Light shelves

c) cool daylighting

Shilton school, WN- USA b) Light shelves c) cool daylighting d) internal light shelves Images source:

d) internal light shelves

Images source: www.daylighting.org

internal light shelves Images source: www.daylighting.org e) High windows f) Atrium with top light shelves g)
internal light shelves Images source: www.daylighting.org e) High windows f) Atrium with top light shelves g)
internal light shelves Images source: www.daylighting.org e) High windows f) Atrium with top light shelves g)
internal light shelves Images source: www.daylighting.org e) High windows f) Atrium with top light shelves g)
internal light shelves Images source: www.daylighting.org e) High windows f) Atrium with top light shelves g)
internal light shelves Images source: www.daylighting.org e) High windows f) Atrium with top light shelves g)

e) High windows

f) Atrium with top light shelves

g) high window

h) landscape to filter daylight

i) side light shelves

Fig.42 Daylighting techniques in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting

Images source: www.metaefficient.com

www.nrel.gov

in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting Images source: www.metaefficient.com www.nrel.gov 31 | P a
in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting Images source: www.metaefficient.com www.nrel.gov 31 | P a
Fig.43 Daylighting techniques (light wells) in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting www.i.treehugger.com
Fig.43 Daylighting techniques (light wells) in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting www.i.treehugger.com
Fig.43 Daylighting techniques (light wells) in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting www.i.treehugger.com
Fig.43 Daylighting techniques (light wells) in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting www.i.treehugger.com
Fig.43 Daylighting techniques (light wells) in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting www.i.treehugger.com
Fig.43 Daylighting techniques (light wells) in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting www.i.treehugger.com
Fig.43 Daylighting techniques (light wells) in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting www.i.treehugger.com

Fig.43 Daylighting techniques (light wells) in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting

www.i.treehugger.com

www.lotuslive.org

www.archrecord.construction.com

www.hcgsinc.com

www.archrecord.construction.com www.hcgsinc.com a) External light shelves b) lights helves covering a facade
www.archrecord.construction.com www.hcgsinc.com a) External light shelves b) lights helves covering a facade
www.archrecord.construction.com www.hcgsinc.com a) External light shelves b) lights helves covering a facade
www.archrecord.construction.com www.hcgsinc.com a) External light shelves b) lights helves covering a facade
www.archrecord.construction.com www.hcgsinc.com a) External light shelves b) lights helves covering a facade
www.archrecord.construction.com www.hcgsinc.com a) External light shelves b) lights helves covering a facade

a) External light shelves

b) lights helves covering a facade

c) Vertical light shelves and light wells at Stittsville Public School

www.wyomingbuildingscience.com www.timgriffithphotographer.com

www.designshare.com

www.timgriffithphotographer.com www.designshare.com d) Light shelves, the Univ. of Washington Images Source:

d) Light shelves, the Univ. of Washington Images Source: www.ga.wa.gov

the Univ. of Washington Images Source: www.ga.wa.gov e) External light shelves with long windows www.leebey.com

e) External light shelves with long windows www.leebey.com

e) External light shelves with long windows www.leebey.com f) EPA facades: External Light shelves www.epa.gov g)

f) EPA facades: External Light shelves www.epa.gov

f) EPA facades: External Light shelves www.epa.gov g) Phoenix City Hall Fig.44 Daylighting techniques (light

g) Phoenix City Hall

Fig.44 Daylighting techniques (light shelves) in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting

www.sanvanahtrims.com

to create natural and cool daylighting www.sanvanahtrims.com • Ensure typical daylight factors for various spaces are

Ensure typical daylight factors for various spaces are kept according to DF shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Typical Daylight Factor (DF) in relation to buildings’ spaces and functions

Space Type and function

Daylight Factor (DF)

Discussion Groups

14

Residential Living Room

1

Residential Kitchen

2

Office - detail work

4

Office – drafting

6

Office – corridors

1

Schools - classrooms

2

Schools - art rooms

4

Hospitals - wards

1

Hospitals - waiting rooms

2

Sports facilities

2

Warehouse - bulk storage

0.5-1

Warehouse - medium size storage

1

Warehouse - small item storage

2

Source: Daylight in Architecture, a European Reference Book, James & James, UK, 1998.

item storage 2 Source: Daylight in Architecture, a European Reference Book, James & James, UK, 1998.
item storage 2 Source: Daylight in Architecture, a European Reference Book, James & James, UK, 1998.
Criterion: Clearstory Windows Group: Envelop Efficiency Guideline no.: 6 Statement: New buildings shall
Criterion: Clearstory Windows Group: Envelop Efficiency Guideline no.: 6 Statement: New buildings shall

Criterion:

Clearstory Windows

Group:

Envelop Efficiency

Guideline no.:

6

Statement: New buildings shall incorporate clearstory windows to maximize the use of natural daylight into
Statement:
New buildings shall incorporate clearstory windows to
maximize the use of natural daylight into internal spaces
and minimise the dependency on electrical lighting during
the day.
Clearstory windows shall be properly placed and oriented
to reduce the solar heat gain during solar time, maximize
daylight and sunlight – in the early morning hours – and
perhaps, provide ventilation when needed to circulate the
air inside buildings during comfortable months (November
to April).
Fig.45 A clearstory window
Image source:blog.seattlepi.nwsource.

Intent: Increasing the penetration of Daylighting into building spaces and lessening the incoming glare. In addition, reducing the heat gain through the buildings’ fabric that minimize the cooling loads and growth in peak electric generating capacity, resulting in improving IAQ, saving energy, and lowering carbon emissions.

improving IAQ, saving energy, and lowering carbon emissions. Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in

Building Types:

All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health, educational, religious, and residential as well as industrial (factories and warehouses).

Specifications:

 

a. Encourage side or inclined clearstory windows on areas that receive less direct solar beams or reflected radiation, i.e., on Western facades.

b. Locate clearstory windows mainly on the Northern facades to reduce heat gain hence, cooling loads.

c. Ensure clearstory windows are installed with glazing at the same specifications according to the facades orientation as per the specifications listed for Criterion 1: Glazing.

d. Make sure the glazed areas and roofs of the public buildings, schools, health care centres and hospitals, as well as factories and residential buildings have clearstory windows installed to attract daylight and direct daylight inward.

e. Guarantee that deeper spaces in buildings are provided with clearstory windows as much as possible to attract daylighting and distribute it evenly well across the floor space.

f. Allow for natural ventilation through clearstory windows to encourage cross ventilation in winter months and cool days specially when air temperature outside is below 25 deg C.

g. Provide vertically elongated (height to width is larger) clearstory windows especially, in deeper rooms and spaces to grantee proviso nod daylighting thus, better performance.

h. Permit for the sunlight to penetrate into the buildings’ spaces through installing clearstory windows, especially in residential units and villas when the sun is at low angle and at least for an hour daily to ensure health requirements are met.

Technical Data:

Clearstory windows to face the Northern or South directions only; and

Low-emissivity (Low-E) glazing must be used in clearstory windows.

(Low-E) glazing must be used in clearstory windows. Fig.46 Different vertical and horizontal types and styles
(Low-E) glazing must be used in clearstory windows. Fig.46 Different vertical and horizontal types and styles
(Low-E) glazing must be used in clearstory windows. Fig.46 Different vertical and horizontal types and styles
(Low-E) glazing must be used in clearstory windows. Fig.46 Different vertical and horizontal types and styles
(Low-E) glazing must be used in clearstory windows. Fig.46 Different vertical and horizontal types and styles
(Low-E) glazing must be used in clearstory windows. Fig.46 Different vertical and horizontal types and styles
(Low-E) glazing must be used in clearstory windows. Fig.46 Different vertical and horizontal types and styles

Fig.46 Different vertical and horizontal types and styles of clearstory windows

Image source: www.betterbuilding

blog.oregonlive.com

eccdom.blogspot.com

www.architectureweek.com

windows Image source: www.betterbuilding blog.oregonlive.com eccdom.blogspot.com www.architectureweek.com 33 | P a g e
windows Image source: www.betterbuilding blog.oregonlive.com eccdom.blogspot.com www.architectureweek.com 33 | P a g e
Criterion: Skylights: Sun-optic Group: Envelop Efficie ncy Guideline no.: 7 Statement: New building s hall
Criterion:
Skylights: Sun-optic
Group:
Envelop Efficie
ncy
Guideline no.:
7
Statement:
New building s
hall be equipped with sun-optics skylights to contro l the direct radiation impinging
on the buildin gs’ spaces and the use of electrical light inside buildin gs that result in minimising the
dependency o n the use of electrical energy during solar time.
Intent:
Reducing hea
t gain through the building’s façades and roofs t o minimize cooling load and
decreasing gro wth in peak electric generating capacity conseque ntly, reducing operation costs,
saving energy and lowering carbon emissions. In addition, help in
providing adequate Daylighting
when needed
especially, in schools and hospitals.
Building Types:
All types of a
ir-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services , recreation (leisure), health,
educational, re ligious and residential as well as industrial (factories and warehouses).
Specifications:
a. Design buil dings’ roofs to cater for the installation of sun-optic s kylights so that the distribution
of daylight is increased and the demand on electrical power is re duced.
b. Incorporate
the sun-optic skylights to catch up to 30 percent
more light transmission at low
sun angles according to appropriate hours of buildings’ operatio n hours.
c. Install Sun- optic's Skylight prisms to refract the sunlight into m cro light beams, spreading the
natural ligh t throughout the building spaces without allowing
direct sunlight (UV) to damage
interiors/fu rniture, i.e., free from "hot spots”.
d. Choose Sun -optics system that lead to lights off 70 - 80 percent
of the time, with less AC.
e. Design and
install skylights to carry a minimum 30psf tributary roof load or greater per site as
specified in the current International Building Code (IBC).
Technical Data:
• Sun-optic s kylight glazing materials must have a max. Light
maximizes the shading factor and diffusing qualities of glazing;
distribution characteristic that
nd minimum haze factor of 90
percent or greater according to ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Per-addendu m D.
• The combin ed inner/outer lens
target values shall be:
Light Tr ansmittance: minimum 68 - 100 percent Class 1 & Cla ss 3* Acrylic outer dome.
Light Tr ansmittance: minimum 60 percent; clear Polycarbona te (LEXAN SLX).
Diffusio n / Haze Factor: minimum 100 percent.
U-value : 0.82 or lower (glazing and framing) in accordance
skylight " default requirements of ASHRAE 90.1 – 2004.
with NFRC 100 or "unlabeled
• For roof-lig ht glazing the U-values for a 12mm air space shall be as follows:
Double glazed 12mm glass 1.9 or Double glazed 12mm Argon filled glass 1.6
U-value s are rounded to the nearest 0.1W/m²K. Lower U -values mean better the heat
retentio n. (Refer to Pilkington K glass thickness, 4mm).
a) Sun-optics Skylights with louvers at a school, USA
b) Sun-optic skylight of an audit
rium at Univ. of Oregon
Fig.47 Use of skylight s to Control the sunlight and provide daylight in schools to s ave energy
a) A classroom at 8.00am
b) At 10.00am
c) At 3.00pm
d) at 4.00pm
Fig.48 Control the operatio n costs by using sun-optic skylights to minimize heat gain a nd save energy
Image sources: St Francis High School

34 | P a g e

Criterion: Glare Con trol Group: Envelop Efficie ncy Guideline no.: 8 Statement: All spaces of
Criterion:
Glare Con trol
Group:
Envelop Efficie
ncy
Guideline no.:
8
Statement:
All spaces of n
ew buildings shall be provided with a sensible brigh tness and meet glare index to
avoid both dis ability and discomfort glare. All external façades, wi ndows, and the reflectance of
interior materi als shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to f ree glare environments.
Intent:
Reducing unw
anted brightness, visual discomfort and heat gain t hrough the building’s façades.
Also, minimizi ing cooling load and decreasing growth in peak
electric generating capacity
consequently, achieving comfort, saving energy and lowering Carbo n emissions.
Building Types:
All types of a
ir-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services , recreation (Leisure), health,
educational, re ligious, residential and industrial including factories.
Specifications:
a. the size and brightness of the visible patch of sky a nd by increasing the interior
by the judicious use of surface areas of high reflecta nce.
Cut down
brightness
b. Control en try of direct sun beams and combine natural light wit h artificial light.
c. Make sur e the light coming from the source inside the buildi ng is equal or higher than that
coming fr om outside (windows) to provide less exposure to
such conditions; and reduce
possibility of having headaches and eye fatigue.
d. Ensure ref lections from objects within the room are controlled to minimise glare.
e. Select win dows with less bright factor in comparison with the r oom surfaces.
f. Make sure
that building’s spaces are brighter; to better match t he windows’ brightness.
g. Ensure ele ments of landscape (trees) are placed in front of larg e windows or glazed facades to
reduce dis comfort glare.
h. Ensure po stures especially, computer screens on working plan e inside buildings are designed
to avoid st rains in relation to the VDU to avoid glare.
i. Integrate i ndirect natural lighting systems that prevent overhea ting and glare.
j. Consider i ntegrating Photovoltaics into large south glazing area s to reduce glare.
k. Apply ligh t shelves on windows facing South at about head hei ght, highly reflective ceilings,
and light-c oloured interior surfaces.
l. Ensure th at roof glazing or clearstory windows in com
mercial buildings, exhibitions,
universitie s, schools and hospitals, etc., shall be partially or t otally translucent to minimize
solar heat gain and glare building up during solar time in summ er days.
Technical Data:
• Lighting l evels in building should be are between 200 an d 400 cd/m 2 (cd=candela) in
conjunctio n with Lux levels (ambient light) of 500 and 600 are c reated to avoid glare.
• A shading system that delivers a light transmission (T65) should
be of 3 percent or less.
Images source: www.lbwcarpe ntryandupvc.co.ukwww.treehugger.com/ www.buildingdesign.co. uk/www.metaefficient.com/
www.dca.state.ga.us/www.agsinc.org
Fig.49 Different types of solutions to reduce or avoid glare
Images source: www.agsinc.org/ greenlineblog.com/ Authors

35 | P a g e

Criterion: Photosens ors Group: Envelop Efficie ncy Guideline no.: 9 Statement: New building shall be
Criterion:
Photosens ors
Group:
Envelop Efficie
ncy
Guideline no.:
9
Statement:
New building
shall be equipped with Photosensors devices to co ntrol the use of electrical light
inside building s, when these spaces are not in use so that energy c ould be conserved by switching
off or dimming g the electric lights. This would be also done when th e building spaces are naturally
illuminated an d lighting output is not required. Photosensors
shall be properly installed to
contribute tow ards reducing energy consumption, especially after w orking hours.
Intent:
Reducing cool
ing load, providing comfort and decreasing growt h in peak electric generating
capacity conse quently, and saving energy and lowering carbon emis sions.
Building Types:
All types of
educational,
a
ir-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services , recreation (Leisure), health,
religious,
residential
except
villas
and
industrial
including factories but not
warehouses.
Specifications:
a. Place and a rrange for the Photosensors to be on the ceiling of ro oms and receive light from the
work plane (desk) below, as well as other room surfaces.
b. Ensure that t Photosensors are not installed in front of areas Fire
exit and in spaces of frequent
use such as elevators lobby on ground floor and building entr’ac te to avoid visual disturbances
c. Position P hotosensors above the operating desks (known a s work plane) to ensure no
interferenc e of activities with its function.
d. Avoid locat ing the Photosensors in part of the deeper space or r oom with smaller windows that
cannot sen se Daylighting.
e. Make sure that photosensors are position at the right places, a djacent place near the door of
the space a nd can tract the light from the window to effectively operate.
Technical Data:
• Inside the b uilding, use a closed-loop system where a photosens or is mounted on the ceiling of
the room w here the electric lighting is being controlled.
• Outside th e building, exploit open-loop system where a ph otosensor is mounted on the
outside of a
building that controls the electric light level inside th e building.
• At 20 perce nt dim level, the energy savings is approximately 60
percent compared to operating
the lamp at full power.
• Ballasts tha at dim lamps down to less than 5 percent light ou tput have a maximum energy
savings of a bout 80 percent compared to full light output operat ion.
Fig.50 Typ es of Photosensors to control the use of electrical light in b uildings
Image source: lighting research centre - www.lrc.rpi.edu
Fig.51 Examples of Photosensors inside buildings
Photos Credit: Authors
Refer to Appendix IV.

36 | P a g e

Criterion: Light Colour Materials Group: Envelop Efficiency Guideline no.: 10 Statement: All external
Criterion: Light Colour Materials Group: Envelop Efficiency Guideline no.: 10 Statement: All external

Criterion:

Light Colour Materials

Group:

Envelop Efficiency

Guideline no.:

10

Statement: All external materials on new building facades shall be highly reflective with high emissivity index to reduce heat gain and transmission through the building envelop. All materials used for cladding and painting the external fabric of buildings and facades shall comply with heat reduction requirements and standards to reduce the heat gain during solar months.

Intent:

Reducing heat gain through the building’s façades to minimizing cooling load and decreasing growth in peak electric generating capacity consequently, saving energy and lowering carbon

emissions.

Building Types:

All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health, educational, religious, and residential, as well as industrials and warehouses (industrial).

Specifications:

a. Apply reflective material on building facades to reduce heat gain in hot summer months.

b. Ensure that only light or white or bright colour are applied on the building finish materials

c. Eliminate dark colours from being used in external buildings facades to minimise rate of absorbed heat.

d. Use water-based paints, finishes and sealants and perhaps, some milk-based paints for external envelop applications.

e. Install cladding on building facades with light colours.

f. Avoid using dark colour cladding material s on the external fabric to reflect offset heat gain.

g. Use paint on the external facades with thermal shield characteristics to reduce heat absorption and reduce the transmission of heat conducted into the inter layers of the building fabric.

h. Use external paints that are made of an eco-friendly base to avoid harming the environment.

Technical Data:

Reflectance index should be 0.90 -0.95.

Absorption index should be 0.1 or less.

be 0.90 -0.95. • Absorption index should be 0.1 or less. Fig.52 Examples of light and
be 0.90 -0.95. • Absorption index should be 0.1 or less. Fig.52 Examples of light and
be 0.90 -0.95. • Absorption index should be 0.1 or less. Fig.52 Examples of light and
be 0.90 -0.95. • Absorption index should be 0.1 or less. Fig.52 Examples of light and

Fig.52 Examples of light and white colour external finishes materials

Image source: Author

colour external finishes materials Image source: Author Fig.53 Examples of dark colour external claddings and roof
colour external finishes materials Image source: Author Fig.53 Examples of dark colour external claddings and roof
colour external finishes materials Image source: Author Fig.53 Examples of dark colour external claddings and roof
colour external finishes materials Image source: Author Fig.53 Examples of dark colour external claddings and roof

Fig.53 Examples of dark colour external claddings and roof finishes

Image source: Author

source: Author Fig.53 Examples of dark colour external claddings and roof finishes Image source: Author 37
source: Author Fig.53 Examples of dark colour external claddings and roof finishes Image source: Author 37
source: Author Fig.53 Examples of dark colour external claddings and roof finishes Image source: Author 37
Group II: Cooling Systems Mandatory: 1. Under-floor Cooling/Heating 2. Radiant Cooling Optional: 3. Solar Absorption
Group II: Cooling Systems Mandatory: 1. Under-floor Cooling/Heating 2. Radiant Cooling Optional: 3. Solar Absorption

Group II: Cooling Systems

Mandatory:

1. Under-floor Cooling/Heating

2. Radiant Cooling

Optional:

3. Solar Absorption Cooling

4. District Cooling

To ensure sustainability of the cooling systems for resources management, energy use, water, sub-systems and their applied techniques in buildings, many issues ought to be considered and judged. For example, Under-floor Cooling (UFC) or Radiant Cooling (RC), and its’ operation management in buildings should take into account the following factors:

in buildings should take into account the following factors: a. Size and space cooling b. Type

a. Size and space cooling

b. Type of spaces

c. Cooling time and peak loads

d. Peak demands requirements

e. Off-peak and peak demands rates

f. Installation and operation

g. Cost effectiveness

h. Total loads

and operation g. Cost effectiveness h. Total loads As cooling in hot and humid climates is

As cooling in hot and humid climates is a prime element required to make the indoor spaces liveable and comfortable, energy demands and peak load demands in buildings are the larger portion of the electricity supply. It is estimated that in such harsh climate up to 70 percent of the electrical energy is consumed for cooling. Thus, it must be conserved.

To lower the Air Conditioning, Heating and Ventilation loads, cooling system such as Under-floor Cooling, Radiant Cooling, and their appropriate selection shall be adopted and utilized. Also, the use of District Cooling (DC) should be encouraged and provided as the main source of cooling buildings in areas where DC generation stations are available.

in areas where DC generation stations are available. Hence, the choice of efficient system and type

Hence, the choice of efficient system and type of cooling will mainly depend on many factors including building type, local climate, utility rates, building size and occupants’ activities as well as hours of building’s use. When considering the selection of the above factors, four key indicators must be taken into account:

Energy consumption per sq. ft.,

Peak-demands,

Saving targets, and

Carbon emission.

Peak-demands, • Saving targets, and • Carbon emission. The next part will highlight the Green Building

The next part will highlight the Green Building Guidelines for Group 2, Cooling Systems, which is part of the short listed elements. These include 4 elements: 2 are mandatory; and 2 optional.

which is part of the short listed elements. These include 4 elements: 2 are mandatory; and
which is part of the short listed elements. These include 4 elements: 2 are mandatory; and
which is part of the short listed elements. These include 4 elements: 2 are mandatory; and
which is part of the short listed elements. These include 4 elements: 2 are mandatory; and
which is part of the short listed elements. These include 4 elements: 2 are mandatory; and
Criterion: Under-floor Cooling/Heating Group: Cooling Systems Criterion No.: 1 Statement: All space
Criterion: Under-floor Cooling/Heating Group: Cooling Systems Criterion No.: 1 Statement: All space

Criterion:

Under-floor Cooling/Heating

Group:

Cooling Systems

Criterion No.:

1

Statement: All space cooling and systems in new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to cooling systems and meet the cooling demands and effectively supply cool air into buildings’ spaces.

Intent: Distribute the cool air evenly, lowering energy use in buildings. In addition, reduce cooling peak- demands consequently, reducing electricity use and energy consumption needed in the desalination process hence, lowering Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, health, educational, religious and industrial except recreation (leisure) and small residential.

Specifications:

 

The Under-floor cooling and heating system is a unique combination of highly efficient inverter driven compressor and variable set point temperature capability that allows the system to match

its output precisely to the actual cooling/heating demands of the building. To make it a complete system, the following should be considered:

System A

a. Use Under-floor cooling system to manage cold air and ensure it effective distribution.

b. Ensure heat pump technology is incorporated into the cooling system to represent a flexible and cost effective substitute to a fossil fuel boiler, with a cooling and sanitary warm water option. The inherent energy efficiency characteristics make it an ideal solution to reduce energy consumption, cost, and CO 2 emissions.

c. Apply barriers under the floor to direct the cold air to dense racks and in the ceiling to return it from the hot aisle.

d. Utilize a raised floor to allow installing the system.

 

Ensure the raised floors are initially built to assist in handling chiller lines, power feeds and the updraft required by mainframe equipment. System B

e.