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2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 1 of 90

Lesson: 2008 NEC Code Change: Part I


Author: Patrick S. Ouillette, P.E.

Course Overview

The National Electrical Code has been extensively revised for 2008, and woe to the
contractor, builder, electrician, or any combination thereof who doesnt take heed! This
course is intended to familiarize the reader with the major changes contained in the 2008
NEC, and is suitable for anyone exposed to the NEC at any level. The course
addresses Code revisions that apply to all types of occupancies: residential, commercial,
and industrial. We will be covering Code-wide changes and definitions, and will include
an analysis of approximately 30 of the most noteworthy revisions in the 2008 NEC. Make
sure you stay safe, build safe, remain up-to-date and deliver quality work read up!

Performance Objectives

After completing this course, students will be able to:


Discuss the significant changes in the 2008 edition of NFPA 70, the National
Electrical Code.
Ensure compliance with applicable Code standards when writing plans and
specifications
Identify a Code section(s) where additional study may be appropriate for the
students practice.
Identify some of the regulations for safeguarding persons and property from
hazards arising from the use of electricity.
Recognize new Articles incorporated into the Code and the scope of the
information.
Recall some of the basic safety requirements and areas of coverage of the
NEC.

There will be a multiple choice exam at the conclusion of the course to gauge your
understanding of the material.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 2 of 90

Introduction

The National Electrical Code is developed and sponsored by the National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA). The Committee on the National Electrical Code is comprised of 20
code-making Panels and a technical correlating committee. The NEC is approved as an
American National Standard by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It is
formally identified as ANSI/NFPA 70.

First published in 1897, the NEC is updated and published every three years. The 2008
Code is the most recent edition, approved on August 15, 2007.

Source: Taken in part from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Electrical_Code_(US)


Illus: from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Electrical_Code_(US)

Through the headings at the beginning of each Code change addressed in the course,
the reader will readily identify the section affected by the change and the specific subject
being discussed. The Introduction stresses the significance of the change. An Analysis
of the particular Code change follows, with explanation where necessary to help the
student understand the revision, its background, and the logic of the change. Graphics,
photographs, examples, or calculations are used to illustrate the change and to enhance
learning.

The Summary is a brief re-statement of the highlights of the Code change. Application
Question(s), Answer, and Key to the correct answer are included at the end of each
Code section studied for exercise in applying the change and to broaden learning.
Although there are many references to the 2008 NEC throughout this document, the
course and quiz can be completed without the need to refer to the NEC itself. For further
study on any Code section within this course, the 2008 NEC should be consulted.

Code-Wide Changes
The 2008 National Electrical Code contains four new articles:

Article 355 Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Conduit: Type RTRC;


Article 522 Control Systems for Permanent Amusement Attractions;
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 3 of 90

Article 626 Electrified Truck Parking Spaces; and


Article 708 Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS).

Articles 626 and 708 are discussed separately in this course.

Article 780 Closed-Loop and Programmed Power Distribution has been deleted.
This little-used article was written to address Smart House wiring. Products relevant to
this article are no longer manufactured. Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) has
withdrawn its listings and product categories that pertained to this article.

The terms lighting fixture(s) or fixture(s) are no longer added in parenthesis following
luminaire(s). Luminaire(s) is used by itself throughout the various articles of the 2008
National Electrical Code.

In about 30 instances throughout the Code the phrase capable of being locked in the
open position is used in relation to disconnecting means. The intent is the same as is
clarified in the 2005 Code. The provision for locking or adding a lock to a disconnecting
means shall remain in place with or without the lock installed. See the figure below.

New Annex F
Availability and Reliability for Critical Operations Power Systems; and
Development and Implementation of Functional Performance Tests (FPTs) for
Critical Operations Power Systems (For assistance in designing COPS)

New Annex G
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) (For assistance in designing
COPS)
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 4 of 90

Article 100 Definitions


Bonding (Bonded)

Revised

2005 NEC Definition: The permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrically
conductive path that ensures electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct safely any
current likely to be imposed.

Bonded (Bonding)

2008 NEC Definition: Connected to establish electrical continuity and conductivity.

Substantiation: This simplified definition is intended to be used throughout the NEC to


more simply describe the purpose and function of bonding. This change is the result of
the work of the NEC Technical Correlating Committee (TCC) Task Group on Grounding
and Bonding.

Device

Revised

2005 NEC Definition: A unit of an electrical system that is intended to carry or control
but not utilize electric energy.

2008 NEC Definition: A unit of an electrical system that carries or controls electric
energy as its principal function.

Substantiation: The revised definition allows the inclusion of devices that consume an
incidental amount of energy such as dimmers and internally illuminated devices.

Ground

Revised

2005 NEC Definition: A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental,


between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth or to some conducting body that
serves in place of the earth.

2008 NEC Definition: The earth.

Substantiation: References to ground in the NEC mean a connection to earth and not
some conducting body that serves in place of the earth. The metal frame of an
automobile is often referred to as ground although this is more accurately a reference
that is not connected to ground (earth). This Code-wide change is the result of the work
of the Task Group on Grounding and Bonding.

Grounded, Effectively
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Deleted
Substantiation: This definition lacks parameters in order to distinguish effective from
ineffective. Electrical systems are solidly grounded, grounded through a resistor or
impedance, or ungrounded.

Intersystem Bonding Termination

New!

2008 NEC Definition: A device that provides a means for connecting communications
system(s) grounding conductor(s) and bonding conductor(s) at the service equipment or
at the disconnecting means for buildings or structures supplied by a feeder or branch
circuit.

Substantiation: This definition was created and implemented in conjunction with other
changes intended to improve the requirements of intersystem bonding. Requirements for
intersystem bonding are located in Section 250.94, Section 770.93, and in the articles in
Chapter 8 of the Code.

Neutral Conductor

New!

2008 NEC Definition: The conductor connected to the neutral point of a system that is
intended to carry current under normal conditions.

Neutral Point

New!

2008 NEC Definition: The common point on a wye-connection in a polyphase system or


midpoint on a single-phase, 3-wire system, or midpoint of a single-phase portion of a 3-
phase delta system, or a midpoint of a 3-wire, direct current system.

Substantiation: The definitions for neutral conductor and neutral point are the result of
the work done by the Technical Correlating Committee (TCC) Task Group on the
Definition of Neutral Conductor. The definition of neutral conductor is adapted from
the International Electrotechnical Commissions (IEC) definition of neutral conductor
and the definition of neutral point is adapted from the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE) definition of neutral point. The new definitions are
intended to help the Code user to appropriately identify the conductor being discussed in
the various requirements throughout the Code.

The grounded conductor (grounded phase) of a corner-grounded delta system is not a


neutral conductor but is appropriately termed a grounded conductor. This conductor
is normally a current-carrying conductor but is not connected to the neutral point of the
system. Similarly, the grounded conductor of the 2-wire secondary of a control
transformer is not a neutral conductor. A connection made at the center of one of the
windings of a delta-connected system is connected at a neutral point. The conductor
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 6 of 90

connected to the neutral point of a wye-connected system is a neutral conductor


whether the system is operating balanced or unbalanced. (See Figure 100, following.)

The Task Group on the definition of Neutral Conductor used the following guidelines in
developing correlating proposals to provide uniform usage of the terms neutral conductor
and neutral point throughout the NEC:

The use of the word neutral as a noun should be avoided. The terms neutral
conductor or neutral point should be used wherever grammatically possible.

The phrase grounded circuit conductor (neutral) should be avoided. The


phrases grounded circuit conductor or grounded circuit conductor or neutral
conductor should be used as appropriate.

E3
120.0

E1
-240.0

Balanced voltage phasors


of a three-phase system
-120.0

E2

Vector addition can be used to


determine the neutral point of a
voltage system.

If the magnitude of the vectors (phasors) is


120.0, the phase voltages can be expressed
in polar form or rectangular form as:

E1 = 120.0 0 or 120.0 + j 0
E2 = 120.0 120 or 120.0( cos 60 j sin 60) = 60.0 j 103.92
E3 = 120.0 120 or 120.0( cos 60+ j sin 60) = 60.0 + j 103.92

Adding the phasors in rectangular form yields 0 + j 0,


which represents the mid-point of the system.

Figure 100

Surge Protective Devices (SPDs)

New!
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 7 of 90

2008 NEC Definition: A protective device for limiting transient voltages by diverting or
limiting surge current; it also prevents continued flow of follow current while remaining
capable of repeating these functions and designated as follows:

Type 1 Permanently connected SPDs intended for installation between the secondary
of the service transformer and the line side of the service disconnect overcurrent device.

Type 2 Permanently connected SPDs intended for installation on the load side of the
service disconnect overcurrent device; including SPDs located at the branch panel.

Type 3 Point of utilization SPDs.

Type 4 Component SPDs, including discrete components, as well as assemblies.

Substantiation: Surge Protective Devices (SPDs) replaces Transient Voltage Surge


Suppressor (TVSS) and its definition formerly in Section 285.2. UL is beginning the
process of merging Surge Suppressors (Article 280) and Transient Voltage Surge
Suppressers (TVSSs) in Article 285 into the same product category, Surge Protective
Devices, for devices rated 1 kV or less. Article 285 covers SPDs rated 1 kV or less.

Article 110 Requirements for Electrical Installations

Section 110.16

Flash Protection

Introduction

Based on previous records compiled by CapSchell, Inc., over 2,000 U.S. workers will be
sent to burn centers in 2008 with electrical-related burn injuries. The need for protection
from arc flash hazards has come to the forefront. There are several reasons for this
seemingly sudden awareness: the fact that more industrial facilities are opting for electric
service at over 600 volts, the need for working on energized equipment to prevent the
costly shutdown of a continuous process, and the high costs associated with worker
injuries.

Analysis

This change expands the list of equipment that requires field marking to warn qualified
persons of potential electric arc flash hazards. The marking is required only where the
equipment is likely to require examination or servicing while energized. Dwellings remain
exempt from the marking requirement, since the relatively small size (rating) of the
majority of these services will limit the flash hazard. Also, it is usually not necessary to
work on energized equipment that supplies one- and two-family dwellings or individual
units of multifamily dwellings. The Code does not specify details for the warning label,
except that Fine Print Note (FPN) No.2 provides a resource for specifications for safety
signs and labels. The actual Code change is minor but the importance of understanding
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 8 of 90

the potential hazard and protecting workers from arc flashes is an ever increasing safety
concern.

Related Information

FPN No. 1 references NFPA 70E-2004, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace.

This important document, along with the Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 1926,
Subpart C and Subpart K, contain the workplace safety standards enforced by OSHA
(Occupational Safety and Health Administration).

The application of these regulations is broad, extending to contract employees and to


industrial employees. The employer is charged with identifying workplace hazards,
preparing a comprehensive safety program, and providing safety training for employees.
Implementing the elements of the safety program is the responsibility of the employees.

The general rule in NFPA 70E is that electrical equipment be placed in an electrically
safe work condition before work is performed on or near the equipment. When work
must be performed on energized equipment (e.g., when deenergizing is infeasible or will
introduce additional hazards) justification must be provided. This can be accomplished
with a written work permit that must be signed by managerial authorities. NFPA 70E
contains information for determining the shock protection boundaries, the flash
protection boundary, the level of exposure to an arc flash hazard, and the required
protective equipment and clothing designed to prevent serious injury to workers.

Annex D of 70E provides sample calculations for calculating, under engineering


supervision, the Flash Protection Boundary and the incident energy.

Appendices A, B, and C of this document are provided to assist the reader in


determining the safety boundaries in a workplace and the required protective equipment
in accordance with NFPA 70E, for systems rated 600 volts or less. Both the method for
using the tables in 70E and for calculating values to be used according to 70E are
outlined. The sample calculations in Appendix C assume only minimal information is
known about the electrical system. Please review the appendices as there will be
questions on the material included in the exam.

There are other, more precise methods of calculating the Flash Protection Boundary and
incident energy, including the data found in IEEE Std 1584-2002, IEEE Guide for
Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations. For other than the first printing, NFPA 70E
contains a Tentative Interim Amendment (TIA) that modifies the notes in Table
130.7(C)(9)(a).

Technical Update

A distribution system should be evaluated to determine if current-limiting fuses or


adjustable circuit breaker settings can be utilized to reduce the clearing time of
overcurrent protective devices, while maintaining selective coordination. This could
dramatically reduce the arc flash hazard. Expect an increase in the clearing time for
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 9 of 90

circuit breakers if the breakers have not been periodically maintained according to the
manufacturers instructions.

Figure 110.16

This equipment marking complies with Section 110.16 of the 2008 NEC.

Summary

Electrical equipment, such as switchboards, panelboards, industrial control panels,


meter socket enclosures, and motor control centers that are in other than dwelling
occupancies, and are likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or
maintenance while energized shall be field marked to warn qualified persons of potential
electric arc flash hazards. The marking shall be located so as to be clearly visible to
qualified persons before examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance of the
equipment.

Application Question

Does a 400-A, single-phase electric service that supplies a one-family dwelling require
equipment marking as outlined in revised Section 110.16?

Ans: No

Key: Electrical equipment for the supply of dwellings is exempt from the marking
regardless of the size of the service.

Section 110.22

Identification of Disconnecting Means

Introduction
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 10 of 90

This Code change is a follow-up to the change in 240.86(A) of the 2005 Code, which
permits licensed professional engineers working in the electrical discipline to select
series rated combination devices for existing installations. A manufacturing facility
upsizing its service transformer or changes made by the utility that render the existing
system inadequate for the higher fault current available are examples of where an
engineered series-rated system might be used. The proper selection of circuit breakers
and fuses rated to withstand the fault current available on their line side is critical for the
safeguarding of persons and equipment, whether protecting a series-rated system or a
fully-rated system.

Analysis

Section 110.22 of the 2008 NEC contains three subsections:

General
Engineered Series Combination Systems
Tested Series Combination Systems

Specific field marking is now required where a series combination rating is selected
under engineering supervision rather than by testing. A series rating is a short-circuit
interrupting rating assigned to a combination of two or more overcurrent protective
devices connected in series in which the rating of the downstream device(s) in the
combination is less than the series rating.

Consider a 22k A.I.R (ampere interrupting rating) circuit breaker as the main (upstream)
device and 10k A.I.R. branch-circuit breakers downstream. If the available fault current
at the line side of the 10k A.I.R. devices is more than 10kA, the system is operating as a
series-rated system. Clearing a fault on the load side of the 10k A.I.R. devices requires
that both the upstream and downstream devices respond as a combination. Product
marking by the equipment manufacturer identifies specific circuit breakers that can
safely be used in combination for interrupting current at high fault levels.

Field marking where equipment is applied using the manufacturers series combination
rating was introduced in the 1990 Code. The 2008 change requires a similar marking
where the series rating of overcurrent protective devices is selected under engineering
supervision:

CAUTION ENGINEERED SERIES COMBINATION SYSTEM RATED XXX


AMPERES. IDENTIFIED REPLACEMENT COMPONENTS REQUIRED.

Section 240.86 contains additional requirements for series ratings. A new paragraph in
240.86(A), Selected Under Engineering Supervision in Existing Installations, requires
that the downstream circuit breaker(s) that are part of the series combination remain
passive during interruption of the fully rated, current-limiting device on the line side.

Summary

Where circuit breakers or fuses are applied in compliance with series combination
ratings selected under engineering supervision, the equipment enclosures shall be field
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 11 of 90

marked to indicate the equipment has been applied with an engineered series
combination rating.

Application Question

When replacing an overcurrent device in an engineered series-rated system the field


marking required by the Code is to ensure that the replacement of any overcurrent
device:

A. is exactly as specified by the manufacturer for series combinations that have been
tested.
B. is exactly as specified by engineering documentation.
C. has the same maximum RMS symmetrical, current-interrupting rating as the device
being replaced.
D. has the same fault clearing time as the device being replaced.

Ans: B

Key: Section 240.86(A) requires the engineer to provide stamped documentation


(specifications) that is available to those authorized to design, install, inspect, maintain,
and operate the system. The combination may not have been tested.

Section 110.26(C)

Spaces About Electrical Equipment


Entrance to and Egress from Working Space

Introduction

Two entrances into working spaces have been required for equipment rated 1200-A or
more and over 6 wide since the 1978 NEC. The 2005 NEC removed the 6 threshold.
The 2008 Code reinstates this rule. Also, the requirement for panic hardware for egress
doors is extended to doors that are located less than 25 from the equipment working
space.

Analysis

Code-Making Panel (CMP) No.1 deems that the physical size and placement of
electrical equipment is an important factor when designing emergency egress for
persons, and that ampacity of equipment should not be the only criteria for determining
when two means of egress are required. Also, revised language in this subsection
recognizes that entrances to electrical equipment also serve as means of egress.

A new subsection (3) in the 2008 Code requires that all doors located less than 25 from
the edge of a working space open in the direction of egress and be equipped with panic
bars, pressure plates, or similar devices. This addresses means of egress in large
mechanical rooms, where the means of egress from electrical equipment in the room
may be a relatively long distance from the equipment. Subsection (3) is applicable where
electrical equipment rated 1200-A or more is present, regardless of the number of
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 12 of 90

means of egress or the width of the equipment. This Code does not require doors but
mandates certain requirements when doors are installed.

Summary

All doors located less than 25 from the edge of the working space that are intended for
access to and egress from the electrical equipment, shall open in the direction of egress
and be equipped with panic bars, pressure plates, or similar devices. See the diagram
on the slide following for a simple blueprint of the correct means of entrance and egress
in a room with electrical equipment rated more than 1200-A.

Less than 25'

Application Question

The top floor (penthouse) of a structure serves as a mechanical room for HVAC and
electrical equipment. One door in the penthouse leads directly to the roof for accessing
roof-mounted equipment. A second door connects to an interior corridor. There is
electrical equipment throughout the penthouse. The edge of the working space for the
only equipment rated 1200-A or more is further than 25 from either door. Does
subsection (3) of 110.26(C) in the 2008 NEC apply?

Ans: No

Key: Both doors are at least 25 from the nearest edge of the working space about the
equipment rated 1200-A or more.

Article 210 Branch Circuits


2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 13 of 90

Section 210.12(B)

Arc-Fault Circuit-Interrupter Protection


Dwelling Units

Introduction

Just as the use of ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) has become more and more
widespread since their inception (a trend that will continue until it is replaced by new
technology), arc-fault circuit-interrupter (AFCI) technology can expect to play an
increasing role in future wiring. Since AFCIs are relatively new and will certainly see
continued development and utilization, it is important to understand some basics
concerning arcs and AFCIs.

Technical Update

An arc is a luminous discharge of electric current across a gap between two electrodes.
A potential difference (voltage) must be present that is large enough to cause arcing.
Some arcing is normal, like the arcing that occurs at switch and other contacts. This is
taken into consideration when electrical equipment is designed and constructed. AFCIs
must be able to distinguish a normal arc from dangerous arcing in order to avoid
nuisance tripping. Unwanted arcing that occurs where current is limited only by the
available ult current and circuit impedance (parallel arcing) can result in temperatures of
over 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

The gap between arcing electrodes may be air, or a deteriorated or compromised


insulating material. Cable insulation may become damaged by steel wire staples, nails,
screws, abrasion, chewing by rodents, etc. Flexible cord insulation can be damaged by
furniture, sharp objects, excessive heating, etc. Insulation breakdown can occur because
of thermal aging, which is accelerated at increased temperature. The integrity of the
insulation might also be jeopardized because of arc tracking, the formation of a
conductive path between electrodes. The presence of moisture and pollutants (e.g., dust
particles) will facilitate the creation of a conductive path. Arcing can also occur across a
carbonized path and is referred to as arcing-across-char. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or
other thermoplastics, commonly used for conductor insulation and cable jackets in
electrical construction, has a low resistance to tracking. Insulators used in the
construction of high voltage lines are specifically designed to reduce the occurrence of
tracking. Spontaneous arcing across even the smallest of air gaps (clean, non-polluted
gaps) is unlikely at common utilization voltages in residential occupancies, but cannot be
entirely ruled out for commercial and industrial systems where line-to-line voltages are
480 V and 600 V, nominal.

Arcs may be categorized as either parallel arcs or series arcs. A parallel arc can occur
across line-to-line, from line-to-neutral, or from line-to-ground (equipment ground) as a
result of damaged or deteriorated insulation. Short circuits and ground faults can result
in parallel arcing. The current is limited only by the available fault current and the circuit
impedance. These arcs can produce substantial energy. A bolted fault usually is less
damaging than an arc, since this solid connection will enable quick operation of the
circuit protective device, and heating will be evenly distributed over the entire length of
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 14 of 90

the circuit. If contact is not sustained the shorted electrodes may be pushed apart by
magnetic force, ejecting molten metal and causing fault current to flow through an arc.

A series arc can occur when there is an open in the current-carrying conductors of a
circuit, e.g., a loose connection at a receptacle termination. A series arc might also occur
at a corroded connection or at a break in the strands of a flexible cord conductor. The
series arc current will be limited by the connected load and will be less than the normal
load current. Except in rare instances, conventional circuit breakers or fuses will not
operate to open the circuit where a series arc exists. A poor electrical connection at a
terminal will create a high-resistance connection that will lead to localized heating. The
heating will cause further degradation of the connection. At some point, arcing may
occur. The arc might burn itself clear and open the circuit or the arcing may continue.
Continued heating of the arcing metals may lead to a temperature that is sufficient for
the formation of cuprous oxide on the hot metals. Because cuprous oxide is a
semiconductor, the characteristics and behavior of the faulted circuit will change. If
conduction becomes sustained, the result could be a dangerous glowing connection.

A glowing connection has the potential to dissipate 30 40 watts (I2R loss) over a
concentrated area and to cause combustion of nearby ignitable materials. A poor
connection causing a series arc is the most challenging scenario for the AFCI device. If
the device does not detect the series arc soon enough, a glowing connection may result.
The AFCI will not detect a problem in a circuit with a glowing connection. The voltage
drop across the glowing connection may be as little as 1 4 volts (in a typical 120-volt
residential circuit); not enough to cause a noticeable malfunction in luminaires or other
utilization equipment. If the glowing connection is at a device terminal, the enclosure
housing the device will likely prevent the heat generated from transferring its energy
outside the enclosure where easily ignitable materials may be present. A more
worrisome scenario is a heated connection at the attachment plug for a portable lamp or
other utilization equipment supplied by a flexible cord.

ANSI/UL 1699, Arc-Fault Circuit-Interrupters, is the standard used to investigate AFCI


devices. UL recognizes six types of AFCIs. For the purpose of this Code revision the
following four types of AFCIs are pertinent:

Branch/Feeder Type This category covers AFCIs that are intended to


be installed at the origin of a branch circuit or feeder. These devices
protect feeder and/or branch-circuit wiring against the effects of arcing.
They also provide protection from parallel arcs for cord sets (extension
cords) and power-supply cords.

(Power-supply cords are intended for direct connection to an appliance or


equipment, e.g., a clothes dryer supply cord.) The branch/feeder type
AFCI has these drawbacks: this device will not detect series arcing in
cord sets and power-supply cords, and will not detect series arcing in
branch circuits that do not contain an equipment grounding conductor.
(Branch circuits without ground were permitted prior to the 1962 NEC.)
Where the branch circuit contains an equipment grounding conductor, the
branch/feeder type AFCI satisfies the requirements of both the 2002 and
2005 NEC, since it protects the entire branch circuit as required by the
Code. Despite its inability to detect series arcs on ungrounded circuits,
Section 210.12(B) of the 2005 NEC specifically permits the use of the
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 15 of 90

branch/feeder type AFCI for these circuits until January 1, 2008. Cords
connected to receptacle outlets are not part of the branch circuit.
Branch/feeder AFCIs are rated 15 or 20 A, 120 or 120/240 V.

Outlet Branch Circuit Type These devices are intended to be installed


at the first outlet of a branch circuit. They have been recognized for
protection of unwanted arcing effects for branch circuit wiring downstream
of the outlet location, and for cord sets and power-supply cords.

They also provide limited upstream protection. The outlet branch circuit
type AFCI has this drawback: it will not provide protection from parallel
arcing for that part of the branch circuit upstream from the AFCI location.
The outlet branch circuit AFCI complies with 210.12(B) of the 2005 Code
if installed according to the Exception. This exception permits the device
to be installed within the first 6 ft of the branch circuit conductors, if the
conductors are enclosed in a metal raceway or are part of a metallic-
sheathed cable. These AFCIs are equipped with feed-through
connections and will provide downstream protection. Outlet branch circuit
AFCIs are rated 15 or 20 A, 120 V.

Outlet Circuit Type This category covers AFCIs that are intended to be
installed at a branch circuit outlet. These AFCIs are listed to provide
protection from unwanted arcing effects for cord sets and power-supply
cords connected to these devices.

They may or may not contain feed-through connections for protection of


cord sets and power-supply cords connected to downstream receptacles.
These devices may or may not contain integral receptacles. Used alone,
outlet circuit AFCIs do not meet the requirements of any edition of the
Code, since they do not provide protection for the entire branch circuit.
Outlet circuit type AFCIs are rated 15 or 20 A, 120 V.

Combination Type Combination type AFCIs have been evaluated and


recognized to provide protection from arcing for branch circuit and/or
feeder wiring, and for cord sets and power-supply cords connected to
receptacles. This type of AFCI provides the combined protection of the
branch/feeder AFCI and the outlet circuit AFCI.

These devices protect all of the circuit elements (including beyond the
branch circuit) against the effects of unintended series and parallel arcs,
and will function in both grounded and ungrounded circuits. Combination
type AFCIs meet the AFCI requirements of the 2002, 2005, and 2008
NEC. The devices are rated 15 or 20 A, 120 or 120/240 V. The UL
listing of the combination type AFCI does not limit the device to a circuit
breaker with integral AFCI protection. It may also be integrated into a
receptacle outlet, self-contained with an enclosure, or a separate device
for mounting in an enclosure or outlet box.

Despite the sequence of things that have to go wrong before an arc will form and
become a fire hazard, dangerous arcing will occasionally occur and result in a fire.
AFCIs are designed to lessen the effects of arcing that is not normal to the circuit
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 16 of 90

operation. Electronic circuitry in these devices is used to continually sample the AC


waveform and to trigger the opening of the AFCI when abnormal arcing characteristics
are sensed. AFCIs are evaluated for their resistance to nuisance tripping under loads
that produce non-sinusoidal waveforms, like dimmers, electronic ballasts, computer
equipment, etc.

Additionally, the devices must not trip when carrying the inrush current for a tungsten-
filament lamp load or other normal inrush current. AFCIs monitor the waveform for
varying frequencies, variations in pulse durations, and changes in current level. Arc-fault
circuit interrupters also contain a GFCI component that will open the arc-fault circuit
interrupter when a ground fault of 30 mA or more is detected. This GFCI component is
important, since a small current flowing to ground could be an early indication that the
potential for an arcing condition exists. A current flowing to ground might also be the
result of arcing. AFCIs must open the circuit when 8 half-cycles of arcing occur within a
period of 0.5 seconds. Arcing will not necessarily occur in each consecutive half-cycle.

Arc-fault circuit interrupters are available as single- or double-pole units. The devices
that are rated 120/240 V can be used on multiwire branch circuits or to supply 240-volt
loads. Both legs of the 2-pole device open when either circuit senses a dangerous arc.
Combination AFCI/GFCI (5 mA) protective devices are also available in both single- and
double-pole units. These devices combine arc-fault and ground-fault protection for
personnel. The 2-pole device contains four test buttons for testing each function of each
pole.

Analysis

The 2008 National Electrical Code requires combination type arc-fault circuit interrupters
for the protection of most branch circuits in dwelling units. Combination-type AFCIs are
required for the protection of all 120-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere branch
circuits that supply outlets in family rooms, dining rooms, living rooms, parlors, libraries,
dens, bedrooms, sun rooms, recreation rooms, closets, hallways, and similar rooms or
areas. The AFCI requirement does not apply to branch circuits that supply only outlets in
kitchens, bathrooms, basements, garages, and outlets installed outside of dwelling units.
However, if a branch circuit that supplies outlets in a room or area not required to be
AFCI protected also supplies outlets in an area where AFCI is required, then the entire
branch circuit requires combination type AFCI protection. For example, if a circuit
supplying kitchen receptacles also supplies dining room receptacles, the circuit requires
AFCI protection.

The criterion for requiring branch-circuit AFCI protection is whether or not the circuit
supplies outlets in one or more of the rooms or areas where AFCI protection for branch
circuits is required. For instance, if branch-circuit wiring that supplies only garage
receptacles passes within a bedroom wall, AFCI protection is not required for the circuit
because it does not supply outlets in the bedroom.

This expanded AFCI requirement applies to one-family, two-family, and multifamily


dwellings, and to guest rooms and guest suites that are provided with permanent
provisions for cooking.

Remember that an outlet is not only a receptacle but is any point on the wiring system at
which current is taken to supply utilization equipment. This means that all 120-volt,
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 17 of 90

single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere branch circuits that supply lighting, receptacles, smoke
detectors, paddle fans, etc. in applicable rooms or areas must be AFCI protected. The
2005 NEC permits the branch/feeder type AFCI to be used until January 1, 2008. Only
the combination type AFCI can be installed for compliance with the 2008 Code.
The combination type AFCI provides more complete protection than the branch/feeder
type. The combination type arc-fault circuit interrupter is intended to provide AFCI
protection from line-to-line (for devices rated 120/240 V), line-to-neutral, line-to-ground,
and from series faults for both the branch-circuit wiring and for cords connected to the
circuit. Cord-and-plug-connected lamps and other equipment are usually plentiful in
dwelling units, guest rooms, and guest suites, where cords may be vulnerable to
damage by furniture. Older homes with aged electrical cable insulation can be made
safer by installing AFCIs. However, 210.12(B) is not retroactive.

The Exception to 210.12(B) in the 2005 Code has been deleted.

This exception essentially allowed the outlet branch circuit AFCI to protect the branch
circuit, with restrictions. A new Exception allows the combination type AFCI device to be
installed at the first outlet downstream from the panel (without the 6 ft length limitation) in
lieu of being located at the origin of the branch circuit. The conditions for use of the
exception are that the wiring method from the overcurrent device to the AFCI device
must be RMC, IMC, EMT, or steel armored cable, Type AC, meting the requirements of
250.118, and, outlet and junction boxes used within this segment of the branch circuit
are required to be steel.

Fine Print Note No. 3 is new, which references Sections 760.41(B) and 760.121(B).
These sections state that it is not permissible to supply power through an AFCI or GFCI
for non power-limited and power-limited fire alarm circuits.

Some states and other jurisdictions may adopt amendments to this section of the 2008
Code, particularly concerning the connection of 125-volt smoke detectors to AFCIs.
Check with your state of licensure or other jurisdiction.

Figure 210.12(B), Photo 1 shows a portion of the sleeping area of a motel unit
undergoing renovation. The charring on the wood stud became visible during the
renovation of this 2-story motel. The building is about 30 years old. Evidence suggests
that a portion of the NM cable became lodged between the face of the stud and the
drywall when the drywall was applied. A blue drywall nail penetrated the NM cable. The
head of the nail had burned away and came off with the drywall when the drywall was
removed. The burned cable is pictured in Photo 2. The cable supplied 240 volts to an
electric baseboard heater. The charring is likely due to a parallel arc that eventually
cleared itself. Figure 210.12(B), Photo 3 presents the right conditions for the occurrence
of a series arc fault.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 18 of 90

Figure 210.12(B), Photo No. 1

The charring on the wood stud and the burn on the cable shown in Photo No. 2
are likely due to a parallel arc that eventually cleared.

Figure 210.12(B), Photo No. 2 Photo No. 3

This cable burned/arced within a Loosely connected cords could result


wood-framed wall. in series arcing.

Summary

Combination type AFCIs are required for the protection of most 120-volt, single-phase,
15-and 20-ampere branch circuits in dwelling units.

Application Question 1
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 19 of 90

A combination type arc-fault circuit interrupter will provide parallel and series arc
protection for:

A. only the permanently wired conductors of the branch circuit.


B. only cord sets and power-supply cords connected to receptacles on the branch circuit.
C. the entire branch circuit plus all flexible cords that are connected to the circuit
receptacles.
D. the entire branch circuit plus all flexible cords that are connected to the circuit
receptacles, except ungrounded cables will not be protected from series arcing.

Ans: C

Key: Combination type AFCIs provide protection for the entire branch circuit as required
by the Code. They are effective in older ungrounded branch circuits. These devices
provide protection for portable cords connected to protected branch-circuit receptacles.

Application Question 2

What type of arc fault might result from a loose connection?

A. A series arc fault


B. A parallel arc fault

Ans: A

Key: A loose connection will intermittently disconnect the circuit from one side of the
supply. Any connected load will remain part of the arcing circuit. A series arc will not
short-circuit the load. A parallel arc shunts the load providing an alternative current path.

Article 215 Feeders


Section 215.2(A)(1), Exception No. 2
Minimum rating and Size
Feeders Not More Than 600 Volts
General

Introduction

This new exception in some cases permits a smaller size feeder neutral conductor than
has been required by previous Code editions.

Analysis

The general rule for feeder conductor sizing requires that the minimum ampacity of the
feeder conductor be not less than the sum of the non-continuous load plus 125% of the
continuous load. The Code defines a continuous load as a load where the maximum
current is expected to continue for 3 hours or more. By definition in Article 100,
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 20 of 90

ampacity is the current that a conductor can carry continuously without exceeding its
temperature rating. Circuit breakers depend on the connected ungrounded conductors to
dissipate some of the heat generated in the circuit breaker by current flow. However, a
conductor that is not directly connected to an overcurrent device is not subjected to this
heating. New Exception No. 2 in the 2008 NEC permits a grounded conductor that is
not connected to an overcurrent device to be sized based on 100% of the continuous
and non-continuous load. High harmonic currents on the grounded conductor may
prevent the application of this exception.

The same exception has been added to 210.19(A)(1) for branch circuits. The sizing
requirements for service-entrance conductors in 230.42(A) have not changed.

Feeder CBs (3)

PP1

Service
disconnect
LP1
Sized for 125% of
continuous load plus 100%
LP2 of non-continuous load

Neutral
4-wire feeder to LP2

Service and distribution panelboard Sized for 100% of


continuous load plus 100%
of non-continuous load
Figure 215.2(A)(1), Exc. No. 2

Summary

The 2008 NEC permits a grounded conductor that is not connected to an overcurrent
device to be sized based on 100% of the continuous and non-continuous load. The
change applies to feeder conductors and branch circuit conductors.

Application Question

A feeder neutral load calculated in accordance with Article 220 consists of 130 amperes
of non-continuous load and 40 amperes of continuous load. What is the minimum
ampacity required for the grounded conductor? (The grounded conductor terminates on
a grounded busbar. Assume the continuous load is linear.)

A. 170 A
B. 180 A
C. 200 A
D. 213 A

Ans: A

Key: 130 A + 40 A = 170 A


2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 21 of 90

Article 240 Overcurrent Protection

Section 240.21(C)

Location in Circuit
Transformer Secondary Conductors

Introduction

This change is to clarify that parallel conductors are permitted to supply a single load
from a transformer secondary, without overcurrent protection required at the secondary,
for any of the applications specified in 240.21(C)(1) through (C)(6).

Analysis

It is not clear in the 2005 NEC that parallel conductors are permitted to supply a single
load according to the provisions of this section. The new Code language is intended to
clarify that parallel conductors may supply a single load in accordance with any of the six
applications in Subsection (C). The 2008 NEC includes the same restriction as the 2005
edition for the use of Section 240.4(B) in conjunction with Section 240.21(C). The rule in
240.4(B) permits (with certain conditions) the next standard size overcurrent device for
the protection of conductors when a conductors ampacity is not equal to a standard size
of overcurrent device listed in Section 240.6(A). The provisions of 240.4(B) are not
permitted for transformer secondary conductors. The combined ampacity of parallel
conductors connected to the transformer secondary shall be equal to or greater than the
rating of the overcurrent device supplied.

Example

In Figure 240.21(C) (following), parallel conductors supply the 400-A panelboard from
the secondary terminals of the transformer. What size 75 C aluminum conductors are
required for the secondary?

This is an application of the 10 tap rule in accordance with 240.21(C)(2).


Derating of the conductor ampacity is not required since there are not more than
three current-carrying conductors in each raceway. From Table 310.16 in the
2008 NEC, a 4/0 AWG, 75 C aluminum conductor has an ampacity of 180
amperes. The combined ampacity for parallel conductors is 360 amperes. This
does not correspond to a standard ampere rating in 240.6(A). The next higher
standard size (400) is not permitted. The conductors must be 250 kcmil, 75 C
aluminum.

Supervised Industrial Installations are covered in Part VIII of this Article, which contains
different requirements than 240.21(C)(3), Industrial Installation Secondary Conductors
Not Over 25 ft Long. Part VIII of Article 240 has been revised in the 2008 NEC.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 22 of 90

10 feet or less
150 kVA

200 A Primary Secondary 400-A Main

480 V 208Y/120 V

Two conductor sets in parallel


in two separate raceways
supplying the same load

Parallel conductors connected to the transformer


secondary are permitted to supply a single load.

Figure 240.21(C)

Summary

Parallel conductors connected to the secondary of a transformer, without overcurrent


protection at the transformer, are permitted to supply a single load. The provisions of
Section 240.4(B) are not permitted for transformer secondary conductors.

Application Question

Assume a similar installation to that of Figure 240.21(C), except that an 800-A main is
supplied by the transformer. Determine the minimum conductor size using parallel
copper conductors rated 75 C.

A. 400 kcmil
B. 500 kcmil
C. 600 kcmil
D. 700 kcmil

Ans: C

Key: In Table 310.16 a 500 kcmil copper conductor has an ampacity of 380 A. The
ampacity of a 600 kcmil conductor is 420 A. Therefore, parallel 600 kcmil conductors
must be installed.

Section 240.92(B)

Supervised Industrial Installations (Part VIII)


Location in Circuit
Feeder Taps

Introduction
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 23 of 90

The general rule for sizing feeder taps is that the ampacity of the tap conductor must not
be less than one-third the ampere rating of the overcurrent device protecting the feeder.
This Code change permits smaller tap sizes for supervised industrial installations without
compromising safety, and levels the playing field for U.S. companies competing globally.

Analysis

This new provision for feeder taps recognizes that current-limiting devices limit the let-
thru energy (I2t) by clearing a fault within the first cycle of the fault. This greatly
reduces the fault current that the tap conductor is exposed to. Tap conductors are
considered to be protected under short-circuit conditions when the conductors short-
circuit temperature limit is not exceeded. New Code Table 240.92(B) contains the
formulas that are used to derive short-circuit withstand charts for copper and aluminum
conductors with several insulation types.

Note: More complete information can be found in the Insulated Cable Engineers
Association (ICEA) Publication 32-382, Short Circuit Characteristics of Insulated
Conductors. Tap conductors can be sized using charts showing short-circuit current
versus conductor size or by calculation.

Example

Size the feeder tap in Figure 240.92(B) to comply with the 2008 NEC. Assume the tap
conductor is copper with thermoplastic insulation rated 90C.

The RMS symmetrical let-thru current can be determined from the manufacturers
current-limitation curves for a specific current-limiting device. The total clearing time of
the overcurrent device can also be determined from product manufacturers data. The
let-thru current can be used in the following formula to find the required conductor size
for a specific cable material and insulation:

where:
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 24 of 90

I = short-circuit current in amperes (Use 4,000 amperes in the example calculation.)


A = conductor area in circular mils
t = time of short circuit in seconds (for times 10 seconds) [Use 0.008333 seconds,
cycle, in the example calculation.]
T1 = initial conductor temperature in degrees Celsius
T2 = final conductor temperature in degrees Celsius

For copper conductors with thermoplastic insulation, T2 = 150

By calculation the area of the tap conductor must be at least 7,800 circular mils.

Section 240.92(B) is applicable to feeder taps up to and including 100 ft long, limited to
100 ft by 240.21(B)(4)(2). Section 240.92(B) does not apply to outside taps of unlimited
length.

Summary

In supervised industrial installations the minimum size for feeder taps is permitted to be
based on the tap conductors short-circuit temperature limit.

Application Question

What minimum size tap conductor is permitted in Figure 240.92(B) according to the
example calculation above?

A. 10 AWG
B. 8 AWG
C. 6 AWG
D. 4 AWG

Ans: A

Key: The area of a 10 AWG conductor is 10,380 circular mils. The area of a 12 AWG
conductor is 6,530 circular mils.

Article 250 Grounding and Bonding

Section 250.20(D)

Alternating-Current Systems to Be Grounded


Separately Derived Systems

Introduction

When an on-site generator used as an alternate source of supply is used in conjunction


with transfer equipment, examination of the switching mechanism in the transfer
equipment is a sure method of determining whether the generator is connected to serve
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 25 of 90

as a separately derived system. System grounding requirements are different for


separately derived systems.

Analysis

The presence of a transfer switch is not evidence that the alternate power supply is a
separately derived system. It is all about the grounded circuit conductor. If the switching
action of manual- or automatic-transfer equipment interrupts the grounded circuit
conductor connection to the service-supplied system, the generator is operating as a
separately derived system. Separately derived systems require grounding in accordance
with Section 250.30(A). If the switching action of a transfer switch does not include the
switching of the grounded conductor, allowing the grounded conductors of the two
separate systems to remain interconnected, then the alternate source is not operating as
a separately derived system. Since the grounded circuit conductors remain common to
both systems, the grounding for the service-supplied system according to 250.24 will
ground both systems. No additional system grounding is required.

Figure 250.20(D)

Manual transfer switch

Summary

If the grounded circuit conductors of two sources remain solidly interconnected, a


separately derived system does not exist.

Application Question

The manual transfer switch in Figure 250.20(D) is used to connect a portable generator
to the premises wiring of a dwelling unit. Is the generator connected to operate as a
separately derived system?

Ans: No

Key: The grounded conductor of the alternate supply is solidly interconnected to the
service-supplied system grounded conductor.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 26 of 90

Section 250.30(A)(4)

Grounding Separately Derived Alternating-Current Systems


Grounded Systems
Grounding Electrode Conductor, Multiple Separately Derived
Systems

Introduction

This change specifies the location for connecting the grounding electrode conductor tap
to the grounded circuit conductor for each separately derived system, where multiple
separately derived systems are involved.

Analysis

For any separately derived system, a grounding electrode conductor shall be connected
to the grounded conductor of the separately derived system. The connection to the
separately derived system shall be at the same point where the system bonding jumper
is installed. Figure 250.30(A)(4) shows the connection of the system bonding jumpers in
the panelboards, and the GEC taps run to the same location. The alternate location for
the system bonding jumpers is at the transformers. When the system bonding jumpers
are installed at the transformers, the GEC taps are connected to the grounded conductor
at the transformers.

When grounding and bonding connections are made care must be taken to avoid
creating metallic parallel paths for the grounded conductor current. A parallel path could
be created through metal raceway between the transformer enclosure and panelboard
enclosure, or through building steel or metal piping. To avoid creating a parallel current
path between two enclosures the neutral terminal must be isolated in one of the
enclosures. In the other enclosure the system bonding jumper is installed and the
grounding electrode conductor or tap is connected.

Summary

Where a common grounding electrode conductor grounds multiple separately derived


systems, each GEC tap shall be connected at the same point on the separately derived
system where the system bonding jumper is installed.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 27 of 90

Application Question

The system bonding jumper:

A. serves a different purpose than the main bonding jumper.


B. is a term used synonymously with main bonding jumper.
C. is normally installed in the same cabinet with the main bonding jumper.
D. serves the same purpose as the main bonding jumper except that the system bonding
jumper is the term used in relation to separately derived systems.

Ans: D

Key: The definition for bonding jumper, system has been re-located in the 2008 Code
from Article 100 to 250.2 since the term is used only in Article 250. Note how the Code
uses the terms main bonding jumper and system bonding jumper in 250.24 and 250.30
respectively.

Section 250.32(B)

Buildings or Structures Supplied by Feeder(s) or Branch Circuit(s)


Grounded Systems

Introduction

Parallel paths for the conduction of neutral currents between separate structures must
be avoided.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 28 of 90

Analysis

In earlier Code editions the general rule for buildings or structures supplied from another
building or structure involved the connection of non-currentcarrying metal parts of
electrical equipment to the grounded conductor, and the connection of the grounded
conductor to a grounding electrode at that building or structure. (The neutral is the
grounded conductor when the neutral conductor is directly groundednot grounded
through an impedance.) An equipment-grounding conductor in the same raceway or
cable with the other supply conductors and isolated from the grounded conductor was
permitted by exception. The 1999 NEC introduced the option of either running an
equipment-grounding conductor with the supply conductors, or for so-called re-
grounding the neutral (with restrictions) at a building fed by a feeder or branch circuit
from another building.

The 2008 NEC continues a trend in the same direction by making the installation of an
equipment grounding conductor the general rule. Connecting the grounded conductor to
earth and using the grounded conductor to bond electrical equipment and other
structures requiring bonding is permitted by exception only for existing premises wiring.
This is a major Code revision. The new rule does not permit re-grounding of the
grounded conductor at a second building or structure for new construction, or for newly
installed wiring in existing construction. In essence, the option has become an exception
for existing wiring.

The exception for existing premises wiring prohibits re-grounding of the neutral (or
grounded conductor) at a second structure where there are continuous metallic parts
between structures bonded to the grounding system in each structure. This is to prevent
a parallel neutral path(s), the opening of which could cause electric shock or arcing. In
its decision to require an equipment grounding conductor in lieu of re-grounding at a
second building, Code-Making Panel No. 5 weighed heavily the fact that future wiring (or
other construction) might involve installation of a continuous metallic path between
buildings or structures, which could introduce these electrical hazards.

Re-grounding of the neutral is also not permitted (even for existing premises wiring)
where electrical equipment in a second building is protected by a GFPE (ground-fault
protection of equipment) device located in the serving building. The parallel path(s)
created for the neutral current will not allow proper operation of the GFPE.

For new wiring in buildings or structures supplied by a feeder(s) or branch circuit(s), the
2008 Code requires the same separation of the grounded and equipment grounding
conductors that has long been a requirement for sub-panels (panels downstream from
the main service disconnect) installed in the same building as the main service panel.
The only distinction is that connection of a grounding electrode(s) to the equipment
grounding conductor is not required for a sub-panel, but is a requirement at a building
served by a feeder or branch circuit.

In the event of an open neutral, electrical separation of the neutral and equipment
ground will prevent the occurrence of a dangerous voltage-to-earth at non current-
carrying metal components of electrical equipment and any other metal bonded to this
equipment. Instead, the hazard will be directed back to the main service disconnect,
where the grounding electrode system will attempt to lower the above ground neutral to
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 29 of 90

earth potential. The level of the shock hazard will depend on the resistance to ground of
the grounding electrode system. The Code requires that a single rod, pipe, or plate
electrode have a resistance to ground of not more than 25 ohms. Much lower ground
resistances are desirable.

Summary

For new work, an equipment grounding conductor shall be run with the grounded
conductor when supplying a building or structure from another building or structure.

Application Question

A building under construction will be fed from a grounded supply originating in another
building. The supply is a 3-wire supply rated 120/240-volt, single phase. An equipment
grounding conductor:

A. shall be installed with the conductors serving the building.


B. may be installed with the conductors serving the building.
C. is not permitted to be installed with the conductors serving the building.
D. must be connected to the grounded conductor in the building being supplied.

Ans: A

Key: When one building or structure is supplied from another building or structure
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 30 of 90

it is necessary to install both a grounded and a grounding conductor, and to isolate these
conductors at the building being supplied.

Section 250.35(B)

Permanently Installed Generators


Non-separately Derived System

Introduction

Grounding and bonding for permanently installed generators connected as non-


separately derived systems is not specifically addressed in previous Code editions. New
Section 250.35 contains grounding and bonding requirements for permanently installed
generators connected as separately derived systems or non-separately derived systems.

Analysis

Grounding for portable generators is covered in 250.34 and 702.10; grounding for
vehicle-mounted generators is covered in 250.34; and grounding for separately derived
systems is covered in 250.30. However, grounding and bonding for permanently
installed generators not connected as separately derived systems is covered only under
General Requirements for Grounding and Bonding in previous Codes. Within this
General Requirements section, the Code states that the prescriptive methods in Article
250 shall be followed in order to comply with the performance requirements of this
section; i.e., the General Requirements for Grounding and Bonding. New Section 250.35
of the 2008 NEC provides prescriptive requirements for this common generator
installation.

Non current-carrying metal parts of generators and equipment must be connected to


earth, and a low-impedance path back to the generator for clearing ground-fault currents
must be provided, all without creating a parallel path for neutral currents. This is
accomplished through separation of the neutral conductor and the equipment ground,
just as is done for panelboards downstream from service equipment. The neutral point of
the generator winding is isolated from the generator frame and is grounded only at the
location where the utility service is grounded. The grounding system for the utility service
serves also as the grounding system for the generator equipment.

The generator installation shall comply with Article 700, 701, or 702, depending on how
the on-site power system is used. This includes compliance with the requirement for a
sign at the location of the connection of the grounded circuit conductor to the grounding
electrode conductor, identifying all power sources grounded at that location.

More specifically, the new rule (with regard to non-separately derived generator
installations) requires the installation of a conductor run with the supply conductors from
a permanently installed generator to the first disconnecting means. The purpose for this
conductor is to provide an effective ground-fault current path. (A ground fault is an
unintentional connection between a normally current-carrying conductor and the
normally non-currentcarrying conductors, metallic raceways, metallic equipment, or
earth.) If a ground fault occurs ahead of the first overcurrent device, an equipment
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 31 of 90

bonding jumper sized in accordance with Table 250.66, based on the size of the
conductors supplied by the generator, carries the generator fault current (see
250.102(C)).

If a ground fault occurs downstream from the overcurrent device an equipment


grounding conductor sized in accordance with Table 250.122, based on the size of the
overcurrent device, it serves as part of the fault current path (see 250.102(D)). In both
instances the ground-fault return path back to the source includes the path through the
main bonding jumper connection at the service. The two sources should be relatively
close to one another to keep the impedance of the fault path low.

Note that a metallic raceway is not permitted to serve as the bonding means between
the generator and a remote first disconnect means. This is not because the raceway
creates a parallel path for neutral current (it doesnt), but because the raceway is not
considered as reliable as an equipment bonding jumper wire. Where the disconnecting
means is on the generator, a metal-to-metal connection is not permitted to serve in place
of a bonding jumper wire, except that the AHJ may deem the direct metal contact as
acceptable where the disconnecting means is an inherent part of a listed generator
assembly (UL 2200, Stationary Engine Generator Assemblies). Consult 445.12 for
overcurrent protection for generators and 445.18 for disconnecting means requirements.

Figure 250.35(B) (following) is a simplified diagram showing only the equipment


specifically addressed in this Code section. The service equipment, transfer switch, and
grounding electrode system are not included in the diagram. The diagram is accurate
where the disconnecting means is located on the generator and where the disconnecting
means is remote from the generator. Before making an installation of this sort it is helpful
to sketch all the components of the power sources and their grounding system. The
installer should be able to trace the fault-clearing path for any ground fault that may
occur.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 32 of 90

Summary

Permanently installed generators connected to operate as non-separately derived


systems must maintain isolation between the neutral conductor and equipment
grounding conductors. The neutral point of the generator winding is isolated from the
generator frame and is grounded only at the location where the utility service is
grounded. An equipment bonding jumper in the form of a wire must connect the
generator frame to the equipment grounding terminal in the first disconnecting means.

Application Question

What minimum size copper equipment bonding jumper is required between the
generator and the generator disconnecting means in Figure 250.35(B)?

A. AWG 10
B. AWG 8
C. AWG 6
D. AWG 4

Ans: B

Key: Section 250.35(B)(1) refers the Code user to 250.102(C) to size the bonding
jumper based on the size of the conductors supplied by the generator. Section
250.102(C) requires the bonding jumper to be sized according to Table 250.66.

Section 250.52(A)(2)

Grounding Electrodes
Electrodes Permitted for Grounding
Metal Frame of the Building or Structure

Introduction

One of the conditions for which the 2005 NEC permits the metal frame of a building to
serve as a grounding electrode is where the frame is connected to an underground
metal water pipe that is in direct contact with the earth for 10 feet or more. An
underground metal water pipe has been viewed as a vulnerable grounding electrode,
subject to replacement with a plastic water pipe. Furthermore, a metal underground
water pipe is the only grounding electrode that the NEC requires to be supplemented by
an additional electrode.

Analysis

What if a buildings steel framing, which qualifies as a grounding electrode by bonding


only to an underground metal water pipe, becomes the primary electrode in the event of
replacement of the underground metal water pipe with plastic pipe? The building steel is
no longer qualified to serve as a grounding electrode! Revised Section 250.52(A)(2)(2)
permits the metal frame of a building or structure to qualify as a grounding electrode by
connection to the reinforcing bars of a concrete-encased electrode as provided in
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 33 of 90

250.52(A)(3), or by connection to a ground ring as provided in 250.52(A)(4). Connection


to an underground metal water pipe no longer qualifies as a means for connecting the
metal frame of a structure to earth.

Figure 250.52(A)(2)

The metal frame of this building will be grounded by copper conductors


connecting the steel to concrete-encased reinforcing bars.

J-bolts are often depended on for maintaining continuity of the connection of building
steel to concrete-encased electrodes. The J-bolts must be connected to the steel
reinforcing bars. Other acceptable methods for connecting the metal frame of a structure
to earth remain unchanged (see 250.52(A)(2)(1), (3), and (4)).

Summary

The metal frame of a building or structure is not considered connected to earth where
the frame is bonded only to an underground metal water pipe.

Application Question

The metal frame of a building or structure is connected to earth where the frame is
bonded:

A. only to an underground metal water pipe.


B. to a ground ring that meets the requirements of 250.52(A)(4).
C. to a concrete-encased electrode that meets the requirements of 250.52(A)(3).
D. to a pair of ground rods that meet the requirements of 250.52(A)(5) and that have a
combined resistance to ground of 25 or less.

Ans: B, C, and D are all correct.

Key: Several methods for connecting the metal frame of a building to earth are listed in
250.52(A)(1)(2).

Section 250.52(A)(3)
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 34 of 90

Grounding Electrodes
Electrodes Permitted for Grounding
Concrete-Encased Electrode

Introduction

This change recognizes the cost vs. benefit of having to connect each separate section
of concrete footing and each concrete pier that qualifies as a grounding electrode
together as part of the grounding electrode system.

Analysis

Where multiple concrete-encased electrodes are present at a building or structure, it is


permissible by the 2008 NEC to bond only one of the electrodes into the grounding
electrode system. In instances where foundation designs involve multiple concrete-
encased electrodes that qualify as grounding electrodes, all, some, or only one of the
concrete-encased electrodes may be bonded to the grounding electrode system. This
change also recognizes that vertical concrete that encases conductive reinforcing bars is
an effective grounding electrode where the concrete is in direct contact with the earth.

Conductive concrete-encased electrodes that do not make direct contact with the earth
because of insulating foam board or poly vapor barriers do not qualify as grounding
electrodes. A concrete-encased electrode that qualifies for grounding must contain at
least 20 feet of conductive steel reinforcing rod at least in diameter or at least 20 feet
of bare copper conductor not smaller than 4 AWG.

Figure 250.52(A)(3)

Only one concrete-encased electrode is required to be bonded to the grounding


electrode system.

Summary

Where multiple concrete-encased electrodes are present (each qualifying as a


grounding electrode) only one concrete-encased electrode is required to be bonded to
the grounding electrode system.

Application Question
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 35 of 90

A foundation system consists of 20 separate concrete piers each meeting the NECs
requirements for suitability as grounding electrodes. How many of the piers are required
to be connected as part of the grounding electrode system?

A. 1
B. 2
C. All within 25 ft
D. all

Ans: A

Key: The last sentence of 250.52(A)(3) requires only one. It is permissible to use several
or all of the electrodes.

Section 250.64(D)

Grounding Electrode Conductor Installation


Service with Multiple Disconnecting Means Enclosures

Introduction

The 2008 NEC addresses three methods for grounding services consisting of multiple
enclosures for disconnecting means. None of the three methods were prohibited by
previous Codes, but the 2008 Code is the first to include details for grounding multiple
service-disconnecting means by other than the use of tap conductors.

Analysis

Revised Section 250.64(D) now contains three subsections. Subsection (1), Grounding
Electrode Conductor Taps, is revised language from Section 250.64(D) of the 2005
Code. Two new subsections have been added: (2) Individual Grounding Electrode
Conductors and (3) Common Location.

Subsection 1: Revised

There is a revision in subsection (1) concerning the permitted methods for connecting
taps to the common grounding electrode conductor. The change requires the taps to be
connected to the common grounding electrode conductor by exothermic welding or with
connectors listed as grounding and bonding equipment, i.e., in accordance with UL 467,
Grounding and Bonding Equipment. Split-bolt connectors are not evaluated in
accordance with the standards of UL 467, but are listed by UL Standard 486, Wire
Connectors. UL 467 makes reference to UL 486, which covers several types of pressure
connectors (not manual twist-on connectors).

Subsection 2: New!

Subsection (2) permits a separate grounding electrode conductor to be run from the
grounded service conductor in each service disconnect enclosure to the grounding
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 36 of 90

electrode system. Each GEC shall be sized in accordance with 250.66 based on the size
of the conductors supplying the individual disconnecting means.

Subsection 3: New!

Subsection (3) permits the GEC to be connected to the grounded service conductor(s) in
a wireway or other accessible enclosure on the supply side of the service disconnects.
The GEC shall be sized in accordance with 250.66 based on the size of the service-
entrance conductor(s) at the common location where the grounding connection is made.
As in Subsection (1) the connection shall be made by exothermic welding or with a
connector listed as grounding and bonding equipment.

Summary

Grounding of a service that consists of multiple service disconnect enclosures shall be


by any one of the following methods: connecting GEC taps in such a manner that the
common GEC is not spliced, installing a separate GEC from each service enclosure to
the grounding system, or connecting the GEC to the grounded service conductor(s)
within an accessible enclosure on the supply side of the disconnecting means.

Application Question

The taps in the left-most diagram of Figure 250.64(D) connect to the grounded service
conductor in each enclosure. What does the other end of each tap connect to?

A. A third tap conductor


B. The grounding electrode
C. The grounding electrode conductor tap
D. The common grounding electrode conductor

Ans: D

Key: The common grounding electrode conductor must be installed without a splice or
joint. Section 250.64(C) permits the common grounding electrode conductor to be
extended by exothermic welding or by irreversible compression-type connectors.
Extending the GEC by either of these methods is not considered splicing.

Section 250.94

Bonding for Other Systems

Introduction

This extensively revised section contains specifications for bonding other electrical
systems together and to the electrical service.

Analysis
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 37 of 90

This change creates a dedicated location for terminating grounding conductors required
for systems covered in Articles 770, 800, 810, 820, and 830. Correlated changes are
located within these articles and a definition for intersystem bonding termination has
been placed into Article 100. Construction methods and the use of PVC conduit have
limited the accessible options for bonding other systems to the electrical power system.
Also, the number of different systems that might serve a structure for connection to data,
voice, video, etc. has made it necessary to address a means that will accommodate
bonding of several systems.

The 2008 edition of the Code requires the installation of an intersystem bonding
termination external to enclosures at the service equipment and at the disconnecting
means of any additional buildings. The intersystem bonding termination shall be
accessible for connection and inspection, and shall provide for the termination of at least
three intersystem bonding conductors. The intersystem bonding device shall not
interfere with the opening of enclosure covers.

A set of terminals mounted to the meter enclosure and electrically connected to the
enclosure is an acceptable way of meeting the new requirement, provided the terminals
are listed as grounding and bonding equipment (UL 467, Grounding and Bonding
Equipment). Also, a bonding bar placed near the service equipment enclosure, meter
enclosure, or metal service raceway can be used to meet the new requirement. The
bonding bar shall be connected with a minimum 6 AWG copper conductor to an
equipment grounding conductor in the service equipment enclosure, or the bonding bar
shall be connected to the meter enclosure or to an exposed nonflexible metallic
raceway. A third acceptable method is to locate a bonding bar near the grounding
electrode conductor (GEC) and connect the bar to the GEC with 6 AWG copper.

The Exception does not require the installation of an intersystem bonding termination in
existing structures where at least one of the following means for intersystem bonding
and grounding is accessible and external to enclosures:

(1) An exposed nonflexible metallic raceway,


(2) An exposed grounding electrode conductor,
(3) An approved means for the external connection of a grounding or bonding conductor
to the grounded equipment or raceway.

The 2008 Code substitutes the vagueness of the third means listed above with
specifications and adds requirements to the other two means for bonding other systems.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 38 of 90

Nonflexible metallic
raceway

Grounding electrode Minimum of 3 terminals


conductor available for intersystem
bonding conductors

6 AWG minimum copper


conductor

Grounding electrode

Methods for providing an intersystem bonding termination


Figure 250.94

Summary

In new structures an intersystem bonding termination shall be installed according to the


specifications in Section 250.94 of the 2008 NEC. For existing buildings the Exception
allows three alternate means for bonding systems.

Application Question

What does electrically connected mean in 250.94(1)?

Ans: The method of installing the terminal(s) must ensure a conductive path to the
system grounded conductor.

Key: The term is not defined in Article 100. The requirement is in addition to being
securely mounted to the meter enclosure. Bonded to the enclosure might be another
way of stating the requirement. The term bonded is defined in Article 100 and means,
connected to establish electrical continuity and conductivity. A conductor directly
connecting the intersystem bonding termination to a grounded terminal is not required.
Note that for 250.94(2) the bonding bar is permitted to be connected to the meter
enclosure or exposed nonflexible metallic raceway with a 6 AWG copper conductor. See
also 110.12(B).
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 39 of 90

Article 300 Wiring Methods

Section 300.4(E)

Protection Against Physical Damage


Cables and Raceways Installed Under Roof Decking

Introduction

Self-tapping screws used to secure roof system components to metal-corrugated roof


decking during repair or replacement of membrane roofs is causing damage to electrical
wiring located under the decking. Current requirements in 300.4 for physical protection
of wiring do not address this situation.

Analysis
Many instances of damaged wiring under metal-corrugated roof decking have been
reported due to penetration of the wiring by long screws used in conjunction with repair
or replacement of membrane roofs. Long metal screws used to secure roofing materials
to the metal decking penetrate the decking by at least 1, causing physical damage in
some cases to electrical equipment, cables, and raceways. This available space for
wiring can be utilized safely during the initial electrical installation, since the structures
roof system is usually completed before most electrical work begins. The problem occurs
during roof repair or replacement but must be addressed during the initial electrical
installation.

The 2008 NEC requires that cable- and raceway-type wiring methods installed under
metal-corrugated roof decking be supported to maintain a clearance of not less than 1
between the nearest outside surface of the cable or raceway and the nearest surface of
the roof decking. The requirement applies to both exposed and concealed locations.
Boxes and other electrical equipment installed as part of the wiring system must also
meet the 1 clearance requirement.

Rigid metal conduit (RMC) and intermediate metal conduit (IMC) are exempt from the
clearance requirements of 300.4(E).
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 40 of 90

Roof insulation board


and membrane
Metal roof
decking

1 min.

Electrical cables 1 min.


and raceways

No clearance is required
for RMC and IMC.

Clearance is required between the underside of metal


roof decking and electrical cables and raceways.
Figure 300.4(E)

Application Question

Standard 4 square metal boxes are used in conjunction with IMC for installation to
the underside of metal-corrugated roof decking. Are the boxes permitted to be secured
directly to the underside of the metal decking?

Ans: No

Key: RMC and IMC are permitted to be installed directly to the underside of metal-
corrugated roof decking, but other electrical equipment associated with these wiring
methods is not. The 1 clearance must be maintained between the underside of the
decking and the back of the electrical box.

Article 310 Conductors for General Wiring

Section 310.15(B)(2)(c)

Ampacities for Conductors rated 0-2000 Volts


Tables
Adjustment Factors
Conduits Exposed to Sunlight on Rooftops

Introduction
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 41 of 90

A new table is included in the 2008 Code for determining the ambient temperature
adjustment where electrical conduits installed on or above rooftops are exposed to direct
sunlight.

Analysis

This new subsection can be viewed as clarification of existing rules that limit the
operating temperature of conductors to their insulation rating. Existing Sections 310.10
and 310.15 contain requirements for determining the ampacity of conductors and for
adjustment of conductor ampacity. Section 310.15(B)(2)(c) and its accompanying Table
provide specifications for ampacity adjustment that is addressed in the 2005 Code in
FPN No. 2, following Section 310.10. The FPN is deleted in the 2008 NEC as test
results have yielded data that has been included as mandatory language.

The accepted ambient temperature of a conductor is the temperature of the surrounding


air. For conductors in conduits the ambient temperature is the temperature of the air
inside the conduit. Tests have shown that the temperature of the air inside of conduits
can exceed the outside air temperature by 70F or more. The rise in temperature is
greater for nonmetallic conduits than for metal conduits.

The temperature inside conduits on dark-colored roofs is higher than for light-colored
roofs when conduits are on or very near the surface of the roof. When conduits are
about 1 in. or more above the surface of the roof, the temperature rise is greater for light-
colored roofs because of the reflected heat from light-colored surfaces. Despite the
differing test results for conduit types and roof colors, the ambient temperature
adjustment can be adequately addressed by considering the distance of the conduit from
the surface of the roof.

The temperatures in Table 310.15(B)(2)(c) (following) for specified conduit locations are
intended to be added to the outdoor temperature to determine the ambient temperature
to be used for application of the correction factors in Tables 310.16 and 310.18. The
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
Handbook of Fundamentals, 2005 edition, contains climate design information in
Chapter 28, which can be referenced concerning design temperatures for various
locations.

Table 310.15(B)(2)(c) Ambient Temperature Adjustment


for Conduits Exposed to Sunlight On or Above Rooftops
__________________________________________________
Temperature Added
__________________________________________

Distance Above Roof to Bottom of


Conduit C F
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

0 13 mm ( in.) 33 60
Above 13 mm ( in.) 90 mm (3 in.) 22 40
Above 90 mm (3 in.) 300 mm (12 in.) 17 30
Above 300 mm (12 in.) 900 mm (36 in.) 14 25
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 42 of 90

Example

A 5-ton, 4.88 kW electric cooling unit is installed on a flat rooftop. At single-phase 240-V,
the unit draws 23.2 amps. Supply conductors are run inside 75 of conduit which is
supported by clamps that maintain a distance of between the surface of the roof and
the bottom of the conduit. Using an outside design temperature of 90F, what minimum-
size THHW copper conductor can be used to supply the equipment? (Equipment
terminals are rated 75C.)

210.20(A): The load is considered a continuous load. The rating of the overcurrent
device must be at least 125% of the load current (23.2 A x 1.25 = 29 A).
240.4(B): A 30-A circuit breaker will be selected.
110.14(C): The 90C column of Table 310.16 can be used for ambient temperature
correction; however, the corrected ampacity is not permitted to exceed the
75C rating of the conductor because of the equipment terminal rating. The
adjusted ambient temperature is 130F (90 + 40). The ambient temperature
correction factor in Table 310.16 for the temperature range 123F -131F =
0.76. The adjusted ampacity = 30.4 A (40 x 0.76).
110.14(C): The adjusted ampacity does not exceed the 75C rating (30.4 is less than
35).
240.4(D): Note at the bottom of Table 310.16: * See 240.4(D).
Overcurrent protection for 10 AWG copper is not permitted to exceed 30 A.

A 30-A circuit breaker protecting 10 AWG copper Type THHW is permitted.

Summary

Table 310.15(B)(2)(c) contains adjustments for ambient temperature correction for


conductors, where conductors are installed in conduits on or above rooftops exposed to
sunlight.

Application Question

For the Example given, what ambient temperature must be used for ampacity correction
if the conduit is placed directly on the roof?

A. 90F
B. 120F
C. 130F
D. 150F

Ans: D

Key: From Table 310.15(B)(2)(c): 90 + 60 = 150F.


2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 43 of 90

Article 406 Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and Attachment


Plugs (Caps)

Section 406.11

Tamper-Resistant Receptacles in Dwelling Units

Introduction

This new section of the 2008 NEC requires nearly all 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere
receptacles installed in dwelling units to be listed, tamper-resistant receptacles.

Analysis

A 10-year study by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS)


documented 24,000 incidences of electrical injuries to children caused by inserting
objects into unprotected electrical receptacles. (The NEISS is a recording system of the
Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC)). This information is the basis for a
major Code change.

The 2008 NEC requires that all 125-


volt, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles
installed in all areas specified in Tamper
Section 210.52 be listed, tamper- Resistant
resistant receptacles. The rule
includes GFCI receptacles,
receptacles that may be out of reach
of small children, and receptacles
rendered not readily accessible; e.g.,
certain appliance receptacles. The
Shutters
only areas of dwelling units that are
not specified in Section 210.52 are
closets and crawl spaces.
Receptacles that are an integral part
of appliances or luminaires are not
exempt from this new rule. Figure 406.11

Tamper-resistant receptacle

Tamper-resistant receptacles are equipped with a shutter over the hot and neutral
contacts that remains closed unless the two blades of an attachment plug exert
simultaneous pressure on the shutter. While this protective mechanism performs well, it
is not impossible to defeatthese devices are not tamper proof. Tamper-resistant
receptacle covers do not meet the requirements of this new rule. The Code is not
retroactive, except that replacement of receptacles must comply with Section 406.3(D).

Summary
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 44 of 90

In all areas specified in Section 210.52 for dwelling units all 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere
receptacles, including GFCI receptacles, shall be listed tamper resistant.

Application Question

Does the new requirement for tamper-resistant receptacles extend to multifamily


dwellings?

Ans: Yes

Key: Individual units of multifamily dwellings are included in the Codes


definition of dwelling unit.

Article 408 Switchboards and Panelboards


Section 408.36

Overcurrent Protection

Introduction

The 2008 National Electrical Code makes no distinction between a lighting and
appliance branch-circuit panelboard and a power panelboard.

Analysis

The 2008 Code revision cycle has deleted Section 408.34, Classification of
Panelboards. The classification of panelboards as either lighting and appliance branch-
circuit panelboards or power panelboards, based on their content, has been done away
with. In the 2008 Code the categories are combined into one category, panelboards.
Former sub-sections 408.36(A) and (B) have been rolled into one section, with three
exceptions. The general rule for overcurrent protection requires individual protection
either within or at any point on the supply side of the panelboard, sized at not greater
than the rating of the panelboard.

By Exception No. 1, individual overcurrent protection is not required for a panelboard


used as service equipment with multiple disconnects in accordance with 230.71. This
exception permits expanded use of the six-disconnect rule in 230.71.

Example

A main-lug (ML) panel with a 200-A frame is mounted on the exterior of a


residence for use as a service panel supplying 120/240 volts. The panel contains
a two-pole, 200-A breaker supplying another panel in the basement of the
residence; a two-pole, 30-A breaker supplying an outdoor pool building; and a
single-pole 20-A breaker supplying an outdoor accessory building. Previous
Codes considered this service panel a lighting and appliance panel requiring
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 45 of 90

individual overcurrent protection. In the 2008 NEC, this is an acceptable


application of Section 230.17.

Where panelboards are protected by three or more main overcurrent devices, the
protective devices may not supply a separate bus within the same enclosure (as did the
older split-bus residential panelboards).

By Exception No. 2 individual overcurrent protection is not required for a panelboard


where the panelboard is protected by two main circuit breakers or two sets of fuses
having a combined rating not greater than the rating of the panelboard. The protection of
a split-bus panelboard is an application of this exception. When this exception is used,
the number of overcurrent devices in the panelboard cannot exceed 42. (See the
analysis in this document of new Code Section 408.54, which lifts the restriction on the
quantity of overcurrent devices permitted in a cabinet.)

By Exception No. 3 individual overcurrent


protection is not required for an existing panelboard
used as service equipment for an individual
residential occupancy. This refers to an earlier
practice of installing split-bus panelboards having
up to five overcurrent protective devices connected to one bus for
the supply of the heavier residential loads, and one device feeding a
separate bus assembly in the same enclosure for the supply of
general lighting and receptacle loads.

Summary

The classification of panelboards as either lighting and appliance branch-circuit


panelboards or power panelboards has been done away with. Both are now categorized
as panelboards. This allows expanded use of the six-disconnect rule.

Application Question

A six-space main-lug panelboard contains three single-pole, 20-A circuit breakers and
three double-pole, 20-A circuit breakers. According to the 2008 NEC, is this equipment
permitted to be connected as a service to supply temporary power at a construction site?
(The equipment is rated for use as service equipment.)

Ans: Yes

Key: This application complies with 408.36, Exception No.1; 230.71; 230.79;
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 46 of 90

230.79(D); and 230.80. In previous Codes this panel is considered a lighting and
appliance branch-circuit panelboard requiring individual overcurrent protection.

Section 408.54

Maximum Number of Overcurrent Devices

Introduction

The number of overcurrent devices that are permitted to be installed in a cabinet is no


longer limited to 42.

Analysis

The Maximum Number of Overcurrent Devices in a panelboard is addressed in new


Section 408.54, which is included in Part IV, Construction Specifications. Section
408.35, which addresses this item in the 2005 Code, has been deleted. The 42-device
limitation was introduced into the NEC when there was some concern about heat
dissipation of rubber-insulated conductors connected to enclosed overcurrent devices.
Since that time UL 67, Standard for Panelboards, has been developed and
implemented. This standard evaluates panelboard suitability by considering wiring
space, wire bending space, loading conditions, conductor insulation rating, the
temperature rating of equipment, and many other factors. Hence, the 42-device limitation
is no longer an issue.

The manufacturer must incorporate some physical means of preventing installation of


more overcurrent devices than that for which the
panelboard is listed. The 42-device limitation is still in
force where two sets of circuit breakers or fuses protect a
split-bus panelboard. (See the analysis of Section 408.36
in this document.)

This change will prompt a change in ULs marking of CTL


(circuit limiting) panelboards. All panelboards that must be
classified as lighting and appliance branch-circuit
panelboards have been required to be marked Class CTL
Panelboard before they leave the factory.

Summary

New panelboards constructed according to the provisions of


the 2008 Code are not limited to 42 overcurrent devices
(except split-bus panels), but may contain any quantity of
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 47 of 90

devices for which the manufacturer has evaluated and listed the panelboard.

Application Question

Does the 2008 NEC permit the installation of a 60-circuit, single-phase panelboard in a
dwelling unit?

Ans: Yes

Key: The panelboard must be listed and must comply with other applicable
provisions of the NEC and Article 408.

1 2
3 4
5 6
7 8
9 10
11 12
13 14
15 16
17 18
19 20
21 22
23 24
25 26
27 28
29 30
31 32
33 34
35 36
37 38
39 40
41 42
43 44
45 46
47 48
49 50
51 52
53 54
55 56
57 58
59 60

N
Panelboards with more than 42 overcurrent devices
are permitted by the 2008 NEC.

Figure 408.54
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 48 of 90

Article 410 Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps

Section 410.6

Listing Required

Introduction

The 2008 NEC requires all luminaires and lampholders to be listed. Listing is the highest
and most comprehensive form of approval for electrical equipment used by the National
Electrical Code. A listed product has been evaluated by a nationally recognized testing
laboratory (NRTL). The Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Accreditation
Program is administered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
under Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910 (29 CFR 1910). The
independent third-party testing agencies evaluate electrical equipment according to
prescriptive established standards, most commonly an ANSI/UL Product Standard.

Analysis

This article has been renumbered to accommodate the move of definitions to 410.2 and
to allow for future additional sections. The terms fixture and fixtures are no longer
used in the Code. Most listing requirements throughout Article 410 have been deleted,
since listing now falls under the general requirement for listing in 410.6. The word listed
remains within certain sections of Article 410, where the listing refers to an assembly or
to listing as a raceway, e.g., 410.54(B) and 410.64.

The authority having jurisdiction may approve equipment based on its listing and any
conditions of use that are part of the listing. For all equipment that the NEC requires to
be listed, the applicable product standard is included in Annex A of the Code. The
incandescent luminaire in Figure 410.6 is listed by UL. The luminaire is marked Wall
Mount Only and Suitable for Wet Locations. The listing information for this luminaire
can be found through ULs Online Certifications Directory using the file number
E199318, printed on the luminaire. Most of the same information is also contained in the
Guide Information for Electrical Equipment, also known as the UL White Book.

According to the index of product categories in the back of the UL White Book,
information on Incandescent Lamp Type Luminaires is located on page 143 (for the
2007 edition). This information applies generally to both surface and recessed
incandescent luminaires. The sub-category Incandescent Surface-mounted Luminaires
in the index is addressed on page 144 and applies specifically to surface-mounted
luminaires. The Product Category Code (IEZR) is indicated adjacent to the Product
Category Title, Incandescent Surface-mounted Luminaires. Any limitations of the listing
such as voltage, current, horsepower, and installation provisions are contained in the
information following the product category headings. This is an integral part of the listing,
enforceable under 110.3(B) of the NEC. The basic standard used to investigate products
in this category is UL 1598, Luminaires.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 49 of 90

Figure 410.6

Listed incandescent luminaire

The acceptability of a specific listing or labeling is determined by the authority having


jurisdiction. OSHA currently recognizes 18 organizations (NRTLs) that provide product
safety testing and certification services to manufacturers. Not all of the organizations
provide evaluation services for equipment used for electrical installations. Some of the
electrical products evaluated include appliances, toys, medical equipment, tools, and
information technology equipment. The scope of recognition and services provided, the
product standards used, and the identifying marks used by these organizations can be
viewed at:
http://www.osha.gov/dts/otpca/nrtl/index.html

Appendix D contains a list of the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories


recognized by OSHA, updated to July 2007. Appendix E contains a sample of
identifying marks used by some evaluation organizations.

Summary

The 2008 Code requires that all luminaires and lampholders be listed for their intended
use by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory.

Application Question

A listed luminaire is any luminaire that:

A. is approved by the AHJ.


B. is certified only by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
C. meets the definition of listed in Article 100.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 50 of 90

D. is certified by a Nationally Recognized Testing Agency.

Ans: C and D are correct

Key: The AHJ is the final authority concerning equipment approval. The AHJs job is
simplified where a product has been evaluated and certified by a NRTL that is
recognized by OSHA. The AHJ has no authority to list a product; however, any
product evaluation organization may list a product or equipment. The AHJ may
approve a luminaire that is listed by other than a NRTL. Appendix F contains
information about some product labels that do not indicate compliance with 410.6
of the Code.

Related Information

The following is reprinted from the Online Certifications Directory with permission from
Underwriters Laboratories Inc.

UL Online Certifications Directory


Company Name Category Name Link to File
KARHO INDUSTRIES
Incandescent Surface-mounted Luminaires IEZR.E199318
LTD

KARHO INDUSTRIES Incandescent Surface-mounted Luminaires


IEZR7.E199318
LTD Certified for Canada

IEZR.GuideInfo
Incandescent Surface-mounted Luminaires

[Luminaires and Fittings] (Incandescent Lamp-type Luminaires)


Incandescent Surface-mounted Luminaires

GENERAL

This category covers surface-mounted luminaires, including floor-, wall-, ceiling-, and
pole-mounted luminaires.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 51 of 90

Ceiling-mounted luminaires include cord-, stem-, chain- and cable-suspended


luminaires, in addition to outlet box-mounted luminaires.

SPECIAL-USE LUMINAIRES

Luminaires suitable for continuous operation in an elevated ambient, such as a boiler


room, foundry, etc., are marked "SUITABLE FOR OPERATION IN AMBIENTS NOT
EXCEEDING __ C," where the blank is filled in with intended elevated ambient.

LUMINAIRE INSTALLATION MARKINGS

If the required rating of the field wiring supplying the luminaire requires the installer to
push the supply conductors from the luminaire into the outlet box, the luminaire is
marked "PUSH CONDUCTORS INTO JUNCTION BOX."

All ceiling- and wall-mounted luminaires are acceptable for mounting on an insulated
ceiling or wall. Exceptions: (1) luminaires obviously not designed for ceiling use or if
marked "WALL MOUNT ONLY" are not acceptable for mounting on ceilings, and (2)
luminaires marked "NON-COMBUSTIBLE SURFACE ONLY."

Luminaires intended for undercabinet mounting are marked "SUITABLE FOR UNDER-
CABINET MOUNT."

Luminaires intended for continuous-row mounting are marked "SUITABLE FOR


CONTINUOUS ROW MOUNTING."

Luminaires weighing more than 50 lbs and intended for outlet box connection are
marked "THIS LUMINAIRE MUST BE MOUNTED OR SUPPORTED
INDEPENDENTLY OF AN OUTLET BOX."

PRODUCT MARKINGS

All luminaires bear a model, catalog or series number (or similar designation) or the
word "Incandescent" adjacent to the Listing Mark.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

For additional information, see Incandescent Lamp-type Luminaires (IEYV)


http://database.ul.com/cgi-
bin/XYV/cgifind.new/LISEXT/1FRAME/srchres.html?collection=/data3/verity_collections/l
isext&vdkhome=/data3/verity_sw_rev24/common&SORT_BY=textlines:asc,ccnshorttitle:
asc&query=IEYV%3cIN%3eCCN+and+GUIDEINFO

Luminaires and Fittings (HYXT) http://database.ul.com/cgi-


bin/XYV/cgifind.new/LISEXT/1FRAME/srchres.html?collection=/data3/verity_collections/l
isext&vdkhome=/data3/verity_sw_rev24/common&SORT_BY=textlines:asc,ccnshorttitle:
asc&query=HYXT%3cIN%3eCCN+and+GUIDEINFO
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 52 of 90

Electrical Equipment for Use in Ordinary Locations (AALZ). http://database.ul.com/cgi-


bin/XYV/cgifind.new/LISEXT/1FRAME/srchres.html?collection=/data3/verity_collections/l
isext&vdkhome=/data3/verity_sw_rev24/common&SORT_BY=textlines:asc,ccnshorttitle:
asc&query=AALZ%3cIN%3eCCN+and+GUIDEINFO

REQUIREMENTS

The basic standard used to investigate products in this category is ANSI/UL 1598,
"Luminaires." http://ulstandardsinfonet.ul.com/scopes/scopes.asp?fn=1598.html

Products employing LED light sources are additionally investigated to UL Subject 8750,
"Outline of Investigation for Light Emitting Diode (LED) Light Sources for Use in Lighting
Products." http://ulstandardsinfonet.ul.com/outscope/8750.html

UL MARK

The Listing Mark of Underwriters Laboratories Inc. on the product is the only method
provided by UL to identify products manufactured under its Listing and Follow-Up
Service. The Listing Mark for these products includes the UL symbol

together with the word "LISTED," a control number, and the product name "Luminaire."

Section 410.130(G)
Disconnecting Means

Introduction

This change was adopted into the 2005 NEC in Section 410.73(G) with an effective date
of January 1, 2008. It has undergone minor revisions in the 2008 Code cycle and
appears in the 2008 NEC as Section 410.130(G). This provision will require many newly
installed fluorescent luminaires to have an individual disconnecting means either internal
or external to the luminaire. The new rule applies to fluorescent luminaires that utilize
double-ended lamps and contain ballast(s) that can be serviced in place. There are five
Exceptions to the rule.

Analysis

During the 2005 Code cycle, Code-Making Panel No. 18 specifically chose to require an
individual disconnecting means for certain fluorescent luminaires so that any device
meeting this definition in Article 100 could be used to comply with the new requirement.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 53 of 90

A disconnecting means is, A device, or group of devices, or other means by which the
conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from their source of supply. Figure
410.130(G) (following) can be used to determine under what conditions an individual
disconnecting means is required and the specifications for, and possible locations of the
disconnecting means.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 54 of 90

An individual disconnecting means is required for a fluorescent luminaire according to the following provisions:

Luminaires that use


double-ended fluorescent
lamps and contain
Applicable Cord-and-plug-connected
ballast(s) that can be Excluding
equipment luminaires
serviced in place
(Not compact fluorescent
luminaires, CFLs)

Location Indoors
Industrial establishments
where only qualified
Other than dwellings persons will perform
But excludes
Occupancy and associated service according to
both
accessory structures written procedures
and
Hazardous locations

Emergency illumination
Individual disconnecting Excluding required in 700.16
means is required for
Condition luminaires supplied by 2-wire
Where more than one
branch circuits or multiwire
luminaire is installed (not
branch circuits. Except connected to a multiwire
branch circuit) and
An individual disconnecting means is required. controlled such that the
room or area will not be
The disconnecting means may be left in total darkness
internal or external to the luminaires. when servicing

The line side terminals of the


disconnecting means shall be guarded.
Specifications
For multiwire circuits the disconnecting
means shall simultaneously break all
supply conductors to the ballast,
including the grounded conductor.

The disconnecting
means shall be
Access accessible to qualified
persons before
servicing the ballast.

Inside or outside of the


luminaire
Attached to the
The disconnecting means
luminaire
may be attached to a
luminaire and located above
an accessible ceiling.
Location

Must be a single
Remote from the device and must be
luminaire within sight of the
luminaire

Figure 410.130(G)
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 55 of 90

Use the information in the center column of the top-down diagram concerning applicable
equipment, location, occupancy, and condition to determine whether an individual
disconnecting means is required for a luminaire. The right column addresses Exceptions
No. 1 through No. 5. Note that if the conditions of a particular installation yield a Yes
answer through the top 4 boxes in the center column, an individual disconnecting means
is required.

The lower half of the diagram indicates the specifications and location options for the
required disconnecting means. The disconnecting means being considered in this rule is
a supplementary disconnecting means and not a wall switch, switch-duty (SWD) circuit
breaker, or lighting contactor. However, there are situations where any of these items
are permitted to serve as the required disconnecting means (i.e., a supplemental
disconnecting means is not required).

It is likely that Exception No. 5 will often be the deciding factor for whether or not an
individual disconnecting means is required for a luminaire. By Exception No. 5 an
individual disconnecting means is not required for each luminaire where more than one
luminaire is installed, the luminaires are not supplied by a multiwire branch circuit, and
where the design of an installation includes disconnecting means such that the space
need not be left in total darkness. (See the applications of this Exception in Figure
410.130(G), Exception No. 5.) A separable connector that disconnects both the
grounded conductor and the ungrounded conductor to the ballast is compliant with this
Code section for every situation, for both 2-wire and multiwire supply circuits.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 56 of 90

Applications of Section 410.130(G), Exception No. 5

a b a b a b a b

Sa An individual disconnecting means is required for each luminaire


Sb since the luminaires are connected to a multiwire branch circuit.

a b a b a b a b

Sa
Sb An individual disconnecting means for each luminaire is not required
since the space need not be left in total darkness when servicing ballasts.

Sa a a
S
Sb b b S

a a

b b

An individual disconnecting means for each luminaire An individual disconnecting means for each luminaire is
is required whether or not these luminaires are not required. Ballasts can be de-energized for servicing
connected to a multiwire branch circuit. The Code without the room being left in total darkness.
intent is to also require that the neutral conductor to
the ballasts be disconnected in this instance.

The wall switch may serve as the


required disconnecting means since
An individual disconnecting means for each luminaire is required
it is within sight of the luminaire.
since the space otherwise would be left in total darkness in order
to safely service the ballasts. By using individual disconnecting
means that disconnect the neutral conductor also, light from
operating luminaires can safely illuminate the workplace.

Figure 410.130(G), Exception No. 5


2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 57 of 90

Summary

The general rule is this: Newly installed fluorescent luminaires that utilize double-ended
lamps and are installed indoors in other than dwellings and associated accessory
buildings require an individual disconnecting means within or attached to the luminaire,
or within sight of the luminaire.

Application Question

Multiple rows of continuous fluorescent strip lighting are used for the general lighting in a
newly constructed supermarket. Several control switches on the managers platform
control all of the main area lighting through lighting contactors located in the back
storage area of the store. Multiwire circuits feed the lighting with only a 2-wire lighting
circuit entering each row. Does 410.130(G) of the 2008 Code require individual
disconnecting means for each luminaire?

Ans: No

Key: The installation is such that the space need not be left in total darkness for
servicing luminaire ballasts. Even though multiwire circuits are used, servicing
ballasts in any one de-energized row will not interrupt neutral current on the
multiwire circuit. The ballasts are supplied from multiwire branch circuits, but are
connected to 2-wire circuits. The Code intent is satisfied since the hazard is not
present in the wiring arrangement used. Whether the control switches at the
managers platform qualify as the required disconnecting means is not at issue. It
has already been determined that an individual supplementary disconnecting
means is not required for each luminaire.

Article 626 Electrified Truck Parking Spaces


New Article

Introduction

The estimated 1.4 million long-haul trucks in the United States burn approximately 3.7
billion gallons of diesel fuel annually while trucks are idling during mandatory truckers
rest hours. For every idling truck, about .3 tons of nitrogen oxides and 21 tons of carbon
dioxide are emitted into the atmosphere annually. Significant fuel savings and emissions
reductions can be realized while providing the necessary services for drivers and their
cargo electrically. Less than one percent of the existing truck parking sites in the country
are provided with electrified equipment.

Analysis

This new article is the result of the work of many governmental, industrial,
manufacturing, engineering, and research organizations and CMP-12. Truck Stop
Electrification (TSE), or shore power, provides convenience outlets; power for cab
heating, ventilation and air conditioning; and connections for the supply of telephone,
internet, and television. Some equipment provides heating, cooling, and ventilation
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 58 of 90

through flexible ducts rather than through direct electrical connections. New cabs will be
able to be factory equipped with comfort and communications systems. Cabs can be
field equipped using on-board installation kits.

Article 626 covers electrical wiring and equipment external to the truck that supplies
power for electrified truck parking spaces. The article includes requirements for
receptacle configurations and supply voltages, disconnecting means, flexible cords,
plugs, connectors, grounding, overhead clearances, and requirements for feeder and
service load calculations. According to Section 90.3, the provisions of this article
supplement or modify the requirements of Chapters 1 through 4 of the NEC. Electrified
spaces that are intended to supply Transport Refrigerated Units (TRU) shall comply with
Part IV of Article 626.

Each electrified parking space shall be equipped with two 20-ampere, 125-volt single
receptacles. Each receptacle shall be a two-pole, three-wire grounding type connected
to an individual branch circuit. Where HVAC supply systems require a direct electrical
connection at the truck an additional single receptacle shall be provided. This receptacle
shall be a three-pole, four-wire grounding type, single phase, rated 30-A 208Y/120 volts
or 125/250 volts.

All receptacle outlets shall be equipped with GFCI protection for personnel. Both a local
disconnecting means and a remote disconnecting means are required to disconnect the
supply to each site. The remote disconnecting means is permitted to disconnect
equipment at more than one site. Both disconnecting means shall be readily accessible
and capable of being locked in the open position.

Equipment for TSE can be viewed at idleaire.com and shurepower.com.

Summary

Electrified Truck Parking Spaces is a new Code article that establishes some basic
requirements for the safe use of electricity at truck parking spaces.

Application Question

One of the disconnecting means for a power pedestal for truck stop electrification
equipment shall be:

A. accessible.
B. readily accessible.
C. located remote from the pedestal.
D. capable of being locked in the open position.

Ans: C

Key: One of the disconnects for the supply of TSE equipment shall be located remote
from the TSE equipment site. Both of the required disconnects shall be readily
accessible and capable of being locked in the open position.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 59 of 90

Article 690 Solar Photovoltaic Systems


Section 690.31

Methods Permitted (Part IV. Wiring Methods)

Introduction

Photovoltaic source and output circuits in one- and two-family dwelling applications are
permitted to operate at a system voltage of up to 600 volts DC. The 2005 Code permits
single-conductor cables to be run exposed regardless of voltage. Unprotected cables
can pose a risk to the public where cables are accessible.

Analysis

Where installed in a readily accessible location, the 2008 Code requires all source and
output circuit conductors operating at maximum system voltages of over 30 volts to be
installed in a raceway. Source and output circuit conductors are permitted to run
exposed for system voltages of 30 volts or less and for higher voltages where the
conductors are

Single-conductor cables Types SE, UF, and USE have been removed from the list of
permitted cables for photovoltaic source circuits because of their temperature limitations.
They have been replaced by Type USE-2 cable and listed photovoltaic wire. Both
cables are rated 90C wet or dry, 600 V, sunlight-resistant. Photovoltaic wire is intended
for interconnection wiring of grounded and ungrounded photovoltaic systems.

New Sub-section (F) of 690.31 requires that flexible, fine-stranded cables be terminated
only with terminals, lugs, devices, or connectors that are identified and listed for such
use.

Summary

Where photovoltaic source and output circuits operating at more than 30 volts are readily
accessible, the circuit conductors shall be installed in a raceway. Single conductors used
in source circuits for module interconnections shall be Type USE-2 or listed photovoltaic
wire.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 60 of 90

Figure 690.31

Photovoltaic source and output circuits operating at more than 30 volts that are readily
accessible shall be installed in a raceway.

Application Question

Which of the following single-conductor cable Types are permitted in exposed outdoor
locations for module interconnections within PV arrays?

A. SE
B. UF
C. USE
D. USE-2

Ans: D

Key: Types SE, UF, and USE are permitted by the 2005 Code but are not permitted in
the 2008 Code. Note that a new exception requires raceways for this application
where the system voltage exceeds 30 volts and conductors are installed in a
readily accessible location.

Article 700 Emergency Systems

Section 700.9(B)(5)

Wiring, Emergency System


Wiring

Introduction
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 61 of 90

New Subsection (5) clarifies that a single emergency source is permitted to supply any
combination of emergency, legally required, or optional loads, and provides details of
separation requirements for emergency wiring where a single source is used.

Analysis

Emergency system wiring must be separate from all other wiring. This Code change
addresses system separation where the emergency source also supplies other loads. A
single emergency power source is permitted to supply any combination of emergency,
legally required, and optional loads. System wiring shall be separated by using separate
enclosures or by barriers in adjacent sections of vertical switchboards.

The same supply conductors from the source to the separate enclosures or switchboard
sections may supply emergency, legally required, and optional systems. Multiple feeders
are permitted from the source to separate enclosures or to separate vertical switchboard
sections.

Overcurrent protection at the source is optional. When overcurrent protection is installed


at the source the overcurrent protection must be selectively coordinated with
downstream overcurrent protection.
______________________________________________________________________
__

Summary

A single source may supply any combination of emergency, legally required, and
optional loads. Emergency system wiring shall be separated from other systems.
Multiple feeders are permitted from the source to separate enclosures or to separate
vertical switchboard sections.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 62 of 90

Optional overcurrent protection at the source


must be selectively coordinated with the
downstream overcurrent protection

Single or multiple
feeders

Generator

Emergency Legally Optional


Emergency source Systems Required Standby
700 701 702

Barriers
Separate vertical switchboard sections
with or without a common bus

OR

Single or multiple
feeders

Generator
Emergency Legally Optional
Systems Required Standby
700 701 702
Emergency source

Separate enclosures

A single emergency source may supply any combination of


emergency, legally required, or optional loads. Separation
of systems must comply with (a), (b), and (c) of 700.9(B)(5).

Figure 700.9(B)(5)

Application Question

If the switchboard in Figure 700.9(B)(5) has a common bus, is it permissible to use a


single transfer switch for all three wiring systems?

Ans: No

Key: One source may supply all 3 systems but transfer equipment for emergency
systems shall supply only emergency loads (see 700.6(D)).
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 63 of 90

Article 702 Optional Standby Systems

Section 702.5(B)

Capacity and Rating


System Capacity

Introduction

Due to recent natural disasters, permanent and portable standby generator installations
have dramatically increased for both residential and commercial uses. Existing Code
requirements do not adequately address generator capacity and rating where automatic
transfer switches are used. In instances where the user is not available to select the load
the alternate source may disconnect on overload if not adequately sized.

Analysis

This revision is welcomed by electrical inspectors who now have specific requirements
for evaluating the capacity and rating of generators used in optional standby systems.
Under new Subsection (B) the load on the standby source shall be determined in
accordance with Article 220 or by some other method approved by the AHJ (e.g., utility
company records of usage). Where manual transfer equipment is used the requirements
for capacity and rating in the 2005 NEC have not changed. The equipment shall be sized
to carry the load intended to be connected at the same time. The user of the system
shall be permitted to select the load connected to the optional standby system.

Where automatic transfer equipment is used the capacity of the standby source shall be
in accordance with (B)(2). The standby source shall be capable of supplying the full load
transferred by the automatic transfer equipment, or, the source shall be capable of
carrying the maximum load transferred by a load management system.

Summary

Where an optional standby system uses automatic transfer equipment, the standby
source shall be capable of carrying the full load transferred by the automatic transfer
equipment, or, the source shall be capable of carrying the maximum load transferred by
a load management system.

Application Question

For sizing a source used to supply an optional standby system, does the 2008 Code
have different requirements for portable generators than for permanently installed
generators?

Ans: No

Key: There is no distinction made in 702.5 between portable and permanently installed
sources.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 64 of 90

Article 705 Interconnected Electric Power Production Sources


Introduction

Wind is the second largest source of new power generation in the U.S. (second to
natural gas) adding over 2,400 megawatts of power in 2006. Wind power is becoming
increasingly attractive because it is clean, cost-effective, inexhaustible, and readily
available. Improvements in solar cell efficiencies and cost reductions are accelerating
the use of photovoltaic systems.

Analysis

Article 705 covers the installation of power production sources operating in parallel with
a primary source (usually the serving utility). Power sources interconnected with the
primary source include generators, fuel cells, and solar photovoltaic systems. This article
has been rewritten. The 2008 NEC divides the article into three parts: General, Utility
Interactive Inverters, and Generators.

Definitions for hybrid system and utility-interactive inverter output circuit have been
added. Hybrid systems are systems consisting of multiple sources of power but are not
connected to a public distribution network. The majority of changes in this article center
on utility interactive inverters.

The wind farm in Figure 705 consists of 28 generators producing 42 megawatts of


electricity at full capacity. Each rotor blade is 115 long.

Figure 705
42 Megawatt wind farm

Summary

This article has been rewritten. The 2008 NEC divides the article into three parts:
General, Utility Interactive Inverters, and Generators.

Application Question
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 65 of 90

Generators (not emergency or standby generators) used for parallel production of power
in conjunction with a primary source must meet the requirements of

A. Article 445.
B. Article 705.
C. Article 705, except as modified by Article 445.
D. Article 445, Article 705, and applicable sections of Chapters 1 through 4, unless
modified by 705.

Ans: D

Key: Section 90.3, Code Arrangement, and Figure 90.3 are critical for the proper
application of the NEC.

Article 708 Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS)

New Article

Introduction

This new article contains requirements for enhanced reliability and protection of the
infrastructure of mission-critical electrical systems. The scope of Article 708 goes
beyond the scopes of Article 700 Emergency Systems, and Article 701 Legally
Required Standby Systems. Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS) must provide
power for a minimum of 72 hours at full load for loads within Dedicated Critical
Operations Areas (DCOA) and for related loads essential for the control of vital
operations.

Analysis

Recent manmade and natural disasters prompted the formation of the NEC Task Group
on Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Homeland Security. The members of
this task group serve on a new Code-Making Panel 20. CMP-20 is charged with
assessing the adequacy of current NEC standards (and other pertinent NFPA
standards dealing with emergency and standby power systems) and for overseeing the
process of creating new standards with regard to electrical infrastructure protection and
reliability. The resulting new article is similar to Articles 700 and 701, but with several
important distinctions.

A separate utility service is not permitted for the supply of critical operations power.
Article 708 requires that a risk assessment be conducted of critical operations power
systems. Based on the results of the risk assessment a mitigation strategy shall be
developed, documented, and implemented to reduce the hazards not sufficiently
mitigated by the prescriptive requirements of this Code. Possible solutions might include
removal or segregation of the hazard. The enhanced reliability of Critical Operations
Power Systems is achieved through redundancy, physical security, physical protection,
and fire protection of equipment for critical systems.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 66 of 90

As is the case with Articles 700 and 701, COPS are systems so classed by municipal,
state, federal, and other codes, by a governmental agency having jurisdiction. However,
Article 708 additionally recognizes facility engineering documentation that establishes
the need for a COPS. Critical Operations Power Systems are installed in vital facilities to
provide continuity of operation where loss of power would disrupt national security, the
economy, and public health or safety. Physical protection is provided for COPS feeders
by using rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, Type MI cable, and certain
other specified wiring methods when encased in not less than 50 mm (2 in.) of concrete.

Fire protection for COPS feeders is provided by concrete encasement or by use of a


listed system or assembly with a fire-resistive rating of at least one hour. COPS branch
circuits located outside of the Designated Critical Operations Areas shall meet the same
requirements for physical protection and fire protection as COPS feeders. COPS branch
circuits located within the DCOA may use any wiring method in Chapter 3 of the 2008
NEC, since protection is inherent in the construction and operation of the DCOA. The
wiring for HVAC, fire alarm, security, communications, and signaling circuits for
Dedicated Critical Operations Areas and necessary related wiring shall comply with
Section 708.14. This section contains strict requirements intended to provide physical
protection and fire protection for these circuits.

COPS branch circuit distribution equipment shall be located in the same Designated
Critical Operations Area as the branch circuits it supplies. COPS feeder distribution
equipment shall be located above the 100-year floodplain.

There are many Fine Print Notes within Article 708 that reference other pertinent
NFPA standards. New Annexes F and G have been
included in the 2008 NEC for assistance in the design of COPS.
Optical fiber cables shall be used for
communications circuits to other
buildings under single management.

COPS branch circuit


distribution equipment

COPS feeders require specific


physical protection and fire rating.

208Y/120V

Designated Critical Operations Area Prime Mover


(DCOA)

Spaces with a 2-hour fire rating


are required for COPS feeder
Security Signal
distribution equipment.
F T
C
Service disconnect
Supervisory Control and Data
Acquisition (SCADA)
Systems Transfer switch

COPS Normal

Article 708 contains specific requirements for feeders and branch


circuits of Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS) and for the control
and monitoring of these systems.

Figure 708
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 67 of 90

Summary

Compliance with the requirements of this article will prolong the operations of electric
circuits for power, control, communications, and security, where interruption of power to
these circuits would disrupt national security or the economy, or would pose an
unreasonable risk to public health or safety.

Application Question 1

Which of the following power sources is not permitted to supply critical operations
power?

A. A generator set
B. A fuel cell system
C. An uninterruptible power supply
D. An underground utility supplied service

Ans: D

Key: Although a second utility service may be permitted by the AHJ for
Article 700 Emergency Systems, it does not meet the degree of reliability
required to supply COPS.

Application Question 2

The hardening of wiring for Critical Operations Power Systems is accomplished


through strict requirements for

A. physical protection of the wiring.


B. physical security of the wiring.
C. fire protection of the wiring.
D. all of the above.

Ans: D

Key: Physical protection, physical security, and fire protection of COPS wiring are
each addressed in Article 708.

Conclusion
The NEC is updated and reissued every three years by the National Fire Protection
Association and is also known as NFPA 70, as covered in the Introduction to this course.
Now that you have finished the course, you should have a good working knowledge of
the significant changes made to the 2008 version. This should enable you to ensure
compliance with Code standards for plans and specifications you prepare and/or
encounter. In addition, your knowledge of the basic code should be refreshed, which will
allow you to work and plan with confidence.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 68 of 90

Oregon Electricians Special Course Addendum


If you are an electrician licensed in Oregon, the following two links provide additional
course information as required by your board:

1. Oregon Permit Process & Requirements:


http://www.redvector.com//extra/lectora/2008_NEC_Code_Changes_Part_1/Oregon_Ele
ctrical_Permit_Process.pdf

2. Scope of Work:
http://www.redvector.com//extra/lectora/2008_NEC_Code_Changes_Part_1/Electrical_Li
censing_Scope_of_Work_282.pdf
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 69 of 90

APPENDIX A

SHOCK PROTECTION BOUNDARIES FOR 480- AND 600-V SYSTEMS ACCORDING TO NFPA 70E
(DISTANCES ARE FROM LIVE PARTS TO PERSONS.)

EXPOSED LIVE PART


PROHIBITED APPROACH BOUNDARY = 1 IN

12 IN

42 IN RESTRICTED APPROACH BOUNDARY

LIMITED APPROACH BOUNDARY

The Limited Approach Boundary may not be crossed by unqualified persons


unless escorted by a qualified person.

Only qualified persons may cross the Restricted Approach Boundary. Appropriate safety
equipment is required.

No uninsulated part of the qualified persons body may cross the Prohibited Approach Boundary.

See NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, 2004 Edition, Section 130.2 for
additional information.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 70 of 90

APPENDIX B
DEFAULT FLASH PROTECTION BOUNDARY FOR 600-V SYSTEMS OR LESS ACCORDING TO NFPA 70E
(DISTANCES ARE FROM LIVE PARTS TO PERSONS.)

EXPOSED LIVE PART

4 ft is the curable burn distance, where


4 FT
the maximum incident energy is not
(DEFAULT VALUE) expected to exceed 1.2 cal/cm2.
This is the estimated thermal energy
for the onset of a
second-degree burn.

FLASH PROTECTION BOUNDARY

The Flash Protection Boundary for systems operating at 600 volts or less shall be
4.0 ft or may be calculated. The 4.0 ft default value is
based on the product of a clearing time of 6 cycles and an available bolted fault current
of 50 kA, or any combination not exceeding 300 kA cycles. For over 300 kA cycles, or under engineering supervision,
the Flash Protection Boundary shall be determined by calculation (see Appendix C).

50,000 amperes x 6 Hz = 300 kA cycles


At 60 Hz, 6 cycles = 0.1 second

300 kA cycles = 5000 ampere seconds (50,000 amperes x 0.1 second)

Example: For a bolted fault current of 25,000 amperes and a clearing time of 8 cycles, the product
of the fault current and clearing time is less than 300 kA cycles.

25,000 x 8 = 200,000 A cycles (200 kA cycles)

The 4 ft default value is permitted to be used as the Flash Protection Boundary.

Table 130.7(C)(9)(a) of NFPA 70E may be used to determine the hazard/risk category for a particular task.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) and flame-resistant (FR) clothing must be used by persons within the
Flash Protection Boundary. Tables 130.7(C)(9)(a) and 130.7(C)(10) can be used to determine the required tools,
protective equipment, and protective clothing.

See NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, 2004 Edition, Section 130.3 for
additional information.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 71 of 90

Appendix C
Flash Hazard Analysis

This analysis is based on the pertinent requirements of NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical
Safety in the Workplace, 2004 Edition. The Flash Protection Boundary (FPB) is determined
according to Section 130.3(A) of NFPA 70E. When it has been determined that work will be
performed within the FPB, Section 130.3(B) requires that the incident energy exposure of
the worker in calories per square centimeter be determined. Based on this determination
the appropriate flame-resistant (FR) clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE) can
be selected that will comply with 130.3(B).

Flash Protection Boundary

The distance from exposed live parts to the FPB shall be 4 for equipment operating at 600
volts or less. This distance is based on a clearing time of 6 cycles (0.1 second) and an
available bolted fault current of 50 kA, or any combination not exceeding 300 kA cycles
(5000 ampere seconds).

50,000 amperes x 0.1 second = 5000 ampere seconds


50,000 x 6 Hz = 300,000 ampere cycles (300 kA Hz)

For clearing times and bolted fault currents over 300 kA cycles, or under engineering
supervision, the FPB shall be permitted to be calculated according to the following formula
for systems operating at 600 volts or less:

Dc = [53 x MVA x t]

where:

Dc = the distance in feet from an arc source for a second-degree burn

MVA = the rating of the transformer in mega volt-amps


For transformers rated below 0.75 MVA, multiply the MVA rating
by 1.25.

t = the time of arc exposure in seconds

The Flash Protection Boundary is calculated below for a 1000 kVA transformer and for a
500 kVA transformer.

For a 1000 kVA transformer:



Dc = [53 x 1000 kVA x 0.1 second] = 2.3

For a 500 kVA transformer:



Dc = [53 x 500 kVA x 1.25 x 0.1 second] = 1.8
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 72 of 90

Appendix C (continued) page 2

Protective Clothing and Personal Protective Equipment

The maximum short-circuit current at the secondary terminals of a transformer is calculated


as follows:

Isc = {[MVA Base x 106] [1.732 x V]} x {100 %Z}

or Isc = KVA x 1000


1.73 x VL-L

divided by the transformer impedance expressed as a decimal

For a 1,000 kVA, 480-V, 3-phase transformer with an impedance of 5.75%:

1000 x 1000
1.73 x 480

0.0575

Isc = 20,943 amperes short-circuit current

The incident energy must be calculated under engineering supervision.

Estimated incident energy for an arc in open air

For systems operating at 600 volts or less, the formula used for estimating the incident
energy for an arc in open air is as follows:
EMA = 5271DA1.9593tA[0.0016F2 0.0076F + 0.8938]

where:

EMA = the maximum open arc incident energy, cal/cm2

DA = distance from arc electrodes, in. (applicable for distances of 18 in. and
greater)

tA = arc duration, seconds

F = short-circuit current, kA (for the range, 16 kA to 50 kA)

Using the above formula, for an available short circuit current of 16,000 amperes and a
fault clearing time of 0.3 seconds:

EMA = 6.5 calories per square centimeter


EMA = 5.1 calories per square centimeter (for 20,000 amperes and a clearing time of 0.2
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 73 of 90

seconds)

Appendix C (continued) page 3

Estimated incident energy for an arc in a cubic box (20" on each side, open on one end)

For systems operating at 600 volts or less, the formula used for estimating the incident
energy for an arc in a cubic box is as follows:

EMB = 1038.7DB1.4738tA[0.0093F2 0.3453F + 5.9675]

where:

EMB = the maximum 20 in. cubic box incident energy, cal/cm2

DB = distance from arc electrodes, in. (applicable for distances of 18 in. and
greater)

Using the above formula, for an available short circuit current of 16,000 amperes and a
fault clearing time of 0.3 seconds:

EMB = 12.4 calories per square centimeter

EMB = 8.2 calories per square centimeter (for 20,000 amperes and a clearing time of 0.2
seconds)

Hazard/Risk Category Incident Energy Exposure Minimum Rating of PPE


Range
Category 0 0 less than 1.2 N/A
cal/cm2
Category 1 1.2 4 cal/cm2 4 cal/cm2
Category 2 4.1 8 cal/cm2 8 cal/cm2
Category 3 8.1 25 cal/cm2 25 cal/cm2
Category 4 25.1 40 cal/cm2 40 cal/cm2
Not Permitted over 40 cal/cm2

Consult Table 130.7(C)(10) of NFPA 70E for the protective clothing and personal protective
equipment that is required for the various categories of exposure.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 74 of 90

Appendix D

Organizations Recognized by OSHA as Nationally Recognized Testing


Laboratories (NRTLs)

July, 2007

Applied Research Laboratories, Inc. (ARL)


Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
(also known as CSA International)
Communication Certification Laboratory, Inc. (CCL)
Curtis-Straus LLC (CSL)
Electrical Reliability Services, Inc. (ERS)
[also known as eti Conformity Services and formerly Electro-Test, Inc. (ETI)]
Entela, Inc. (ENT)
FM Approvals LLC (FM)
(formerly Factory Mutual Research Corporation)
Intertek Testing Services NA, Inc. (ITSNA)
(formerly ETL)
MET Laboratories, Inc. (MET)
NSF International (NSF)
National Technical Systems, Inc. (NTS)
SGS U.S. Testing Company, Inc. (SGSUS)
(formerly UST-CA)
Southwest Research Institute (SWRI)
TUV America, Inc. (TUVAM)
TUV Product Services GmbH (TUVPSG)
TUV Rheinland of North America, Inc. (TUV)
Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL)
Wyle Laboratories, Inc. (WL)
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 75 of 90

Appendix E

Sample of Product Identifying Marks

Used for products meeting only U.S. standards.

Used for products meeting only Canadian standards.

Used for products meeting both U.S. and Canadian standards.

Used for products evaluated by UL for specific properties, a limited


range of hazards, or suitability for use under limited or special conditions.

Used for products that have been specifically evaluated and tested to UL
requirements for both signaling and security applications.

Used for products meeting only U.S. standards. This is a mark used by
the Canadian Standards Association (CSA).

Used in conjunction with ULs Component Recognition Service to


indicate that a manufacturer has demonstrated the ability to produce a
component for use in an end product that complies with ULs
requirements.

Used on products in the countries of the European Economic Area (EEA)


to indicate conformity with the essential health and safety requirements
set out in European Directives. The letters CE are an abbreviation of
Conformit Europenne, French for European conformity. This mark does
not demonstrate compliance with North American safety standards.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 76 of 90

2008 NEC Code Changes: Part I EXAM

1. First published in 1897, the NEC is updated and published every:

a. Quarter
b. Year
c. Two years
d. Three years

2. The terms lighting fixture(s) or fixture(s) are no longer added in parenthesis


following:

a. Luminaire(s)
b. UL-listed
c. Torchiere(s)
d. Multi-ballast

3. Article 780 Closed-Loop and Programmed Power Distribution, has been:

a. Introduced
b. Revised
c. Deleted
d. Incorporated into a different section of the Code

4. Code-Wide Changes: When the NEC states that a disconnecting means shall
be capable of being locked in the open position, the requirement is that the
provision for locking or adding a lock to the disconnecting means shall be
installed on or at the switch or circuit breaker used as the disconnecting means,
and shall remain in place with or without the lock installed.

a. True
b. False

5. Which of the following is the 2008 National Electrical Code definition for a
device?

a. A unit of an electrical system that is intended to carry or control but not utilize electric
energy.
b. A unit of an electrical system that carries or controls electric energy as its principal
function.
c. A unit of an electrical system that is intended to carry or control and utilize electric
energy
d. A unit of an electrical system that encloses the source of electrical energy

6. Which of the following is the 2008 National Electrical Code definition of


ground?

a. A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical


circuit or equipment and the earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the
earth.
b. A connection to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 77 of 90

c. The earth
d. A nonconductive material

7. The 2008 National Electrical Code definition of a neutral conductor is:

a. The same as the 2005 definition


b. Revised for 2008
c. A new addition to the 2008 National Electrical Code
d. Nonexistent there is no definition for a neutral conductor

8. By the 2008 definition of ground and grounded, which one of the following
does not qualify as grounded?

a. A conductor connected to the earth


b. A metal object that is connected to earth by a conductor
c. A conductor connected to the negative post of an automobile battery
d. A lightning rod

9. According to the 2008 National Electrical Code, how many types of Surge
Protective Devices (SPDs) are there?

a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four

10. A surge protective device that is intended for installation on the line side of the
service equipment overcurrent device is a Type __________ SPD.

a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

11. Section 110.16 of Article 110 has been changed to expand the list of equipment
that requires field marking to warn qualified persons:

a. About the presence of high voltage


b. About the hazard of concealed wiring
c. About potential electric arc flash hazards
d. Both a and c

12. Dwellings remain exempt from the Section 110.16 marking requirement, since:

a. The relatively small size (rating) of the majority of these services will limit the flash
hazard
b. Most of the equipment that could cause a flash hazard is sealed
c. They are serviced only by local utility professionals, who know how to work with the
equipment
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 78 of 90

d. The large size (rating) of the majority of these services prohibits the likelihood of a
flash hazard

13. Section 110.22 in Article 110 covers changes to:

a. The identification of disconnecting means


b. The identification of conducting means
c. Metal raceways
d. Wiring methods

14. Section 110.22 of the 2008 National Electrical Code contains how many
subsections?

a. One General
b. Two General and Engineered Series Combination Systems
c. Three General, Engineered Series Combination Systems, and Tested Series
Combination Systems
d. Four General, Engineered Series Combination Systems, Tested Series Combination
Systems, and Untested Series Combination Systems

15. Per Article 110.22, replacement overcurrent devices for an engineered series
rated combination system are selected in accordance with the:

a. Equipment manufacturers charts


b. Manufacturers marking on the equipment
c. Product listing instructions
d. Specifications determined by the engineer of the series rated system

16. According to Section 110.22 in the 2008 National Electrical Code, when
replacing an overcurrent device in an engineered series-rated system, the field
marking required by the Code is to ensure that the replacement of any overcurrent
device:

a. Is exactly as specified by the manufacturer for series combinations that have been
tested
b. Is exactly as specified by engineering documentation
c. Has the same maximum RMS symmetrical, current-interrupting rating as the device
being replaced
d. Has the same fault clearing time as the device being replaced

17. Per Section 110.26(C), two entrances into working spaces have been required
for equipment rated 1200-A or more and over 6 wide since the 1978 NEC. The
2005 NEC removed the 6 threshold. The 2008 Code:

a. Reinstates the threshold and increases the footage from 6 wide to 8 wide
b. Reinstates this rule
c. Reinstates the rule but decreases the footage from 6 to 4
d. Does not apply
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 79 of 90

18. Per Section 110.26(C), the requirement for panic hardware for egress doors is:

a. Also reinstated
b. Eliminated
c. Extended to doors that are located less than 25 from the equipment working space
d. Extended to doors that are located less than 10 from the equipment working space

19) Per Article 210.12(B), for dwelling units, all 120-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-
ampere branch circuits supplying outlets in habitable rooms and in closets shall
be protected with listed combination-type AFCIs. Rooms or areas exempt from the
AFCI requirement include:

a. Garages and basements


b. Bathrooms and kitchens
c. Outdoor locations
d. All of the above

20. Code-Making Panel (CMP) No.1 deems that the physical size and
_____________ of electrical equipment are important factors when designing
emergency egress for persons, and that ampacity of equipment should not be the
only criteria for determining when two means of egress are required.

a. Temperature
b. Placement
c. Composition
d. Installation method

21. The general rule for feeder conductor sizing requires that the minimum
ampacity of the feeder conductor be not less than the sum of the non-continuous
load plus _______ of the continuous load.

a. 25 percent
b. 50 percent
c. 100 percent
d. 125 percent

22. Under Section 215.2(A)(1), Exception No. 2, what is the minimum required
ampacity for a grounded conductor that is not connected to an overcurrent device
and that carries a 30-A continuous load and a 15-A non-continuous load?

a. 32 A
b. 45 A
c. 49 A
d. 53 A

23. Per Section 240.21(C): Although the Code language in this section may not be
clear, the intent is to __________ transformer secondary conductors in parallel for
the supply of a single load.

a. Permit
b. Prohibit
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 80 of 90

24. Section 240.92(B) permits the sizing of feeder taps for supervised industrial
installations to be based on the:

a. Size of the OCPD protecting the feeder


b. Current-limiting ability of the OCPD protecting the feeder
c. Short-circuit temperature of the tap conductor
d. Length of the tap conductor

25. According to Section 250.20(D), when an on-site generator is not connected to


serve as a separately derived system, the generator installation is grounded by:

a. Installing a separate grounding electrode


b. Installing a separate grounding electrode system
c. The same grounding system that grounds the utility service
d. Placement of the generator on a concrete slab on grade

26. The presence of a transfer switch ______ evidence that the alternate power
supply is a separately derived system.

a. Is
b. Is not

27. Per Section 250.30(A)(4), for a separately derived system, the grounding
electrode conductor or GEC tap shall be connected:

a. At the source transformer


b. At the first enclosure downstream from the source transformer
c. At the same point on the system where the system bonding jumper is installed
d. None of the above

28. Section 250.32(B) clarifies that except for existing installations, the 2008 NEC
requirements for grounding when one building or structure is fed from another
building or structure is that an equipment grounding conductor shall be run to the
second building. A grounding electrode at the second building:

a. Is optional
b. Shall be connected to the equipment grounding conductor
c. Shall be connected to the grounded conductor
d. Shall be connected to both the grounded conductor and the equipment grounding
conductor

29. The thrust of the Code change in Section 250.32(B) is that parallel paths for the
conduction of neutral currents between separate structures:

a. Is now allowed
b. Is allowed only on existing structures
c. Is allowed only on new structures
d. Must be avoided
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 81 of 90

30. Grounding and bonding for permanently installed generators connected as


non-separately derived systems:

a. Is first addressed in Section 250.32(B) of the 2002 NEC


b. Is first addressed in Section 250.32(B) of the 2005 NEC
c. Is not specifically addressed in previous Code editions
d. Was previously specifically addressed in Section 250.34 of the NEC

31. Section 250.35(B) says that for a permanently installed generator connected to
operate as a non-separately derived system, an equipment bonding jumper must
bond the generator frame to the __________ in the first disconnecting means.

a. Neutral terminal
b. Equipment grounding terminal

32. According to new Section 250.35(B), the generator installation shall comply
with Article 700, 701, or 702, depending on:

a. How the on-site power system is used


b. The manufacturers instructions concerning the on-site power system being used
c. The method of installation you want to use
d. The number of emergency exits and the size of the electrical space

33. Per Section 250.35(B), a metallic raceway is not permitted to serve as the
bonding means between the generator and a remote first disconnect means
because:

a. It creates a shock hazard


b. The raceway is not considered as reliable as an equipment bonding jumper wire
c. A metallic raceway is not as fast as an equipment bonding jumper wire
d. All of the above

34) 250.52(A)(2) The metal frame of a building is not considered connected to earth
when the sole electrode is __________ qualifying as a grounding electrode.

a. An underground metal water pipe


b. A concrete-encased electrode
c. A ground ring
d. A group of rod or plate electrodes

35) Section 250.52(A)(3) says that where multiple concrete-encased electrodes


are present and are physically and electrically separate from one another:

a. All of the concrete-encased electrodes must be bonded together


b. At least two of the concrete-encased electrodes must be used in the grounding
electrode system
c. Only one concrete-encased electrode is required to be bonded to the grounding
electrode system
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 82 of 90

d. The Code does not permit more than two of the encased electrodes to be part of the
grounding system

36. Section 250.52(A)(3) says that where multiple concrete-encased electrodes are
present at a building or structure, it is permissible by the 2008 NEC to bond
only______ of the electrodes into the grounding electrode system.

a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four

37. Section 250.52(A)(3) says that a concrete-encased electrode that qualifies for
grounding must contain at least 20 feet of conductive steel reinforcing rod at least
in diameter, or at least 20 feet of bare copper conductor not smaller than:

a. 10 AWG
b. 8 AWG
c. 2 AWG
d. 4 AWG

38. Section 250.64(D) says that for the option shown in (D)(2) of Figure 250.64(D)
of the course document, the minimum size AWG conductor required for each GEC
is based on the:

a. Sum (in amperes) of the individual service disconnects


b. Size of the service conductors supplying an individual disconnect
c. Ampere rating of the individual service disconnect
d. Resistance of the earth

Wireway N

N N N N N N N N N

Taps

(D)(1) Grounding Electrode (D)(2) Individual Grounding (D)(3) Common Location


Conductor Taps Electrode Conductors

Methods for grounding of service when there are


multiple disconnecting means enclosures

Figure 250.64(D)
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 83 of 90

39. Section 250.94 says that at least __________ connection terminals shall be made
available at each new electrical service installation for intersystem bonding and
grounding.

a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 5

40. In new structures an intersystem bonding termination shall be installed


according to the specifications in Section _________ of the 2008 NEC.

a. 240.16
b. 250.52
c. 250.94
d. 250.35(B)

41. Section 300.4(E) remedies a situation in which wiring beneath corrugated


metal decking was often being damaged by:

a. Leaking water, which caused shorts


b. Penetration of the wiring by long screws used in conjunction with repair or
replacement of membrane roofs.
c. Rust
d. All of the above

42. Section 300.4(E) states that except for RMC and IMC, a minimum clearance of
__________ inches must be maintained between wiring methods and the
underside of metal-corrugated roof decking.

a.
b. 1
c. 1
d. 2

43. Section 310.15(B)(2)(c) determines that according to NEC Table


310.15(B)(2)(c), the greatest heating effect on conduits exposed to sunlight on
rooftops occurs when the distance above the roof to the bottom of the conduit is:

a. Within in.
b. Greater than in. through 3 in.
c. Greater than 3 in. through 12 in.
d. Greater than 12 in. through 36 in.

44. Section 310.15(B)(2)(c) and its accompanying Table provide specifications for
ampacity adjustment that is addressed in the 2005 Code in FPN No. 2, following
Section 310.10. The FPN is:

a. Expanded in the 2008 NEC


b. Moved to precede Section 310.10
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 84 of 90

c. Moved to another Section


d. Deleted from the 2008 NEC, since test results have yielded data that has been
included as mandatory language

45. Table 310.15(B)(2)(c) contains adjustments for ambient temperature correction


for conductors, where conductors are installed in conduits on or above rooftops
exposed to:

a. Wind
b. Rain
c. Sunlight
d. All of the above

46. Section 406.11 dictates that all 125-volt, 15- and 20-A receptacles installed in
dwelling units shall be listed tamper-resistant receptacles except for:

a. Any receptacles that are located in closets or crawl spaces


b. Receptacles on balconies, decks, or porches
c. GFCI receptacles
d. Basement receptacles

47. Receptacles that are an integral part of appliances or luminaires are exempt
from the new rule in Section 406.11 pertaining to tamper-resistant receptacles.

a. True
b. False

48. According to Section 408.36, for the 2008 Code, a lighting and appliance
panelboard:

a. Has more than 10% of its overcurrent devices rated at 30 A or less, and which circuits
utilize a neutral conductor
b. No longer exists
c. Is distinguished from a power panelboard
d. Must be individually protected

49. In Section 408.36, by Exception No. 1, individual overcurrent protection is


_________ for a panelboard used as service equipment with multiple disconnects.

a. Not required
b. Required

50. In Section 408.36, Exception No. ____ says that individual overcurrent
protection is not required for an existing panelboard used as service equipment
for an individual residential occupancy.

a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 85 of 90

d. 5

51. According to Section 408.54, the maximum number of overcurrent devices


that a panelboard may contain is:

a. 42
b. 60
c. Based on whether the panel is a lighting and appliance panel or a power panel
d. Based on the number of devices for which the panel has been designed, tested, and
listed

52. According to Section 408.54 for the 2008 NEC, a panelboard manufacturer
must incorporate some physical means of preventing installation of:

a. More than 42 overcurrent devices


b. More overcurrent devices than that for which the panelboard is listed
c. More than 60 overcurrent devices
d. Devices limiting the number of overcurrent devices that can be installed on a
panelboard

53. The Maximum Number of Overcurrent Devices in a panelboard is addressed


in new Section 408.54, which is included in Part IV, Construction Specifications.
Section 408.35, which addresses this item in the 2005 Code, has been:

a. Moved
b. Incorporated into Article 410
c. Left unchanged
d. Deleted

54. Per Section 410.6, which one of the following does not represent a true
listing as required by this Code?

a. A CSA mark
b. A CE mark
c. An ITSNA or ETL mark
d. Listing by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory

55. According to Section 410.6, the acceptability of a specific listing or labeling is


determined by:

a. The authority having jurisdiction.


b. UL
c. The approval of a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory
d. OSHA

56. Per Section 410.130(G), the disconnecting means required in (G) of this Code
section does not apply to:

a. Dwellings
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 86 of 90

b. Outdoor locations
c. Compact fluorescents
d. Any of the above

57. Section 410.130(G) will require many newly installed fluorescent luminaires to
have an individual disconnecting means:

a. Internal to the luminaire


b. External to the luminaire
c. Either internal or external to the luminaire
d. Both internal and external to the luminaire

58. Section 410.130(G) introduces a new rule about newly installed fluorescent
luminaires. How many exceptions are there to the rule?

a. Five
b. Three
c. One
d. Four

59. Under Section 410.130 (G), which Exception is most likely to be the deciding
factor for whether or not an individual disconnecting means is required for a
luminaire?

a. Exception 5
b. Exception 4
c. Exception 3
d. Exception 1

60. In Section 410.130 (G), Exception No. 5 states that an individual disconnecting
means is not required for each luminaire where more than one luminaire is
installed, the luminaires are not supplied by a multiwire branch circuit, and where
the design of an installation includes disconnecting means such that the space:

a. Is left in total darkness


b. Need not be left in total darkness
c. Can be fully entered by a worker and lit by a handheld device, such as a flashlight
d. Has natural daylight

61. Article 626 states that each electrified truck parking space shall be equipped
with two 125-V, __________.

a. 15-A, single receptacles with GFCI protection, each connected to an individual


branch circuit
b. 20-A, single receptacles with GFCI protection, each connected to an individual
branch circuit
c. 20-A, duplex receptacles with GFCI protection, connected to an individual branch
circuit
d. 20-A, duplex receptacles with GFCI and AFCI protection
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 87 of 90

62. Article 626 provides trucks with electrified convenience outlets to help save
fuel and reduce:

a. Carbon dioxide emissions


b. Nitrogen oxide emissions
c. Fuel costs
d. All of the above

63. Section 690.31 states that photovoltaic source and output circuit conductors
shall be installed in a raceway where the conductors are readily accessible and
operate at more than __________ volts.

a. 24
b. 30
c. 48
d. 50

64. Article 626 states that where HVAC supply systems require a direct electrical
connection at the truck an additional single receptacle shall be provided. This
receptacle shall be a three-pole, ___-wire grounding type, single phase, rated 30-A
208Y/120 volts or 125/250 volts.

a. Single
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

65. 700.9(B)(5) says that when a single emergency source supplies any
combination of emergency, legally required, or optional loads, separation of
emergency system conductors from other systems:

a. Is not required
b. Is required, beginning at the generator
c. Is required, beginning at the switchboard sections or at the separate enclosures
d. May or may not be required, depending on the location of the emergency source

66. Section 702.5(B) dictates that for an optional standby generator that transfers
power automatically, the generator shall be sized based on the:

a. User-selected load that will be connected at any one time


b. Sum of the ratings of the circuits being supplied
c. Full load that is transferred by the automatic transfer switch
d. Size of the utility service

67. Under Section 702.5(B) of the 2008 NEC, where manual transfer equipment is
used the requirements for capacity and rating in the 2005 NEC:

a. Have increased
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 88 of 90

b. Have not changed


c. Have decreased
d. Are contingent upon the size of the load

68. Article 705 covers the installation of one or more power production sources
operating in parallel with a primary source of electricity.

a. True
b. False

69. The 2008 NEC divides Article 705 into three parts: General, Utility Interactive
Inverters, and:

a. Alternative Power Supplies


b. Circuits
c. Generators
d. Wind Machines

70. Article 705 adds definitions for hybrid system and utility-interactive inverter
output circuit. Hybrid systems are systems consisting of multiple sources of
power but are not connected to a public distribution network. The majority of
changes in this article center on:

a. Utility interactive inverters


b. Generators
c. Private distribution networks
d. Both a and c

71. Per Article 708, the NEC contains provisions for determining when a Critical
Operations Power System is required to be installed.
a. True
b. False

72. Article 708 mandates that Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS) must
provide power for a minimum of ___ hours at full load for loads within Dedicated
Critical Operations Areas (DCOA) and for related loads essential for the control of
vital operations.

a. 24
b. 36
c. 48
d. 72

73. Article 708 requires that fire protection for COPS feeders be provided by
concrete encasement or by use of a listed system or assembly with a fire-resistive
rating of at least:

a. 72 hours
2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 89 of 90

b. 48 hours
c. 24 hours
d. 1 hour

74. COPS branch circuits located within the DCOA may use any wiring method in
Chapter ____ of the 2008 NEC, since protection is inherent in the construction and
operation of the DCOA.

a. Two
b. Three
c. Five
d. Seven

75. Per Article 708, which of the following power sources is not permitted to
supply critical operations power?

a. A generator set
b. A fuel cell system
c. An uninterruptible power supply
d. An underground utility supplied service

76. Appendix A (Shock Protection Boundaries for 480- and 600 volt systems): The
__________ Approach Boundary may not be crossed by unqualified persons
unless accompanied by a qualified person.

a. Limited
b. Restricted
c. Prohibited

77. Appendix B: The 4 default Flash Protection Boundary for systems operating
at 600 volts or less is based on a clearing time of __________ cycle(s), and is
permitted to be used for any combination of the product of available bolted fault
current and clearing time not exceeding 5000 ampere seconds.

a.
b. 1
c. 6
d. 8

78. Appendix C: The incident energy exposure range for hazard/risk Category 2
is __________ cal/cm2.

a. over 40
b. 25.1 40
c. 8.1 25
d. 4.1 8

79. Appendix D: Organizations currently recognized by OSHA as Nationally


Recognized Testing Laboratories include:

a. Canadian Standards Association (CSA)


2008 NEC Code Changes: Part 1 Page 90 of 90

b. Intertek Testing Services NA, Inc. (ITSNA)


c. MET Laboratories, Inc. (MET)
d. All of the above

80. Appendix E: A mark that UL uses in lieu of Listed for products that are
evaluated for specific properties, hazards, or conditions is the __________ mark.

a. Recognized Component
b. Classified
c. CE
d. Security Signaling