Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 565

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7 ,
9 17. 66
I 18. 67
19. 69
1. 14 .
20. 73
2. 18
21. . 75
3. 20
22. Cp/CV 78
4. - 23
23. 80
5. 28 24. 82
6. 33
Cp CV
25. 83
7. 35 26. 85
8. 37
III

9. 41
27. 88
II

28. 89
10. 44 ,
11. 45

12. 46 29. 94
13. 51
30. 97

14. 54 31. 99
15. . 58
32. 104

16. 62

-
33. 106
51. - 155

34. 108

35. 111 IV
Cp CV
36. 114 52. 164

53. 169
37. 114
( )
38. 119 54. . 171

39. 124 55. 176
.
40. . 126
56. 180
41. 131
57. 182
42. 133
V

43. 136 -
.

44. 139 58. 185
59. 188
45. 139 -

46. 143 60. 193

61. 196
47. 146 62. - 197
.
.
48. 149

49. 151

50, 153 63. 202


64. 209 78. 280
65. 214
79. 284
66. 216
80. 290
67. 220 81. 301

-
82. 307
68. 224
83. 314
()
69. 226 84. 316
85. 321
.
VII
( )
VI
86. 326

70. 233 87. 332
88. 336
71. 244
. 89. 338

72. 250 90. 347
91. 349
73. 256

. 92. 350

74. 259 93. 352

. 94. 354

75. , 265 95. 356

96. 363
76. 270

VIII
77. 274
97. 371
X

98. -- 374
111. 443
99. 380
112. 446
.

100. -- 383 113. 449
.
101. . 387 .
.
114. 455

102. 393
. 115. 459

116. . 461
103. 399
-- 117. 465
104. 401
-- 118. 467

105. 408
119. 472

IX 120. 476

121. 480
106. 414
XI
,
107. 421 122. 485
123. 486
108. . 423 124. 491

109. 426 125. 495
126. 496
.

110. - 439 127. 498
128. 502

XII 133. 528

134. 531
129. 509
130. 514 135. 535
542
131. 519 544

132. 524


397 248, 255, 300, 301
35, 36, 186, 200, 201, 210, - 27, 35, 70, 186
214, 215, 280, 281, 283, 322 44, 89, 140, 141, 150
424 153
- 139 488
8387, 185, 440 66, 67
382 136, 138, 140, 141, 150, 151,
307310, 312, 314316, 319 307, 501, 503
23, 35, 72, 80, 185, 249, 379, 474
382, 385, 386, 388 395
186, 200, 201, 208,210, 214, 395
215, 251, 274276, 278, 279, 281, 236
283286, 292, 294296, 300, 36, 186, 193, 209
301, 304, 306, 308, 309, 312314, 419
320, 321, 338, 380, 381, 457 323, 324
337, 338 - 249
323, 337, 338 76, 78, 81
514, 520, 522524, 528 373
155, 156, 159, 161, 162, 487 44, 5154, 58, 6972, 74,
209 75, 85, 89, 110, 132, 143, 144, 146,
537 162, 225, 226, 401412
-- 143, 372374, 378, 356
379, 381387, 392, 399406, 271, 307310, 312, 313, 315,
447, 454, 466, 472, 532, 533 319
388 380382, 408
494 355
473 15, 346, 412
412 224, 225
248, 303 540
247, 255, 257 411, 412
- 382, 412 409
393, 394 264
411, 478 185
215 279
323 338
10, 8890, 97100, 102104, 210
106, 108, 109, 114, 117, 119121, 44, 73, 74, 77, 83, 89, 97, 112,
125, 131, 200, 422, 452 403, 456
( ) 25, 71, 72, 142, 162, 186, 208, 245, 250,
85, 89, 9194, 99, 100, 102, 116, 251, 255, 258, 259, 270272, 276,
120, 124, 139, 143, 144, 146, 153, 278, 279, 284, 285, 306, 328, 329,
162, 180182, 401412, 462, 345, 346, 355, 366, 387
469, 472 23, 35, 72, 80, 185, 379, 388
457 36, 393
36, 37, 70, 72, 77, 97, 110, 436
200, 201, 347, 371, 375, 402, 406, 272, 273
449, 451, 452, 454456, 460, 462, 387
479, 483, 497, 498 316320, 323, 324, 423, 455
89, 9294, 99, 114116, 80, 81, 182, 183, 185, 187,
118, 119, 121, 123127, 129 361, 381
131, 136, 139, 149, 186, 295, 326, 411, 412
327, 382, 389, 392, 393, 449, 451, 90
452, 462, 479, 483, 497, 498 513
76, 78, 81 209, 213, 214, 280283, 353
409, 411 411
356 9194, 99, 116, 120, 139, 229,
514 294, 296, 316, 469
359, 363 418, 419
503 559
225, 226 224, 225
363 347, 363
411 75, 220, 222, 254, 300
272, 273 492494
477, 478 495, 496
305 540
271, 273 411, 418, 439
528 270
80, 81, 426428, 430, 441, 333, 334, 346
469 409
514 411
163 476
373 211
155 300, 305, 311
211 272, 273
, . 26, 462
30 344, 355
153, 388, 412 395
526 195, 196, 271, 273
271, 307310, 312, 313, 315, 345
319 177, 208, 428, 441, 442
271 138, 211, 213, 307310,
348, 349 312, 314316, 319, 321324,
305 338, 349, 350352
262, 539 271, 273
514 388, 392394
63, 164 355
409 479, 480


356
101 () 357
24, 356
25, 103 356
444 502
75 537
483 515
483 233
75 234236, 240, 241
222, 223 236
223 296
75 336
481, 483 , 236
504 , 238, 239
527 296
515 ,
() 515 238, 244
() 238
515 106, 382
275 ()
514 377
- 338, 342
314 444
308 - 249
209, 352 285
214 287
, 213 17
313 347, 350, 352
-- 378 , 530
390 247
249, 319 85, 144
35 529
, 193 I 478
35 II 478
151 389
, 152 474
486 541
441 35, 186, 200
395 23, 35
22 494
510 132
510 - 27, 35, 186
510 488
514 66
409 36
72
535 185
, 536 324
, 536 185
535 488
535 275
255, 266
536 496
535
539 530
539 386
61 348
462, 463, 489, 63
502 444
374 513
234 513
124 46
41 502
536 502
536 46
536 383
387 -- 383
348 387
326 46
347 509
254 486
333 486
444, 465
234 342
58 348, 351
58 27, 39
() 61 90
(-) 61 336
61 166
473 165, 344
- 183
439 183
, 441 355
441 () 303
98 461
98 503
117 450
97 444
437 503
371 461
45 527
45 529
( ) 25, 520
102
35 528
465 531
36 531
36 531
59 531
, 63
127 154, 155
495 384, 393, 505
385
() 93 384
486, 499 384
480 384
480 520
444
506 84
444 541
537 537
486 537
486 41
43 45
43 229
41, 297 118, 125
540 206
50
63 206
241, 244 15, 52
15
33 17
394 9
389 527
466 475
509
412 528
78 493
409 492
495
() 142, 146 492
108, 142 515
510
74 525
529 - 510, 511
333 n- 510
9
- 9 242
35 240
532 509
89 509
534 242
541 , 248
88 ,
, 91 248
, 242
92, 93 242
, 9193
, 9193 242
16 243
44 448
316, 317 , 455
, 459
392, () 445
451 389, 445
114, 119 138
530 509
517 385
509 385
444 385
36 261
90 155
61, 90 176
32 334
444 332
56 245
415 75
71
525 46
510, 511 46
- 511 46
244 45
538 45
164 93
51, 75 50
- () 97
420 94
414416 94
509 94
332 94
532 76
444 64
445 92
76 540
, 76 474
137, 332
492 46, 51
372 150
200 59
229 150
334 46
373 89
225 126
224, 225 16
389, 449 17, 443
391, 489 14, 17
501 14, 17
() 539 14, 15
509 444
17 515
363 347
362 201
362 478
356 478
356, 359, 363 ()
356 532
531
312 523
275, 312 408
307 503
279, 306 371
312 -- 372, 532
475 376
485 - 372
485 372
485 371
487 373
487 372
487 372
() 485 509
491 520
491
491 52
485 499
487 307
485 499
66 () 502
66 15
504 15
16 () 502
22 ()
34 502
33, 34 499
523 502
515 50
516 ()
514 245
518 81
516 81
515 194
520 257
514 194
194 43
285 513
425 188
234 260
234 375
234 259
234 444
321
235 374
239 327
235 14, 15
, 235 25
238 104
393
() 235 379
, 235 249
486 200
386 465
383, 385, 393
303 31
479, 480 489
296 490
88 490
15 23
31 200
31 20
241 23
177179
327, 328, 330 , 178
428 , 178
308, 20
312
304 29
308, 312 436
12 159, 162
321
233 206, 208,
233 263
296, 298 428
303 234
206
228 226, 321
43
,
323 () 12
216 10
224
136, 295 99, 102
316
65, 140 314
188 314
361 88
63 140,
66, 485 142
67 355
224 21
67, 225 28
68 23, 24, 28
68 28, 29
67 28
58 29
410 30
164, 343 28, 29
182 28, 30
182 21
, 171 21
13 19
65, 140 32
451 15
451 19
66 307
421 19
451 270
485 202
451 363
30 363
477
() 354 514
509
27, 39 20, 461, 463
9 285
12 36
529
314 529
12 514
10
(
36, 62 ) 427
75, ( ) 81
222 ( ) 80
382 322
-- 378 347
141, 150, 334
151 305
381 211
- 382 () 469
36 (
451 ) 350
382 196
73 , 196
36 48
35, 37
69 246, 250
140
43 230, 231
385 313316
69 93
166 89
303 510, 512
() 303 50
() 303 201
388, 443 206, 502
, 446 153
302 419
20 20
444 - 23, 32
476
477 33
302 ()
302 22, 28, 99
308 26
483 508
12 507
42, 291 411
372
295 201, 202
294, 296 510
366 525
44, 54, 55
25, 229, 322 144, 405
57 , 407
140, 142 ,
150 407
44, 62 402
65, 142 402
127, 133, 294 332, 333
317 358
294 361
71, 143, 357
294 359
143, 401 338
, 404 515
, 515
403 302
, 405 515

,
405

* *

7
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1.
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2.
18
3.
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4.
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5.
28
6.
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7.
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8.

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9. 41

10. 44
11. 45
12. 46
13. 51
14. 54
15. .
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16. ,
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17. 66
18. 67
19. . . . .' 69
20. 73
21. . 75
22. 1
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23. 80
24.
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25. 83
26. 85

27. 88
28. ,
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29. 94
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30. 97
31. 99
32.
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33. 106
34. 108
35. C v Ill
36. 114
37. ( ) 114
3 8 . 119
3 9 . 124
40. . 126
41. 131
42. 133
43. . 136
44. 139
45. 139
46. 143
47. . 146
48. 149
49. 151
50. 153
51. -
155

IV

52. 164
53. 169
54. . 171
55. . 176
56. 180
57. 182
A v
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58. 185
59. - . . . 188
60. 193
61. 196
62. - .

197
63.
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64. 209
65. 214
66. 216
67.
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68. () 224
69. .
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5

VI

70. 233
71. . 244
72. 250
73. .
256
74. .
259
75. , 265
76. . . . . 270
77. 274
78. 280
79. . . . 284
80. 290
81. . . 301
82. 307
83. 314
84. 316
85. 321

VII

86. 326
87. 332
88. 336
89. 338
90. 347
91. 349
92. 350
93. 352
94. 354
95. 356
96.
363

VIII

97. . . . 371
98. -- 374
99.
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100. -- 383
101. . .
387
102. .
393
103. -- 399
104. -- 401
105. 408
6

IX

106.
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107.
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108.
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109.

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. - 439


1 1 1 . 443
112. 446
113. . .
449
114. 455
115. 459
116. . 461
117. 465
118.
467
119. 472
120. 476
121. 480
XI

122. 485
123. 486
124. 491
125. 495
126. 496
127. 498
128. 502
XII

129. 509
130. 514
131. 519
132. 524
133. 528
134. 531
135. 535

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Ni, 3% , 2% 1 1% Si).
32 [. I

:
1) ( 14001600 );
2) ( 1500 );
3) ( 2200 ).
.

, 90% 10% .
,
,
. ( 26003000 )
.

(
4 3000 ) (
0 , 0 1 ) (
100 / /
).
,

0,001 .

,
.
-. . . . -. . .

.
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-

40, 90 17, 20 5
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6.



().
,


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. .
1968 .
1968 .
(-68)
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. I.

,
( ,
, ),
. ,
68, ,

.
13,81 ( ) 630,74
( )
.
,

. ( ,
.)
630,74
(1064)

34 [. I

I

- 6 8
G

0 2 273,16 0,01

*) 2 13,81 259,34
*) 25/76
2 17,042 -256,108
*) 2 20,28 252,87
< 0 2 54,361 218,789

!
0 2 90,188 182,962
0 373,15
CQ 2 100
Q-
<
Sn 505,1181 231,9681
Zn 692,73 419,58
Ag 1235,08 961,93
Au 1337,58 1064,43

4
4,215 268,935
N 2 63,148 210,002
N 2 77,348 195,802
0 2 194,674 78,476
Hg 234,288 -38,862
273,15 0
300,02 26,87

In 429,784 156,634
Bi 544,592 271,442
Cd 594,258 321,108
3 Pb 600,652 327,502

D"

. Hg 629,81 356,66
s 717,824 444,674
Al 821,38 548,23
Sb 903,89 630,74
Al 933,52 660,37
1357,6 1084,5
Ni 1728 1455
1767 1494
Pel 1827 1554
Pt 2045 1772
Rh 2236 1963
Ir 2720 2447
W 3660 3387

*) - .
.
17,042
.
35

pt 10 Rh/Pt.
0 ", t

= + + ,
, , . . .
, .

.

,
.

,
.
0,8 5 ,
,
. 0,8
3
( 0,4 ),

3
( - 10^ ).

7.
1. ,
-.
(4.1) (4.3) , a
.
.
(4.1), ,
,
.
.
,
. -
,
, 12
12
. . ,
,
. ,
.

.
,
PV
.
36 [. I

, . ,
32 , 28 ,
2,016 . .
.
1961 .
. : .
16

16. ,
16. -
,
, .
1961 . .
1 2
12.
.



pV = RT, (7.1)
R, ,
. . .
(18341907). (7.1)
(17991864) ,
R .
, V
6 2
( = 1,01325-10 / ) 0
( = 273,15 )- V = (22413,6
3
z t 0,9) /. ,
7
R = (8,31434 0,00035) 10 /(-) =(8,31434
0 , 0 0 0 3 5 ) /(-) = 0,0821 -/(-).
v ,

PV=vRT. (7.2)

2.
.
(17661844).
V ,
.
P , , ... ,
lt 2 3


7? ,
= + + + ...
1 2 3 (7.3)
, %, ... ,

. ,
.
37

V; t'-ro . P V = v RT.t t ,
(7.3) V, :
PV = vRT,
v , . . v = v + v + . . .
t 2

, ,
,
.
,
.

8.

1. ,
V,
,
, .

f(P, V, ) = 0. (8.1)
f (, V, ) .
(8.1) .
(7.1).
.
,
. VIII.

.
,
.
, ,
.
2.
, V, ,
.
,
f (, V, ).
(8.1) ,
V, . . V
: V = V (, ).
, dP,
V ,

38 [. I

( g p ] ,
r

V .
, -
,
,
. ,

{)
.
, dT.
V -

d,v=(mdT.
\ JP
, , ,

dV = d V + d%V,

+ [%),*. (8.2)
.
(8.2)
dP dT. dP dT
. (8.2)
, -
. , ,
,
. dP dT
. , dV = ,
(8.2)

dP
^ ,
dP
dT
. ,

\ _ ()\]
, Jv I dV


\ 1^
)~ I
dV 1
39


(8.3)

\ ( V \ U I
* (8.4)
~)\) [dPJv^
3.
(8.4) , dV .
+ 1
1 . ,
, 0V ,
. , dV
, ,
. dV

, .
, ,
dV. (8.4) ,
,

. -
(8.4).
(8.3)
.
. - ,
V (8.3)
, .
4. (8.3) (8.4)
,

.

1 V 0

, .
,

= ( = const).
, ,
.

(8.5)

(5
1 0
40 [. I

0 , .
,

8 6
*=Mw)v <->
, (, )


:

*-(-ir)r
V
(w)r- <> 87

(8.4) ,

1 8 8
&--= - <->
,
, V .
0 .

- 1
=1,8-10-* " ,

5
/ = 2,56-10 .
,
1
= ~ = 46 " - .
"
,

0 1
46 .
5. (8.3) (8.4)
, , V .
,

P,VnT. , , ,
/ (, , ) = 0,

89
).--().(). <-
) \ ]\ )

.
41

9.

1.
,
.


, ,
, . ,
,
.
, .
,
, ,
,
.
,

.


. , , ,
, , , ,
. . ,
,
.
.
, ,
,
, . V,
, ,
.
2,
,
, .
V.
.
V = M/V.
,
.
.

. , , 2
t t , t .
u 2 n

- ^ - ( p - f - p + . . . + ) .
1 2
42 [. I

,
, ,
t t
n x

.
. V
,

. V
. ,
,
.
.

, .
,
.
5 . F ,
. ,
, = F/S. , ,
.
,

,
.

. ,
,
,
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.

.
,
(
) - ,
.
.
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.
3. ,
,
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.
43

.
.
. , ,
.
. - ,
, . .
.
.

.
,
.
.
, ,
.
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
Q. S, Q
Q/S .
,
Q. V
.
V ,
,
.


.
.
.

V, .

. ,

,
.
II

10.


,
, ,
. 19 ,
, , -
.


. ,

, . . .
, ,
. -

. ,
. ,

,
, ,
( ) . .
(18141878), (18181889), (18211894)
,
.

,
.
,
.
.
,
.

.
,
,
- . -
45

.

,
, ,
.
.

11.
1.
,
. . ,
.
,
.
,
Q (. 6).
, .

.
,
.
.
.

, ,

.
, .
. . 6.
.
, .
,
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.
,

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,
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.
.
,
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,
46 [.

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.
2. ,
.
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,
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, , -
,
, , ,
.

. .
.
, ,
. , ,

.

.
3. -
: 1) ,
(V const); 2)
, ( = const); 3) -
,
( = const). ,

(. ).
(V const), ( = const)
( = const).

12.
1. (. 7).
6,
,
dV.
F = PS, S .
dx, 6 = F dx = PS dx

bA^PdV, (12.1)

dV = Sdx.
47

(12.1)
,
. , ,

(. 8). ,
dS dn ,
dS dn, dV, dV = dS dn ,
. 8. 8
, PdV

.
, - .
= $ dV = AV, AV

. 7. . 8.

,
. dV,
(12.1). ,
. ,
.
. .

- 1


V
.

,
.
,
, -

" 8ABnem = -P dV.
BHem (12.2)
= , = 8.
48 1.

,
, , , ,
. ,
(12.1)
. ,
.
2. 6
,
A = \PdV. (12.3)
,
V. ,
, V, .
,

.
(V) (12.3).
,
.
.
,
. , ,
,
. , ,
.
3.
. ,

, V .
=
= (V, ).
, V,
.
VP.
, , ,
VP . ,
.
V, , V, , .

V, .
,

. ,
, .

N M1N (. 9).
49

V.
.
1 NN^Mi.



M2N,

M M2NN M .
1 1 1
, -^.
, ,
,

(. .
,

).
, . 9.
,
.

,
.
VP PV RT =
= const (. 10). ,
,

= dV
Vt Vt

= RT\n^. (12.4)


/
2
. ,
. 10. ,
(. .
), ,
V = j / . . 10
2

13\ = (V Vi). ,
2

,
.
2

; . 10 32.
2,
= (V Vi) > .
2
50 [. II

,
, ( )
. ,
.
4.
, , .
,
, VP
(. 11).
,
,
,
. 11. , ,
,
,
V .

. 11. ,
.
5.

, .
,
.

.
,

-
, . 2

-
,
(12.1)

= dax -f- da + . . . 4- da ,
2 2 n

(12.5)
12
, ... -
2 - -
. , ... ,

. , ,

(. 12).

Pi, , , ,
3


= P , S , rfjci + PS dx + P S
2 2 3 3 dx , 3
51

dx , dx , dx , a S , S ,
x 2 3 x 2

S .
y

= P S , = P S , = P S .
X X 2 2 2 3 3 3

13.

1. -
, .
. ,
.
.
, ,
,
. , ,
. ,
,
, .
,

, .

.

= . ,

.
, , .

,
. ,

,
, .
.
.
,

. ,
.
.
,
( ).

. ,

,
.
.
,
[. II

, ,
. ,

.
2. 1
,
.
. ,

,
.
,
. ,
,
.
3. ,
, .
,

, ,
.
12
. ,
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.
,
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.
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, .
-
53

,
. .
, ,


,
.
.

.

.
, ,
.
.

, .
4. ,
.

, .

.
,
,
. .

1 2, 1
. ,
- ,
. ,
1 2, ,
: 1 2,
2 1 *).

,
. , ,
: 1 20

2 30 .
,

*) , ,
,
.

, ,
.
54 [. II

.
2
1. 1 2
.

14.
1.
.
,
. ,
, , ,
, .
U ,
,
,
.
,

,
. 1,
2. ,
,
Ui-U^A^, (14.1)
Ui \ ] 1 2,


,
1 2 .
,
, .

, , ?
, .
,
1 2 . (14.1)
. ,
,
2 1.
, . . (14.1)

-.


= ?\" . (14.2)
, 1 ~> 2,
2 -> 1,
1 2.
2. ,
, .
-
55

. ,
,
. ,
, ,
.

. ,
. -
() ,
,
.
,
-
0 1

.

- (.)
)
1
,

,

' ''
. ) )
3. . 13.
,

. , , ' 1
,
' .
1 0'
U U\.
x


,
, . 13.
, .
U\
' 1 , . .
0'01.
+
Ui = A,
0l U - = -.

(X -U X = U 00'- (14.3)
56 [. II

.
,
, 100'.
, ,
' 1 1 ' .
, -
* ~* ~~s *'' , (. 14). -
I ' -
/ ,
| / Uoo' = Ao4 + A l0 = U' -U ,
l l

'* . . -
. 14. (14.3). ,
U[ U /,
'.
. .
4. _
(14.1)
/ 1 / = ,
2 (14.4)
. .
.
5. ,
.
,
. ,
*).
,
.
, .

. , -, ,
. -
.

(, , . .) ,
.
, , ,
,
.

*) .
.

.
, ,
.
, , ,
, .
, , , ,
, .
57

6. , ,

.
, ,

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, ,
.
,

,
.

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.
: 1) ,
2) 3)
.

,
,
.
,
8 7
10" 10~ .

, .
.
,
,
.
,
. .
, .
. ,
,
.
, ,
, .

.
.
7.

.
, ,
-
58 [. II

.
,
.
,
. .
.

. , , ,
-
.
. ,
.
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
.

. , ,
,
.
, .
, ,
, ,
, .
,

.

.

15. .

1. ,

,
. ,
,
. ,

,
.
,
,
15l 59

. ,
, ,
, .
,
, - .
,
.
, . . ,
,
. ,


.
2.

.
/ (. 15)
-
/ / . I + II
,

. / +
II
,
/ / / .
, , . 15.
/ / , ,
/ / . I,
, .
. 15 /
.
, .
,
.
1 + 11 1
2,
12

. /.
I + II ,

U /, a U' / / .
/ ,
:
A12 = U -U
1 2 + (U[-Ud.
60 [. II

/ / , ,
, /
. Q.
<=(/;-/;=-{/', (is.i)

Q = U -U i 1 + A.
12 (15.2)

. , Q, ,
S.U = U \J 2 X

.
3.
.
Q
I, II, .
(15.2) ,
Q. Q
/ / ,
(15.2) ,
. , :
U U Q, (15.2),
2 lt 12

, ,
(15.2), .

.
, ,
, .
Q,
(15.1): / / .
4. (15.2) ,
. . / .
(15.1) . , ,
/ + / / , ,
/ / , .
/ / .

/ + / / ,

= - + ([-: ).
1 2 1

/ ' 1 2

/ / : = + A' .
12 Xi

- (15.2), Q

Q = U'i Ui ^ . (15.3)
61

5.
(15.2)
8Q = dU + 6A (15.4)

8Q = dU + P dV. (15.5)
, . .
, U = U , Q =
2 lt

= . , ,
.
U = U Q = 0, = 0. ,
x 2

,
. ,
,
( ). ,
.
,
,
(, ),
. ,
,
.
6. ,
, .
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
.
- ,
,
. -
.
, 15-, 20- .
, 20-
, 1 19,5 20,5 .

.
. . ,
,
.
,
62 [. II

4,1868 .
. ,
R, ,
R = 1,9858 /( ) ^ 2 /( ).

16.
,
1. , ,
. (15.3).
, U Ui
2

,
1 2

. Q = t/ U + 2 x 1 2

, . . ,
. , Q
.
.

,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, .
,

. , ,
, ,
.
. ,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
, -
- . ,
. ,
, , -
- . ,
,
.

2. .
,
.
.
.
63

,

, . ,
,
,
. , ()
, .
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
.
, .

,
. ,
,
. ,
.
,
.
, ,
.
.

(17681830) 19
.
( )
,
,
. , ,
.
, .
,
.
3.
, ,
,
. , ,
.
,
.
. , ,
64 [. II

0
QC^-Uz-Ui+A ,
B c
Q Q , ,

. ,

B
U = JJ + II , ,
B C B C
Q + Q = (U -U ) 2 1 + (A + A ).

, , :
.
.



. + ,

+ ,
B c
. , Q + <3 = { / - + 8

U U = ,
x 2

qb^_qc = o.

, ,
, .
,
,
.

. , ,
,
,
.
. , i-
,

2<2/=.
= i

4. , , ,
.

,
, .
.
, , (15.2)
12

Q=U -Ui 2 = AU (V=const). (16.1)


65

, 12 = (V V ) = A (PV),
2 x


Q = AU + A(PV).

I=--U + PV. (16.2)
, , , U, ,
V .
Q /.,- /, \ / ( = const). (16.3)
/ .
.
. ,
.
,
, .
, ,
Q .
, .
Q ,
.

- Q,

. Q
, :
. Q
, .
,
,

. Q,
.
5. ,
,
8Q 8 ,
dQ dA. , 8Q 8
, . .
-
.
, , 8Q
. 8Q 8 -
, .
, ,
, , , .
dU, dl, dP, dV, dT, ... ,
66 (.

, . .

U, I, , V, , ...
, 8Q 8

, .
47.

17.
1. (16.1) (16.3) .
,
.
, -
. ,
, , .
, .
W, W = Q.
, (16.1)

W =U -U^-bJJ.
v x ( 1 7 .1)
V .
, (16.3)
7 / / /
= 1 - = - - (17.2)
(17.1) (17.2) ,

, .
1840
. . (18021850) ,
. .
, ,
, .
2.
, W W
v

. ,
, , ,
. ,
.

, Wy W .
p

.
W , p

(
, ).
25 760 . ., .

. ,

+ 1 0. = ( 0 ) + 287
2 2

, ( 25
760 . .) 287
67

. , 0 0
2 2 2

,
( ,
). , ,

287 .
,
. , [ 0 ] , ()) { 0 }
2 2

, .
:

{H } + i
2 { 0 } = ( 0) + 287 .
2 2

3.
. .
, ,
, . ,

,
,
. , -,

[] + { 0 } = { 0 } + 3 9 4 .
2 2

-, :

{ } { 0 2 } = { 0 } + 2 8 3 .
2

,
:
[ ] + | { 0 } = {} + 111 .
2

18.
1.
6Q, ,
dT :

= -%. (18.1)

,
.
. .
.
dT
,
. , ,
,
, .
(V, ) (. 16).
RS,
68 [. II

dT.
+ dT,
.
R, N, S, .

, , ,
7* SQ.

.
R N
T+dT - ,
,
,

.
mvj)

-V
. 16. . ,

, ,
.
2. .
(18.1) (15.5)
dU+PdV
dT

dU- (' dTA-
dU
dV
dV,
\ J v
( dU dV
= aT -
(18.2)
{ dV )
V , .
, , ^
. (18.2)
, .
, VT ,
.
, , ,
+ . ,
= ,
dT , 6Q ~ 0. &Q = 0, = 0.

, C . v

, dV 0, ,
dU \
, (18.3)
)-
69

dV

, -^
\^jr^j . p (18.2)
dU_
:
J v
dV ^
C v
dU\ , nlfdV
1 18>5
dV j T ' ]\ ) P - ( ^

. ,
8Q = dl.

= (--) .
(18.6)

3. (18.3) (18.6)
.
(17.1) (17.2)
(18.3) (18.6).
:
dW V
(Cvh-iCv),, (18.7)
I f

- f = (Cp) -(C ) .
3 1 P 2 (18.8)

19. .

1. ,
,
, , -,
f(P, V, ) = 0. (19.1)
-,
, ,
U = U(V, ). (19.2)
(19.2)
, (19.1),
.
.
.
70 [. II

2.
.
.
PV--RT
,
, U V.
,
, -, -

. (. 17)
.

3=
, .
.
- ,
,
^ .
,

.


, -
. 17.
.
?
,
. .
, ,
.
. , ,
. ,

. .
22 ,
. ,
,
.
.
.
3. -
. ,
, ,
.
.

71

. 1852
1862 .
.
. ,
.
,
.
MN 'N' (. 18)
.

. ,
. . . ,
,
, ,
.


-
.
-
Pi

i ,
V,
N N

V
1

i
f
2 i 2

. -
. 18.
2

.
.
,
, ,
.
,

. . 2

.
,
.
4. V , x

ABNM.
M'N'B'A'
V . .
2

MN.
-S -AM = P V (S
X X

). M'N' '',
-S -'' = P V . ,
2 2 2

, = P V P V .
2 2 X X

, .
.
,
U,
U -U +A=02 1
72 [. II

Ui + P V =U -{-P V .
1 1 2 3 2

I U -\- PV.
, I
:
h = h. (19.3)
5. ,
,
.
46 104. .
,
.

. ,
,
, .
7\ ,
2

PV = RT, . .
. ,
= . PjVi =
2

= , (19.2) U = U.
% x 2

U(T, V ) = U(T,
X V ).2 (19.4)
,
. ,
U .
. (. 34)
, .

.
U = U(T) (19.5)
.
C v

. , C v

(18.3). (
,
=^- (19.6)

, C v

, .

U = \C (T)dT.
v (19.7)
20] 73

, C
v

.
, , , , , ,
., 100
1000 . C , v

(19.7)
U = C T. V (19.8)
- ,
C ~ 3 /(-), C
v v

5 /(-), C ~ 6 /(-).
v

1. , ,
.
2.
, W , a W
v

.
. .
3. ,
, ,
.
.

20.
1. (18.5) .
y-^rjj, = 0 , (jpp) = p

RIP.
C -C
P V = R. (20.1)
.
(20.1).
.
, dT.
, ,
, 8 Q = C dT.
V v

, :
C dT = dU.
v (20.2)
.
(, V) , ,
,
.
74 . II

dT 6 Q = P

= CpdT. 6 = PdV.
,
= d (PV) = d (RT) = RdT.
,
, . ,

CpdT = dU + RdT.

dU (20.2),
(20.1).
,
C ,
v


. ,

.
2. C ,
v

.
(20.1).
, C
v

. , R
. 20-
,
Cp CV= 1,986 /( ),
7
= 8,314- 10 /(-).
,
7
1 = 4,18 = 4,18 .
1842 .


. ,
,
C ,
v

.

, 1847 . ,
.
C .
v

, , . ,
, ,
.
, , -
2ll 75

, .


.

21. .
1. , ,
. , ,
,
.
(15.5) 8Q = 0, dU = C dT, v

CvdT + PdV-^0.

d (PV) PdV+ V dP _ P dV+V dP
dT--
R R C -C
p v

dT,
C P dV + C VdP
P v = 0.

Y= - . (21.1)

yPdV + VdP = 0. (21.2)

.

.

. ,
. (21.2)
PV^ = const. (21.3)
(17811840).
, . . ,
.
. PV = RT,
:
7 * - 1 = const, (21.4)
1
" = const. (21.5)

' ~>\, (21.4) ,
,
. .
76 [. II

(. 13). ,
.
,
,
.
,
.

.
2. (21.3), (21.4) (21.5)
. -
.
, , ,
.
.
,
. .
,
.
- ,
.
,

. ,
,
.
, ,
.
, (21.4).
, ,
.
, ,

. , ,
(. 22)
7 , ,
.

1. , ,
, , ,
. ,
.
1 1 n
. " ' = const PV = const;
-

.
!"! . 77

2.
, ?
. > 1, < 1.
3. ,
?
4.
, V VV t

in ~
5. -> 1
.
6. PV (. 19)
SS ,

. , ,

,
, -
.
7.
1

7 \ .
7*2, ,

.
2

,
,
.
.
. 19.
( 1 / )

( V , )
2 2

= (V 1/ ),
2 x 2

0 [] = C ( ).
2 v 2

PV = RT, R, -

-1 P-Pi
7V
Pi
, (21.5),


7" ,
2

, -

. 0 Y - 1 < 1, < . ,
2

,
,
.
8. ,
, ,
, .
78 [. II

/ . ,
0

,
, , .
S, . 0

. -. - -
+ 3 .

, = 0,
0 = 2~\/~-- , . .
/.
9. ,
.
?

. = 2|/~ j^J^p
,
,
. , = , 0

22. \
(. 1841) (17771862) 1819
-
y=C /CP v .
(. 20)
.


,

.


.

.
, .


- 2

,
. 20. 0

. ,
, ,
.
.
. $
2

, ,
. 0
22J Cp/C v 79

. . 2

, P.,, P y = C IC .
tt P v


, .
. 20 .
, .
, ,
,
.

, .
,
, :
1 : 0 V lt

2 : 0 7 V,
2

3 : 2 0 V.
2


0 2

, 0


.
.
1 2 ,

(21.2). dV = V V dP = P 2 lt u

yP(V -V )2 1 + V ( / ' - P ) = 0. 0 1

1 3 ,
PV . ,

PdV + VdP = 0,
5 1 /
/ ( V - / ) + l ( P - P ) = 0.
2 1 2 1

( 2 2 )
? = - % = -

,
, .

, . 20.
80 [. II

, 7 ,
(22.1),

Pi-Po Pi-Pi-

. 7 = =2-.

(22.1)
(21.2), ,
7 , ,
.

(21.3), 7 .

23.

1. (. . I, 85)
:

c = Yf P (23-1)
. ,
. ,
dPIdp. ,
: PI = const.
,

,
. , dPIdp
/ \
(23.1)
-

<--V ;: /i
i "f' 2 2
( - -)
jii , N , c N

, .
, = 28,8, = 273 , (23.2) c N

- - 280 /, = 330 /.
2. (17491827).
,
,
,
.

,
.
81

, (21.2).
V ~ 1/1/,

yPdp-pdP = 0, (23.3)

dP I \ 1\ /

(23.2)

CL--=yyj = cVy- (23.5)

,
.
=--- 1,4. = 273

= 280 V = 330 /,
.
3.
,
.
.

(23 6)
>-- '
c.v , . . ,
(23.2). ,
(23.5), .

, (23.5) ,
() (),
.
. du + Pdv = 0,
' - .
v,

v ,
, .
82 [. II

, . () [ ()]
,
\ _ / _\ I '
) ~ [~ vI ,
(8.4) (18.3)
_ 1_\ ( dv \

*[ )\) -

+
\ ) * \ )\ \ - ;~ \ dv j P


\ I \
/ c \ dv J '
v (23.7)
(23.4) (23.5) (23.7),
= 1/.

24.
Cv

7 '

C ,
v


C -Cy
P = R. (24.1)
C,
v

Cv = ~ , Cp^-^j. (24.2)

.
C , V
v

, ,
.

, C C -~C .
v V P

,
(), (. 21).

7\ .
.. .
83

.

.
- //- ' *"

, ^ )
. ( 0 ^ = ^
- ff^^
, . - ^^)
Q. , (^
, - ^ ^ )
, ,
. -
,
. , ,
21
. = P V ' -2 2

P V\ = R (- ).
X

0 0 = ( 7\).
2 2

Q = U / + ,
2

25.
1. 94
.
.
.

.

.

.
. , , ,


;

. ,
, . -
84 [. II


.

.
2. , ,
. ,

,
, , ,
v

, ,
, .
/ (, , ) = 0. ,
,
. , ,
(21.2)
Y
= const p . -
.
,
, , ,
, .
3. ,
+ Pip
:

1
= const. (25.1)
\

,

. , ,
,
.
. :
2
v !2 , <
.
, = gh, h ,
.
(25.1)

(25.2)

. . , , .
1/ ,
+ PI , . .
86

. i,
2

i + gh + - -= const. (25.3)

,
gh .

i + -*- = const. (25.4)

v (25.4)
, ,
gh .
,
.
.

. i = const, (25.5)
. . .

.
4.
. ,
( ),
( )
.
. ,
,
.
(25.5). ,
(25.4) ,
, .
,
. (25.4)
, (25.5).
, , ,

,
,
.

26.
1.
(. 22).
, ,
86 [. II

(2) ,
(1) , v . x

(25.4)
1 2 ;

1 , vi
ll + T = '2 +

v\ .
v . 2


. 22.
v = V2(ii-h)- (26.1)
,
. ,
.

i = u + = -C T V + -RT,

(20.1)
. (26.2)
,
( - ). (26.3)
VI 1 2

, , ,

2

. , ,

. .
2 2

(26.3)
-1
, (26.4)

.
(26.5)
87

( 1 .)

(24.2),

RT (2
v = YlfT=T
= 1000

8> 103 103 = 5 4 0 0
, =' ' '
/-
2.
. (26.6)
,

.

, (
).
(26.5) (26.3) ,
= 0, . .
2

. .
,
.
,
,

C ,
v

(, )
v. ?
, .
. , .
,
2
(25.4). + i> /2 = const.

, v 0, . . .
,
. i = ^ >

= 1 +
( "2^).

= 1 + ^ ( - 1 ) 1
' \ ' 9 '
= vie ( ).
III


* *

27.

1.
,
. , ,
,
. 1 2 ,
,
1 2, 2 1.
, ,
- .
,
,
. , 16,
Q = Q . Q
x 2 lt
, Q , .
3


.
, , ,
.

. ,
.
, ,
,
. .


,
. ,
,

.

.
2.
.
,
89

, 1824 . (. .
. , ),
.
(
),
.
185051 .

( ). ,
,
.

28. ,

1.
, ,
. (. 23)
- ,
. ,
. VP

. 23.

1.
, . . ,
.
12.
Q
t

Qi = t / - f / i + A .
2 (28.1)
, . .
. , , ,
2

, . . ,
90 [. III

, 2.
/ .
Q .
2

<?2 = ^ 1 - / - . 2 2 (28.2)

(28.1)

Q -Q
1 i = A -A .
1 2 (28.3)
, ,
Q b

Q , Q Q_ Q
2 x 2

(28 4)
^i = ~or- -

.
2. ,
, . . ,
Q = 0, , ] = 1?
2

,
.
.
,

,
, .
(18531932)
, . .
, ,
.
,
.
.
.


. ,
,
. ,
,
.

.
.
28] 91


.
. ,
,
,
.
.
.
3. (
) 1851 .
: ,

.
,
,
.
,

.
,
. , ,
,

.
4. ,
,
.
(18581947). :
. ,

.

.
, . ,
( ),
,
.
. , (. . 7)
. .
,

.
. ,
.

Q = U -Ui
2 + A.
92 [.

U
, ,
U = 0,
2

Q = A.
, Q,
, /.
,
, . .
. ,
, ,
, ,
(
,
) ,
,
,
.

.
,

.
, .
5. (18221888) 1850 .
.
:
.
.
,

.
,
, ,
(. 4, . 4). (,
) ,
. ,
(
).

. .
,

, ,
.
,
93

, . ,
, .
,
.
,
.
,
. ,

.
, , . , ,
,
. ,
,
.
, .
,
(. . 23), .

\2, 2\, .
12, Q ; 2

2 1 Q > Q%. x


' = Qi Q.2-
.
6.
.
, . .
. ,
,
Q Q
lt 2

= Q Q .
t 2

Q .
2

,

Qi Q , ;
2

.
, .
.
7. ,
.
, . .
. , ,
Q
, , .
, ,
94 [. III

. Q
,
. , .
.

, ,
.
,
,
.
, ,

.
,
.

29.
1. -

,
,
.
, .

.

.
.
.

, ,
,
,
.
,
,
- ,
. ,
, , .
2.
. ,
,
, , ,
. - ,
-
95

.
,
, . .
. ,
,
,
, .
,

.
,
;
.
,
,
,
, . ,
,
.

,

. ,
, .
. ,

, .

3. , ,
,
.
,
.

, ,

.
,

N (.
24).
,
.
.
, .
,
. . 24.

, .
,
/. ,
96 [. III

, 2.
, /,
( /) 1,2, ... ,
( 1). ,
, >- '
.
,
.
( 1), ( 2), ... , ,
.
. , N -- ( 1)
( ),
( 1) ->- N.
, . ->- N,
,
.
, ,
, ,
. -> N
MN. ,
, .
, , ,
,
MN.
, .
, , ,
.

1.
,
. . >


. ( ,
2

.) .

.
. ,
, . , , , (/ + 2

(29.1)

(29.2)

2. ,
P v

V ,
3 a

.
30 J 97

. ,
C T P V RT
V 2+ 1 2 , s (29.3)
,
PV = RT
C = R
v 3

P P 2
i 2- l) (29.4)

, ,
. ,
(29.4) ,
. .
, ,
,
,
. ,
,
, ,
,
.

30.
1.
.
,

,
7\ 7' .
2

, 7\ > . 2


7\
,
.
2


. ,

.
, V
,
. 25.
12 (. 25).
Qj 12

.

23, .,.

. 3 -
23
98 [. III


4.
(. .
A ), 3i

Q . 4 ,
2

41
/. , ,
(. .
. ).

,
= 4 - -f- A + Qx Q .
1 2 2 3 3i 2


(28.4),
Q 8 = (1-TI)Q . (30.1) 1

2. :
, ,
7\ 2

, ,
.
,

. . . . , /.
2

, ) > )', ,
.
,
, .
, . . .
m Q u

Q = Q Q ,
2 x 2

, .
,
.
, ,
. ' 0_2
Q[ ;
' = Q[ Q' . 2

'
:
(Q Q[); x

(Q Q ); 2 2

' =
= (Qi - Q ) - (Qi - Qd =4Qi - r\'Q[. 2

,
: -
99

.
, .
' , Q Q[ = 0. x

. , Q = mq Q[ = m'q\, q
t u x

,
, a q[ ,

. q q[ ,
x

' , mq m'q[ = 0, . . Q Q[ = 0.
t x

, '
,
.
' , Q Q[ = 0. x


:
.
(Q' Qo) = (r\ f]')Qi > 0.
2

^ rj'Qi = (n. t ) ' ) Q i > 0 -


,
() )') Q > 0
x

, .
,
. ) > '
. ' > .
,
,
. , ] = /, .
3. (37.2) .
,
. ' , ,
, : j]Q T|'QJ = 0.
1
:
) |'
Q[ Q = L ' Q > 0, x

Q!, Q = (I )') Q[ (I |) Qi = Q[ Q > 0.


2 t

.
.
, .

31.
1. 1848 . ( ) ,

,

.
100 . Ill

, . . .
.
t t
x 2

, - (,
, , . .).
_ Qi-Q
| 3

= /(*!, ), (31.1)
Qi

f (t , t. )
x 2

t t .
x 2


.

,

.
2.
,

t t : x 2

Qi
Q = <p(h, h). (31.2)
2


. 26.
/ (t , t ). x 2

(t t ). lt 2

,
.
t , t , t .
x 2 3

, ,
. 26. 1234 4356

1
1
= (^ ),
^ = 4>(, 4).
Q , 2

Qi
Qs = (^i, ) (, ).
, . 26,
1256, , 43

. ,
Q
).
L

~Q 3
:
(*
101

,
*{*1, - * ) = < P ( ' i , t ),
8 a (31.3)

( 1 ) = ( )
' '' --

Qi_ (<1.
) (31.5)
=

Q 2 (L,


t . t .
3 3


t . t ,
3 3

. ( 3 1 . 5 )
t . x

0 (t ). ,
x

U. ,

, (t , / )
x 2

0 (/) t t t = t . 0 (t)
x 2

,
. 0 (/)
.
Q = 0 (t ) 0 == 0 (t )
x x 2 2

3. Q i'Q
x 2

. Q Q . x 2

< 0 2

. , 0 (/) =
(t, t ) t ,
3 3

. (31.7)
t .
3


. 0 it) , ,
0 ' (t) =
;
- - ib ( ) 0 (t), (t ) .
3 3

( 3 1 . 7 ) . , t 3

,
,
.
0 , .
-, -
, , -
102 1. III

.
6
>

Q Q .
K

9 , , , 100 .


100 ,
,
.

* = , - = ioo
(31.8)

9 6 .

QJQ - ,
n


6 2 7 3 , 1 5 ,
^ 3 7 3 , 1 5 .
(31.9)
,
,

3 1 0
< >


Q
Q .
n

.
-, -
0 ,
(31.10)
. , ,
,
6 = 273,15 .

,
, .
, ,
273,16 -
4. ,

, .
.
, .

0,0020,01 , 0,0002
0,001 .
0,0001 .
,
(1954 .)
103

,
, 273,16 . ,


100 ' .
, 273,15
373,15 . 273,16
.
5.
.
, ,
,
.
.
, ,
0 : 6 < 0.
2

.
, 0

: 0 > 0 (
t

,
).
Q > 0.
x

2
Q = ^ Q i - ^ < 0 ,
2

Q < 0. ,
2

, Q = | Q |.
2 2

= Q Q = Qi + | Q |.
x 2 2


.
, Q + | Q | , 1 2

= Q -f | Q |. x 2

,
.
0 < 0 :
2

. ,
,
= 0. .
273,16
. ,
. ,
,
.
, .
, ,
, ,
. -
104 [. III

.

. ,
.
.
.
6.
.
,
.
,
.
,
, .
.

32.
-
,
-
. ( -
.)
, .
,
. Q
lt

12 (. 25). 8Q = dU + PdV.
U
, dU = 0, , 6Q = PdV =
= RTx^y. ,
Q = 1 RT \n^-.
1

23 .
Q ,
x

. Q , 2

.
0_ = 2 \^.
2

. v

Q 3 IV,
IN - r-
> 4

. , C !C - P V
- 105

,
V L
TV ' const.
23 14 (. . 25),

1 7 _ I
7 l/y-
1 = 7 l/ 2 4 -
V V
^ - 1
1 V
.
,
. ,
6Q = C dT + PdV = 0, v

iuinC dT + RTy- = 0.
v

dV { dT
=
~v~ 7"1-

C .
v


23 14 :
v
3 \\
^ dV dV

.1 v

In p - = In-

V.

. ,
_ Qi

(31.7),

,

- ,
(
)
. ,
: = 0 .
- -
106 [. III

.
,
, ,
.

33.

1.
. .
-
. ,

. , -
.
. ,
.
, ,
( ).
2.
= (, V), V: PV = VP (, V) = / (, V).
V ~ 1/1/. /' F (, ).
, - ,
F (, ) :

W -r<r. 4 + *up ;*u ...


+ +

F (, 0) PV
-- 0, . . , .
, , F (, 0) = RT.
.
V 1/,

(33.1)

, , ... ,
2 3

( , . .,
2

). ,
, . .

(33.2)

( 2 ).
3. . V a

. V 0

, t 0 1000 . .
.
.
1/ , = ,
(
(33.3)
. , (33.2)
107


r ( l + -) = A . T (33.4)

, R
.
,
. . . 273,16 - 1

(33.3)

R , = 7' , 1

PV (V ->- ). (33.2)

, R (33.4) .
()

, , ,

3 0,045 140 0,011 300 0,001


10 44 150 10 320 1
20 40 160 9 350 -1
30 37 170 7 370 0
40 34 180 6 400 1
50 31 190 5 420 3
60 28 200 4 450 5
70 25 210 4 470 8
80 22 220 3 500 0,011
90 20 230 2 520 14
100 18 240 2 550 17
110 16 250 1 570 20
120 15 260 0 620 25
130 13 270 0 670 31
280 0

.
Pj V \' . (33.2)
2 y

()
1 +

,
P V -P V
2 i l 1 = RTB(x)
108 I . III

, = ,
7"
. ,, D D

(, - ,

(33.4)
.


= ( - * - ^

7 ! T ( 3 3 6 )
- - ' " " / l'J - '
,
(33.6), . 2.

34.

,
.

.
. .
1 . ,
, ,
V.
: U = U (, V).
/ (, V, ) = 0,
U
. .
V, .
V, .
,
(. 27, ).
,
.
1234, 27,
. 1234 .
12 7\,
34 .
2

, 1 2
, 7\
.
, , \' V . . ,
2 2

1234,
1234. ,
109

16 25, . ,
1256.
V 2 x

12. 61
7\ ,
. (.j^i ) . 2

, ,
' '

7\- )(1/ -V\).
2 2

Q , x

12. Q = U + (1, VJ. x 2

12 , U Ui 2

dU\
dV IT (V* V i ) ,
\ +

Qi = [i dV JT

_
7\-T

Q, ,
g
(34.1)

01
. (34.2)
dV JT
.
2 . , (34.2),
. /
.
Q .
x

dl = d(U + PV) = (dU + PdV)+VdP,


[. Ill


dI = 8Q+VdP,

" bQ = dI-VdP. (34.3)
(34.3) ,
. , Q

12 , U 1 =

. ^ \\'..-l\).
pi ,

.
(8.3):
\ __ (dV_\ I \
dT/v~~ \dTjp\dVJT'

, t _ _ ( W ) f ( T l _ T i { f , , _ P 0 .

Q (34.1),
x

: / \ , / dV \

(34.2) .
= -, ,
1_\ __RT__ p

1
\ dTJv~ V "

(34.2)

,
, .
,
. ,
. , = (jj^j v

111

, C ,
v

.
(34.4).
,

34 8
= - < ->
,

.
3 . (34.2)
,
- 2

6 = da + . . . -f- da ,
x n

A ( ,
t , ) .
2

( 1) /, a h

, a . L

,
(34.2). V ,-,
A . t

34 9
-(- - < ->
(34.4).

I = U4 A a + A a + ...4 A, a ,
r 1 1 (34.10)
2 2 r 1 n


(341)
*- () -

(34.9) (34.11) .

35.
1. 18

= ) +

C , v

.

. (34.2),
112 [. III

(35.1)
^ r j r -

(8.4)

o-c,=-wagu-wa:gi jp\dV ) ~ ' \ jv \ (35.3,

,
. ,
PV = RT. (35.2) (35.3)
= R.


1 (


/
K V
- \ W J T '

(35.3)

C -C
P v = Ta?K^-. (35 4)

> 0, ,
> .

51.
2. V V 0

. c v

, V
v= 1/, .
,

- , = --7
(35.5)


t = 0 ( = 273,15 ) = 6,10-10"'
3 3 3
2- 10 / , = 10 / , (35.5)
4
2 /(-) = 5-10" /(- ).

.
, t = 4 ,
, ,
. 113

3.

\, t .
:
J 3
7 = 273 , = 140 /(-),
= 13,6- 10' / ,
1 0 2 4 1
/=2,-10 / , = 1,81-10- .
(35.5)
= 17 /(-),

= 1 2 3 /(- ) 0,0292 /(-),


- = 1,13.
, .


t 0 ,
.
4. c v

.
(35.1) c v

c = v v
v \/ [\ c/v j

+ P= (Cp C (35 6)
{jf)r - -^ '

2 3
~ J r + - 0,33 10* / ^ - 0,33 10 ,

9 2 4
+ ^ 1,28-10 / , 1,3-10 .
dv JT
, y-^r~jT
.
,

,

.
. , ,
: c
v

.
(
),
.
114 [. III

(
), ,
. ,
.

36.


.
, ,
,
. (34.2). ,
. -
. , .
, = (), ().


,
/ \
y^yj = fW\
T

(34.2)

( _ i l _ P
\ dV ) \ Jv dT
f \
dT \dxjv
dx,

( +
+
F
[dV J x

,
l v
= ^0 ^ dx. (36.1)
+ P
\'Wh
^ ^ j ^ =
(, V). j r . , -\- , ,
\ov 1%

. ,
6Q = dil + PdV dV ,
, / 60 \ fdU\

, , (36.1),

. .

.

37. ( )
1. , 30
, .
(
37] 115

I),
R R .
x 2

7\ , . ,
2

, .
, (. .
I), .
.

.
I
, Q t

R Q R .
x 2 2

, Q + Q , x 2

, , .

R R .
t 2

Q Q , t 2

,
,
I .
I, R R x 2

.

I,
.
,
Q[ R Q
x 2

R . , .
2

, .
, 12 (. . 25)
. , ,
, .
,
.
,
, .

Q{ Q . ,
2

, ,
.


0[ (37.1)
Ti ' 2

I .
116 [. III

, I
, ,
.
/? Qi + QI,

R Q0 + Q2, 2

A =Qi + Q\ + Q2 + <?2-
,
.
,
. Q[ , Q[ = Q . x

(37.1)

R x

. R 2

Qi (Qi \ Qt
Q2 + Q2 =
Q + f- = [
2 + 2 2


= Q + Q!,. ,
2

, .
==; 0. 2

,
L
| + |^<0. (37.2)
'1 '2


, .
2. (37.2) , ,
. Q[ , = Qj + Q[ + Q + Qo = 0 2

(Qi + QI) = ( Q + Qo)-


2

(Q, + QJ) R R . t 2

Q[ = 0,
(37.1).
2
Qi + Ql + 5 QI=o.

Q[,

7\ > 7", + QJ 5? 0.
, < , Q, + Q[ s c 0.
2

+
,
117

3. (37.2) ,
.
,
30. 7 j , .
Q , 30, ,
2

.
Qx _ Qi
0.


Ql Qi ^- 7*2 . 7
{ 6 6 )
-QT'^fx- '-
,
.
() , .

,

.
, ,
. . . . , , .
t = 150 , x

/ = 20 .
2

7\ = 423 , = 293 - - . .
2

7\ 423
. . . .
,
, .

. ,
,
()
.
. , ,
, ,
. ,

.
, .
,
(
) . ,
118 [. III

.

. ,
, ,
.
, , . ,
.
, ,
.

1. ,
( > ),
10 20 10 2

?
Cj .
2

, ,
.
. ,

.
&Qx = CjdTi, 8Q = C dT (
2 2 2 2

). 6 = 6Q + 6 Q , X 2

^ + - ^ = 0. (37.4)
' 1 '2

' 1 '1
,

^^' = ^^*. (37.5)

= = .

, ,

= $ 6 = - j dT-C
2 \ dT = (C T
j l 1 + C T ) - (C + C ) .
2 2 x a (37.7)
.
2. ,
. ( ,
2

, .)
20

. (37.6)
- > , = . .
2 20

(37.7)
, .
6 / 4 = 6 Q + 6Q . x 2
119

SQ 2 6Q X (37.4) , 7*2 = 20 = const,

= - -f- 6 Q l = _ CldT 1 + c{rw i.,

1 1 ( 3 7 8 )
(, ? v '
= Ci ^' Tjo In

( ,,). 10

(. 48).

38.

1. (37.2)
R R , R . lt 2 n

( ),

.,,

. -

( -
I)

,

Q lt

Q. ,
2 Q
n ,
Q + x

+ Q + ... + Q (. 28).
2 n


,
I.

R
0

,
0

. ,
,

R Ro 0 To
R R,, lt R . n

, t'- . 28.

R R (i = 1, 2,
0 ). ,
t

, ,
.
i- R 0
120 [.

Q, R Q'.
t

- | i + | i - = 0. (38.1)
'0 'i
/, Q ,
0

:
" '

,
I, .

R 0 Q ; 0

R t QH-QI;
(38.2)
R Q + Q' ;
n n

A=Q + {Q + Q[) + ... + (Q + Q' ).


0 1 n n


. Q\, Q',_, ... , (Q +Q' ) ~- ... x t
:
= (Qn + Qn) -~ 0- ,
R lt R , ... , R .
2 n


. R 0


Qo = T y ^ . o (38.3)

, I
,
R Q,
A~Q . 0

.
= Q ,
0


. , Q 0, ,
0

(38.3) , 0


-% < 0. (38.4)
(=1
38J 121

.
, (38.4)
. ,
I.
R
0

.
(38.4). ,
,
, Q . ; ;

2. ,
R;
I. ,
.
. (38.4)
. ,
,


.
3. , ,
R,, R ,
2 R .
, , ,
,
. , ,
,
. , ,-
R . ,
t

Rj I Q,,
N ,
Ri
6Q,j, 6Q, -.
A

Ri . ,
R t

. Ri
N
, ;
I 6 Q , a

;
6Q,- , 2

, . . ,
(38.4)

(38.5)


.
122 [. III

4. (38.5)
- R R , R, u 2

I .
I
.
, .
,
, ,
, . 8Q
, I
.
, (38.5)
, I.

5. ,
R . ,
0

,

. R R , ... ,
lt 2

, ,
R .
0

R . ,
t

R . , ,
0

R . R
0 0

, R . 0

6. (38.5)
,
. ,
.
6 Q b

. , ,
6Q . ,
2

8Q 8Q .
t 2

7\ ,
6Q
X

. , . .
%

, 6Q . 2

, ,
,
, . T imKC 2]


.
, Tj_ .
2 1 2
123

J * 1 *) ' 2

Qi <?2 ^ ,
1
1 2

Qi ,
, a Q , .
2

Ql \

,
Q l Q i
)= ~ < 1 < - 2 _ ( 3 8 )

Vl ' 1

.
. (38.2)
, .
Q + Q' = ... = Q + Q' = 0 = Q + 2 n n a

+ (Qi + QI) + + (Q + Q' ) = 0, Q = - (Qi + QI).


n

,
R 0 Q ; 0

R t (Q -\-Q' ) = Q 1 l 0%

. Q.
i 1 (38.1)

Qoi = Qo+Qi
'
i 2, 3, ... ,
Ti
,

^" ~"
'
i= 1

Qo = Tl ,
0
X' Qi
iiao 7"j

> T Q > 0. ,, < , 0 -< 0.


0 u

.
(38.4).
124 [. Ill

39.
1. .
,
, .
, ,
. .
, ,
, .
, .
, .
,

. , ,

.
2. , ,
. ,
().
, .
,
.
.
,
. ,
.
.
, ,
2 3

. Q . t

Q .
2

= Qi Q . Q ,
2 3

Q^. ' = Q' Q . 3

,
. = ', . . Q Q = Q', Q . x 2 3

.
> ', . . Qi Q > Q' Q . , Q Q ;> Q.' Q ,
Q 3 =2
Q + Qa Qi-
2
2 2 3 x 2 s


, .
:
Q 7^;
{

(Q-2 + Q') 7V,


Q .
s 3

Qs + Q2 - Qi,

1 \ ( 1

fZj-:
125

, > 7" > ,


2 3

1 1

Qi- (39.1)
1
7'
q Q. -f-z , .
, ,

Qi. (39.2)

1
T > ,
t 2 (39.2) ? > Q . x

, 1

. 29 q/Q 1 2

,
, ,
.
, q
Qi,


, ,
.
3.
,
(
)
( ).

, .
, ()
().
,
, , ,
.
, ,
, .
,
. , ,

,
37. Q 1

,
. .
, , ,
, .
, .
, Q
1

Q., . .
2

, Q , ..,
3

Qj
126 [. III

Q Q' = ,
:l

Q',. ,

- 1
T -+T ,
2 s Q-* .

40. .
1. , , ,
.

.
0 (40.1)

, ,
.

. .
:
< ^ ) - ~ - ^ 0 , 6'Q ,

.
, , 6'Q == 6Q,
<|>-^?3=0. (40.1)
, . ,


< ~ ? = 0 . (40.2)


.
2.
/ (. 30) 2 ,
.
l u l l .
J12111.
: f b Q f fiQ

112 21
. 127

8Q

112 1112
, ,
(40.3)
5 5 f
112 /112
, ,
, ,
. 6Q/T
,
, \ -^
,
.
, (40.3)
:
,

, .
:
, ,
,
.
, .
,
.
2 1, ,
, ,
1 2
. , / 2
S 5. ,
x 2

So

, ,
.
, .
, .
-
.
.
3. ,
(40.5)

128 [. iii


,
, .
S
dS=(^r) . (40.6)
\1 /
, 6Q
.
(40.6) , 6Q ,
,
.
4. 5
.

8Q = C dT + PdV = C (T) dT + RT~.
v v

d S = ^- = C (T)f-+R^-,
v

S= J C (T)^f v + R\nV.
C ,
v

,
S = C \nT v + R In V + const. (40.7)
v ,
S vC In T + vR In V-!-const.
v

, , ,
, .

.
, S
, , v.

S = \(cv\nT + # I n - +const), (40.8)

S = -H\C \nTA-R\r\ ^ - f c o n s t V
v (40.9)
i V
\ /

. (40.8) (40.9)
,
.
. 129

5. , oQ = ,
, dS , S = const. ,
,
. -
.

1. ,
.
. , ,

( p r e . 31). ' ACBDA .
ADB ,

'
dT
= 0.
ADB
( , =

7\ ,
;

.)

524--
. 31.
,
Q = 0, Q , .
Q = . , ACBDA
, ,
. ,

.
2. ,
.
3.
(. 32). ,
, < T v lt

, ,
, i = T T .
i 3 2 t

.
,
V
{ - ) 1 = 0.
. 32.
,
- C
0. v
4. 12, 23 31 (. 33). ,

., ,
, ( , X
V

pi
130 [. Ill

5. ,
12, 23 31 (. 34). ,
23 , 12
3 . 3

. = | 7 \ 1 ? - ( 7 - ) |
1

6. 12, 34 ]

23, 41 (. 35). 1\ Q . - x

. 33. . 34. . 35.

,
, .

. = *- ,
7.
/ 2 .

,

, ,
2.

, ,
,
. , 0

/
2 ,
.
. 1342
, 152
. (. 36).
, 13 42 ,

1
QJL

) "7-0

152 1342
Q , 34. > 6Q > 0,
0 0

6Q Q
J J
152 152
Q , 152.
, Q > . 0
131

8. , 2 1 (
, S > S,) ,
2

,
/ 2 ,
.
9.
\, . .
( dV
. ; - ^ - ^ = 0. (8.3)
s
/ '
3 Bm
, \~df~)v~^' ^ W (34.2)
... OP
dU = dV = PdV,
T p
KW) - . v
6Q = dU + PdV = 0. ,
.
10. 4 .
,
(.
), . . . . . .
?
. 1)
, ,
4 -
. 2)
.

41.
1. , 1
2 (. 37),
/.
2 / -
' - / / .

/' II

/ / ,

/7

S 3 - S X ^ J -f. (41.1)

l->2
,
6Q.
132 [. Ill

, 6Q = 0,
(41.1) .

S; S,. (41.2)

,
; , .
.
S > Si,
2

2
1 ,
.
,

/
2
. 37.
.
, , ,
.
2. .

(. 38).
.

V " .
v


.
,
.
?
.

, . 38
.
,
( ).
,
Vi , V .
2

, .--
.
, ,
. ,

V^. -
;
42] 133


&Q = PdV^RT^-, R
'V

.
.
,
. ,
, . . 6Q = 0, dS = 8Q/T = 0.
, S = const, . .
. ,
dS 6Q/T
. .
.
, (40.5),
,
,
.

42.

1. , ,
.
.
, , ,
,
,
, ,
. ,
. ,
,
.
, .

,
. Sj
,
.
:

S = vs,. (42.1)
134 [. III

,
, ,
(42.1) .
, . ,

, .
2.
.
,
7\, .,, , 3

. , ,
(
, ),
. 8Q,- ,
i- , ,
16,
! 6Q = 0. (42.2) ;

, ,
.
,
8Q
h

6Q,- .
t-

AS;

AS^ [ >' (42.3)


J 1 i
1=1
: I
( 1 in), 6Q,
J
, II ( m 1 ), r

8Q . ;

(42.3) ,
AS^i
t) \ 1 l ^ I I J

\i = 1 i=m- 1 /
, . ,

1 ^ . 1 ^ , j
1 1 1 1 1
i I . 1 . , i II . , 1

i= l i= 1 i m-fl i = m\
135

8Qi ,
, a 8Qn , 1\ 7'

. , 7 i > . , 6Q1 + 8Q = , U

bQi < 0. ,
,
.
, .
,
A SQlI>0
M + ^H(^-^) '
. . .
3. ,
, .
,
,
. (42.3)
. 8Q ,
;

, (42.3).
AS 0 .
4. ,
, , .
.
,
.

,
.

. , ,
. ,
. ,
.
5. ,
, .

. .
(41.2)
, .
,
. ,
,
/ 2,
. , (41.2)
1 2,
136 [. Ill

. 1 2

, 3
4.
6. ,
,
,
.

(. 80).
7. , "
,
: .
,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
. ,
.
, ,
, .

,
.
, .
,
.
, , :

,
, , ,
.

(. 80, 6).

43. .

1. 1 2
, V
.
.
,
137

. ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
?

\ ,
.
, .
, ,
, .

, . ^
, ,
.

, ,
, - *
,
(. 39). - 2
/,
2. , , - I
2, /. - . 39.

, ,
*).
, , ,
/ 2.
, ,
.
b /
V\ V.
/ ,
.
/ (40.7).
,

A S = v /?ln-^-,
1 1

v . 2
x

.
, 2
1
)
,
.
138 [. III

. / ,
2
AS = 2 v R\n~, 2

v 2, a V .
2 2

,
.
/ \
AS = R'vi\n~ + v \n-ir-}. 2 (43.1)
1
\ * 1 2 /

, V\ < V V < V. .
2

,
, ,
.
2. (43.1) ,
(18391903). , 1 2
. (43.1) AS
- . ,
v , \^ = v, =
1 1
= / v , Vi = V = / V, (43.1)
2 2 2

AS = vR 12.
,
. ,
. .
,
(43.1) ,
/ 2 .
. ,
1, 2,
.
, .
AS = 0, (43.1)
. ,
,
.
,
.

. (1879 1955)
, .
,
. ,
,
,
.
139

4 4 .


.
. ,
.
,
: ,
.

, : 1)
S ; 2) .
, . . - (1876
1964), . ,
S ,
. ,
S
, , :
,
.
,
. ,
, .
, -
,
.
, ,
, ,

.

45.
1. ,
.
.
, 8Q = TdS.

6Q = dU + PdV (45.1)

dU = TdS-PdV. (45.2)
/ = U -\~ PV, U

dI = TdS + V dP. (45.3)


TdS = 8Q, dl = SQ.
, ,

Q, .
110 1. Ill


.

: W, ,
, .

4 = U-TS, (45.4)
0 = 4 + PV=--U-TS + PV. (45.5)

d = SdT-PdV, (45.6)
dO> = SdT + V dP. (45.7)
dT = 0, d* = PdV =
6. . ,

,
,
.
(45.2), (45.3), (45.6) (45.7) '
U
5 V, / S ,
V, -
: U^U(S, V),
l = I(S, ),
( 4 5 - S
W = W(T, V), '
= (, ).

.
. ,
,

. ,
(45.8) ,
. ,
(45.8)
dU = (
(Ir)v
d / dS dP
= (5)p + (5)s '
. 1.41

(45.2), (4.5.3), (45.6)


(45.7)
'dU_\ 1d

OS Jv'
P = _ HJ" (45.9)
,
~ {d7js'
_\
(45.10)
\0S jp'- ~ js '

s \ dT jv'
p= [ dVJT'
(45.11)

(\
\ jp'
v= it.'
(45.12)

- .
W V = W -f- TS, / . = . + TS.
(45.11) (45.12),

U= t-T{2) , v (45.13)

' - * - ( ) , -14)

.
,
. ,
, .
, , .
(45.13)
.
U' U{S, V),
S V , . .
.
(45.1) 8Q , . .

.
.
2. , (45.9)

/ \ _ d4J I \ __ _&
\ dV )s ~~ OS dV ' \ dS jv ~ ~ dV dS '



142 [. I l l

,
- (\>\

( \
Wis - \dSjp' (45.15)
OS \
( \
; ~ \dfjv' (45.17)
'dS\ (\'\
) ~ \)' (45.18)

.
,

.
,
, 34.
.
1.
. (45.2) dV,

1
\\') \\'; '
(45.17)

{tv)r-^) -P. r (45.19,

2. dP
(45.3)

( \ =(\ + V

(45.18)
<*
(45.19) (45.20) 34 .
.
3. /
, . . ,
.
.

6 = PdV (12.5).
:
l^U + ^AiOi (), (45.21)
1
' V - TS ( ), (45.22)
= / + v . . ( ).
(45.23)
46] 143


dU^TdS-SAidui, (45.24)
dI = T dS + ^UidAi, (45.25)
dV = SdT-VAidai, (45.26)
dQ'^ SdT+'ZaidAi. (45.27)

46.

1. 19.
.
(. . 18)
.
.
. , ,
, AT.
19, /
: / = 0.
,

/ + = 0.

j "f : , {^ )
r (45.20),
/\
I 1 v
\ \ip \\
4 6
a p ) / = ( )

/ , , ,
/ .
, V ^ , [jj-' ~V, p

7' - 0. ,
. , ,
, .
104 ,
(
--).
2.

.
, ?" , (46.1),
,
-
144 [. III

.
, , (
).
.
(. 105).

, . . ( ),

(. 25). ,
25.
..
.
1
.
,
, . . ,

.
:i

/ 7
>-=\ {%), dP = \ '-- ,/ dP. (46.2)
Pi ' \
,

. ,
, ,
.
3.
.
, -
. '
.
().
__ AT
~" '
, ,
_ dT
~~ dx

*' (dV\ _fdV\ dx

r _/6Q\ /8Q\ dT _ , dx r

p Cp
-\dT)p -\dxjpdT^ dT'
C'p ,
, . .
fiQ
- '
C p
\
' { d x J-
P
4fil - 145

(45.1)
UW\ dx _
dT _ ' dT
dx ~ ~J~dx '
Lj
'dT

dT \
' '
1
+

1 [\'\
V
= 0 \ , dx.
(46.3)
1 + V

-
0

. ,
, ,
.
.
' = ().
,
, .
PV = ,
1 fdV\ 1 '
. ,-,-r I ,,,. , ---
1
V \ Jp PV - V
, .
, (46.3),

/ ' ^ dx ^

(-

.
, ,
R.

'

L
! R
.. ' V \ .' W," -
J Rx^ '


'
(4.6.4)
/V '


, -= --- 273,16 . (46.4)'
.
'/R ; 5 / 3 = 1,67.
!46 [. III


1. , .
.
,
. dl
= TdS + VdP 0,
d
fS \ V

, ,
, S .
2.
. ,
.
, .
,
.
.
,
. , ,
.
,
, .

.

i-'i
, , -

= dT+m dv
\ v ,dV/
. (18.3) (34.2),
,-) .


/_\ / (46.6)
[dVju C v

, x 1D

- = \
2 d V. (46.7)
V
v\
7\ = 0. 2

47.
.
, , ,
/,
,
,
df = X{x, y)dx+Y(x, y)dy,
. 147

= . Y = ,
\; '
,
(dY\ !\ .,,
(47.1)
. (45.19)
(45.20).
, , , ,
Xdx + Ydy (
) / (, ), -
.
.
. , 6Q

Q = Q (, ).
dQ = dU + PdV = dI- V dP,

dP.

(47.1),
-1 \ -V !

, ,
.
, Q
, SQ
. .
,
6,
. d
,
.

.
1.
/(~ .
s


..,'\ .. ..'\
148 1. ILL

^jr/j , V,
. ,
, . -,
, V, , S .
.

\ _ [\ (\
dVJs ~ [dTjs \dV]s'

, , S
. . , V, S.

\ _ (\ fdS) (\ (\ [OS'"
\dTjs~ \dSJT\dTjp' \0Vjs \dSlv\dVJT

/OS) (\ (\ fdS\ 1

[dV s \ \dS {dSJTWjTy

T (iS\ /SQ\

dS_\ (\ ^ ['' = \dfjp _
dTjp\dS]v~'fdS\ ~ (*Q\ ~C ' V

[dfjv \dtjv

dSjr \dVJr~\dVjr'

\ _ (\
y
dVjs~~ W/T'
l l
<s = V <T, (47.2)

/, ,
.
23 (. 23).
2. .

-() . (47.3)

S ,

\Jv \dVjT

fOSy JdS\ (dS\ (dV} =C ldP\


v ldV\
\) XdTJv^KdVJTXdTjP "f \jv \jp'

,
dV 47 4
- -{ \ (\ ( -)
149

. .
:

47 5
[) = {)' < '>
/ \
/8

dU\ (dV\

C V ( 4 7 0 )
&T)v= v+ v- .V
\ (\ (dS\ (dS\
(47.11)
dVjs' :
[dSjv \dVJT C \dv)r-
v

(\ d s
l \ _ fdS\
(47.12)
\dPjs \dS)
P \dPJT \)'
/dV\ (dS\
(dS\ (dS\
_(dS\ (\
/\ /\
.' a n _ C 1\
p fdV\
\dfjp =
~\)~^
\) \)
\dfjp [dPjs
\dPjs. \ dp). ~~ ~ T \avjs \dPjs'
' ~f \dPjs =
^ ( i 7 A

(dV\ _ / W \ ,(dV\ dV\ (dT\1\ _fdV\ ,(dV\


IdV ldV\ _ fdV\ ^ T fdVy
+ + 1
[dPJs~\dP)T\) [dTJp[dPJs~~\dPJ
[ dTJ \dPj<s
+
\}^ [-Jp [dSJp ~ uPJr
P C [dTJp ' p

(47.14)
(dP\ (\
ldP\
T (\
(dPvi
*
\?) C \df)v v

48.

1. -
, , .
, 0

. .
. ,
, :

. , , .
1 2.
= U U + Q. x 2

Q ,
1 2.
.

<S
2 Si 5s ^
0
12
150 BTOFOK ". Ill

'

(48.1)

(48.2)
. ,
, ,
= U T S. 0

,
, Y

Y W U TS. ., == . 2

. ,
= ,
= ,-,. (48.3)
(45.13),
(48.3)

(48.4)


. .
2. ,
, = U TS
. U
.
, ,
, U TS,
.
.
, ,
. .
-> 0
.
3.
.
,
. ,
( , )
<j 4 9 ] 151

,
. 0

,
, . ,
0

. ,
,
(V. Vi). ,
0 2
n eJH
A .
(48.2)
3 1
" '<Zi-Z.,, (48.5)

Z = Y + P V = U-T S + P V.0 (48.6) 0 0

,
, Z
Z = = U TS PV.
. _ .. (48J)


1
' = .

. (48.4)

:.':^ /, /, 7 ; :
;;' ' (48.8)


, ,
, .
1 | 0
. ,
, .

, 2 37.

49.
1.
.
, ,
. ,
,
,
. ,


.
,
. ,
.
152 [. Ill

, ,
. ,
. ,
, .
,
, , .
, / , , , . .
.
q,
.
,
. ,
/ , ,
2
, i ? , / / , R
t

, . . .
,
, .
, / >- 0
.
2.
. ,
, . .
. . ,
, . .
, .
,
. dq
= .
,
; q, . ,
, (34.9)
; = q, Ai = . , %
,
.
,

* - 7 f = . (49.2)
= dU'dq
. (49.2),
1882 ., .

T 2 49 3
' i (-?)=- ( -)


l
e(T)=-T^ EldT + e(T ).
0 (49.4)


, -
,()1 153

3. 1851 .
.
. -
MVHT %.
. = --
(49.2) ,
, .
= . ,
,
(49.2).
dq tldq.
q (, = 1),
Eq ,
. ,
, . . . -
.
.
. ,
.
(49.3) , = , (49.2)

(48.4), =, Ui U = . .
2

4. (49.2) ,
,
, .
. ;

(1791 1867).
,
q,

, (49.5)

-1
/ ' 9 6 500 - ( '),
. , q 1
1, nF . .

nF , . . = nFu.

(49.2)
~ = . (49.6)

50.
,
, S
, . .
,
. ,

, . .
. ,
, 1 2
Sj > S . --
2
154 - . ill

,
S, S. 2

,
.

,
. , ,
,
; .


.
. .
1. ,
. , V
, ,
. ,
(48.2) , Y ^ 0. ,2

Y == U T S
U

. , , ,
.
V


Y = U T S ,
n

. ,
, Y
W = U TS.
2. , ,
.
0

, , 0

. ,
, (48.5) 2 , - 5 Z v


2 = Y + . , Z

,
. , ,
=
= F + PV.
, ,
.
V /.
3. (41.1)

.
155

So Sj = 0 6 = PdV = 0,
.

> , , dll 0.
,

. ,
.

.


, .
4.
,
, .

51. -

1. ,
- (18501936) 1884 .
, , (18501918)
1887 .
,
. -
,
. ,
.
-
,
. ,
, , .
-

(18041865),
. :
,
, ,
156 [. III

, ,
,
.
-
, , , ,

. , , ,

.
, -
,
,
.
2. ,

, f.
,
,
.
,
. , f ,
/, .
/,
. f ,
. ,
. . .
. "
,., , ... / , ,
Z, (48.0).
, .
, , S V. ,
U S V, ".
, : ,
. , ,
.
3. , ,
. f
. ,
, / (, , , ...) .

. X (, ) Y (, ),

(51.1)

X Y , .
.

.
157

4. (51.1) .
.
. f.
,
_\ d v l ^ !dX\
9 , , , !dY'
^ ^ - ' In
,
dx dy.

(\
, (51.3)
\ i
dY_\
, (51.4)
jx
(\ (\
\ ) jx
dY \
jx jx
.
. (5!.2)
, :
(\
\ ~
IV \ ,'
:0.
(dY \
(~\
\ /,/ \dyjx

( \
j ,
1
dY\ dY\ (\ (
52 0.
'dyjx
X , . . X, ,
. (8.9),

( \ =

\ jx dyjx'
(51.5)
dY\ ldY\ (\
dyjx ~*~ {) Xdyjx^o
Y X (,
:
= 0, ). ,
Y , , X, ,

IdY ldY\ fdY\


dY ^ dx-\- dy.
\ )
\dy)x~* \9XJu \dylx
X CONST, dX ,

(d_Y\ 'dY . 1\
(51.6)
[dyjx \dy) + \dxjy \dyjx '
158 1, III

(?) 5,0. (51 7)


\dyjx~o '

5. (51.7) (51.8) -
' v\
(51.4) (51.3). (51 6) ! V ) (51.5),
\ 1X

/\ fdY\ = _(dY\ (\ (\
\ jx ~ [ Jx [ ) [) \dyjx'
(51.2)
\ fdY\ \dy~jx
-
dyjx [dyjx fdX\
\)
, , .
, (51.3), . ,
,

dyjx = Q \ j x

6. (51.3), (51.4), (51.7) (51.8)


,
.
(51.2). X .
, , X,
, . ,


( *\ = -( -\ ( 1\
\/ \)\1'
X, , , .
X ,
, , .
- , ,

(\ _/_\ (\
\5)~\7) \dy~Jx'

<\
\ = =
=
__(
_ \ . (\ =__1\ [\ , , [\
_
\dyjx \') \)
\) \'1\)'

_\ _(:
== :_. _ _!', .;_\ = /\
) ~
\ j [] ~ \ jx \)
x [)'
51] 159

(\ fdY\
.. ! . [-^ , -
\/ \0]
(51.2) . ,
'(\ fdY\ (\ /JY]!
, -- . v . ~ ' . -, -
\dxjy' \dyjx' \ /' , '
. ,
*).

:

>\ _! -{ \
dyjx' \)=' \6Y)x'

,~,1' \)=' \)-

7. -
. , ,
,

1
\)= \dYjx = \ J

(dY\ 1\
["g'^j [ffi^x
, 0

A,.v . 2

, ,
. - .
(51.9) (51.10)
-
. , ,
,
. X

, , Y = 0.
, X

fdX\
= (-1 .

~)='
, (51.10),
.
,
.

*) ,
, > 0.
IGO - [. III

8. .
f.
.
Z U TS f PV,

, .
,
S V. U, I, F, , Y
, .
, , ' '
U (S, V), > V
S V , ' U
. /, F, . - = U T S 0

. ,
, , .
-
.
.
f=Z(S, V), 5,
V,

_(<>7.\ _(dU_\
\ A S }v~\ OS/v" "'

(45.9)

X = T-T ,
0 Y-=--P P.
a (51.12)

(51.1) T , -= , , .
t


.
(51.3), (51.4), (51.7) (51.8)

5 ,
( ) 5 < - < >

< 0 ( 5 U 4 )
.W-)r "
. ,
,
.
. 6'Q = TdS.

. >,

[..>0, (51.15)
>0,
(51.16)
Ml 161

(51.9) (51.10)

(51.17)
\0Vjs'

/\
\dS jp
!\
[dS Jv '
(51.18)
V
,
,
.
, , ,
0 4 '. (51.18)
. ,
, V.
9. (51.13) (51.18)
. , ,

(51.13) (51.14). , ,
. ,
.
0

: = .
0

, ,
. , ,
V .
, dP/dV > 0.
,
0

. ,
0

.
, ,
, ,
/dV > 0. , ,
(51.13) (51.14) , .
. , dP/dV < 0,
.
,
. ,
- .
10. , ,
C .
v

, , .
0

,
, ,
.
.
. , -
0

.
.
6Q .
dT. dT
, 6Q/dT
. , .
.
.
, ,
162 . [.

. , -

. , ,
,
, , . .
. - .
11. .
(51.11)

/\ _(dS\ ?dS\ _(\ _fdV\ (dV\


\dVJs' [dV/r'idPjT' \dSjv' [dSJp'\dT)p-
, .
.
(45.15)(45.18),
:

\ Js [ v'

.
, 6Q = TdS.
.

(\ (\ (dV\

6Q\ _ \ /6Q\ /64? \


dVjT' \dPjT' \dPjv' \dVJp

.
(^fpj
p (^p)s

.
,
. ,
.
, :
(^j^>0,
, .
-
\dVjT \ Jt
. .

I ^ L \) >
. .
12. ,
. .
, ,
() . ,
( )
. .
,
.
= dl. V /,
, . ,
51J 163

Z= UT S -)- P V
0 a UT S /.
0 0

.
| ^ J . ( ^ - 1 < 0 . ,
,
" .
.
.
, . . (18661912) ,
. ,

. , , .
,
.
IV


* *

52.

1.
.
(17681830)
19 . ,
, .
. (. 16), ,
,
, - ,
,
. ,
,
, .

,
, .
,
. ,
. .
, ,
, . ,
.
, , ,

. , ,
, , ,
.
2.
.
/

,
, .
,
j .
,
, X.
165

. ,
. /
t
f j(x,t).
, X,
dx (.
40). 5 .
, dt
, / () S dt. ,
, / ( + dx) S dt.
,
,
dt 5_
,
Jfx+dx)
[7 () - / ( + dx)\Sdt = - - Sdxdt. + x dx

. 40.
dM c dT, dM = pS dx
v

, c , dT
v

.
,
% = -%- (52.1)

3.
. ,
,
.
.
/.
,
2

> , ,
2

\
2

I.

j = x ZW* ( ( 5 2 . 2 )

v. ,
.
.
, . X
, / = dx, = (),

= ( + dx),
2

-
2 _ T(x + dx)~-() _
I dx ~~ '
166 [. IV

(52.1)
5 2 3
! = < - >

(52.3) , X
,
/ = dx, \ = ( + dx), = ().
2


,
, ,
, , z.
X

,
. ,
(52.3).
, , z.

: = ().
(52.3) (52.1),
' I \ /

.
,
,

2
. 0 f.\

*= (52-7)
%
.
. ,

.
. , q,
,
. (52.1)

= - % + ( 5 2
' 8 )

.
167

4. ,
- , , ?,
, ,

!
pcv (
\
(52.9)


. ,

.
(52.9),
. ,
,


.

.
/
,
/, ,
.


+ dr (. 41).
, dt
. 41.
,
2
/ () Anr dt. ,
2
, , / ( + dr) -An ( + dr) dt.
2 2
4. (jr ) dt 4; {jr ) +drdt
r r y
2
, / ,
: + dr.
2
4 [(/ ), (jr ) \
2
r+dr dt = - 2
4 -gp (r j) dr dt

, dt
.

2
dr dt,
.
2
-\nr dr -c dT. v


= ('"/> + ? (52.10)
168 [ . IV

4 X 0
(52.3) / = ' ^ ,
521
<*.-*!(")+- ' < >

. ,

^ 5 = - | | ( / 7 ) + 9. (52.12)
52)
= ?
[* -) + - (
5.
,
. ,

/
,
,
,
, -
1 (. 42).
. 42.
,
, .
h
.
.
S , ,
1 ,

[/"-/*'] S.
, , ,
Sh, . .
h -> 0 . , ,
,

= /'". (52.14)

,
. ,

.
J .
53] 169

53.


.
, .
.
d'Tldt = 0.
,
.
.
1.
. ,
/,
7,.

. X ,
.
1, .
. (52.4)

d ! dT\
., ; X -,- 1 = 0.
n

dx \ dx J

, dT dx const, , (52.3), / == const.


,
.
.
, dT'dx = const.
,
= + ,
.
.
.
. 0
= 7\, I = .,.
7, , , /-- .
,
:
7 = ^ 1 + ^ , (53.1)

2.
. ,

.,. ,
.
170 [. IV

(52.11) ,

r
dr r dr ) - "
xr^dT/dr = const. ,
j = dT'Idr
. ,
47, .
, .
, dTidr ^= const.
2
, dT'idr = Air ,


= - - + .

,
.
:

.=- - + , , = +.
1
, ' - ., '
,
:
r. T -r
2 2 lTl nr (T -T,)\_
2 x

v
r r 2 x '
% '

3.
.
r .,.
lt

.,. 1

,
.
,
1 2 1
= ' - '+^11 (53.3)
In -- In

1. R = 10 , ,
.
q 100 /*. 373 ,
400 /(--).
, .
. dT/dt = 0.
(52.11) (q const)
dT q ,
. 171

,

dT/dr. = = R; 0

= 7 9 0
= + -

2.
.
, - .

1
. =>-\--.- ' "), / , -
4-*.
, R , .
.

54. .
1. , ,
, , . . , , c v

. ,
, . . .
,

(52.8), (52.3)
c ,==x <
P ^ U+ /(*> 0- (54.1)
q
.
(54.1) .
.
.

- ,
.
, = / ( * ) , (54.2)
f () .

.
, = 0 = /.

7Vo = cp,(/),
V
, ^ = (/), 2

(/) (/) .
2
172 [. IV

2.
, %
.
, (54.1)
: (, /) (, t),
2

(54.2) (54.3).

6 = 7\ , 2
5 0
3- ......
=^, (54.4)
. . (, 1)
. , ,
:
,_ = 0
0 , (54.5)

. t. (54.6)

/
2
/ (/) --- |j dx. ,

. , (54.5), / (0) 0.
I (/) :


(54.6). ,
%>0. , ^y=sS0.
/ .
, / (0) = 0, / (/) ^ 0.
dl'dt = 0, . . / (f) const = 7 (0) = 0.
, G (, /) = 0 , . . 7\ (, i) =
= (X, ). .
, ,
-
. 173

. ,
.
,
.
.
-
,
,
, .
56.
3. ,
. .
1 2
,
.
T .
w

.
.
,
( ).

. t
(t) (), 1 2 .
2

, .

.
.
, 1
10

, 2
. 7" 10

7 , -
20

. , ,
.
2

,
. 1 2,
, .
,
.
, . . .
, 7\ > . 1
2

S , / .
dQi/dt 1
--dQJdt 2. , ,
2

Q = , Q = ,..
l 1 1 2 2
1.74 [. IV

(54.7)
dT, dT 2
1 + ,
"~1
d T j + .,7 = const.

, 1 2.
, = , = ,
10 2 20

CiT -{- ,
1 2 2 1 -- 2 21 (54.8)
: 7 \ . 2

(54.7)
dT,/dt dTJdt .

(54.9)
dt

_ xS / 1 | 1 \
(54.10)
I \ \ }' 2

X . (54.9),
t

.
2

.
1 2.
.
: 7 \ = , = 20

t = 0.

(54.11)
Ti-T =(T -T )e
2 10 i0 \

(54.8) (54.11),

,
,
-
+,+ 2
(54.12)
_
C\Ti -\-
0 2 2
e _ T
(7'io-7' o)
\-\- 2 C i + C' a
2

^ ,
(54.12) ,
.

1. ,
. ,

( < 7V ).

.
t. ,
,
54] . 175

7' . ,
]1

dt,

^'-dt.
X
q pdx, dx
, dt, , q
.
X f

dt = qp dx.

,
2
* ( ) t = ^ qpx + A.

,
. 0 t = 0, = 0.

3
^=2,22-10 > /( ), 3,35-10 /, = 0,9 / .
, 10 -'.
, , (t = 86 400 )
~ 11,3 .
2. ( R = 1 ) 0

10 . ,
, ,
:i
. = 6- 10~ /(-)>
q = 330 /.
. ,
,
. (53.2)

R
=
( ) , +
\ -' I r

R , 7 \ ^ 0

(
= 10 ). ,
0

dt,

4- -]~ dt = 4 # (TV - \ dt. J


dr \ /

2
q dm 4 _,<7 dR.
,

( ~ ) 0 = - . , 9 dR.

176 [. IV

5 5 . .

1. (52.6) .
, a/tfp'umu-
. T (, t) ., (, t) -
r

(52.6), . .
6, '-, , ? 2

1 L
dt ' "- ' dt ' ' ' ? '
,
(,+ )
2 , + ) 2


dt ' *
, = 7\ + 2

(52.6). ,
.
. (, I), ., (, t), ... -
.
= 7, (, I) + T-i (, t) -j- ...
.
() .

, ,
-/, .
. = 7\ + 4 - ... , 2

, , .
+ 7", 4 . ,


- ,
. ,
, .
, ,, .,,
.
. ,

.
2. , , , .
= + 7 (5.26),
2

7\ ., .
. ,
(52.6). :
= 4- iT , , ., .
2

(52.6) ,

+ 1
dt ? j \ dt dx? j
,
, . .

7 / Q
" ^ ? ~ ^ T ^ - ~ o W -

, = + iT 2

, , T. t

. , -
177

: , .


.
.
,
.
3. -
,
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, 0. X
.

, .
, .
.

, (17071783)
ia
e = cos + i sin (55.1)
.
= < 0 (55.2)
, k . ,
0

(55.2) .

, 1 ,
= (7 --*-* ==>,0
dt

*
(52.6) ,
/ = (55.3)
, (55.2) (52.6),
.
0

. k
:

. - / = 7 | - (55,,

(55.2)

Y
rw<? \ 2 /_ ( 5 5 5 )

, ,
, .
.
. ,
,
. (55.5)


. -* .
, .
178 [. IV

/ ,
. ,
.
(55.5) :

^ , = = ' 2-X
0 x " ccosi
0 o s (
m < - l /| (55.6)

2
= = 0 * s i n ^ c o r - 1 / ^xj, (55.7)

,
(52.6).
(55.5).
, , .
4. .
(55.6) (55.7)
.
. , , (55.6).
, ,
-

= - -. .

> - | ^ = const (55,8)


, . ,
X v.
, (55.6), ,
. v
(55.8).

j" I - > -2 (53.9)

,

>. , 2 i I . -/. (55.10)
, (55.6),
:

=..~ , (55.11)
__ _
r
2 ,__ ,
V I XT'
0

^
.
1 = ~ = ^ .
e
Den ^ ^ rr '
P
(.). , (55.6)

' '. t = 0.

Tx a = T casa>t, 0 (55.13)

? V = ^' 1
* cos ^2
55
(-
179

( 54) ,
, , (55.6).
(55.13) (55.14)
, .
, , .
t 0 ,
, (55.13).
,
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.
(55.6). ,
,
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,
.
6. ,

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,
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.
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~ 1 .
, ,
~ 20 .
.
, .
,
.
.

. ,
v cxl
1 , < 0 , 0 4 6 , .


180 I F I! P O [1. IV

56.
1. ,
- 0. / 0
7*.
. ,

.
(, t) .
. . ,
, 54.
' .
(52.6).
, ,
.
, , i ,,, , .

(52.fi), ,
. , ,
, , t, , 7\, '/ -
0

7",
, , ~ , _, . .,- -
' ' V

.
7 ,, ib , ,
. ,

-=/(|). (56.1)

(56.2)
VyJ'
/
ITb
(52.6).
:
_df \ _df 1
r
d\dx dl2l> yt'
* _ d'*f _ J \ _ </-/ 1_
2 2
- ~ d | 2 VYt ~~ tfg 4yJ '
^dj[dl _ _ 1 d[ x
dt ~ dl dt ~ 4 dl t Yyt'
(52.6),

1 5 6 31

t ,

181

, / = ,

21 y.t
= \' e-^dl + B.

. 0, / 0,
. ,
/ 0, 7\.
: = 0

t = 0.

=_\' e-*d\ + T
0 v


,
1

^ | . , = ^ I 0 + 7V

2 \ yj
= 2 ^ = ^ t > - " d | + 7V (56.4)
6

_ - ^ 0

~ | r.yj
( 5

, , . . = 0
_ 7,
(56.6)

(55.9) v
,
6T = 2 7 W \ _ ( 5 6 ? )

v \ xt
2. (56.7) ,
. ,
- .
, .

.
.
,
. (56.7)
.
. ,
. ,
,
t (56.7). ,
182 [ IV

20
. ,
'
25 . , ,
, 0 -,
: ,) ~ 4000 . , , ,
' v = 1 . (5G.7),
;

2
, 4(- - 4-4000 , 8

t =
-~7iWrY '-TW " '

^[) 125/
. .
.

. , -
.
.
.

57.
1. (52.3), /,
,
, v.
.
. ,
.


,
. , ,
.

.
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
, .

,
.
, .
, , , j nponop- n

.
, .
. ,
,
/ = (-7 ),
(57.1)
0
183

, - .
0

.
. =
, . . = ; = 0 0

.
, (57.1)
.

,
.
,
.
2. ,
, X.
,
.
, ,
.
t .
0

.

.
,
(52.4).
.
(. 40)
, ,
( ) dx, .

(52.4)

S S a T
^ % = 3^%)- P( -To), (57.2)

S .


2
(57.3)
FC =

pc S '
v

b2 T

di~~ = xS- ( -^o). (57.4)

1.
, 1 1
. 0
184 [. IV

. 7 0
. (57.4)

^ - ^ 7 = 0,
1
(57.5)

,

B=-L. (57.6)
VX
(57.5)
x x
T=Ae$ + Be-$ . (57.7)
: = 7",
= 0, , I. ( /,
.)

= ( 5 7 8 )
sFpl '

2. Tx, T , , T , ...
2 3 4

.
(. ). ,

. = +1 = = . . . = C L X L S T = + 1 . - ^ ( 5 7 - 9 )

-
.
V

-

* *

58.

1.
.
. 20
,
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(1738 .),
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;
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.
1 : 8,
.
,

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186 - [. V

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2 2


, 1 : 2.
:
,
4 , 11 N 0 , 2

8 15 N 0 ,
12 19 N 0 , 2 3

16 23 N 0 , 2

20 27 N 0 . 2 D

,
(7 ),
4 : 8 : 12 : 16 : 20 = 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5.
,
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(17661844), ,

,

.

-
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. - (
),
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(
) .
,

.

. .
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19- .
3.
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..(184.41906).,
187

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10003000
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t

/7,. (. 43).
,
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, ;

, dt.
, ,
Vidt, .
- , , dt
. ,-
-
, . . z = n dV, dV .
t ;

X .
v dt, dV = ov dt. ,
ix ix

,- = aniVix dt.
!90 - [: V


.
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.

.
i'-
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.

.
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f\,
,
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dt, Z;pi ==
oiipixpidt, , .
,
f'j, fidl-- 0,,- p,dr.
v

/ / ,
=
fi f> vnpixpi,
i- .
,
, (
v > 0), . .
iK

= V anflixPt.
V ...><)
1.1,

f] f. ,
l

. f., ,
.
, , . . , v < 0. ix
19:1

F 2

V < U

, ,
.
F F
x


F=FX + F 2 =- 2 tiiV pi.
lx

,
, .
F .
.
, F Y
F = a y ^niVixPiy.



, .
,
. F .

F ,


n V
Fx = 2 i ixPix,

,
v p
ix . F
ix x

, :
=^1 . 1

,
~ . ,

, ^ . 1 1

,
.
l
(v ) = 2 n,vxPx (59.1)n ixPix

(
).
P = n(v ). xPx (59.2)

= v p x x + vp + y y .

192 - [. V

,
, ,
,
5 9 3
() = > = <w) = <>- ( - )

= (vp). (59.4)

, , V,
N, = N/V.
,
PV =\N(vp). (59.5)

4. (59.4) 59.5)
.

.
.
.
,
.
.
, (59.4)
(59.5),
.
^ ) , .

. ,
.
:
.
.

.
,

.

.
5. (59.4) (59.5) ,
.
.
193

(59.4) (59.5) ,

2
P=jnm(v ), (59.6)

PV = jNm(v*). (59.7)

.
, .
.
,
.
, .

.
, .
(59.6) (59.7) .
v
(, ). , (59.7)

= ! < 0 >, (59.8)

< )

.

.

.

(59.8), ,
, .
-

,
. ,
, ,
:
.

60.
1.
.
.
, .
,
. -
194 - [. V


.
72.

, .
.

2
v = V(v ),
B (60.1)
. .
. ,
2
( ) ,

.
, ,
v.
, .
73, v v
KB

. v (59.6) KB

= ]/"~. (60.2)
v KB , =
=
0 = | / . (60.3)
.
,
.

.
, 26.
2. - ,
v .
KB

(60.2) -
1
- - = # 7 \

v (60 4)
"=Vir- -
, (, = 2-1,008)
0
- 7
8 , 3 1 4 3 - -273,15 ,
, 1 QQQ /
= 1/ 2 -1 008 ^ = 183 800 / = 1838 /.
60] 195

, = 493 /, v ~ 461 /
KB

. .
3.
.
, . . ,
,
5
10~ . 1 . .
2 4
1( ; 10" . . 10 = 100
(. 86).
.
.
.
.

. (18881970) 1920 .
, ,
. 44. ,
,
.


5 6
10~ 10~ . .


(961,9 ).
, - . 44.

.
,
. ,
.
,
( . 44 ).

25002700 /.
, , ,
, ,
D,
.
. D'.
s D D',
. ,
, s = Vr, V = <nR
, R ,
.
BD. I.
196 - [. V

= l/v, v . ,
s = aRl/v, {

= . (60.5)

D ,
D' .
, .
(60.5) , s
D D',
.

, ,
.

1200 . v 560 640 /,
584 /,
(60.4),
.

61.
(59.6) (59.7)
, . . ,

. , (59.4)
(59.5) .
, .

, . . , ,
.
, .
, ,

. ,
. ,
, .
.

. , . .

,
(59.5).
/,
v = , .
(59.5)
1 1
PV = / {Ne) = / E,
3 3 (61.1)
62] - 197

N ,
.
. (61.1)
( 5 9 . 8 ) , .

.
,
, N
.
.
= Ne, = (Ne),
(61.1).
1
/ ,
3

.
.
. ,
1
(61.1) , / 3

. ,
, PV = .
(61.1)
.

62. - .


1. -
.
(. 4 5 ) ,
.
.
,
,
1,
2. 2


,
: = 2
1
/ nan v\ = / n m vl. 1
. 45.
s x 3 2 2


, :
7\ = . , , 7 \ > .
2 2

,
, .
, ,
.
198 - [. V


.
,
.
2.
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
, ,
.
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.

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,
,
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,
, .
, ,
. .
-
.
, X.
, ' .
v v\ . lx x

. ,
,
:
m
iV lx 4 - = m v\ x x + ',

=
- -
2 + ~2 1 1
Y V l x
+~ 1 1

,
.
, _2Mu-(M- )v mi iv

V l X
M + ftt!
X
,2
niiVix _ (M mi) uv )x + (M ffli) t>u
2 ~ 2 (M+mi)a
- 199

,
,
. ,
.
, . .
, .
,

.
uv ,
lx


_ / \ m L 4M*{iP)4r{M-mtf(v\ ) x

1 / 2
2 ^ 2 (M + m i )

,
.


-\>>-
*)+(- ?(\ ) 1 _ , . ,

m W 1 = iLfi, (62.1)
, ,
. ,


Vsmi = V2m2 <fw>- (62.3)


.
(v )
x = {v )y = (vl),
,
1 l
/ m (vl)
2 1 = /,m (vl). 2 (62.4)
,
.
3.

, ,

, ,
200 - [. V

.
. .


, , .

= 2
/ 5.
3 (62.5)
,
(59.8)
2
PV = / /Vg 3 noci = iV0, (62.6)
PV = RT.
-
. 1 2.

pv
1 1 = Ne,
1 1 p v =N e .
2 2 2 2


= , Vi = V , i = 2 .
2 2
N = N .
x 2

.
.
, (62.5),
.
, , , .
G

.
U
7
. U = = 0
3
= / / 0 , . . 0 .
2

, 32
-
.

7\ 7V
, / ,
0 .

.
k. ,

0 = &7\ (62.7)
-
- 201

23 1
k = (1,380622 0,000059) 10~ " =
1
= ( 1,3806220,000059)- 10-" - ' .
4. N .
.
. , ,
(62.6), (62.7)

PV^NkT. (62.8)

, PV = RT.
,
R = Nk. (62.9)

k ,
. R k, (62.9)
. N =
1
= R/k = (6,022169 0,000040) . 1 0 " .
5. ,
,
.
.

, . ,
,
. ,

. ,
.
, 10003000
. 10 000
.
,
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. ,
.
13,56 .
.
,
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.
202 - [. V

19 19 12
= 1,60 -1( , 1 = 1,6 - ' = 1,6 -" .
,

.
,
8
, 10 10 .
, . .
, .
,
.

1. ?
22
. 3,34-10 .
2.
0 ?
1
. 2,7-10 .
3. , - .
.
, .
,
?
4
. 10 .

63.

1. (62.1), (62.2) (62.3) ,


. ,
,

. ,
,
,
, .
.
X, Y, Z .
,

. ,
, ,
3 3
(62.5), = / = / /7\
2 2

.
63] 203


1 l
= / = l kT. 2 i

2. ,
.
. ,
,
.

- /.
,

.
,
.
,

. , , . .
.

.
. :
a cos (ait + ) = /-

1 2 2 2
= / * = ^ cos (/ -f ),

2 2 2 2 2 2
= = 2 sin (at + ) = ^ sin (/ + ).

2
=
0 4& [1 + cos 2 (/-f )],
2
= 4i<za [1 cos 2 (^ -f )].

,
.

2
= = & . (63.1) 1

1
< > = l kT. ,
i

. ,
, , , ,
.
3 .
,
. ,

1 2.
() .
204 - [. V


.
.
4. , ,

. ,

m , a Ui
t

X. ( u u ,
t ix

, .) ,

.
(u Uj) = 0 i /.
t

i = /.

! 63 2
1
/ < ) =
2
2
| 2 '<" >-
2 ! < -)
2 1
V ( ) = / ,
2 ,

, ,
mh . ^jmf (!) = Ntrfi (}), N= ~
.
1 1
/ /(1) = / ^ .
2 (63.4)
,
:
1

1. ,
, ,
,
.
.
5. ,
.
, ,
.
(63.4). ,

63] 205


.
6. , ,
, .
,
,
1
l kT. 2

, (63.2),
,
.
,
. ,
.
, -
, ,
. .
,
V


. , ,
.
1 3
, / m (v'j) = J kT,
2 i 2

^!(!) = % = %.

2
i/ M<V ) = W .
2 (63.5)
,
z
l kT, 2

.

.
,


1 . , ,

.
,
/ , . .
n r u
Q = ^' ' ' i

Ut '- ,
206 - [. V

- . ;

(G3.2)

_ 2

7.
,

.
.

.

,
.
/V ,
, 37V
, .
, ,
,
.
,
, . . , .

,
.
/ .
. /
q , q ,
x q ,
2 f

. ,
q\, q 4/
2

.
- r
t

= ( 9, , q ). s

,
. : . , 6Y; . , . : .

. . v
{

q lt

q,2 cj . , , ,
f

, .
63] 207

,

N f f

= Va S mf
iV =V,2 2 OirfAh. (63.6)
(=i =ia=i

qi. a , , ik

q q , ... u 2

(63.6)
.
, ,
,
.
,
. , ,

(63.6)
, . . ,

.
I
1
= / 2 1 a ql,
t (63.7)
i=\
,- .
i'- , (63.7)
1
l a q\.
2 i

,
t- . ,

,
. ,
,

= - (X 2
-f +
2
2) + C-vhI + IiA'l + I/),
, , ,
, /. , I , 1
v

, , .,,

.

, ,
(63.7), . .
.
208 - [. V

8.
,
.
(63.7). -

. ,
, ,

.
.

.
, ,
,

- ,
( -
),
.
,
-
1
, l kT. , ,
i


.
x
UkT,
.
,
(63.6) ,

.

.

2 % ^ = 2 . (63.8)
i
,

.

^(-^ * ' > = V ft7\


2 (63.9)

.
9.
, -
209


. ,
.
.
.
,
.
,

, .
,
.

.

,
.
10 20

.
.
P V = / i o c T , P V = / - _-
X
2
3 n 2
2

, 1

V=
/ - 2
/ (lno:x +
3 E )
2mzl = (, + ) V.
2

= + , . .
2

64.
1. , ,

. 1827 .
(17731858)
.
, ,
, .
. , (
), , , .
,
. .
,
. ,
, , .
,
210 - [. V

(. .
). 1001000
.
,
( , ).

, .
.
.

, :
, .
,
, , -
, . . ,
. ,
,
.
.
.

,
. ,

.
. , (
) , , ,
.
2. (63.5)
.
,
k,
N ,
. ,

V.
,
,

.
3
, 10 , .
,
,
. ,
.
211

-
k
N , 1905 .
,
.
,
, ,
. ,

.
.
(18721917) 1906 .
,


.
. 93 ,
.
3. ,
. .
V,
, ,
F, V.

V = BF (64.1)
.
(18191903),
1
^ ~~ 6)' (64.2)
) .
,
.
(,
).
-
. , ,
0 0

=~^- .
0


X 1
= -g + .
,
.
X ,
212 - [. V


. ,
. ,
, , ,
, .
/. X
, ,
. .
,
:
2
d d
2 2 2
^ = 2; ~^ = 2 2.

2 2 2
M~x + j^x -2Mx = 2Xx.
,
t = 0.

, . ,
.
() 0. ,
2
(63.5), ( ) = kT.
2

<* > + l i <* > -
W = - }
< - ) 2 2 k T 6 4 3

4. .
. ,
2
( )
t. ,
.
, t t 2 x

t t
x 2

t ti, t , t .
2 x 2

,
t t . t t
2 x 2 x

,
. t t ,
2 x

. . .
t t . ,
2 x

0
t t t + 0 t + , . .
x
t+x ~X -\-X .
t x

,
, (x x ) = 0.
t x
64] 213

<?) , ,
t,
. / (/),

fU I \ tU\ I ft \

, / (/), . . (xf),
t,
. , ,
, . ,

( ) = At.
(64.3).
2
(x )=2kTBt. (64.4)
*).
(
X), . .
2 2 2 2
. = + + .
2 2 2 2
, ( ) = ( ) = ( ), ( ) =
2
= 3 ( ).
(r-) = 6kTBt. (64.5)
5. (64.4)
-
(18701942) , 1908 .
(/ = 30 )
-

.
(. . 46).
. 16
50 , 0,53 .
,
.
, ,
, 100 ,

, , .
,
,
, , .

*) , , ,
(64.4) , 2
64/27.
214 - [. V

- , ,
.
2
( )

. 46.

(64.4) k N.
,
.

65.


. .

.

.
.
. .

.
.
2
V^cp , / ,
.
,
.
215


1
/ kT. 2
2
f ( ) = kT,
2
=-< >. (65.1)

k. ,
2
. ( ) ,
.
,
. . <%!, , 2 ,

.


, 2 .
: > = , = , 0 0


( 2 ) ^ ?+|+-+' ^

/
,
2
1/( >.
,
. ,
/
= 2 Y'ljf,
I .
(65.1).
, ,
2
( ). ,
. ,
,
. 1932 .
:
16 9
7 = 287 , / = 9,43- lO - = 9,43- - -,
2 6
<> = 4,18- - .
,
1 8
, / ,2 \
9 9,43- - - 4,18- 10-
= ( ) =
=
23
= 1,38-- / = 1,38-10-" /.
23 -1
JV = = 6,02- 10 .
216 - [. V

66.

1.
, -
.
-
.

.

. ,
,
, .

.
. .

,
.

.

. .
24 ,

= , C P = y^t- (66)

,
C .
v



.

,
, .
,
,
.
2. .

. .

. ,
3 3
, / 6 = / kT.
3 s
66] 217


U = N-*IJtT = *liRT, (66.2)
N .
:
3
= dU/dT = / * 12,5 /( ) ^ 3 /( )
2 (66.3)
:

C = C +R
P V = 1 20,8 /( ) 5 /( ). (66.4)

5
Y = C /CY = / = 1,67.
P 3 (66.5)

. 3. .
3

, V

Hg 527 1,666


j 290 1,660
\ 93 1,673
Ne 292 1,64
J 288 1,65
Ar
I 98 1,69

3. .

1 2, (. 47).
.
.
,
, z , x

. , , z . , 2 2

, ,
a 2
(* - *i) + { 2 - /i) + ( - z f = iU = const, 2 x

, / 1 2 12

. , ,
. ,
.

, .
218 - [. V

.
( 6 3 . 8 )
( 6 3 . 9 ) . ,
l fkT, 1
/
2

( / == 5).
, ,

.

,
12.




:
1 2 1 2
= / 2 + / 1> .
2

/
,
0
12. ,
:

x 1 1 x
= Vitnvl + kmv\ + f mvl + i I a
2 2 x x + lbh<*l-

,
.
1
/ kT, 2
b
= / kT.
2

b
U= N- l kT = *IJiT.
2 (66.6)

2 0 , 8 /( ) 5 /( ), (66.7)
C = C + R = hR
P v
7
* 29,1 /( ) 7 /( ), (66.8)
7
7 = C p / C = / = 1,4.V 5 (66.9)

. 4
.
4. .
,
:
66J 219

.

1 = 3kT. U = N-3kT =

= ,
C =-3R
24,9 /( ) ^ 6 /( ),
V

6 6
C = 4R
33,3 /( ) 8 /( ), ^ ' ^
P

/C =V = 1,33. y = Cp v 3

292 = 1,320, S 0 4 2

= 1,260.
4

, V

2
280 1,407

( 293 1,398
\ 92 1,419

293 1,398

{ 197 1,411
{ 9 2 1,404

, /
.

U= kTN 2 = ^ RT,
2

C V = L r , C = ^ - R ,
P (66.11)
/+ 2

<> = # W = j t / .

PV = %(E ) n0CT = j-U = RT. (66.12)

c v

, v , v t 2

v .
3

Mi, , 2 .
3
.
! + 5 + 2 6 3 5 1 + 7 2 + 8 3

K p
" 2 (ViAfi + v M
2 2 + v M ) 3 3 ' 2 ( 4 +
x v M
2 2 + v M )3 3 "
220 - [. V

67.
-

1.
.
(. 21),
, ,
.
, ,
. -
. ,
,
,
. ,

, .
. ,
,
, .
.
,
.
,
.
.
,
; ,
.
-
.
2.

.
, .

;

.


,
,
.
. ,

-
67] 221

.
,
. ,
( ),
.
,
,
.
3. , ,
(. 48).
,
. v- . t

v = v . t t


v v
( i ).* = t x . v'i -

.

,
,
v = = v
{ ioiu)x {Vioin)x ix ~f" .

v\

. v\ x
v
= ( 'i )* + = v + 2, -
ix 4 8

, v . t

2 2
\% ( vix + 2) 4 mvu = 2mcv + 2mc . 2 ix

2
2 ,
. n , t

, , v . L

dt = Sn (v { t ix

) dt, S .
, , v- , lx

. . z = Sniu dt.
t ix

dt
2mcv Zi ix = 2mriiv\ Sc dt = 2\ x dV,
dV Scdt .

dE mm = dil = dV 2)\ .
222 - [. V

,
.
, ,
, .

dU = dV ^ mitiVlx,

59 ,
.
dU + PdV=0.
U (66.12),

(4+ \)PdV + VdP


Y = 0,

(66.11)
yPdV-\- VdP = 0.
, 21
.
,

P\/v = const.
4.

. ,
.
. ,
, ,
.
, .
,
.

(
).
.


, ( ,
).
5. .
,
. ,
.
67] 223

,
. , ,
,
, .
/ g.
, /.
g, .
,
.
,
, .
PV^
, .
, ,
y
PV , ,
. ,
,
- .
, ,
y
PV , , .
, , ,

.
. ,
.
, PV.
\/ .
6. ,
,
.

,
.

(. 105).
,

. ,
.
.
.
, (),
.
- . ,
- ,
, . -
224 - [. V

,
. ,
, . ,
,
, .
,

.


,
.
, ?
. ,
,
.
,

. ,
.

68.
()
1*.
,
, .
.
, .
.
-.
63,

, . . 4 kT. ,
2

, ,
=
+ = kT. (68.1)
.
, .
,
3kT.
N,
U = N -3kT ~ 3RT.

C = dU/dt = 3R^2l,9
v / ( - ) ^ 6 /(-). (68.2)
1819 . (17851838) (17911820)
, -
68] 225



6 I( ). ,

. ,
. . 5

15 100 .

.

/ { -) -)

1,44 pt ,
2,44 Au 5,99
1 5,51 Pb 5,94
5,60 6,47
Ag 6,11

2.
, , NaCl.
. ,
,
.

, .
,
3kT.
, 3nkT.
3nkN = 3nR, . .
, ,
. ,
,
.
.
1844 . 1864 .

, . ,
:

,
, .
, . .
226 - [. V

, ,
,
. .

69. .
( )
1.
,
. .
.
,
. . 6

. C.
7". .
V

/ ( ) / ( )

35 2,98 1200 5,49


100 3,10 1600 5,76
290 4,90 1800 5,92
600 5,08 2000 6,06
800 5,22 2500 6,40
1000 5,36


.


. ,

YY (. 47).
,
,
.
, . . .
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
.
C
v

7 /(-)
69] 227

3 /(-). , 100
.
,
C .
v

2. .

.
, .
-
. ,


. .
,
. C v

6 /(-).
, .
.

v

6 /(-),
.
, , .
XX ZZ (. . 47),
YY.
,
/ 2
12. ,
. 1 2
, 6,
12 .
6kT.

1
12, /. kT. , ,
2
ls
!. kT, C
y v

13 /(-).
.
3.

, .
.


.
.
. , ,
,
228 - [. V

. ,
, ,
, .
.

, .
,

.
4. , , .
,
.
, . . ,
.
.
.

. , ,
.
.

C = v

= 6 /(-) ( ).
, .
,

s
/. kT.
2

.
, ,
.
5. , ,
,
, .

, , .
, . ,

, ,
. ,

. ,
,
.

.
, .
69] 229

6. ,
.
,
. 58 ,
.
, . . ,

,
.
,
,
. ,


e = ( + l / 2 ) A v , (69.1)
v , ,
1, 2, 3, h ,
.

h = (6,626186 0,000057) 10~ =
27
= (6,626186 0,000057). - -.
,
.
hv.
1
= / /iv.
0 2

. ,
.
.
, , . .
.
3
= 1 = / /iv. 2

7. ,
, , . ,
, kT hv.
kT.
, , . .
.

, .
,
.
,
kT <! hv.

230 - [. V

.
kT <^hv
1 2 (.
. 47) .
,
,
,
.
,
. 1

kT <^ hv.
, .
, kT
hv, ,
.

. ^>T V

.
^ T v ,
. T ^ 6000 . v

8.
. .

/ ( / + 1 ) ( 6 9 3 )
' = 5 7 ' '

/ , / ,
0, 1, 2, 3, ...
, .
1 0 .
/ = 1

kT <J
.
.
, kT ^> e .
lt


.
-
9]
231

6 9 5
' = = -5- < - >

^> , < ; >


.
XX ZZ (.
. 47) T ~ 175 .
r

XX -
.
.
9.
,
. ,

.
, kT

,
.
,
, . ,
,
.
10.
. . VI.
,
,
,

.
, 1000
.
,
.
.
, . .
. ,
. . .
, .
.

870 . 1000
.
, -
232 - [. V

.
9 : 8 ; 18 :
16 .
,

3
. / kT, ,
2
s
, l8- / kT = 27kT,
2

U = 27NkT 27RT,
C = 27R 54 /(-).
V

11.
, 65. ,

.

2 4 -1
7 ^ 0 , 0 1 - , v 1,5-10 , hv ^
-31
<~ , kT ^
1 4 18
^4-10" . , ^ ^ 2,5-10~ , . .
hv.
.
VI


* *

70.
1. ,
,
, ,
-
(. 9). ,

. (, , ,

.)
. ,
,
,
. ,
,
,
.
, , .
.
,
,
,
. ,
,
.
, .
.
, ,
, ,
, .
.


.
,
, -
234 1. VI

, ,
, .
. ,
.

.
.
.
,
,
.
,
.
2.
.
,
, .

. ,
. ,
,
,
.
,
20- .
.

.
3.
,
, .
, ,
.
,
. ,
. , ,
. , ,
,
, .
, ,
, .
,
, . ,
, .
. -
\.
5 70J 235

,
.
4. ,
, ( ,
). , , ,

: 1) 2) .
+ .
, ,
. , ,
,
: 1) 2)
.
.
, , .... ,
2

( )
. ,
. A , v 2

,
. ,
.
,
,
. ,
.
, .
5.
.
,
, .
2
1
/. , 100
,
1
1 / . 10

,
, 2

,
, . ,
, A ,-
t

, A , .. ,
i2

, 12 , , 1 2

, . A t



(,) =, _} , . (70.1)
A ilt A i2 A .,
im
236 [. VI

, A
; h

, ,
.
, ,
,
.

.
,
.
1. 100 ,
: 30 , 25 45 .
? ,
, 30 + 25 + 45 = 100.
, , 30.
~ 30/100 = 3/10. ,
= 25/100 = 1/4,
= 45/100 = 9/20.

6. (70.1) ,
- (,
, .)
,
.
, . . ,
. ,
, , .
.
2. . ,
?
, (. .
), , :

1) ,
2) ,
3) , ()
4) .


3
. / .
4

(17171783) . ,
, , ,
.
, , , :

1) ,
2) , , (')
3) , .
2
, , , / .

. ,
237

, ?
:
1) ,
2) ,
3) ,
4) ,
5) , ()
6) ,
7) ,
8) .
7
, / . 8

,
, :
1) ,
2) , / ,x R

3) , * '
4) .
3
, , , / . 4

, ('), (#')
, .

7.
(70.1),
.
,

.
.
.
,
, 1 ,
2

(70.1).
, . .
2

(, ).
2 2

, ,
, ,
A , . . + .
t 2 2

, , 2

( + ) = ( ) + ( ).
1 2 1 2 (70.2)
3. 1 =

= 25/100, = 45/100,


25 + 45

~ 1000 ^ ~ 100 ~~ W
238 [. VI

4. 2 1) (')
1/2, 2) 3) ,
1
1) ( )
1) 2) (). ( )

2 ^ 4 4
. . . .
1 l l 1 1
(') / , , , / g , /s> - 2 4

, 2,

2 ^ 4 ^ 8 8 '
. . .


:
1 + 2 + ... + =\. (70.3)


. ,
, (,
) .
. ,

J
Pi + + rP - (70.3).
n

(70.3)
.
(70.1), , , . .
,
k. (70.3)
. k = 1
(70.3).

, .
, ,
. ,
.
8. .

() , ,
.
, ,
,
, (/). ,
() = () (/). (70.4)
70] 239

, ,

^ 1 , , . . . , ;,
2 , , C +i, . . ,
m

,
. , ,
i> ,...,
2 Ci, C / i , . . . ,
+

/ ,
. , ,
, , /, () l/. ,
() /. , ,
,
+1 ,

,
3 , -
;+1

. (/) = 1/. ,

()(1) = L = L = P ( A B ) t

.

,
() = ()(/). (70.5)

. ,
, .

.
() = () (), (70.6)
. .
.
5. ,
1, 2, 3, 4. ,
1 2? . ,
1, 2 ( ),
1
() = / + V = / . ,
4 4 2

, 1, 2.
1
( 5) (/) = / . 3
1 , 1 1
() = / / = /- 2

.
,

12 21 31 41
13 23 32 42
14 24 34 43
240 [. VI

,
. .
, 12 21 ( ).
2 = 1
/i /-
. ,
.
, , , . .
, . .
() , . . V . (). 2

1 (2), ,
2 (1).
1
() = / . ,
4
1
() () () = / = !/.
2 4

, , ,
: 11 21 31 41
12 22 32 42
13 23 33 43
14 24 34 44
.

9.
. , ,
, 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6.
,
.
, .
,
,
. - ,
, ,
.
.
,
1 . v = tt / 1 1

.
, ,
v x

. ,

1
/ , . . ,
6

1 = lim Vj.E= lim (70.7)

,
.
70] 241

,
.
10. ,
, (70.7).
.
. (
), ,
.
. -
v.
?
. t
v.
v.
J
7 =lim^ (70.8)
- *

v.
, (70.8)
, .
11.

. .
TV
.

, , 2

( + + . . . +, = N).
2


<fl> = " ^ + " ^ + - + " ^ ' = V i f l i + _ + _ ( 7 0 > 9 )

, ,
, ,
2 , ,


. , N,
v , v , x v ,
2 m

,
2 ,

2 . (70.9)

= + + ... + -
2 2 (70.10)
(70.10) .
, ,
, ,
, . (
. ,
.)
242 [. VI


.
.
. ,
,
.
,
.

,
,
.
,
, ()
N.
, . ,
,

(70.9), (70.10).
12.
. ,

. .
.

. N N
a .,, ... , a , -
lt N

X l = a i -a (i=\,2,...,N). (70.11)


.
, . .

, -1 . 4- ', -4-... + \,
2
= V(x )
= ' * N - (70.12)
, ,

.
.


(), . .
y = a -(a)
i i ( t = 1, 2 , . . . , N). (70.13)

2^ = 0, (70.14)

(). , xi .
^,-, , . -
70J 243

N ,
, ,
:
= (70.15)
.
(70.11) (70.13) , .',-= </, + , : 6 =
= () . . -
, , .
2
, , . = (6 )

.
. xi = j/,- +
i, (70.14)
2
S4 = j/H6

JV (-) = + &.
,
fl
_S( - ) _ Sfi
N N ~ N

2
(: ).
, .
, N
,
, .
, (70.15).
2
( ) x xj t
2 2
. N ( ) ( ),

= /<^) = (70-16)
- 1 = 1/ - - = > (70.17)
V N V N(N-\) V N

(). (70.16)
(70.17)
, , .


= {} .

. ,
. 6 ~ L_ _

, ,
244 [. VI

100 .
10 . ,

N.

13.
, ,
, . ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
,
, ,
+ da.
da,

dP = (a) da,
, ,
. () .
(70.3)
J p ( a ) d a = 1, (70.18)
(70.10)
= J (a) da. (70.19)
,
.
+ , ,
() .

71. .

1.
.
,
.
.
-
,
- . , ,
,
,
. , / 2,
v v
x 2

(. 49). 12,
71] 245

.
,
. ,
,
. ,
> = v[, . . ' = v + v
2 % 2 v

, -

&
. 49.

v v . ^ = v Tov ' v ']/2. ,


x 2 i t i 1


, .
.
.


.
2.

1859 .
. ,

N
, , .

(. 50). -
t : v , v x it

TV-
.
, .
.
v , v , v v .
x y z


.


. , 9,

246 [. VI

.

. .
3.
, , ,
dv , dv , dv v ,
x y z x

Vy, v . dm dv dv du~,
z x y

dN. -
.
,
dco, .
dN dco, ,
. ' dco ,
. ,
, dco
, .
dN, ,
.
dco ,
.
dN ,
(dN),
(dN)
, .
dco ,

, , dv , x

dvy, dv , dco dN
z

.

, .
4. Nf (v)

() .
/ ()
.

. f ()
. dN
(dN) ,
, , N.

j/()d<B=l, (71.1)
/ ().
71] 247


(dN), dN.
< ) .
, dN
, . . (dN).

dN = Nf (v) da = Nf (v , v , v ) dv dv dv,
x y z x y (71.2)
,
v v -\- dv , v v + dv , v, v, + dv, .
x x x y y y

/ (v)
V. ,
, .
,
dco .
dN, (71.2),
.

,
v v , v , v .
x y z

dN
da = dv dv dv . da
x y z

dN. ,
v . ,
, v, . .
, N
.
.
5.
,
. , ,
(. 51).

.
, .
, , ,
. ,

. -
, .
.
, ,
. , ,
, ,
, , .
, ,
.
.
,
248 [. VI

. ,

; !
/=() = - , (71.3)

.
, .


.
6. (71.3)

(1777
1855),

. () dx
,

,
+ dx. ,

()

+00
^ () dx =

+


(71.4)


(. 2
" X 72). ,

5i
,
.
, (.
3 72). (71.3),
,
.

7. ,
, ,
, .

.
,
,
(. 1901).
, , ,
.
xp yh,
x yp yh,
y zp,yh,
71] 249


. ,
,
,
.
, :
3 3
Vp ;> h , V = ,
, .
, Vn = 1,
3
(hip) < ; 1.
h h
= - = (71.5)
. -
(. 1892)
.

3
<1. (71.6)
3
, .
.
, -
,
.
r
, v = y 3kT/m (. KB

60). , (71.6)
,, (71.7)

T =
a n'l'
s
3km
T
g .
,
, .


71 8
. = "- < '>
.
.
.
.
22 3
6 - 1 0 " ,
-28
= 9,11- . (71.8)
1
T 6,5- .
g

.
250 [. VI


. ,
.
24
. = 6,6-10" ,
19 3
= 2,7-10 ~ .
(71.8) T = 0,05 . g

( ) ,
, T , (
g

).

.
, ,
.

72.
1. ,
1859 .
. N
,
. ,
, , .
, -
v v + dv ,
x x x

? ,
dv , x

v . x

(v ) dv . (v )
x x x

.
V, v x

X. / (v)
, cp (v ) x

.
, < (v ) dv , y y

/- v v + dv , y y y

v v .
x z


, , v . y

, cp (v ) dv , -
z z

v v -f- dv , z z z

v v .
x y

2.
(v , v + dv ), (v , v + dv,,), (v , v + dv ),
x x x y y z z z

, , , .
/ (v) dco ,
dco = dv dv dv . x y z
72] 251

, , , .

.
, ,

, .
, , , .
,
,
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
,

. ,
,
, .
. ,
, ,
,

.
, .
(71.7),
.
, , ,

(v , v + dv ), (v , v,j - j - dv,]), (v,, v + dv,),
x x x y z

cp (. ) cp (v ) cp (,) dv dv
v y x bl dv,.
/ (v) /, dco = dv dv dv . x y 2

, ,
/ (v)
/ ( ) = (*)( ). (72.1)
3.
.
(v ) = ( v ). ,
x x

, , v . , x

/
V, .

x 1
: = j mv\,
= / mv ,
% = 1 > ,
i y
252 [. VI
2
= y mv = + > + & -
2

f,
. (72.1)

( ) () ( ) = f (e + + ),
(72.2) v

, ()
., , .

4. (72.2)
, /. ,
, , ,
(/

: 1) = const, 2) + , = const.

(72.2) . ,
( ) (,,) = const


s* + e = const. v

, ,
' (e. ) , v . ' ()

e_ -f- , = = const.
v

, .

+ = const

,
. ,

.
, .

' (" ' (,,)


, ; ~

(*%) ^
. ,
' (*) ' ()
(,,) ,

d<p (- ) _

(e.v)


{ ) = - *,
^( ) = - ,
1 ^ ^ (72.3) 1

72] 253

. ,
, cp (,.)
,

.
5. / () = / ( +- + ) (72.3)

... .

f(e) = Ae-, (72.4)
= \. ,
, .
,
.
/, .

1^ '
v
x

. 52.

.
,
,
,
v v +dv
x x x

. 52.
(v , v + dv ),
x x x

N,
. (v ) x


-f-co -f- CO

\ (v ) dv,
x
dv = x 1. (72.5)

+ ,
.
(72.3) (72.4)
.
-
> (72.4) .
,
,
dco,
(. 71, 3).

. ,
, amvl^l, ,

(72.5).
254 [. VI

,
(72.3)
, , .
(72.5).
| =
= ]/ am/2v . (72.5)
x


\
*- =1.
(72-6)

.
,
+
\ e-Vdl^Vn. (72.7)

= . (72.8)
6. .
, ( )

X

<*} = \ e (f(e )dv ,
x x x


4- amvi
mvi -
2
<*)= \ -
2 dv .
x

\.

_ +


+ CO +

,

% - ~$ ,
| .
255
1
(72.6), ( ) = / . (,
2

(72.7) .)
1 1
( ) 1<$ = / kT. 2


= ^ . (72.9)

( ) / ()

^'""^.
(72.11)


mv

e 2 7 2 1 4
w = ( a r j * - ( - )
,
. ,
,
.

1. ,
(72.3), (71.3),
.
,
,
XI YZ. .
2. (71.4) .
.
A = V~ajn.
3.
. .
.
{\\)=]/~, = ( 1 2 ~ ) = 1/2,

= / 2 < | * | > . (72.15)


2
( )
.
( | | ) , . ,
,
(. 64).
256 [. VI

73.
.
1. / () ,

. N,

.

.
. ,
v v + dv.
F (v) dv. N,
dN .
F (v) / ().
0
. , v
v dv.
v dv.
da = 4 dv. / ()
2

,
v, .
2
da, / () dco = 4 / () dv.
F () dv.
,
2
F(v) = 4nv [(e), (73.1)

4 73 2
^)=^ - <-)
,
dN = 4nN (j^ff* v*e~ f
* dv. (73.3)

, F (v)

\F(v)dv=l. (73.4)

.
2. F (v) . 53. F (v)
. ,
(v ), ,
x

. ,
. (v ) dv
x x


v == const v -\-dv = const. F(v)dv
x x x
257

,
,
const v + dv =- const. dv , x

,
v . ,
x

(y ) dv ,
v x

(y ) , . .
v

. = 0. ,


dv
v
4 2

2
dco = 4' / () dv.

2
F () = 4 / ()
:
2
/ () .

(;',.) F (v). , .
,

.

(. 54), ,
,


().
,

,

,
. 53.

3. ,
F ()
, -
. 54. .
v . v
m m
2
F .
( 7 3 . 2 )
,
258 [, VI

(v) = - i - J v dN = \ vF (v) dv.

F (v) ,

V = 1 1 3 7 3 6
<> = Y S ~ = ^ ' - < - >

,
2 1
(v ) = /./nvl = a
3
= / kT (. 62).
2

v = Y ^^\,22v . KB (73.7) m


, v > () > v . KB m

1. dN ,
8 e-\-dv.

3/
. dN = 2;T,V {nkT)~ ' | ' 7 ~ * de.
2. .'! .
/ 1\ -. 4
. - = I / = = .
3. , ,
, (v , v + dv ) ,
v^ v^ + dv ^ .
. dN
,
v i>j_+ dv ^ dv, .
t

dco = 2nvjjivjdv^,

2 kT
dN = = 2. j ' ' e~ v dv dv .
L L {

4. , ,
. .
, ( )
= 1150 ,
, : 1) V = 0,2 ;
2) V = 0,4 . ,
.
/ \
, = ; ) , ( ).
1) = 13,5%, 2)' = 1 > / . 0
259

74.
.

1.
,
. -
,

,
.

, .
, 72,
.
,
,

. ,
.
,
.
2. ,
dco dco
x

v . N
,
dN = Nf (v) dco dN = Nf (vi) dco^
x


, (. . ,
) -
, ,
dQ .

dN dN / (v) f (vi) dco dco^
lt

v v v

v'
.
dco dco'
v';
dcoj v\.

, . . , ;
, . . , ,
. X,
v[- = v , v\ v. - dv' dv , dv\ dv ,
lx x r x ix x x

dv' dv[ = dv dv . ,
x x x lx

dv dv x , dv dv
lx x ix
260 [. VI

. dco dio x

, dco dco :
x

doi dtoi = dco' dco{. (74.1)

3. ,

&) )

) )
. 56.

dco' dco! dco da .


v

. . 55,
1 2 .
.
,
.
1 2 ,
' J (. 55, ). 2
, 1 .
(. 55, ), , v
v , 55,
v

55, .

dco' dcoj dco dcoj
261

/ (V) / (v\) dco' dcoj


(74.1) / (') / (v\) dco dco .
x

,
.
doj,
-
.
dco - t

dZ ~ [f (') / (v[) -f(v)f (v[)} dM dcox. (74.2)

, ,
(74.2)
.
,
.
,
.
4. ,
dco
, . (74.2)
v (, v
do>). , v
x

. v\
v .
x

dco

(74.2) v x

.
dco ,
, .
,
, . ,
, (74.2)
. ,

.

.
. ,
-
, .
, , ,
.
262 [. VI

5. , . . (18941952),
,
,
. - ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
? , ,
? , .
, , ,

: , , . .
,
,
. , ,
, . , ,
, , . ,
, .
.
: ,
- , ,
.

6.
.
,
(74.2). ,
/ () ,
.
/(e')/(ei')=/(e)/(e ), 1 (74.3)


e + e 1 = e' + ei',

.
/ ()
, [ ,

' . (74.3)
f ( E }
' -const (74.4)
)

= = const,
.
72. / (')// ()
f (') / (), '
263

' + .
. , ,
f(e) = Ae-,
. . .
7.

.
. , ,
1, ,
.
,
.
, .
,


/() = - , / ( ) = - - - .
1 1 (74.5)
1

.
, ==
= .


. (. 8 ),
(74.1) .
, ,
.
,

/ (v) / (Oj) / (') fx (v\)

.

/(e)/i(e )=/(e')/ (eO.
1 1

(74.5),
( ') = (ej ).

+ = ' + [ ' =

[ .

8. (74.1)
.

, .

.

,
. -

264 [. VI

'
' [.
P + Pi = P' + P[, (74.6)
, Pi (74.7)
--.
2 2 2 ~^ 2m ' L

, ' (74.6),
135" , \/~2 \^2 ,
1


Pi (. 56). ,
',
.
,
, . .
,

\ )
.
'. '
,
.

. 56. D. '
,
D'. , D D'
.
, (18091882)

.

D
,

.

(74.7),
.

, 135
.
,
. 57. . 57.
D,
D'. ,
', , .
'[. , ,



. ! \

, .
,
.
, ,
D D'. , D D',
, .
,
,
75] , 265

, .
,
. D D'
. ,
. , ,
.

75. ,

1.
.
.
dS
XYZ (. 58). '
dS, Y
Z ,
.
: 1)
; 2)

, ,

X,
Y Z.
dS ,
, . . X.
1
= /. dt

dS
,
dS v dt.
, ,
1
dz = n vS dt / nvS dt. ,
x l)

(75.1)

2.
.
, . .
. N ,
Q
(. 59). ,
, 4,

(75.2)
266 [. VI

N . ,

dN = 1-d. (75.3)
4
(75.3),
dN,
OA (. 60) , > ) + d.
R

OA,

> - f dfh
,
. 60. dS =
2
= 2nR sin > d$.
2
dil dS/R
= 2 sin } dir.
(75.3),
dW = - 2 - s i n * d * . (75.4)
.

X (. 61). X
. ,
,
.
- v v + dv .
x x x

,
, v > 0. x

dn
.
,
, dz = dn v = v dt
x

= cos dn. ,

.
. 61.
dS
v dt, . 61.
dS dt ,
dSv dt. x

,
, dt.

dt, dz = v cos f} dn.


dn
v v , X. ,
x
75i , 267

, X

ft I - dft. (75.4) dn = 1 sin ft dft,


1
dz / / sin ft cos ft dft.

, ,
. . ft' = 0 ft = /2,
z = / /4.
,
,
- .
,, ... , v . , ... , n
s s

. ,
z = V 4


1
= 1^'). (75.5)
()
(73.6).

3. , (75.1)
1
(75.5) , /

/ - .
4

,
, (75.1)
, () < ) =

= 1,08 <).
(75.5)
. , , ,
,
.
.
.
,
.


.
.
268 [. V !

4. (75.6)
,
, .
,
. ,
,
. , ,
, , .
.
, ,

.
,
, (75.6).
,
. ,
, ,
. (75.6)

.
(. 10 ).

1.
= n^v (i)(v )dv ,
x x x

, . (,
X.) ,
(75.6).
2. V,
, . .

, S *)?
. S ,
, . . .
(75.5)
d ( V n ) = jSn (v)dt.

,
= -</*, t = 4V/S (v).
3. ,
,
, .
0

,
?

*) 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 ,
(. 86 95).
5 75] , 269


. = (1 ~ ^ ) . ,
0

.
4. ,
, 1 : 4,
(. . ) .
.
,
.

, .
. , 1 2,

= -,

1--" ''

1 , 2 .
Tj , = 2. , ,
2 2

d$ dt ,

V 2 - 1,

, = ] ' ' 2.
1 1
= (), .
(J
(0, ). / = 0 = = 2a, t = 2

- - (} . 11

5.
,
. ,
.
/2.
,
?
1 5
. .
1

6.
, .

. ^= !, ( V ) .
8

7. , ,
,
, v , u

. . 0

(v),
.
. -
.

>=-4 n(v).
1 1 s
/ 'i >mt'i; = /ien'.T (v) .
2 (
270 [, VI

, (73.6),
mv
2 " "'>

8. ,
, ,
. ()
,
.
. '; 2kT.
9. , ,
(, ),
, .
E/llT
. c t = ( l + ^ = ) e~ .
10. ,
2000 , , , q
1 3 1
-- 1,14-10 - -" .
.
. 4

<7 = - 4 nm(v),

P = 4anm (tfi) = y q^-.


3


W-1/ - 3 l / : f / ? r

, 184.
2
~~'
,
9 2 1 2
----- 2000 : - 8,6-10 =-- 6,4- 10 . .
.

76.

1.
(1879 1959) 1921 .
,
.
-
.
.
,
. ,
76] 271


,
, (71.8),
(
). , 71,
.

.
(. 82).
2.

. , ,
.
,
. 60, ,

. 62.

.

. (1927)
(19261929) ,
,
(18191896) .
. 62.
, , S . x

5 , 2

. D u

.
D. ,
2

( 2). D 2

S , ,
3

, ,
.
. ( , , )
,
. ,
, D
lt

D .
2
272 [. VI

. , ,

. ,
D D
3

. ,
.

, . ,
, ,
, ,
. ,


.
,
,
. -
1
7 3 , -
|
1 - .
2
,
! , , 1050 .
3.
. ,
,
,
2, . . ,
. 63.
, ()
. (1955 .)
,

.
,
v tg - v>R/v, R
.
4.
,
. 63.
.
, .
.
.
.
,
. ,
76] 273

, .
5 5.,

, S
3

S S.,.
x

, ,
S .
a

D .


_ _

~~ 2 ~ 2v '

v , .

. ,

.
. 10 .

.
,
.
, .
,
,
.
,
,
, .

. ,
71.

(. . 44)
.
, DD',
?
. ,
D. v
D'. DD' = Civ, .
dN v v + dv,
, vF(v)do. dv dx,
3
dN = v F(v)dx. , ,
, v^Fiv), . .
5
( tflvm). = | / 5/2 v , v
m m

.
274 [. VI

77.
1.
.
. , ,
.

/\ .
,
' , .
z + a z
,
,
1

. . Z

/
z
. -
. 64. ABDC
(. 64) dz.
. ntngdz
1
dz
== dz '
1 ^2

dp
-~
d = -nmg. (77.1)
= nkT ,
,
trr, dn
k T
d z = -

kTdlnn - mg dz.

, , .

.
, ,
g .

:
kTd\nn = m(gdr). (77.2)
g" .
,
- . ,
().
. ,
(77.2).
275

g" ,
g dr .
(77.2)
().
. , , ,
()
,
(. 79, 1).
,

(g dr) = de ,
p

kTd\nn= de . p (77.2)
(77.2)
.
,
- / " ' (77.3)

.
,
, (77.3)

= *"?"< ,
{1 (77.4)
, , a R
. ,
(. . I, 92).
2.

,
.
. ,

dz ABDC (. 64),
.
, dz
.
.

, , . . = .

,

,
(77.4),
.
, .
276 [. VI


, .


,
.
, .

.
. , ,
,
.
,
.
3. -
, ,
. ,
.
, 72 74,

. ,


, .

. , dn
, dco
,
dn = nf(v)da, (77.5)
f (v) (72.14),
: ().
, ,
(77.3).
4. ,
,
.
,
0

. , B B . .,
0 G

, .
.

0 , ,
0

. ( . 65
.)
0


0 0

, dil . -
0
277

,
( , + dv), ( )
0 0 0 0

dQ . n

MNN'M',
dto v;, dQ dv (. 66), 0 n n


dn,)--n f (v ) dil vl dv . ,
0 0 {) 0

, () 0

.
,
, 0

dN = dS v dn , dS .
0 0 (l 0 0 0

,

, dN = dSv dn, 0

dS , - . 65.
dS , a dn = nf (v) dilv' dv.
a

, dN =
= dN
> - - vdn = v dn . 0 0 (77.6)

.
,
. ,
, ,

,
.
, . . ,
. 0

,

, const
aQ = , (77.7)
v dQ. = vl dQ . 2
0 (77.8)
,
mv- . mvl
~2~ +
~2~ < (77.9)
. 66.

. v

(. . 0

), dv = v dv . (77.10) V 0 a

(77.6) dn dn . 0

(77.8) (77.10)
nf(v) = n f(v ). (77.11) 0 0
278 |. VI


, :
nf (*) = / ( ) ,
0 (77.12)

= 1 1 :
2 = + ^,.

(77.12)
kT
/~- */* . f(e)~e- ,
0 0
// " ; * . (77.3)
.
(77.3) (77.5),
dn /, ,/(,,. (77.13)
dn
,
. ,
dn , |

/, -j- . ,

, ,
. (77.13)
.
5. ,
- .
. -, ,
,
(. . G5).

, (77.3)
. ,
.
.
(77.3)
d&f,
d (In ) Yp

.
, (77.3),
.
-, .
djV , ,
n 0 0

- .
,
, ,
.
, -
279

, , ,
.
,
, . ,
.
0 0

, ,
, dN dN
n

. ,
.
6. ,
(77.12),
. :
,
, , (77.12)
.
,
:
.
. ,

.
( )
. ,
, .
,

.
7. .

,
. ,
,
, .
.
. ,
,
.
, , ,
.

. , 3,
,
.
,
. ,
. . (18531928),
280 [. VI

. ,

. ,
.

1.
. - ,
. , . ,
,
, .
. .
.
, .
.
. ,
, .
- (. 19).
2. ( s ) ;)

, ( ),
. .
. ( ) , = .

3. ,
,
. .
< ).

mgH
r
l_f, + ' M . ) - * e


. < >=' wg7/ -
1-

4.
. ,
, \xgH -4, RT.
R

. - +
^-^v^\2\rt f ' ^ -j f '
5. R ,
,
.
, .
. dN -\- dr, -\- dz

k 2 k T k T
d N = ) fl e rdr-e dz,

N . Z .

78.
1. 64
/V -

78] 281

.
N,
.
(77.3).
nig?
(78.1)

,
,
(78.1) k,
/V ~ Rlk. ,
. ,
, ,
.
.

,
.
,
.
,
, ,
.
. - ,

.
,
.

(77.3).
,
. ,
;

mgz
tn gz, ,
x

. . ( ) gz, ,

. ,
(- )

kT (78.2)
--
z
2 x

. ,

k = (JILszf^zluI, (78.3)
v
In (i/n ) 2 '
2.
.
282 [. VI

. ,
- ,

.
,
.

, .


,
.
1 ,
,

.


,

,
64.
3. -
. 67.

.

. (. 67)

.
( ), 100 (0,1 ).
,
. ,
.

.
, .
.
, ;
, .
,
.
,
,

. .
v
78] 283


, .

.
!

.
.

. 68.

4.

().
,
,
.
-
.
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
284 [. VI

,
. 68, .
,
, ,
,
.
0,37 .
,
, .
.
5. , ,
(78.3), .
k
N.
.
,
, .

. 19081911 .
.

79.
1. ,
. .
, , .
, (
), ,
. ,
.
GMm/r,
(77.3)
GMm

= , (79.1)
, a G .
(79.1) ,
, = .
0

, ,
, , .
0, . . .
2.
,
. , ,
,
(. . I, 57). (
)
.
(77.3), ,
.
.
,
79] 285

, ,
(.. 1, 61), .
, .
,
. .
,
. ,
, 77 ( 4, 5).
3
~ 1 ,
. , , ,
, ,
<[ < 0, , ,
0 0


.
3. ,
, .
,
, ,
. .


.
.
.
.
.
.
. ,
. ,
? , ,
, .
. .
4.

. ,
.
, , ,
,
.
, , ,
.
.
,
.
, .
,

,
, . ,
- .
, ,
.
. ;
. v . , g g .-=
a 0 0 a

= g r'^,r ,
0

a
r
v =V 2g r 0 0
(79.2)
286 [. VI

r
o = V 2g r =ry^.
a a a (79.3)

v = 1 1 , 2 / (. . 1,61). v v
a 0 a


/ mv- = / mvl + ep,
1
2 0 (79.4)
1
2

.
,
v , (73.5). = viv ,
m m

, .
,
!
vv
0 0 v 'v .
m (79.2) (79.3)
a m

79 5
4 = - < - >
'
(79.4)

k T = x?,-xb. (79.6)

(79.6) (77.3)

~~
= ~*, (79.7)
. ,

,
2
dn =~" dx. (79.8)
I

bn = ^ J , (79.9)

/
2
' = ^ dx. (79.10)


1
~ dx.
J 3
,
- ( 7 9 1 1 )
^ r r j U e + O e * " .

Z, .
,
(75.5). ,
1
, cv , Z / Sc~o \n,
m i m

S 4 . (79.9) (79.11)
(79.5) (79.7),

Z = 2 [ - - xl+ 1 j n rbv e~ ,
0 m (79.12)
v g /
287

, .
,,,
(79.13)

N .
N.

, .
,
, . . g . n

(77.3) ,


= 4;. \ dz = 4:irr,n .

. (79.12)

(79.13),
- _ N
- (79.14)
dt ~'


2 \' rlkT
(79.15)

\'
(79.14)

, ,
.
,
.
5. (79.15) , ,

. .
, .
,

. = .
' 2k

, , 2 ; ~ ~ ~ v

n x v ~v = ] 2r g ,
u m 0 0
(79.17)
0
Y -

(79.18)
2Gp*(*$+l)'
. , ,
, .
6. ,

. - /,
^> I .
I, X

-= . ,

, ' I .

(. . )
, /.
288 [. VI

,
.
. .
, (79.15), ,

/, /
. , ,
, f,,,,
F F ,
cnm ]m

(
).
( G5, G9), F
com

/",,, .
,
.
.
F F
UJ F, . ccnll m

, ,
.
7. , I .
s
, / - - 10 . (79.1)
8
, 10 .
, (
5
~ 10~ ). r ~ 6375 , n

, . 7.
7

,


h - ,
0

No 28 6.78 1 0 s
400
4
4 1,09 10 4 500
2
2 3,72- 10 4
28 800

,
( ),
. (79.18)
. /
/-. ,
,
( , , ). ,
, 1 0 "
(
4
), = 1 , 4 - 10 .
(

.
. , ,
, ;, , (79.15)

- x'f y
r

1
= -- (79.19)
- ' '
,
0

(79.15) . ,
(79.19)
.
(79.18).
79] 289

8. (79.18)
. ,

<>
.
, , ,
,
. (79.18)
xf>,
,
! 1
. ~ 4 - 1 0 =4 10 3,156 10' .
1 0 8 3
= 1 0 = 1 0 . = 5,517 / .
(79.18) ,

0,4343*5 = 14.19 + lg + lg i*J + 1), 0 (79.20)
0,4343
. (79.20)
.
.
, . xf, 32,68.
. 0

. % = 37,92.
:
2
. = 38,15,
= 38,15.
,
.
10 8
, = = 38,15. =
0

xl~33,34.
_ 2R g _ Rogo 0 0

v
"~ m ~ kT '

^R^m__ T ( 7 9 2 1 )

kxl
9. . 8. ,
.
1215% . ,
-
. -
.
,
, .
(79.21) , ,

-
. ,
,
(,) , , (NH ), 3

(2,4 / 2,6 / ).
, ( 70120 )
.

,
.

. -
290 [. VI
8

,

1
2
2 N 2 0 2

= lOio 38,15 396 792 3 560 5 540 6 340


454 908
= 1 0
8
33,34 4 090 6 360 7 260

= 101" 37,99 18 36 162 252 288


8
185
= 10 33,11 20,6 41,2 288 330

= 10
37,97 81 162 729 1 130 1 300
8
=10 33,17 93 186 837 1 300 1 490

= 10
38,11 335 670 3 010 4 690 5 360
8
=10 33,31 384 768 3 460 5 380 6 140

= 10 10
37,42 12 000 24 108 168 192 000
8
27 600 124 193 000 221
=10 32,61 13 800

3,8 /.
.
. ,
,

, .

80.
1.

. ,
,
. , ,
-
. , , ,
l u l l (. 69).
/ N
, / / . t 0
. .
/ II.
/ / /,

. N N ,
x 2

, -
291

. , .
N N = N/2 x 2

.
N N ,
1?

: N N = N/2.
t 2

/Vx N. ,
2

, ,
.

, (78.2),

.
,
, ,
/ / / .
, ,
,
.
t
,
,
,
.
, 0
/,
2/.
? , - ,
, , ,
N .
2. .
. ,
,
/ , / / .
1
] = = / . .
2

,

. , /,

1
Pi = / -Va = V . N , ,
2 4

, , /
N 10
Pi = ?U) - N = 10 , = (V^ = 4 0,001. 1 0 i i

( )

, 1000
,
10 / .
292 [. VI

/ / .
2 ,
/, / / ( ).
, .
100 30
N = 100 Pi = /) ~ ~ ,

20
. /V = 10 Pi
1 1 2 3 1 0 9
/ = " ( / ) " 10 ' ' .
2


.
,
. V , V
0

- . , -
V, V/V , ,
0

V N ,
/ v \JV
(80)
)
3.
(. 2 ).
,
,
.

. .
.
, , ,
.
.
,

. ,
,
.
, 5

. , ,
.
, .
4. ,
, ,

.
,
.
-
293

, , . .
S = f (), / ()
, .
/ ()
. 2

5 = / (,) S == / ( ).
2 2


, S .
]2 12

, = , 5 = f ( ) = / (PiPo).
12 2 1 2 12

, ,

. ,
/(/ 2) 5
= /()+/(/ 2), 5
(80.2)
. 2

(80.2)
, (72.2).
, ,
2

,
2

.
(80.2)
J J
/ ( / i ) + /(/ 2)==const,

7 V W const.

/() = - ^ ( ) 2

rfP, _ _ dP,,


r i
dP, - dP, "

, .,. , 2

.
, -j^y-
, . . .
, . . ,
f(P) .
k,
294 [. VI

, , dP
df=k-p.

/ ( ) = + .
.
,
(80.2)
k In (PJ> ) + = (k In + ) + (k In P + C),
2 t

= 0. ,
S = k\nP. (80.3)
5. .
,
: -

. .
Vx V
2

, .
(80.1),
V = V V V .
lt 2

S -S2 1 = k\n%- = kN l n .


(40.7)

S -S ^R ln. 2


k = -, (80.4)

. . .
(80.3)
.
(80.3) (18581947).
.
6. *

(. 42).
(80.3)
. .
,
,
. ,
-
295

.
.
, .
,
.
.
? ?
, -
,
, .
,
,
,
.
.
42 ,
. ,

.
.
,

, .
, ,
, .
.
. .
,
.
.

, ,

.

.
,
.
, ,
,
.

,
.
7.
.
296 [. VI

, .
(80.3)
. .
, ,
.
, .
,
- .
(70.3).
,
S In .
(70.3),
.
, -
. , , ,
.

.
G
S = klnG. (80.5)
8.
V, N
.
, .
,
1, 2, ...
,
.
.
.
,
,
(. 71).
,
,
.
V V , x

V , , V .
2 m

, ,
.

. ,
, . ,
,
,
80j 297


.
. p t

, -
i- . , + . -)-...+ = 1.

, , pi = V-JV.
, 1
N , 2 /
x

. .
2
^'-

, , ,
,
.

, . ,
, .
:

1 2 ...
(80.6)
/V*! N 2 ... N


A / , , /.,, ... , N ,

,
.
9. (80.6)
/,, N , ... , N . -
2 m

.
, N
.
N . ,
, ,
.
N u

No, ... ,
. N1 .
,

.
. ,
N \ , N l . .
x 2

G /V!
iV ! yV ! N \ . ,
x 2 m

G = (80.7)
N \N l...N \-
1 2 m
298 [. VI

(80.6),
.
N
= ^ 1 2 nm (80 8)
V , , V 2 m

.
, . ,

, ... , , , .
2

, , V , ... 2

. . , ...

V
^ . (80.8)
N

P G
'Vi\
= \V
G , . . N N , u 2


G. G
. ,

, .

2
1. / = ( / / )
/ f.
2 2
. = (/ ff = f 2// + / . ff = ff = f,
-
3 2
/2=/-/ . (80.9)
2. F - ,

N , ^ = 2 h< . /;
('- .
F
.

( i, , .)
,
2 2
= (2 hf - 2 + 2 2 Mi = N]i+N(N-1) ,

fifj Qi + (// + A//)-


2
, /; = / = 0, f'~ = f. = f ,
2
fifj f + /;/. ,
A/jA/y = 0. , fifj = / .
2

(80.9),
2 2
= N ( / - / ) <= NEp. (80.10)
299

F.
_ _ -

A f _VNV / ^ 1 /
2 2 2

F ~ Nf ~ | /
' F
YN. N .
.
3. V '
.
v, V-
-
v, a q 1 V v.
= v/V. (80.8) = , q, %

801)

*=1^- - <
=^0 = 0
(80.11) , v
( ).
(70.10)
N N

= nP = Np V^l)\ p n - l a N - n
4
Li (1)1 (JV-N)L

= 1 =1
'' = 1 ( ,
,
). _j


v
'- - pnqN l
\ ( / - 1 - ) 1
n = Np = 0

(80.12),
n = Np. (80.13)
.
2
n(n-\) = N (iV-l)p ,

a 2
n ==JV(A/1) + . (80.13)
2 2 2
(80.9) = . (80.13)
(80.13),
JEnf = Np(\p)==n(\.p). (80.14)
<(; V, <^ 1,
2
() = . (80.15)

300 . VI

,
. ,
.
4. ,
(80.11), N -* .
, v ,
v ,
.
. , = ^, = - ~ , q=[p,
(80.11)
+ 1
.fi-4V.ii- ^

' ->- .
N N -

hm | 1 ~ \
r = lim ) =


(}1-" = (80.17)
( ).
5. (80.17)
(31.5).
.
P =
n L = ( l L \ e ( n n
- " \ (80.18)
2 \ nj
6. , (0 18)
~. (80.18),
h\P ( )
n

. -. .

.
1
d - - 1/? f
~- (In ) = In - In - L i _ l i i u 1
/
dn
1/2 .
= . In . ,

In = In
!___ - - ( -,
2 2
(-)~

2
= - 4 = (80.19)
V 2
( ).
7. (80.19) (80.3),
(40.9).
. ,
,
S = Nc \nT+Nk
0 v In
81] 301

c , . ,
v

v ,

S = Nc \n
v T + k(N-n)\n^ + kn\n.
4
' Nn
,
v/V n/N.
:
AS = k In
(80.3)
AS=k In

'.='(!)"
,
(80.18) (80.19). ,
^ = 1.
0

81.

1. - ,

,
.
,
,
, .
, ,
.
N ,
.

. .
. ,
. ,
,
, .
,

.
2. ,
,
.
, , -
302 [. VI

, , .

,
, , , , ,

, . ,

,
N
. -
, .

, . . . , ,
,
.
,

.
,
(, + dx), ( , p + dp ).
z z


dx dy ... dp .
z

, -
, .

.
.
, , , p
z

+ .
1,2, 3, ... , i-
, .
, =^ sS.
2 3

, ,

.
, ,
.
3.
, .

,
. ,
,
,
.

,
81] 303

8 8 , - J > h.

3
ch ,
.
.
= 1. ,

.
.


. ,
.
,
.
,
. .
,
.
,
.
, . . ,
.
, ...
2

.
,

,
.
. ,
,
. ,
. ,
,
.

, .

. ,

,
.
.
4. ,
.
304 [. VI

,
. ,
i-u ,-,
- .
, ,
.
.
, ,
.
.
.

.
/,, / , ... .
2

, ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
. ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
,

. ,
, .
,
(80.7), . .

5.
, ,
G, , 5 .
,
.
:
tf + #, + . . . = tf = const,
1 !
(81.2)
e
/Vi i -f / + . . . = ' = const.
2 2 (81.3)
,
. ,
, ,
3
81] 5

.
.
,
N , N , / , ... x 2

. ,
N . , N,
t

, . / ;

i
it
N,

. N /,- ,
.

(16921770) ^ , _
12
= | / 2 / (-) - , (81.4)

\
0 < 9 < 1 *)


|2,)
'/< 1 1/( 12/V). N = 10
. (81.5) (81.1)
(81.2),
. C(N)
.+ 1/2 >
(81.6)
i
N.

S = 2| (Nt + ) In N + const. t

i
V /,.
2

5 = 2 -In /; + const. (81.7)


i
,
(81.7)
(81.2) (81.3). ,

2 1 n A / d A / i = 0,
r 2dA/,- = 0, ^ , = 0.
(81.8)

*) ., , . . ,
, . II, ( ).
306 [. VI

0
v (in /. + + ) dN = 0, t

,
N . , dN dN
t x 2

.
dN N , / , ...
h 3 4

. ,
1/ + + = 0,

s , ( 8 1 . 9 )
N . Ni
0

, , /,-,
, .
6.
,
. ,
,

. ,
.

. (
) .
, ,
. dE = 6Q =
= TdS. , , ... 2

.
,
.
, . .
/,-. dE=Y e dN l i it

^ (81.7), dS =
= k In Ni dNi = ka ] 8j dNi.
dE dS,
= ^. (81.10)

/
7 = / - * -
( 0 (81.11)
.

. ,
, .
N
0

e /kT
ZN = N< 2 e- i
l ) l =N. (81.12)
82] - S03E - 307

,
(81.11), ,
V r
^-A/og;e~ * , (81.13)
gi t'-ro .
7.
.

AQ. t'-
/,- = N f (,) AQ. (81.7) ,
In AQ ,
S = kN v ] / ( , ) In /(e )AQ + const,
e ;

, ,
S-= kN\f () In / () dQ + const. (81.14)
8. , , (81.11)
,
.
2 ,
, ,
.

,-.
, .
, i-u , -
(81.11).
, ,
.
.
, ,
.
, . (81.11)
. /,-
,
i- .
(81.11) .

.

82.
1.
.
, ,
.
308 (. VI

. .
, - /("- .
.
. ,
,
,
.
.
,
, ,
(, ) .
2.
.
,
.
,
.
I, II,
, , . .
II, I.
,
, ,
.

.
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
.
, , . 70,
. ,
1
/ .
9

(. 70, ), 1) 2), 3) 4), 5)


6) ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
1
/ . ( -

- - 309

,
2 1
/ , / .
9

, ,
.)

1) 1)
"1 I 1 1 1

2) 2) 2)

I I j
5) 5) 5)

5) 5)

e)
6)
Li
7) 5 -

8)

9)\

. 70.

, ,
. ,
1
. / ( 3
2
/ ) .

3. ,
. Z .
,
N .
. Z ,
/V .
, , ,
.
.
Z 5 N, N > Z
,
310 [. VI

. Z
(. 71).
, .
Z : N (Z N)
.
.
Z!
N1 ,

.
. 71. ,
(Z N)\ ,
.
N Z

\ (82.1)
(Z~N)\

, .
Z N .
Z ,
Z 1 (. 72).
.
. Z + N 1 :
N Z 1 .
.
N Z .
N1 ,

. ,
(Z 1)!
, . 72.

.
/V Z

(Z + N-\)\
(82.2)
/VI ( Z - l ) l

4.
. ,
,
, .
, .

.
82] - - 311

.
i-
(,-, + ).
; ;

6 . , <J .
;

, Z,
.
N . ,
t

-,
. ,

N . . G h

. , /,-
Z, '- ,
Zj\ __ (Z - + A ^ - l ) !
;

U i U i
~ N \ {Zi-Ni)\
t ~ N\
t (Z;-l)!

. Gi,
.
,


= 7^1- (82.3)

/JKZ,1)! z
{ - >%

,
(82.3) (82.4)
(81.2) (81.3). ,
Z,-, Ni, , .
,
:
k N l n N z N l n z N c o n s t
5 = -
2 i * i + (i ~ i ) ( i ~ i)] + > (82-5)
i
S =
6 [ ( Z , + Ni - 1) ln (Zi + N - 1) - Nt ln AT,-] + const. (82.6)
i

(81.2)

2 I n ^ _dNi
z N = 0 ( ),

2 In Y^rrg^zi dNi = 0 ( ).

(81.8)
312 [. VI

N N
, In TV,- In ~ \, ln . .\ .
-
(81.9)
N aEi
' Ae~ ( ), (82.7)
Zi-Ni

-~1- = ~ ' ( ), (82.8)
Zi + Ni

Z; + Ni.
, .
\(81.10).

, N-JZI, . .

( ), (82.9)

( ). (82.10)
. .
k T
- 1

'.,

= * .
.
5. <^ 1, (82.9) (82.10)
,

k T
= =const-e , (82.11)
. . . ,
, .
, . . < ; 1.
71.

, <^ 1 (82.9) (82.10)

(82.11).
(82.3) (82.4)
(81.1).
, , ,
,
.
6. .

* kT *
82] 313

, (
V), N. .
. ,

, . ,-
;

. (82.2)
.

.
. - (. . , ).
, (82.10) . src ;

/. , i = 1, . == 0. -,
, .
- (. . , )
Bi

. 73.

. ,
, , < 0. , (82.11)
|. ,
/ < ^ 1. i = 1
|i < 0 .
7. . 73,
. > 0. -> 0,
1, 8; < ..
1

, , = .,
0, > .

, = 0 -
< .
1

. , = 0
- . ,
,
(. 73, ).
- ,
. < 0. ,
314 [. VI

. 74.
= 0 -.
- = 0 .
, 0
( , < 0 ) .
0 (82.10)
(,

= 0). N

. , 7 = 0
, = 0. ,
(82.10),
0 ,
n ,
v

-

= 0 , ,

= 0.
- . ,
.
(82.9) (82.10)
;

Z .
;

83.
1.
. N
, (45.2)
[* dN,
. (45.2)

dU = TdS-PdV + \i*dV. (83.1)


(45.3), (45.6),
(45.7). *
.
1
-f] - ( \ ~( \ (
9 1
~\dN)v,s~\dNJT,v ~[dNjT,p~~\dN)p,s' '


.
, ,
. , ,
. ,
,
315

.
, ,
.
N .
.
, /, . . (, , N).
, .
, = (, , aN). ,
aN 1, . . = 1/N.

= /(7\ , 1). (83.3)

83 4
*-{), = ( >
> !) < -)
= ,* (, P)N. (83.5)
,* , ,
, .

. ,
= W (, V, N). N
W, V,
. . = W (, aV, aN). = 1/N,

^ = /(, l), (83.6)

N ,
!
W (, ~ , l ) . ^* = (^) ^{,^,\
>

.* . U
S
U S , ,
0 0

U S T. U 5
0 0 0 0

/,
jx*. U S N.
0 0

.*
.
.
2.
, (82:5)
(82.6). ,
N.
,* -.
. /,
V .
316 [. VI

. V ,
, N


. N . t

(82.5)


(82.7),
=
In z
1
._ ^- ~ ^kT~ ( ^ / ,

dS-^-kJ^pdN,
i
v Ei dNi dU.
, ^dNi d^Ni dN.

TdS = \idN + dU,

d4 = [idN.

^={). = *

. ,
, (82.9) (82.10) .
.
84.
1. 1906 .
, (18641941) .
.

,
.
, .
.
,
.
.
,
.

.
84] 317

,

(84.1)

(, ,
()
.)
. ,
-> 0. 6Q
.
, .
,
,
,
. , ,
(84.1) - 0 ,
, .
,
.
S S
0

, ,
, (,
, , .).

.
.
, ,
.
()
.
.
, , ,
,
. , , ,
.
, .

,
.

,
. ,
, .
, , .

318 [. VI

,
,
. , , , ,
,

.
.
,
,
.
2. ,

.
, .
,
C
v

. , , ,
. 6Q = (') dT'.
,

. , == 0
.
0 g ' ^ ,
, ,

yv dT = C ^ j,,,

. ,

\ dT ,
.
. , ^-

C .
v

,
.

(. 66 68).
.
319

3.
.

(dS\ _ _ ldV\ !d_S\ _ !\


{)~~ [dTJp' \dv)T~{dfJv'
,
.
,
1 fdv\ . 0 j

( )
m -.
P 0 \dTJv
,

.
,
( 8 4 . 2 )
. . ,

,
. , ( 8 4 . 2 )
,
,
. , ,
, .

(. 71).
.
, ,
, .

, . ,

\ _ (\ _

1
dVJT \dfjv
'' \
{^gfj
v 0.
, ,
. (\dVjT'
^ ) , -
U, .
,
-
.
320 [. VI

4. ,

(80.5).
. .
.
, ,
,
. .
.
.
.
,
, - ,
, .
.
(80.5) .
.
. ,
,
.
.
.
. ,
,
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
.
, . ,
, 2 ,
AS = k ln 2.
k.
20
10 ,
AS = 20k ln 10 46k. .

.
. .

- -
. , .
. = 0. -
( i = ), .
< < , i >
8 5 ] 321

. i = (
). '; = Z,-, Ni = 0.
(82.3), -,
. ,
. ,

(84.3)
- N \(Z -N )\-
n n n

0 (84.4)
-- JV! ( Z . - l ) l
, .
Zj, Z,,, ', N .
.
(82.3) (82.4),
(84.3) (84.4). ( )
.
,
.

85.
1. ,
.
69.
. /V
, .
(81.13), ,
. ,
,
_ i ^

(81.13) N =
t

= N 2 1 giS~ i = N
0
a

n -

* = - i i = -as(lnZ), (85.1)

M
Z=2#e- '=2#r*t (85.2)
(85.2)
.
2.
.

e* = (' + Va)Av (85.3)
11 . . , , I I
322 [ . VI

(. 69).
ocftv
00
Av -~2' 1 g-UftV I
z
. - .
'" = 0


d /1 rr\ hv , hv , a r
e = l n Z ) = = 8 5 4
- d a ( Y + ^ ( - )
k T
c - \

\l(kT).
/iv/2 .

. .
, h v

6 8 5 5
= -7iv ( - )
1

1900 .
. hv <^ kT,
hv
hv
, e ^ 1 -\-^ - k T

(85.5)
& = kT. (85.6)
, kT ^> hv
,
.
3. (85.5)
.
, .

,
v.
, . . .
,
.
o.J hv

U = 3Nz = j f ^ , (85.7)
kT
e -\
N .

... (~)* hv

Cv = f T - T l ^ % ^ - (85-8)
kT
e -\
$ 85] 323

. ,
| ^ < ^ 1,
C =3R.
V

, \,

C^=3tf(^)V^. (85.9)

-> (85.8) (85.9) ,


.
4.
. (84.8) (84.9) ->0 C
v

.
,
, . . .

, .
,
, ,
.

.

.
.
,
.
, . . .
.

(18841966), (18821971)
(18811963).
.
. .

, .

. ,
,
.

,
. .
324 [. VI

,
.


. .

.
, ,
.

. -
.
5. , ,
, .
. ,
,
,
,
.
.
(59.8), . .
2
= / .3 (85.10)
, 69,
.
84 .
- (,
) .
,
(. 71).

(. . 73, ).
,
.
,
. ,
,
,
. 73, . , -
.

= ..
kT.
. -
,
.
85] 325

. ,
. ,
, . .

= ,
.
, -
-> 0.
, = 0
,
. = 0 ,
- .
VII

86.

1.
(73.6).
. ,
, v
1700 /, 455 / 425 /.

.
, ,

.

.

.

, .
,
10 ,
. , .
.
. 12
. 20.
,
.
.
,
, .
,

, , .
, .
, .
, ,
.



.
2.
. -
86] 327

,
.
.
,
.
, .
,
.

, . . ,
.

.
.

,

. ,

,
.

.
,
. . . 75.
.

,

,
.
,
,
. .
,
5 .
.

d. , ,
,
. ,
.
,
.
,
(. 75). -
328 [. VII

.
,
.
. V ,
S .

V, . . = Vn,
. ,

2d.
V, , . .
V ,
2
v. V = av, = nd
. ,

z = nav. (86.1)
, , v.
,
:
, = ~ . 4 (86.2)
'

, (86.1) (86.2)
, ,
, ,
, . . .

, .

.
, (86.1) (86.2) ,
,
, .

. :

= 2=1>, (86.3)

W (86.4)
2
(86.3) (86.4)
(86.1) (86.2) ,
. ,
.
,
.
329

, .
2 1 / | / 2 , .
(86.1) (86.2)
, , ,

.
3. (86.3) (86.4)
.
(86.1) (86.2) .
1^2 .
.

, ,
. ,
v- . ni t

. ;
(86.1),
Z; = nflvi .


, . . I:
2 n av
= 2 i iora-


1
!
''

* = > . (86.5)
,
= ^ - . (86.6)
v
v - o l a

.
4.
.

.
(, ),
.
. v v ,
lt z v ,
N

, . N
, .

.
Fx, F , ... -
2


. v , v ,
x v
2 N

, .
,
. >
10

,
330 [. VII

, ^ ^-

, , . .
,
.
(, ) ,
. F F , ... , it 2

.
( = = ),
-~- = -jr.
FFLJ-j- 2 2

, ,
. F\, F , ... 2

,

. , ,
.
,
V2 . ,
tS = j / 2 , (86.5) (86.6) (86.3) (86.4).
OTII

5. ,
. 1 /
2 , ., 2

. 2 ,
2

(86.1) (86.2).
2
, , v v % = ( -f- ) .
12 u 2

1
d= riA~ . ,
2

(86.5) (86.6).
* 1 v t

j/^p, Vm . . lt

--Am, ~-\ -

myv\ = m vl
2


^ = + - (86.7)
, 1
12

2 ,
z 12 = ftjO + ,
]2 (86.8)
1

^ 1 = = !... , - = ~ -. (86.9)

mj = fftj (86.3) (86.4).

6. , .
,
2 2

.
, ,
.
331

,
.
2 2 2
= (2r ) = 4|,
t 1 2 = - = ( + ) , 1 2 " = (2 ) = 4^.
22 2


(
):
=
1 ( 1 1 ] +
1 ) , 1 =
2 ( 1 2 1 + 2 2 ) 0 , 2 (86.10)


1
2 = (86.11)
+ ' a
"l 21 +
"2 22 '

1. ,
.
2


.
.
-

(86.12)

]/l+5+ o K2- 2 28

2.
, . 76.
,
.
.
.
(, ). ,
# v u

u o r a =2v sin-g-

(. 76). , v x

+ d, (75.4). ,

4
= v \ sin -g- sin d d$ = -g- v.

(86.6)
3 1^ (86.13)
4 '
3. v
.
332 [. VII

.
(86.5). .
,
: , '.

2
v = = - - tf-av ma = ~ - n ev. (86.14)
2 2 2

4. . .

v
1 2

.
.

v 1 2 = n n o w
I 2 l a O T H = j / ~ 1 + ni20iaWi = | / " l + ^ n ^ o - i j W a (86.15)

87.
1.
, ,

.
2
, = nd , d
.
2
, = = ( + ) . 12 2


,
.
, . . . ,
,
, . .
, , , .
,
,
, (
)
, , ,
. , ,
, .

(86.1), ,
v .
(86.1)
.

(86.1)
.
, .
333

, , ,
, . / =
= nv , . . ,
, ,
.
(86.1)
AN 1
a= = -j-.
T (87.1)

/ = ,
-
. ,
-
.
,
, (,
, , .), .
2. , ,
.
, , .

,
.
.

, . ,

.

,
,
.
.

.

.
.
,
.

3.
.
(18591912) 1893 .
, ,
.
, ,
,
. .
334 [. VII

.
, ,
(. 77). v . 0

, . .
, ,
v . b > d,
0

.
, . 77, . b
,
, = .
2
= nd . ,
0

v b = vd, v
0
2
. , av% = . v 0
1 i 1
/ \iv = / yi.vl + ,
i
i

. 77.

, . .
l
= l\wl.

= (
4 - ),
0

, , ,
.
,
. ,
,
. .
, ,

. ,
,
.

.
,
1/ .

, ,

(87.2)

S , .
. (87.2) .
87] 335

4.
, (86.14) (86.15)

V = | 2
< O T O T H > , (87.3)

v 1 2 = n n (ay
1 2 O T H ), (87.4)


, -
, .
(87.3) (87.4)
.
. (

!) (87.3)
,
, (87.4)
.
, , ,
,
,
P=vE. (87.5)

,

.
. ,
2 (. 78).

m v + m v = 0.
1 1 2 2

- 7g


,
. ,
,
( ). - ,
. ,
, 2 + = , . . = -g g" 6 = d s i n a =

2
= dcos-g-. = nd , da = 2nbdb
l 2
+ db. da = / nd sin -Odd.
2
1
dQ = 2 sin
da _ dQ
~" 4 '
. . dQ. 1/4
- , .
336 [. VII

88.

1. ,
. ,
. .
, , -
.
/ , ,
0

(. 79). J

\ I I .
dx
5 = 1 .
nSdx - ndx.
(87.1)
dx ,
-
f* - -
. 79. , Jo, - -
j dx dN = Jon dx =
= dx.
dx,
dJ= ~dx. (88.1)

J = J e-*/>:
0 (88.2)
- .
1/, .
(88.1) dx/k
dx, 1/.
.
(88.2) .
/ , ,
0

, ,
N = N e-'/^. 0 (88.3)
, (, + dx),
1
\dN\ -^N e0 dx. ,
,


= ^ - ^ \ dN | = dxX.

, ,
,
88] 337

2. (88.3) ,

. ,
,
.
.
,
. .
/ ,
0

. .
x %
N = N^ / .
- .
, +
+ dx,
X L
\dN\ = ~ N e- 'J dx n = Ndx/'l.
3. (88.2) (88.3)

.
. (1882
1970) . 1921 .
.

,
.
4 1
(. 80), . 80.

. .
,
. ( . 80
.)
90,
. ,

. .

, ,
. N N , N , N, ,
lt 2 3 t

. (88.3)


In


. NJN
3
338 [. VII

, -
. , ( ,
2

X.
X
, .
, X
, (86.2).
4.
.
, , .
X
. ,
(86.3), -
2
, = ml .
(18211895)
.

.
: , .

I ,
.
,
- . -
.

.
.

, ,
.
.
,
.
.
,
(91.3).
.

.

89.
1.
.
CD (. 81, ) .
CD ,
339

.
. ,
, CD
.
,
.
-
.
,
. X (. 81, ).
, , = ().
, .
, () .
,

()
>.

'
.f -

S)
. 81.

, ,
. .

. ,
.

.
, = ().
g ,
.
. , ,
,
, .
,
,
.
, , ,
, .
, ,
,
,
340 [. VII

.
, .
.

.
.
, ,
. ,
,
.
2. .

.
v.
XI , ,
+
"~~~^ ,

,
.
,
- ,
^ 2 .
g 9
.

.
X,
.
,
,
, . ,

v.
,

v.
.
(. 82) S.
.
,
S. , S
, (75.1), . .
A/ 0 = V nv.
9

N
. N (88.3).
895 341

, ,
+ dx,

dN = ~ N<i~* dx = ~ " d j c .


g () , ,
5 . ,
S / , 0


G = \g(x) dN.
+

,
g () ,
, . . = + * ^ ^ ~ ^ - 0

n
G ^g \dN
+ 0 + i\e^xdx.

,
d
G = nvg
+ Q + ~nvX . (89.1)
1
, G = / nvg(K). + 6

, G+ ,
, S,
X
.

. ,
.
(89.1). , ,

S, ,
, g.
,
zhX S,
.
g, .
(89.1) , ,
,
d
G_ = ~ nvgo - ~ nvX f . x (89.1 )

,
342 [. VII

5 X ( ),
(89.1) (89.1).

G = - - ^ g = . - l n m ^ . (89.2)
,

, =, (89.3)
1
Ti = /3 nmiA. (89.4)

(89.3),
.
3.
. -
g -
-
~~ (. . I, 74).

, ,
.
, ,

, -
. 83. i i .
x y yx

dS
(. 83). , -,
, Y
,
X. - ,
().
,
dS. , .
,

dS ( X).
, dS ,
1
/ nu(k)dS. dG
6 +
1
= / mvnu (A) dS . ,
e
1
, , l nu('k)dS.
u
1
dG^ = l mvnu{X)dS 6

. dG = dG_ dG = Jr

^-mvnK^ ,
dS .
= - mnvX ,
,
89] 343

. ,
, = % .

4. ,
.
, ,
.
, ,

. ,
& + <
S (. 84), (75.4), . .
1
/ / sin -Orff).
2

,

,
, cosft, X.

2
dG = ~ sin d dftg ( cos f}) cos# = -~ g sin 0 cos ft db +
+ 0 -~ cos ft sin ft dft.

, ,
ft = 0 ft = /2.
_ nv . nv\dg .
G = - ^ - g o + - g - ^ _,
+

. G = G _ G =- +

nvX dg ,
= g- -~ ,
, , ) (89.4).
.
vk, . . (89.4)
\ =
3 <>. (89.5)
,
, . .
\ = nnikv. (89.6)

5.
.
. ,
,
= mc T, v

c .
v


, X, 7\ 2

.
,
. q
(89.2), g
= mc T. v

1 dT
a^-~nmv\c - -. v d
344 [. VII

(52.3),

= Vs ntnvc %. v (89.7)
,
.


, , .
,
. ,
2,
(89.2).
6. (89.6) (89.7)

^ = cv (89.8)

^ = Ac ,
v (89.9)

.
. . 9
.
, , .
, , , ,
6
>; ' .
3

(, ) ,

1 .

.
9

2,51 1,79
2,47 1,91
2,53 1,86
2,54 1,67
2,57 1,74
2,02 1,41
1,97 1,73
1,91 1,44

(. 69) ,
,
.
. , -
89] 345


6
/ , .

(18841950) . , = 2,25
= 81 = 2,37 = 21 , 0 = 2,02. (
, T ~ 175 .)
r

7. = nm, (89.6) (89.7)



1 1
t] = / pvX, K = / pvkc .
3 a v (89.10)
X , ,

. ,
. ,
,
.

.
,
.

. ,
, .
,

.
8. ,
. , -,
,
. \
, d
X.
, X J > d,
.
,
. , ,

, .
. ,
,
.
(89.3) (52.3). )

. ,
.
(89.6) (89.7), X d
. ,
346 [. VII


, X
- d (,
, ).
X d ,
.
: \
.
(. 1). d
X,

.
, X ~ d.

9.
,

. ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.
)
.
,
.
10.
) . (89.6)
(89.7) (86.2). :

_ mc _
v
891
^ ^ = 1 - < >
, )
v, . . V .
. ,
. .
, (87.2),

A VT
^-~, (89.12)

.
]
. , , N (
2

76 250 ) 0 ( 21 302 ).
2


103 ( N ) 240 ( 0 ). (89.12)
2 2

.
(89.12) . , S,
(89.12) , 80
200 , 800 ".
347

1. Q
/
S.
. dx.

(17991869) ,

r\ dx '
, = 1/(8) (. . I, 97).
,

v\RT dx
Q . )
.

2.
, .
, > ~ V'f.
(. 5 3 ) .

. 53 -*-^', -^'[ ,

2 3
/
'3

90.
1. ,
.
- 1, 2.
. ,
.
.

.

.
.
, .
,
.
. ,
-
.
- .
,
, .
(, N ), 2
348 [. VII


.
2. ,

.
2

X. =
= () + () ,
2

.
,
. 1
2

.
.
,
,
, .
.

2

(89.2).
g
= njn = . (89.2),
2


1 = HVA
3
--
dx
-5- VA
3 dx
.

2. ,

= -% r, = - D g . (90.1)

= -\- ,
2

(90.1)

= - 0 ^ , r, = - D ^ . (90.2)

,
- (,
), (90.2) .
(90.1).
= % - [ - 2

^ - f - ^ r = 0, = .
2

, .
(90.1) ,
. . D
.

1
= / 5. 3 (90.3)
91] 349

3.
. (90.3), , .
,

.

.
,
, .

.
.
,
.
(90.3).
.
,


: .

.
.
, .
92
, ,
.

91.

1. 64
.
,
.
, ,
.
F,
. ,
.
F
. F
.
F.
.
, , :
350 [. VII

= (v). ,
F.
.

F:
u = BF. (91.1)
, .
, .
2. , -
. ,

.
, .
. F ,
,
,, = Fx. (, X
.)
,

Fx
_ 1?
~ kf kf.
= = / = (91.2)
nffi

,
. ,
.
X = Ddn/dx.

,
= BFn.


d
-D + BFn = 0.

(91.2),
3
D kTB. (91.3)

.

92.
1. ,

X.
, = () + () 2

.
.
1 12 3
dx ' dx'
351

> 1 2, a D
12 2 1

2 1.
X.
- 2

(91.3) > D 12 2 1

. .
2. .

- , 1.
. F x

1,
uj ,

= B F . , F
X X x

, 1 .

2

. 1 (
) .
1 ,
.
.
, 1
12

. 1
z Api. 12

,
F\. ,
, . ,
,
.
F = z (A/?i).
x 1 2 12

(86.8). Ap
lt

, .
1 ( ) = ( A i ) .

2, 1.
,
, -

. V =
2 m
,
(. 87). ,

. ,
V. tt\

92)
^ ^ " ^ till~ "
" ^ ^ ^ ' ^ ' <

.
, ,
1 , ,

1 2

Ui "i> - - . ,
.
352 [. VII

, n tt -f- = 0. ,
x x 2

,
.

- -


2
, "
"H-12
z 12 (86.8),

, V vi + vr
2

(91.3)
kT

D = D = -
l a '
vj + .
12
(92.3)

(92.3) , . ,
2


. .

93.
1. 64
.
.
, .
-
.
D
,
. D
(91.3),

(64.4).

.


(),
X.
,
X.
. 85. dS (. 85).
,
,\
, () . -
dNt, dS ,
ABB ' ;, . .
dNi^n-i () dV.
dS ,\
dV dV = dSdx

dNi~-=dS')ni(x)dx = dS \ ni(x + 0 l)dl,
353

dS. , , ,-
0

, ; ( + | ) |
0

.

i= rt,.(0)(iS dt + tfi)
[dx;
x=x a
dS
s
- Ax.

dJV,- = dS . 1 dll; .. .,'


( V V ; )
" < * ' ~ 2 dv "

Xq , ,
dnjjdx dS.
dN , dS
X, ,
,
:
dN--

. ,
dS,
.
,

,-, , .
2
( )
.

, ,\dn 2" V dn;
( )
dx

dN
2
( )_ dn
dN = -dS
dx '
,
dS .
2
< > dn
= - (93.1)
2 dx
,

2
1 < )
D= - (93.2)

2. D
, (93.2) ,
2
( ) ~ . ,
64. , (91.3),
2
(Ax )=2kTB\. (93.3)
354 [. VII

.
(64.4) . , (64.4)

. (93.3) ,
.

.
,

D= (93.4)

3. (93.2) (93.4), ,
. ,
.
.
. , , (93.4)
. , ,
.
. , ,
X = vx.
2 2
(93.4) ( A r ) = X ,

D= = = - Kv
6 6 6
(90.3)
!/ .
2

94.
1. ,
, ,
,
.
. 2

,
, .
,
2

, ,
.
, , .


.

.
. , -,
.
. ,
,
v
F l / r , , ,
355
v = 5.
v = 5 . ,
5
F ~ 1/ ,
. -
.

1917 .
.
.
.
,
.
.
2.

.
, .
,

. ,
, , ,
50% 0 50% N ,
2 2

0 500 . , ,
50,27% N 49,73% 3

0 , 49,73% N 50,27% 0 .
2 2 2

1 2.
,
1
at] D T dT
T^~nD +n 12dx T dx '
(94.1)

= njn =
-f /) -
, D , D
12 T

(94.2)

k D /D T
T l2

. = 0, 2


dcj kT dT
dx T dx '

k T ,
c {T)-c {T )
1 1 0 = k \r.~.
T
(94.3)
1

356 [. VII

() ( )
0 0

. k
T

, ,
(94.3) ,
.
3. (
)
.

1938 . .
, -
|
| (. 86).
^
.
,
.

(94.3).

,
( ).
,
.
510 10 .
,
10001700 .
, .
, ,
.

.

95.
1. % ,
d,
, , .
, ,
5
, X ~ 10~ . ,
5
10~ (
),
.
: 1) , %
d, , 2) ,
d, 3) ( ), X
95] 357

d. -
.
<^ d.
.

( 8 89).
, ,

.
.

(. 89, 8).

.
,
, .
,
~ d.
2. .
. , .
s.
, ,
(75.5) (75.6), . .

(95.1)

, I/ ^-.
, s. ,
?
,
.


.
, .
,
.

, .
(95.1) ,
,
. ,
,
.
. ,
358 [. V I I

, ,
.
,
. (95.1) .
-
,
X.
,
, .
, -
: .

. ,
s ,
Cs /' PR \
# = - = - = = --^4= , (95.2)

, , , .

,
, N , . .

-4= = (95.3)

, ,
: 1
m 2 .
lt 2

1 , 2 . 1 1<

1 .
2. 1


., N / . *C
.'
s

1
,\

2 :
Cs 1
l ,
2
,
/, = '
\ | 7

, = ,
1

, ,
6 359


.
.
.
3. . 1 2
(. 87)
] .,.

,
.

:

. . 87.
2

,
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
(95.3)

. (95.5)

, 2

rmw ,
.
2

,
,
7\ .
2


. (

. 88. ).
(95.5).
. ,

.

(18711949).
(. 1884 .)
. ,
(. 88).
,
.
,
.
360 [. VII

,
.
.
.

.
,
. ,
.
4. (95.5) . ,
.
1 2.
, . ,
.
1
Ni = / n o s . 1,
4 1 1

2.
A/i2 = tftAiViS&n,
1 2
1
1 2. 2 1 ,Y = iUi v a i , 21 i 2 2

.
2 1

Nii = N , . . 21

1"1^1 = <.

(95.6)
= ^ . 1 2

, -, , .

,
, .
.

1 2 2 1

. ,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
,
.
, = . (95.6) 1 2 2 1


niV n v , l 1 i (95.7)
(95.5). ,
(95.5) ,
= ^ . 1 2

5. .
, .
,
. ,
.
(95.5). > , N < / . ,
2 x 2


361

, .
.
,
U- (. 89).
.

D,
.


,
.

.
,
,


.
6. .
,
. . 89.
,
, X
(. 90).
.
,
-, + .
|
,
,
V7777777777777777777777Z , .
^dT
dx ,
. 90. .

.
X, . .
.
.

,
. v ^-
x

X. -
.
, , ,
362 [. VII

+ " (. 89,

2). ,
X v (x + ) x

v (x .) -(- .
x

v {x-\-\ )
x x u = v { ) + ,
x

d x
u-i ^
dx

2
= ;. + = -4- ~ = %. ,
^=
X/V 3. mvj.xkT. ,

k dT_ - k dT
^^' InTdx-

,
, . ~ MP.

7. .
, , ,
,
.
,
. ,
, .
.
-
.

(. . 91,
. ).

, . . .
, , .
, ,
,

.
.

, ,
. ,
.

. ,
363

(95.8).
.
.
.


(18321919).
,
,
. , - . 91.

.
.
.

(
)
.
. , ,
.
, . .,
. ,
10 ,
?
2
. N ^.

96.

1.

. ,

.
.
. ,
,
, .

, .
,
.
2. ,
I
364 [. VII

. (
.)
,
N ,
x

. N,
. N
. ,
, ,
, ,
, , . . N = N . x


. ,
, . /V
.

,
N, N , I.
u

,
N/N{ii all.
: jj~ f (/1),

/ ^ y j ,
.
f (0) = 0, = 0 N ,

N , / ( ) "
v

,
.

N = CN |-,

,
. ,
,
.

Nj , N .
2

,
,
N = Cj(N -N ).
1 2 (96.1)

, .
Pi 7\,
96] 365

7.
2

,
2

1 1
N = / Sn v ,
1 i 1 1 N =
2 / Sn v ,
i 2 2

S .
= ~ ~~ P = nkT,
N

N. -?..{- '--- '-' (96.2)

:
= -=-.- (96.3)
Ink '
'

,
,

Q=AV (96 4)
^i[v^rm\- -
3.
.
,
.
1
. , N = DS dn/dx, D = / Kv 3

( X ).
N = const, dn/dx = const.
, dn/dx = (n ),
2


.
.
2. ,

.-.-"1-2
'2
N = ~avS
3 / '

iV = { " ( i V - i V ) . 1 2 (96.5)

(96.1) ,

,
N Q
366 [. VII

. , 2


1-^ = \
. ,

f(^j)
.
(96.2) (96.3)
(96.6) .
4. (96.4) ,
Q .
. ,

V , ,
, v .
v <^ V, .

,
V V.
5.
-
.
-

2

.
,
,
, .
,
,
.
,

.
, .
, ,
.
.
,
, ,
,
.
, 5
/V . dN , -
CT cr
96J

dQ,
S (. 92).


, ,
.
.
dQ, S >
, S cos ft
dN,
.
(75.5), . . A/ = V nv. , ,
tT 4

dtf = ^ p c o s 0 d Q . (96.7)
6. .
, .
Q ,
S, (. 93).
5 YZ, X
. dS
5.
Y
>
\dx'\
\
1
\dS > \

( \
V t
\

(
1 V
1 1
1 1
; I
/ /
/ /
/ /
j

J
1 dS' X
I


. 93.

dx'
dS'. dS' dS
dS cos 1 1

dQ ^ . dN,
dS' dS ,

1\ N ,
cr / cos ft cos ft' , , , J C c
= C O S IR = dS dS ,
368 [. VII

R , &
, .
Af dS'
CT

: N = /V ().
CT CT

N,
S , dN
5 .
dS'
S, dS'
2nadx.
dQ Y, . 93.
z dS.

cos#=^, COSIJ'==|-,

N = 2a ydS J N(x)-~dx.
_ L

N ,
. . , N () xlR*
, .
, N ()
cr

,
:


,
, i

N=2 a ^ J ydS J g d * .

,
.
5 ,
. cos , =
2 2
= + , dS = rdr dtp,

2 2acoscp +



96] 369


-4-
1 j . _ X 1 X \+ ^
2 B 2
*-\- \2 2 r -f-x ~ 2

,
W= ( 9 6 . 8 )

N,
. ,

/V = / 5,
CT 4

dN CT _ A/t / 3

(96.8) (96.5).

, , .

1. I = 5 V = 1
.
6,1 .
,
.
? ,
,
= 300 .
t
3
. = ' = = 5 10 = 83,4 .

2. I =
= 3 V = 1 (0 ). 2

D = 0,1 .
,
.
? ,
( 1)/ = 0,628
,
= 300 .

, \ 1
12W
= - - - - - = 3 10" = 5 10" = 8,33 .
nu^v
3. Vi V
3

/, -
.
,

n ?
1 0 30
370 [. VII

.
: , ,
, n tii 3 dn.i _
dt ' dt 2

3VJ 3VJL
3
2?' " 2na v'
,
d . .

7( 1 )=-
2

1 = 1 + 1 .

,
_ t_

==(/ )
2 10 20 .
.

2 0 * 2 + 50*1 , , , - -
VIII


* *

97.

1. .
, .
,
PV RT
.
.
. ,
.
,
,
.
.
.
,
. ,
,
. ,

, .
, . . .
( ,

.) ,
,
, ,
.
.
(, ).
,
.
.

, .

.
,
372 [. VIII

,
.
2.
. -
- (18371923) ,
.
,
,
? ,
. -,
.

,
.
-,
,

, .
.
1 2
, E
lt

,
. 2 ,

2

, . .


. ,
.
.
,

( ).

- .
, .
, - .
,
.
.
,
.
, .
.
,
. -
373

. ,
, -
.

, , -

.
, .
,
.
, .

.
, )

, ,

.

.
,


, >


. ,
, ,
, - ^. 4.

.
.
,
.
3.
U (),
.
U () ,
. 94. ,
.

V ():

FLJHFLJ .
. ,
--.
374 [. VIII

(
6
F = dU/dx). /
2

( ). ,
.
--
. U ()
,
, . 94 . d
,
, d.

,
. .
,
. .
d . ,
.

, . ,

,
. ,
,
-7
, . .

98. --
1.
, .
, ,
. ,
.
.

, .
,
, ,
, ,
, .
.
. ,
. ,

, .
,
,
-- 375

. .

, . ,
,
.
.
, V
/ 2,
(. 95).
. - .

,
(. 59).
, ,
2,
, ( /)
.
.

, d.
2 d,
86
. - "
/ - . 95.
. ,
. ,
, 1,
2 , . .
4 3
/ ( .
3

.
N .
,
1
/ N -
2

,
.
N' N12
V = 2. V
, N12
. .
, , V .
, ,

V-b v-
,
P(V-b) = RT, (98.1)
376 [. VIII

3 3
, , - d = - y Nd , . .
N .
2. .

, d/2.
d/2. . 95 .
S -d/2, S
. . ,
i
S -d/2 < J b, . . S / nNcP.
s
R,

R<^dVN. (98.2)
8 4
d ^ 10~ R < ! 10 = 100 .
9
<~~> 10~ .
3. ,
(98.1) , V > .
V = b = .
. b
. ,
, . , ,
ft/4,
.
. (.
. 175, ) ft/4 7 ( 3 ] / 2 ) =
= 0,74 (. 134). ,
, ,
3 2
4 ft 0,337 , , (98.1).
(98.1)
? ,
, , .

,
.
4. .
, , .
,
. ,
,
.
,
.
. ,
,
, (. 96).
98J -- 377

,
.
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
/, . /
, ,
.
, ,
.
,
59
.
,

,
1 2
/ ( ).
3 ,
,
. 96.

, ,
. ,

, . ,
,
,
.
, a P (
t

),
.
P+ Pi^Vznm^},

P + P = nkT.
t (98.3)
,
. .
, .
,
. , -f- Pi
- .
.
Pi .
P (N f), / ,
t c

, /

378 [. VIII

, .
Pt < 7 V , > .
C ( >

.
, ,

= , (98.4)

, .
(98.3)
(P + y*)v=RT. (98.5)

5.
. ,
,
. (98.1)
(98.5) . ,
(P + -T%)(V-b) = RT. (98.6)

, --. --
1873 .
(98.6)

b<V, ~<. (98.7)

, ,
,
. ,
b .
--,
, .
.

--
.
. ,
--, --.
, .
--
v . V,
V/v. V
(98.6).
[P + ^r)(~-b) = RT, (98.8)

[P + ^-)(V-vb) = vRT. (98.9)


-- 379

6.
,
. ,
--.
PV , .
, ,
= uVV. (98.6)

R T
2
(98.10)
V-b V'

V V /
p V = J * T _ a _ 8

[ ( '

, .
.
, . > bo, ,

6= ^ ( 1 - ] / ^ ) . (98.11)

,
. ,
,
, .
.
, , ,
. ,
.

. ,
,
. RTbla = 1 ,
6 = 0. , ,
.

' = - (98.12)


.
.
:
.
.
380 [. VIII

99.
.

1.
, .
,
. ,
. ,
,
.

_

= , (99.1)

U .
. U
. .
U . (
a>

.)
,
^. , ,
:

k T
= n k = n k
0 a , (99.2)

U .
0


U <^ kT,
0 1+ ,

P-r-rtJJ^nJT. (99.3)

, ,
U , = NIV.
0

U = ^,
0
2
. ( + ) = n kT, m

, ,

2
= aiV . (98.5).
, U 0

U
o=^y- (99.5)

2.
, .
.
: --
. ,
. .
F, -
, . ,
99] 381

. .
, .
F . , Fj
t

F. , ,
--, .
U' ()
.
+


=
(99.3)

F . f,
x

/ = dll'/dx.
t
dx ndx. ,

Fj= ^ nf dx= ^ n - ^ - d x =
i ^ ndU'.


, F = ' . F,
x

P-F-F^nJiT-nJJb,

(99.3). , .

, ,
. .

.
, ,
CD
(. 97). ,
.
CD ,

, , ,
.
3. (99.2),
. (99.5)

RT -- "
= . = ^ RTV.
,
.

PW ty^RTe"*. (99.6)
. , <^ V, < RTV, (99.6)
--.
, (99.6) .
R T
382 [. VIII

6 .
.
-- . ,
(98.10).
,
--.
(98.7).
--,
.
4. --,
.
, ,
, --.
--


.
.
:
(p + T T ^ ) ( K - 6 ) = i?r. (99.7)

P ( V b R T 8
( +T(V + c ) z ) - ^ - <"- >

PV = RT[\ + ^- + | f + ...), (99.9)

, , ... ,
2 3

. .
33
. ,
(99.9). (99.9)
,
, .
--
, .
(. )
--.
. --,
.

(. ).

,
.
.
(990)
=-
100] -- 383

100. --
1.
-- .
(98.6) (98.10),
.
(98.10) .
, = 0 -
V . = const

.



2
(98.6) V .



3 2
PV -(RT + Pb) +
+ - = 0. (100.1)


V,

.

,
, .
(, ) ,
= const . ,
, . ,
, ,
. MN
(. 98).
(100.1) V V , V .
lt 2 3

= const
L, , G (. 98). LBCAG.
( DB),
,
.
V Vz, V .
u 3

.
FKH ,
/, .
.
384 [. VIII

. P , V k k

T . ,
k

,
( , ) .

,
--.
,
,
.
, .
,
-
-. , --
.


,
.
, ,
,
.
--
. ,
.
,
,
--.
2. P , Vk, T , k k

(100.1)
3 2
P V -(RT
k k + P b) V + aV-ab
k = 0.
Vk,

3
P (V-V )
k k = 0.
, :
P Vi = ab,
h 3PVk = a, 3P V k k = RT + .
k

,
V = 3b, h * = - 2 ^ , = -2^- (0.2)

, ,
,
100] -- 385

(100.3)
\dV ) ' \*)
(98.6),
(100.2).
Kk = -p-rh .
--

= 2,67. (100.4)
~ Pv k k


8/3,
. 10.
10

2
3,03 so 2 3,60
3,13 3,76
3,42 4,46
ol 3,42 3 4,49

, --,
(98.12)
27 -
- T = 3,375Tk k (100.5)
.
T , ,
k

3,5, 3,3, 2,4.


3. ,
. , ,
, .
:
V
= (100.6)

, ,
. --
(100.2)

--
386 [. VIII


0 0 7
( + | - ) ( - ) = 1- - )

.
. ,
--, .

. , :
a, b R. , ,
, , ,
.
.
,
, .
,
, , - ,
, . .
.

1.
, .
. (99.6),

. (^jy~J , , T

2
/ (V) = RTV +
+ (V 6). V ^ , . .
. ARTb > 0, Vi
V , = Vj < V . V = V V == V , -
2 2 x a

' \
, dV } '
DBAE (. . 98). ARTb < 0 / (V) -
(\
, I "^ L ,
MN.
4RTb = 0 .
RT^V*-\- (V ) = 0. ,

S 3 7 ( , 0 0 9 )
* * - E F E - - ? - ' '

7 B = 47Y (100.10)
2. .
. 2

(100.11)
101]
387
101. . .

1. , --
, .
, .

\

(51.14), . .

0 10U
w)r< ' ( >
,

.
, V
. . 99.
,
--
(. 98). , ,
,
.
,
. 99.
,
EGA BLD, . ,

.
;
. , BD
, ,
;
.
, , --
.

.
2.
. VP
(. 99). ,
. ,
, .
, ,
. , ,
388 [. VIII

G, ,
:
.

GL .

L G .
,
, L,
.

18 (17501837).

. .

, .
, 7 ,
,
. 7
. ,

.

.
(17911867).
,
. .
,
, .
.
(18131885),
18611869 .
(0 )
2


. ,
(31 ),
,
(72,9 ). , 31
, . .
.
,
,
. ,
,
.
, .
Mil 389

3. GL
,

1 = 0. (101.2)

, G (. 98)
L :
GCL
GACBL,
.
GCLBCAG.
,
6 Q = = 0 . , 6Q = dU + PdV, dU = 0,
PdV = 0,
I PdV+ $ PdV = 0.
GCL LBCAG

:
$ PdV = \ PdV.
LCG LBCAG

, QLGR
QLBCAGR. ,
GCL , GACG CBLC,
. 98.
. 112 ( 2)
.
4. ( D
), ,
, ,
L,
.

LCG. G
.
GE, .
,
GA BL.
. GA
, BL .
.
, ,
. ,
, .
,
390 1. VIII

*).
. X.
5. . 100
. ALKG,
, VP .
ALKG = 0
. ,
,
, .
= 0 ,
.

. 100.

ALKG == 0, ,
.
. ,
ALKG, ,
,
, . , -
,
. -, ,

*) .
, ,
, .
, .
. - ,
, , .
, ,
, .
101] 391

.
, ,
.
6. -
(. 100). ,
, .
. ,
.
NL NG ,
VM NM.
m , ,
r

V M = NM = mJlL + m NG. t

+ = 1,

( + m ) NM mJNL + m NG.
r r

NG NM
m r NM NL '

m _ MG
iK
(101.3)
m r ~~" LM

, M LG LM MG,
.
.
7. . 100,
.
/ .
. G .
L.
L2 .
/ 2
,
. .
,
( 13). ,
, ( 32).
2, . . .

, ,
, - .
/ 2
.

, 1 2.
,
392 [. VIII

.

2.
,


.
.

ALKG, , ,
, .
.
, , --,
.
ALK.G,
,
,
.
8. --, ,
,

.
, .
,
.
.
,
, -
- ,
.
--
, ,

. ,


, , .
.


1. LBCL CAGC (. 98)
(101.2). , LBCL CAGC
, . . LBCAG LCG.
?
. ,
.
, ,
102] 393

. , , LBCL.
CL
. .
. (38.5).
PrfK=gO ,
LBCL
LBCL . . LCBL
, . ,
, . .
. GACG.
GACG , .
2. ,

ALKG (. 100)?
. = . ,

102. .

1.
, ,
(0 ). 2

(17761859)
. . (18341907). 1822 .
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
,
. ,

.
,
,
.
. . 1861 . ,
, . .
.
.
.
, ,
.
2.
,
(. 100, 1). ,

(. . 100).
394 [. VIII

P , V , T , k k k

.
. ,
LG , ,
.
.
3.
, .
,
. ,
.
, ,
,
(. 101).



(4 = 31 , P = k

72,9 )
( 4 = 1 9 4 C , P = 35 ).
ft



.

V
. 101. . 102. .
-
,
. ,
, /,
, ,
(. 102).
, 1..
, .
.

-
.
, , ,
T . ,
k


.
,
.
.
, .
102] 395
, ,
.
4. , ,
. , ,
2
2L (. 102). L,
,
. ,
.
.
,
.
, , .
3
3G. G, . .
,
. , ,

.
,
.
, ,

. ,
.
.

.
,
, . ,
(100.3)
:

(102.1)



, .
1892 .

.
, . 11
( ), . 3 . . .
7 16

(. ).
t ,
m

.
396 [. VIII

11

, 0,2 3,8 4,6 5,8 6,8

t = t ,
m / 3
0,273 0,235 0,205 0,195 0,185

t / = 1, /

3
0,252 0,240 0,230 0,215 0,200

3
0,2355 / , 266,8 ,
26,8 . ,
6,6
37%, - 22%,
100%.

h = 6,6
= 273 .
3
ie. = = 0,82-10-5 = 0,82- 10~ %,

. . ,
.
,
. ,

.


(. . )
. .
, ,
.
,

.
5.
. ,
.
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
.
105.1 397

, ,
. ,
,

,
.

,


.


( . 103)
,
( /
. 103). , - . .

, . .
]
/ ( + ,,)- ,
2

.
= .

. 104.

6. . . (18581886),
. . (18351895),
. ,
.
. 104. -
398 [. VIII

F.
, ,
.
, ,
.
,
(, ), , ,
( ).
, , -

.
7.
. (35.3), . .

(102.2)

, C
v
. ,
,
.
,
, C .
v

, ,

(. 2 ).
,
. C ,
v

, ,
, C . ,
v

-, .

.
,

.
,
,
.
. .
,
, ,

,
. ( )
1015 .
103] -- 399


, --,
.
I \ I * \
2, 0 0
. ("jrH = 1 dV )~^' ^

--
(100.2),

- = ~-^- (i/_V )3 A + (- ).

16 Vk 2 V k

V = /V, .
, = 9,

i!=*= _ 4 I/ ?== . (2.3)


Pfc 3 RT k

h , ,
. , = /,


2 V6 ( RT \2/

= ^ \ ^ ) - (, 28,8, = 132,5 )
= 1 8700, ( Pk)/Pk ~ 1/100.

103. --
1.
,
V
.
(34.2). --, ,
.
(34.2):
dU_\ _ (_

T p 103
dV )~
Vw) - - ( >
400 1. VIII

--

1 _ r r
\ jv V-b V*
,


U = - + f(T), (.)

f () ,
.
(18.3) ,,,,.

, C --
v

.

) \ {)\

,
U=^C {T)dT-~.
v (103.5)

,
:
U^C T V ~. (103.6)

,
.
.
. , ,
(103.3),
,
, ,
,
.
2. (103.5) -
- .

.


.
,
. ,
S 104] - -- 401

( )
.

. ,

2
= alV ,
;

. ,
,
.
V V
t

V V

$ PidV^ jj ^dV- - j ' + lr = - -y + const.


1
VT VT

/(),
(103.3).

--.
dS\ ... , fdS\
. dS = ( ^,-) _rfV + j dT. (45.17)
,

d S d V + d T
=[wh T- -
, -- .

c {T) v

S = R\n(V-b) + \ -i^-dr + const. (103.7)


V vb C (T)
V

In- dT -\- const (103.8)



v ,
. ,

V vb 1
S = v\Rln- - + C ^ l n T + const . (103.9)

104.
--
1. 46
.
. ,
--.
. 46
402 [. VIII

,
= , 2

,
,

L^(*L) = Urjp
\dPJi

, 2

.
(-^->),
,


^ " ^ * ^ ^ ,
.

(~^") --
,
V.
dV\ fdV_\ (\ ^_(_\
, ) \ )\ jv \ jv/ \dV
(104.1)

\ jv^ [dV
(104.2)
/

' \~dv)r

[j^fjv -

,
bRT 2

/\ {iw.a)
L
P\cWJ T
2. .
, , .
,
. V b
I \ ,

V, --)

.
2
104] - -- 403

2
- > 0, > 0, . ,
, - b < 0, -^ < 0, . ,
b = 0, ^= 0 ; = 0, b =f= 0
. ,

.
,
.

, ,
. ,
. = 0, --
(V b) = RT. *)
I = U + PV=(C V + R)T~ Pb v = C T + Pb.
P

C l\T
P -\- bt\P 0, . .

^ = _ -* -^< '

(104.4).
= 2/Rb .

Ti = -^-^- T r k = 2TB (104.5)


.
, .

. .

.
, . . .
3. .
--, ,
.
--, .
-
, .
, {j^
T

, -

*) (35.2) , .
= -\- R .
404 [. VIII

(104.3). ,
. . ,
bRT _
- ^ > 0
,, 2 ',2
(104.6)
v
, . .
2 I V--b \2
(104.7)
Rb V

~~ Rb \ V
(104.8)

-- b ,
-
. (104.8)
VT ,

.

= --|^-^-|. (104.9)


. 105
. ,
,

( < ; 0 ) .
( A v " > 0 ) . < 1/3
, -- V
, , > 1/3.
(104.9)
, .
-- (100.7).
(104.9) ,

= 2 4 5 - 12-27. (104.10)
,
= (1 (104.11)

. 106 (
). , ,
104] -- 405

( < 9),
.
( < 0)
.
.
, ,
(. 106). --
,
. , -
- ,

. >0
. 106 .
( = 33,3 , =

= 12,8 .)
4.

. 46
,
,
,
12
. . 106.
7\ 2

(46.2),


dP. (104.12)
Pi


,
2

. ,
,
, . .
.
,
.
100200
, ,
.
.
, ,
; .
,

406 [. VIII

.
, 80 .
.

.
7 \
(, ). 2

(104.12).
2

7 \ \ (
). (104.12)
2

= dT 2 = (\
- )
v z

dPj dPx \ / / | = = /
, :

=0 = , 1 =7\. (104.13)

Y""gjfj ~
. , ,
,

.
, ,
(104.12) . ,
,
,
. (104.12),
.
(103.5), --

jj C (T)dT--~
v + PV ^l 1 J C {T)dT-~
v + PV.
2 2

, , .
a/V P V =
2 2 2

= RT .
2

|j C (T)dT^
v + P V = RT .
1 1 2

P t --.


7 \ .
2
104] - -- 407

,
. ()
7 \ < ^ () 7 \ >
Rb Vx " - t * v - t , -- 'i-w Vi

, V, , 1.

.

.

. (104.15)
,

.
, (104. 15)

27 1/3
(104.16)
4 <

,
(104.16), . 107 (
).
,
,
(104.16)
,
.
,
. . 107

.
.
. , ,

( 12 18
),
() . . 108.
,
,
(104.12) .
,
. , VT,
, ,
.
(104.16), ,

= 3/4 81. (104.17)

, , . 108
.
.
(, < 27)
.
408 [. VIII


, .
. = ^ { \ ~)' = 8 ^ 1
5 _ 4
= (8 ) 2
.

105.

1.
: 1) , 2)
, 3)
.
. ,
20 ,
77 .

. 2) 3) .
2) (104.12).
3)
(21.4).
. ,
, .
3),
.

S.
,
:

OS \ 1 / TdS \ 1 / 6Q \
)
=
\~df~jp =
{~)
, (45.18)
dS \ _ _ fdy_
~ \

IdV \

-' - --

'
ST I ' \
(105.1)
^[dPJs~
10| 409

(
),
.

(105.2)

(104.12), ,

, .
,
. ,
,

. -
67. ,
.
,
.
.
. ,
.
(. 46),

.
2. . 109
,
.
(. ) 1895 .
(18401900) (18421934) .
(. 109)
(18161892) 1857 .
1902 .
.

.

.
.
/ 2. .
, 2, 5.
4,
. . ,
3.

3,
410 [. VIII

. . ,
2,
6, .
:
. ().
, ,
,
.
,

3)

. 109.

. .

.
.
,
. , ,
,

.
3. ,
,
. ,
,
.


. ,
,
105] 411

, .
,
: .
.
,
. . .
(. 1894 .) 1934 .
.

^ 0,035 ( 30 ),
, .
,
0,25 ,
^ 5 ,
.
.
.
, ,
. (1842
1919) 1898 . , -
, 30- .
. .
.
.
.
4. , ,
.

. (1832
1913) 1877 . , (1846
1915) 1887 . .
,
.
.
,
.
, .

1932 .,
.
. -
. 1935 . ,
.
,
.
, .
412 [. VIII


.
.
5. ,
,
.
(18451888) (18201883),
.
, .
.
,
130 (. .
118,8).
,
.
, ,
, .
6. (18421923)
1898 . .
.

, ,
, .
, - (18531926)

. 15
.

, .
4
( )
4
4,2 .
, 0,71 .
3
1 ,
(3,2 ).
3
, 0,3 .


3 4
.
.
, ,
0,0014 .


= 10 ( ).
0

, P 1 ,
L

7'j 4,2 ( ).
105] 413

,
. 4,2
q = 20 /. .
.
. , (,
, ) .

.
,
.
.
() ()

dP
PdV = R dTV dP = R dT RT p
C v + R,

A S . C , , , fob -
AS ,
IX


* *

106. ,

1.
.
,
, ,
98 (. . 96), .
,
,
, .

. , ,

,

.
, ,
(. 45). ,
,
= ^ 4-
0 0 , (106.1)
W , a 7
o5 0

. ,
( ,
).
47
.
( )
.
V ,

iJ) = 4r /V 17V. ty
o6 o6 o6

,
. , i[) V o6

W.
47 i|) V .
o6

, ,
W = aF
1 U J
>
106] 415

F ,
. ,
,
.

. ,
.
. ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
. , , ,

.
2. - /[ z^jj
? - [ | ]
.
, (. 111). If
CD
B D . - . ill.
ABDC .
.

, . ,
, CD
. CD
,
. ,
2/, ,
f. /.
, /
. CD
.
= 2/ .
2AF = 2 ,
C D , a L\F
, .

= 2AF = 2 . ,

= | . (106.2)
416 [. IX

, .

. .
.

, ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
(, ) .
.

,
, . ,

. ,
,
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
.
3.
, . ,

,
. ,

, ,
, ,
.

. ,
75,7 /,
73,2 /.

.
4. ,
.
,
(. 112).
, .
,
,
, . 112 .
106] 417

ABCD
(. 113). .
,
. , ,

=* ' - '
. 112. . 113.

,

.
(. 114)
BD. . ABDC
, , , . 114
.
,
. , .
,

.
, ,
- .
. ,
, .
, .
,
. , ,

\7

. 114.

, .
,
. .
, . . .
,
. , ,
.
. ,
.
.
418 [. IX

,
.
.
.
.
,
. ,
.
,
. , ,
7
2 10~ .
28% ,
7
. 1 10" , ,
.
(18011883) ,
, , ,
, .
, .
, ,
.
, .
,
. , , ,
.
,
, .
, ,
.
.
, .
. ,
, ,
. .
, .
, .
, , ,
. ,
.
. ,
, , .

5.
. , ,
. .
.
,
,
.
.
,

.
,
.
106] 419

.
, ,
.
.
,
, .
.
.
.
, .
.
, ,
,
.
.
,

. 115.

, .
,
.
6. ,
.
,
.
.
. 115.
, ().
.
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, .

, .
,
, . .

,
.
,
. 80
420 [. IX

, , .
, .
2025 1012 ,
3
. 80100 .
, .
( 23 ) .
80 ,
.
. ,

7.

.
. ,

. ,
,
.

,
, . ,

, -
.
.

, ,
.
-
, .
(, ,, NH ), 2

(,
).
,
.
.
-
, ,
.
-
.
( )
,
.
,
.
107] 421

(, ),
.

, .

.

107.
dF
odF. 6 =
odF. 6Q = dU -4- 6
dQ = dU-odF. (107.1)
5 ,
dU = T dS + odF. (107.2)

V = U-TS, (107.3)

dW = SdT + odF. (107.4)



S = {^7~) '
F ,
U T 107 5
V = + {w) - P < -)
= oF.
, .

U = (o-T-p)F. (107.6)

Q = AU-oF = T^dF.

,
,
q = -T-r. (107.7)

, , ,
. q
. (
(107.7) . 1 .)
422 [. IX

1. (107.7) .
.
.
F, (. 116).
.
.
1.
,
1. 2.
. \ = (Tj)AF, AF

12.
. -
, I ? Q = qi\F. 2
t

U /
/ ' '/ 3,
/ 2 . 2

,
2

. 3

4. -

- 116- AF,
% = ( ) AF.
2

4 1. 23
41 , .
, ,

= + =
2 [0 ( ) - a (TJ) AF =
2 ( - ,) AF.
2


.-

Q
lP

(107.7).
2.
.
.
q
dT = ~- -dF, (107.8)


F, a q (107.7).
.
3
3. / i = 1 0 ~ = 300 .
,
, .
0,15 / 1.
. ^ = c h (c
v v ),

^-^-^^-..

( 2 , -~ .)
1081 . 423

4. ,
, . .
da
l i m i S L = 0.
- dT
(107.9)

( ,
.)
. (107.7) q = TAS, AS
.

%

, . . AS = 0. (107.9).

108. .
1. , 1,2,3 (
)
, ( . 117
,
; ,
).
-

. 117.

? ,

, ,
.
.

S, . 117, .
. ,
, S,
.
* , , ,
12 23 31

, S
, ,
424 [. IX

.
,
S. .
2
/ ~ pnr g, ,
3
. ~ 1 / ,
-8
~ 1 0 , / ~ /,
. ,


-12 + - + (% = (). 23 (108.1)
, ,
, , , (. 117,6).
12 23 31

(108.1) ,
, 0 , 1 .
12 2 3 3



. ,


,

, 0 , 23

. 31

,
, .
2. , ,
.
(. 118).
(108.1) :

013 012 COS -(- 0 2 3 COS r> ,


3

(108.2)
,
12 sin O'i = 0 2 3 sin > . 3


C O S
fli--2o- 1 3 o- 1 2 '
(108.3)
cos 0 , - ^ 4 ^ -

,
& . 1 3

, 0 < + , 1 3 12 23

(108.2).
. , ,
. > + , 13 12 23
108] . 425

fti ft , (108.2).
3

, 3,
.
.
, .
, 3
2 ( ).
3.
(. 119). ,
.
* + " +
12 23 3 1

. (108.1)

( +12 + . > ,
31

^ = ft
(108.2).
1 3 2 3
cos ft = ~ . (108.4)

ft . ,
, 2.
0 1 3 0 , 2 3
~ > 1, . . 1 3 > 12 + , (108.4)
23
12

. 2 ,
,
(, ).
,
13
. , ^ <; 1 (

. . > + , ft,
2 13 12

(108.4).
, . (
,
.) ,
.
426 [. IX

( 0 < < , . 119, ),


( < < , . 119, ).
,
(. 120).

(108.4).
4.
.
.

. ,
.
(
) ,

.
. , ,
.
. .
.
,
, .

. . ,
, ,
.
, , ,
.
. .

109.
.

1. ,
.
.
,
.
. 121.
, .
, b
.
F = 2bo sin , F = bay,
. =
= , a R ,
(109.1)
109] 427

S = ab
. F S,

:

2. ,

.
,
, , D, . 121.
(. 122).
, . . ,
. ( . 122 ,
AD .
'.)
ABCD.
. R
x

. DC
Rj . AD
.
.
(109.1) F = x S, 5 -
ABCD. , ,
,
DC,
f = - ^ - S , # 2 AD.
a

( .)
,
,
ABCD,

5 ,
:
- = (1 + ^ ) .
2 (9.2)

. 122. (109.2)
. R R%
t


.
,
. .
428 [. IX

-4- ^- .

.
. 2

.


- .

.
3. , R R = R,
1 2

(109.2)
2
P -Pi
a = (109.3)


, (109.3), . .
4
2-1-- It'

, :
.
.
, ,
.
, ,
:
.
,

,

.
,
.
,
(. 123).
. Ki ,
2 3

. ,
.
.
4.
(. 124).

109] 429

.
.
2

^- + ^->
(109.2). ,
R = R . -
x 2 \
' \&
.

R = cos d '

ft .
,


2

.
Pi-P* = Pgli,
%. 124.
h ,
. (109.3),
2 2
= COS ft. (109.4)
PgR Pga
.
ft , . . , h
, . . ,
.

1. = 0,1
, ,
& = 0. F,
4
d = 10~ ?
-1
( 18) = 73 - .
.
. ,
, . = d/2.
1 1 2
=- + = - . -
i%i 2 d
= 2a/d. S =
= m/(pd), .

F = 5AP = ^ = 1,46- 10 = 1 , 4 6 - 104 .

2. .
F ,
R = 5 .
1
( 15) a = 487 -" ,
= 40.
0 3 2 4
. F = ^ ^ = 630 ( ).
430 [. IX

3. F
, ,
1
d = 0,1 ? / = 10 , = 73 -"" , f) = 0.
, .
2
_ 2a /cos2f>
. F= 10 .
a
Pgd
4.
, ,
(. 125).
,
.
. X ,
,
Y ,
.

,
.

(. 125) = pgy,
.
0


=
= /,
0


.
0 ,
pgy = oK. (9.5)
. 125. =
=dtplds, ds
, ,
. dx dy : dx = ds cos <p; dy = ds sin <p.
,
dep .
= , Sill . Y
dy

(109.5), :
Pgy dy + sin cp d<p = 0, (109.6)
8 dx -f- a cos dep = 0. (109.7)
(109.6) q> = = 0, :

^21/^cosf. (

(109.7)

= 0 = /2

i + sinf) (Y2-1)
. (109.9)
* pg 2 2
p g
pg I 1 _ sin-2-) (2 + 1)
$ 109] 431

(109.8) (109.9)
.
5.
h
D MN (. 125) .
F,
, .
q, .
. D = MN
h (. 125)

= 0 = . (109.9) = ^ 0 ^ , = 0, :

(109.10)
D^a-2 [/2- In ( 2 + D] = a- 1,066 j/"jL
a < 1,066 a/ pg, D .
= 0 .
> 1,066 V/pg.
(109.6), = 0:

(109.11)
98

pgh.
F = q + pgha = q-\-2aVpgo. (109.12)
: < 1,066 / pg.

= 2/-^ -|, 5 (109.13)

= 2 1/JL 1 _ s i n + 1 [ - V ?i_ _ . (109.14)

2 \ / 2 2 / 2 V pg (^_ ^ V2+l) sin (


7
,
2 sin ,

/
F = ^-|-2aT "pg0cos|- + 20 sin . (109.15)
/ pg, .
(109,14) /2, = / 2 . ,
< '/ pg

F = q + 2a, h=Yf .
g

6.
.
.
0

h, .
. Y ,
, X ,
432 [. IX


(. 126). :

(l+cosf)(/2-l)
1
JL II 4>\ ,
-cos H
2/2
1

In-) ( , (109.16)
PS W'2 f 00
PS ( l _ c o s | j ( / 2 + l )

s,n|. (109.17)

D MN
| | = ,


D = a - 2 ] / ~ J | ( / 2 - I n (2+1)) = - 1 , 0 6 | / ^ , (109.18)

< 1,066 Vol pg, D 0, =


,

! ? X
1 ~ ~ ~~~

. 126.

> 1,066 Valpg.


(109.17),
= . | | == 2 / pg.

pg (h +
+ ). .
, ,
Pg (h + I | ) = PoS>

ft = - / ^ - . (109.19)

< 1,066]^ /pg.

sin (109.20)
PS 2

- - (l cosl)(V2~l)
+
109] 433

s i n
= l/^ + - ^ , .
1 (109.22)
- g 2 ga(p -p)
0 ^ '
a< 0
^^/^f)^> . ,
(109.21), = /2, :

= 2
^77-1 = ^-)> (109.23)

. .
.
7. F,
= 8 , .
-1
= 73 . .
. , ,
: , / ,
1 2
F = 2 pgcr== 1.1.
8.
, . {
. . 4.
. = I/ (1sind).
Pg
9.
. .
=490 ~
- 3
0 = 140. = 13,6 .
. = 2 1 / sin ^ = 3 , 6
10. , ,
(. 127). ,
D = MN ,
,

. 127.


- 8
. = 7,8 , =
0
-1
= 73 - . ,
.
.
.
434 [. IX

. (. 128)
.
F = 2 sin . ,
t

, .
,

. 128.

F = pgh- = 2pghr &mb, ,


%

. , ,
F , , 3
2
, . . F pgr (ft sin cos ).
3

Fi, F% F . :
s

2 3
2 sin & + 2pghr sin + p g r (d sin 0 cos ft) = p g n / . 0

h = 2 "J/ sin (.
6),

2 2 ( ?
| - ( - sin 2 j J/- - Ar sin * sin - = 0 (109.24)

D :

D = 2r sin + 2 l / " i L (2 cos + In tg - 2 j / " ^ (^2- ln ( j / 2 + l ) ) ,

_ (109.25)
J
ff=2rsin-| + 2|A^sta T . (109.26)

[ ^ 2 4 , 5 - ^ d sin2f}^|/-21,091 sinfl sin - 0 , 1 4 8 8 s i n 0 = O, (109.27)

D = 2/sin 0 + 1 , 0 9 1 cos + 1,256 l g 1 0 t g ~ - 0,291. (109.28)

(, .) 0
, .
S 1093 435

, , D, 0 /', , D,

0 0 0 80 0,955 4,29
10 0,328 0,481 . 90 0,990 4,85 1,98
20 0,471 0,975 100 1,005 5,35 1,91
30 0,583 1,49 110 1,001 5,82 1,68
40 0,680 2,03 120 0,977 6,20 1,24
50 0,763 2,58 130 0,922 6,45 0,65
60 0,840 3,15 139 0,846 6,59 0,04
70 0,903 3,72 13930' 0,842 6,60 0,00

100
1 . > 0,842 , :
& < 100, f> !> 100. < 0,842 ,
f) < 60,
0 > 6 0 (109.28) D .
/ - 0 , 8 4 2
6,60 .
11.
. , ,
, , ,
, .
.
(. 129, ).
.
. (. 129, )
.

. 129.

, . ,
, (. 129, ).
,
.
- .

, .
.

. -
3 2
436 [. I X

. 3

, .
2

.
,
4 2

.
. 4 2

.
, , '
, .
12. , ,
, , ,
. .
13. () - ,
, ,
, .
,
.
.
.
14. ,

R,
21.
,
.
.
.

, .

, ,
XY (. 130). ,
-5- + -=- .

Rl "2
, XY,
1 "
= ^ ,j ( ).

, = R cos , 2


YZ. cos , Ri = yV 1-\-'* (
). , ,
,
1
= 0. (109.29)

2
d6
' = shO. 1 + '" = c h 0 , y ch J ^ .
, ' = s h 6 ,
2 2
d 6 / d x = 0, 0 = + , .
: / = = h. 6 = 0,
. :

ch =~ (
+
~ \, (109.30)
2 4
"
109] 437


aR = chah. (109.31)
(109.30) X.
. (109.31)
. , ,
- ^ - > 1 , 5 1 . ,
, , 2h
| /?=1,.

1,51
15.
,
, , , .
.
.
R.
16. 14 , ,
.
.
, = - + 5 - . (
Ri 2
14 , , .)

1
" -~onst^2K. (109.32)
3
uVi+y (i+yV'
, 14.) sh ,
1 I \ \
2
)= ' 109 33
< ->
,

(109 34)
-+- -
. sh 9
2
sh 0 = 0 1 = sh 0 , :


f "-^ - -dy + B, (109.35)

.
: = R h. (109.35)
.
= 0, (109.35)

(x-af+y^ = ~ ,

. = 0
R = \1 . ,
. = + \/
= + 1/, = , = -
R =
. ,
.
438 [. IX
17. 15 ,

. , ,
, 2
. , ,
, ,
, .
, 2,
,
.
. (109.32)
'. 2

2 = --</".

+ , \ . ,

~ >* *

2/=1_,'-. (109.36)

2 ,

) = A cos + sin -4- ,


2
, 2/ .
^? , ) () . = h
) = 0, . . A cos + = 0 . ,

cos cos

, .
(109.36)

0 1 , A h
C 0 S
2 ^ = 7 + 72 T'
2. .
< -2-, .. 2h , cos > 0.
. ,
. > , . . -
h
2h , cos < 0. ,
.
18. (. 131).
,
. , ,
. .
, /
, , h
, -
110] - 439

g, .

.

. I-
19.
= 1 / = 10 . ,
R = 10 , , - .
0

.
, ,
?
= 50 /,
4
) = 1,8-10~ /(-).
.
. t
t = (R*- - ) . 4

< = i olrl # 4 = 7,2-


4
2 . =

20.

,
? ,
. , 131.
. ,
.

. AT >pj--
21. ,
~ \0g. .
= 490 /,
3
: h ~ 5 , = 13,6 / ,
3
. = % - _ 0
, g=s= 1,5 - 1 0 ~ .
aph opgh
22.

, = 1 ?
= 50 /.
. = 1 . 0

4
. = -~^
= | - - 1 0 - 4 = 1,33- 10~ ).

110. -

1. - ,

.

, ,
. , ,
.
- .
, .
, . . ,
.
440 [. IX
-
. ,
, .

, ,
.
%.
. ,
, .
, ,
( ^>) .
, ,
,
-
, .
, ,
. ,
. .
-
.
X,
. X
, Z ,

x=ct, z = rsin. (110.1)

t,
2
2= rsin ^-. (110.2)

. , ,
, .
.

C+V
. 132.
2. . 132 ABC
, ''
.
. ABC ''
. . v
, ,
, v, ,
, + . h = 2.

2 2 v
+1 ( - "> + = + ( + ?>
1 1 0 ] - 441

2pcv = 2pgr + (P -P ). A B (110.3)


0
2 2
1 1 0 4
= - = ( - >


0
= + '
= - ^

(- ) 5

.
dz/dx ,
(110.2): 2
4
dx* (0.6)

(110.3) (110.4), (110.5) (110.6)


- :
2
2
+ -- < -> 1 7

, , . .
, .
, . . - .
, ^ 2

- ^ 1 /""
3. , | ^ > - ^ - , . . >2 ,
, (110.7)
(110.8)
2,
" -

.
, X <J 2 Va/pg, ,
. .

? <"">

.
.
v = /. .
nisv"
o-LJl. (110.10)

4.
, . -
, .
,


^ + ! = ()

dz '
( ). -,

p~? = - g r a d P . (110.12)
442 [. IX
V
, .
(110.12) dvldt ,
dv/dt . ,
,
.
(
).

(110.12). , (110.12)
eh* _ _
9 9
dt ~ ' ~

, , :

, :
z c o s
Vx ox ( )
v
(tkx),

Vz = v oz () sin (atkx+6),
, k, 6 .
(110.11),
kvo x () sin (cutkx) + sin (a>t - kx+6) = 0.

,
6 = 0

teo*(*)+^ = 0.

( : = ,
v .) oz

(110.13)

,
Vox dv ox = v 0e dvx, .
e

vlx = vl -\- const. ,


z

, , . ,
v v
ox oe = (z) .
v = C () cos (a>tkx),
x = () sin (/ kx).

,

( (mt
= ^-sin < i \
kx), Zo =

( )
cos ,(cort kx).
0

C(z)
, = .
X


* *

111.

1.
,
,
.
, ,
,
. .
: () ( ).
, :
() ( ).
.
(), () (
). .
, ,
. ,
, ,
: . -
; ,
. ,
:
. ,
,
. ,
, ()
( ).
.
,
.
2.
, ,
, .
. ,
.


. ,
444 [. X

.
. ,

= , K j=r-\--ft
2 1
(. 109).
, ,
, .
.
,
,
.
. ,
.
,
. ,

.
.
3.
.
, .
.

.
.
.

.
,
.

.
.
. .
,
. ,
,
.

.
. ,
,
. ,
. . .
(a-, [J-, - -).
111] 445

(
, I II).
.
.

.
. -
(HgJ ). .
2

126 .
. 253
, - .
- -.
,
,
. ,
. ,
.
.
- -. .
.
. .
- -.
,
.

4.
.
. ,
,
. ,
.
.

. ,
, , . .
. ,
. , , ,
, ,
,
. . ,
, ,
, ,
,
.
. ,
1 2 ,
,

: 1 2
446 [.

2 1.
,
.
.

112.

1.
.
.
.
,
. ,

(. 50). .

.
, 1 2,
. ,
2

.
2

.
= + . \. 2


. (f q? x 2

,
. , ,
m = + -

. ,

,
. cpj > ,
2

1 2 .
, 1
2. ,

- , < , 2
2 2

1.

1 ( , ) = < ( )
2 (112.1)
. ,

.
U S
.
= U TS + PV
(, ) -
112] 447

.
(112.1).

cp (, ) (, )
t 2

dtp = sdT + vdP,


. (112.1) ,

. ,

.
,

)
. 133.

, ,
., ,
, .
2. (112.1)
. - ,
--,
(. 133, ). EG LD
: .
GA , LB
. .
,
.
LCG
. 101.
, ,
(112.1). , ,
,
(dT = 0)

dy = vdP, y = \vdP. (112.2)
448 [. X

,
,
, (. 133, ).
(, )
EACBD (. 133, ).
, .
dP , .
BD
.
,
. , GL,
L G
:
= .. , ^ v dP = ,

GACBL

\ vdP= \ vdP.
GAC LBC
, GACG CBLC,
. 133, . MN QR
GL. P
PG L
= - \ v dP,
n = 1 - $ v dP,
x

P
N
v , . = ,,
n 0
3
v
a > , , < y - N

, ^ < -
,
EG
BL.
N,
,
. . ,
LD
, GA.
R Q,
, R ,
Q.
, ,
. G L
.
G L .
G L
.
5 113] 449

, ,
101 .

LG, , L G
.
LG ,
DB ,
(. . 99).
, ,
LG /. = . 0

-

( GA LB )
. 119.

1. ,
.
. ,
,
3 1
( = 250 ) ? , = 1,1 -~ .
.
= ,

. ,
.
RT
= =
. ,
1* "
= ^ 5 - = 10,5 .

2. ,
.
(1 ). .

, ( = 300 ) ?
. ^ 5 = ^ = 0,08/ . 0

113. .
.

.
(112.1), .
.
, ,
.
TP (. 134).
450 [. X

()
, .
DK. ,
(112.1). DK
,
. DK ,
, .
(112.1) , DK.
= ()


. DK

' '
.
2.
, . . .
2 ()
?
/ .
. ,
1 '
\ / 1() =
= ED
D Y .
\ .
. -
. 134.
.
DK
.
.
,


. , , DK,
, ,
, . ,
, . . ''
.

. DK
-
, , . . .
DK,

. .
,
. ,
- 451

- , ,
.


. ,
,
. .
,
DK-
.
, .
3. .
dP/dT.
(112.1) dq>i = d<p . 2

dep = sdT + vdP,


i>i dP Si dT = v dP - s % 2 dT,

s v \ s , u
lt x 3 2

. , ,
. ,
. ,
/
2
q= T{s -s ). 1 t

2 /
. ,
,
, . q
.
. ,
, .
. q (113.1),
d p q

df =
T( -v )- Vl 2 (3.2)

.

.
.

,
, .
452 [.

, ,
(. 77,
7).
.
. ,
,
, .
4.
. ,
.
,
= const
= const. VP
.
/ (. 135).
, -
/ .
^ * * , -
^ j^k, , -
4 3 . -
1" , -
.
v

-
. 135. 23,

. ,
2

. 3 34
41 /.
. ,
, Qy q. 12
Ay = () (Vy ), Vyv ,
2 2

34 , = ( ) (vy v ).
2 2 2

23 41 ,
.

= + = (
2 0 l - v ) [ () - (,)] = % (v - v ) ( - ).
2 2 2



Qi _ ,
-,
QyU ,
(113.2).
5. , ,
, ,
,
] - 453

, , , .
, ,

= 13 3
T(v*-v )
3 (- - )

? 2 , v 2 3

, .
<~ . ,
23 v >v , 2 3

jjr > 0. ,
dP
. v <v , - ^ < 0 , . .
2 3

.
.
0
2 3
- = 9,1 10
3 2 /.

9
<7 = 80 / = 3,35 10 /.
,
dP 3,35-10 s
2
= - 1,35-10 /( -) = 134 /.
dT 273-9,1 -

,
0,0075
. 0,0072 /,
.
,
,
, . -
.
, .

1. 0 (18 ) .
Q, 100 ,
, ?
1
100 = 539 " .
0 .
.
. , ,
. Q
.
. 1) (
) 100 ,
454 [. X

. ,
, .
Qx = 18-100 = 1800 . 2)
, .
, .
Q = U U , U
2 x

100 . = U n
-1
U + , 9 = 18 = 970 -
x

, ( = PV n
1
RT = 1,98-373 = 739 -" ). , Q = U = 2 n
1 -1
= 8970 -" , Q = Qi + Q = 1800 + 8970 = 10 770 - .
2

2. 0 4,58 . .
-1
0 80 - ,
1
596 -" . t = 1 .
. 4,20 . .
3.
. , q
t = 196 . ,

t, " , . .

-195 833
-196 741
-197 657

.
.
2
RT I 1 dP\ ,
. q = l^-p- = 50 /.
4. 5 1
= 373 - ( ).
Am
= 1 .
. V
, = | ^ ( | - 1 ) = 0,075 .
5. 0
. ,
= 100 ? Am/m
3 -1 3 1
? v = 1 , = 1,09 -" .
B

0,6 .

. = ( 1 > - . ) = 0,72 ,
=-,
= 0,0054.
q " ' m q
6.
,
--.
v
/ RT 2\ ,. / RT 2\
v
. <7= n ( _ ( _
~)> n

.
7. ,
dP
= () (. ) , , ^ = 0.
114] 455

,
. II ,
(.
. 139).
. , q = 0.
(113.2).

114.

1.
q t , (113.2)
2


.
, q ,

. , ,
Pv RT. ( -
1 v.) ,
*).
(113.2)
[
2
dT~' Tv ~~ RT

dP _ \xq dT
P ~ R *
,
n D
RT
1 = + . (114.2)
,
- .
0 0


1 0 = - - + .

,
p = p eR{r
0 0 )
T t (4.3)
2.
= 373 , <?=539 :/( ).
(114.1) R = 1,9858 / ( ), = 18,
1 dP 18-539 1
2
= 0,0352 " .
dT 1,986 -373

*)
,
456 X

,
0,0352 27 . .
q ,
. , ,
= ( i> )
2 = = RT,
1
I
, .
q

= 5 1 = 0,076.

,
.
3. ,
.
, q .

" .
11
( ) . ,

< = ( - ) + ( -1' ).
? (114.4)
,
.


9 =( - ) + ^.

, - =

4
0 l = u ( T 1 ) = ( u i - U f ) + ^ .

, ,
,

,


\ () dT,


( ).

(7\, ) "
" + R/ = ,

?=?,-1-( -= 1) -( -^).
/ 1

(113.2) . , 2


dP Qi + i^-cS)^ - "
1 ] 457

?i + (c*-<$)ri
-

, fi

In = -= In , (114.5)

, , .
.
4. , (114.5), --
.
, . ,
, ,
, , .
_ __

= ' ,
, . 0

, b . (
.) ,

/ .

qa

N k T R T
= = ne 0 .

_
R T
P = nkT=nJiTe ,

1 = - g i + ln + const. (114.6)

.
, (114.6) (114.3).

1. = 20
/ = 80%.
, ?
20 = 600 /.
.
. (114.1)
dP/dT .
2 _ RTj
-, 2
.
2

/ / , ,


P ^=~jP
2 ,
v
458 [ X

(114.2)
ln
?f =
RT%\ *~ (T Tiy

,
f
7 - 3 - ^ = 0,124? ()\g( p).
.
7\ = 7\. ,
:
= 0,124 lg/== 3,52 .1 1

(),
2

: 7 \ = 3,66705 - ,
2

: 'i= 23,67313 , : 7" 7\ = 2

= 3,67360 - \ 3,67 -

, dPIdT
~ 10%.
2. ( . .)
. ,
0 . 2

t,

-10 1,950

0 4,579

0 4,579
9,209
+ 10

. q , q q 23 n n

t = 0 , = 1 , = , 23 ] 3 2

i,n riln 8 1 /
H^ e- ^b
( = 273 , 7 \ = 263 , = 283 , , -
0 2 0

, = = ). 0 2

3. = 10 ,
, . .
,
, ,
, = 84 /? ,
,
.
. l = i-~ 'nfl+J^-V = 404 ,
t = 131 ( ).
0 0

4!
, .
,
5] 459

. ,
, ,
,
, ,
. , . .
, h = 90 .
_ Am (10 Ti)
v i u
. 1-14%
m q
( ,
] 0

1 10 ).

115.
1. ,
,
. dT
6 Q . bQ/dT
. ,
;
, .
,
,
.
. .
1) , , ,
(),
.
. 2) , ,
,
.
.
. 3) ,

. = 0.
2. .

n n
8 Q = di vdP, i , a v
. ,
. ,
,
n
. di /dT = .


dp v dPIdT. ,
, dP/dT
(114.1), ,

5-.


(.1)
40 [. X


8 /( ),
= 8/18 = 0,444 /(-).
= 373 7 = 539 /.
, 1115.1) = 1 /(-).
. ,

.
3. (115.1) ,
, . . .
,
. , , -
.
a n
, 8Q = di v dP.

_ _ iiH. JE-
V
-~ dT ~ dT dT '
di"ldT dP/dT ,
.
(114. 1),
a
_ di q_

dT
n
di /dT
n m
<7 = + (v" - ) = i i .
,
, , ,
.
,
dt" _ dq_ di*
dT ~ dT + dT
x
di = cfdT-{-v dP,

. = ,
di" _ , dq
t p r
dT - ~ dT

,
c c 1 1 5 2
= * - f + lrf- ( - )
= 373

<7 = 539 /, dqldT=* Q /(-), = 1 , 0 1 /(-).
, = 1,07 /(-),
7 %.
116] 461

1. ,
, . T lt

. .
2 3

q .
.
.
Tj.

A,S = ^- (m m ^ .
2

,
. ,
,

6Q = dT = m ^^dT.
2

dS = 6Q/T, q ,

2. ,
.
. s= c p In 7" -f- -= + const.

116. .
1. ,
, , .
, ,
. :
= ( 2 ),
(
2 = ), (116.1)
( )=^(,
3 ).
- ;
;
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,
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8387, 185, 440 85, 89, 110, 132, 143, 144, 146, 162,
382 225, 226, 401412
307310, 312, 314316, 319 356
23, 35, 72, 80, 185, 249, 379, 382, 271, 307310, 312, 313, 315, 319
385, 386, 388 380382, 408
186, 200, 201, 208, 210, 214, 355
215, 251, 274276, 278, 279, 281, 15, 346, 412
283286, 292 , 294296, 300, 301, 224, 225
304 , 306, 308, 309, 312314, 320,
321, 338, 380, 381, 457 540
337, 338
323, 337, 338 411, 412
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155, 156, 159, 161, 162, 487 393, 394
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454, 466, 472, 532, 533 125, 131, 200, 422, 452
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494 85, 89, 9194, 99, 100, 102, 116,
473 120, 124, 139, 143, 144, 146, 153, 162,
412 180182, 401412, 462, 469, 472
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248, 303 36, 37, 70, 72, 77, 97, ,
247, 255, 257 200, 201, 347, 371, 375, 402, 406, 449,
248, 255, 300, 301 451, 452, 454456, 460, 462, 479,
- 27, 35, 70, 186 483 497 498
44, 89, 140, 141, 150153 '89, 9294, 99, 114116,
488 118, 119, 121, 123127, 129131,
66, 67 136, 139, 149, 186, 295, 326, 327, 382,
136, 138, 140, 141, 150, 151, 307, 389, 392, 393, 449, 451, 452, 462, 479,
501, 503 483, 497, 498
474 76, 78, 81
395 409, 411
395 356
514
236 359 , 363
36, 186, 193, 209 503
543

225, 226 75, 220, 222, 254, 300


363 492494
411
272, 273 495, 496
477, 478 540
411, 418, 439
305 270
271, 273
528 333, 334, 346
80, 81, 426428, 430, 441, 469 409
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373 211
155 300, 305, 311
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264
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279
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44, 73, 74, 77, 83, 89, 97, 112, 526
403, 456 271, 307310, 312, 313, 315, 319
142, 162, 186, 208, 245, 250, 271
251, 255, 258, 259, 270272, 276, 348, 349
278, 279, 284, 285, 306, 328, 329, 345, 305
346, 355, 366, 387 262, 539
23, 35, 72, 80, 185, 379, 388 514
36, 393 63, 164
436
272, 273 409

387 272, 273


316320, 323, 324, 423, 455 26, 462
80, 81, 182, 183, 185, 187, 361,
381 344, 355

411, 412 395


90 195, 196, 271, 273

513 345
209, 213, 214, 280283, 353 177, 208, 428, 441, 442
411 138, 211, 213, 307310, 312,
9194, 99, 116, 120, 139, 229, 314316, 319, 321324, 338, 349,
294, 296, 316, 469 350352
418, 419 271, 273
559 388, 392394
224, 225 355
347, 363 479, 480

* *

, 238,
101 244
24, 25, 238
103 106, 382
444 ()
75 377
483 338, 342
483 444
75 - 249
222, 223 285
223 287
75 17
481, 483 313
504
527
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390
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510
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236
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