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I. Hazard Identification

There is a different meaning between risk and hazard, risk is a probability or threat of damage,
injury, liability, loss, or any other negative occurrence that is caused by external or internal
vulnerabilities, and that may be avoided through preemptive action.

While there are many definitions for hazard but the more common definition when talking
about workplace health and safety is:

A hazard is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or
someone under certain conditions at work. Basically, a hazard can cause harm or adverse effects
(to individuals as health effects or to organizations as property or equipment losses). Sometimes
a hazard is referred to as being the actual harm or the health effect it caused rather than the

A common way to classify hazards is by category:

1) Biological - bacteria, viruses, insects, plants, birds, animals, and humans, etc.,
2) Chemical - depends on the physical, chemical and toxic properties of the chemical.
3) Ergonomic - repetitive movements, improper set up of workstation, etc.,
4) Physical - radiation, magnetic fields, pressure extremes (high pressure or vacuum), noise.
5) Psychosocial - stress, violence, etc.,
6) Safety - slipping/tripping hazards, inappropriate machine guarding, equipment
malfunctions or breakdowns.

Being able to identify hazards is crucial in ensuring tasks are carried out safely, it has been stated
that hazard or risk can come in many way and form of danger. Identifying hazards involves
finding all of the things and situations that could potentially cause harm to people. Hazards
generally arise from the following aspects of work:

The physical work environment

The equipment, materials and substances used at the workplace
Work tasks and how they are performed
Work design and management.

Methods that be used to identify hazards in workplace include:

Inspecting the workplace and observing how work and tasks are performed by workers
Consulting workers about any health and safety problems they have encountered in doing
their work
Analyzing all the records of workplace incidents, near misses and worker complaints
Reviewing any information and advice about hazards and risks relevant to particular
industry or the type of work



Most workplaces expose worker to noise. The louder the noise, the more damage it can cause.
Noise and vibration can cause long-term damage to our senses. Hearing and touch can be
severely affected by exposure to excess levels of noise and vibration. If people are having
difficulty hearing what others say, or have to shout to be understood at a distance of one meter,
noise levels are likely to be damaging. Excessive noise causes permanent damage to hearing.
Loud noises can cause hearing loss either progressively, or by exposures over a long period of

Assessing and Controlling Noise Risks

Employers should assess noise levels to find out whether or not they are at or above the action
values and to identify problem areas or procedures. This will allow controls to be prioritized. A
competent person should carry out Noise Assessments. Employers must first try and eliminate or
reduce exposure to noise by means other than hearing protection. Methods of reducing noise in
working environments often require more than one solution, as noise will be produced from a
number of sources. Until methods to reduce noise levels using engineering or procedural controls
have been identified, the employer should provide hearing protection as a first step. This will
allow investigation of the suitability of other controls.

Hazardous Substances

Hazardous Substances are used in many workplaces and take many different forms. Solids,
liquids, gases, mists and fumes can be present in the workplace. Exposure to hazardous
substances can affect the body in many different ways. Skin contact, inhalation and ingestion can
cause damage. Hazardous Substances can cause short- and long-term health problems. They can
cause serious ill health including cancers, dermatitis and asthma. As an example, LY Furniture
worker suffering years of exposure to wood dust could have long-term health problems the dust
could affect his lungs and cause health problems for the rest of his life.

Assessing Risks from Hazardous Substances

To work with hazardous chemicals the person that conducting must have a knowledge and
understanding of the process and what type of substances they are dealt with. Use of respiratory
protective equipment is important when conducting with chemicals.

Fire Risks and The Workplace

Fire presents significant risk to businesses. It can kill or seriously injure employees or visitors
and can damage or destroy buildings, equipment and stock. Organizations operating from single
premises are particularly vulnerable as loss of premises may completely disrupt their operations.
Many businesses fail to continue trading following a severe fire.

Fire may have a more significant impact on businesses that:

- stock combustible materials including flammable liquids or gases

- use heat processes
- have people working alone in parts of the building
- have poorly maintained equipment or electrical circuits
- have public access (i.e. are at risk from arson)
- have poor housekeeping standards.

Electricity and Machinery

Harm can be caused to any person when they are exposed to live parts that are either touched
directly or indirectly by means of some conducting object or material. Voltages over 50 volts AC
or 120 volts DC are considered hazardous. Shocks from faulty equipment can cause severe and
permanent injury and can also lead to indirect injuries, due to falls from ladders, scaffolds, or
other work platforms. Faulty electrical appliances can also lead to fires. As well as causing
injuries and loss of life, fires cause damage to plant, equipment and property.

Who is Most at Risk From Electricity?

Anyone can be exposed to the dangers of electricity while at work and everyone should be made
aware of the dangers. Those most at risk include maintenance staff, those working with electrical
plant, equipment and machinery, and people working in harsh environments such as construction

Most electrical accidents occur because individuals:

are working on or near equipment which is thought to be dead but which is, in fact, live
are working on or near equipment which is known to be live, but where those involved
are without adequate training or appropriate equipment, or they have not taken adequate
misuse equipment or use electrical equipment which they know to be faulty.

Steps to Ensure Electrical Safety

Mains supplies

maintain all electrical installations in good working order

provide enough socket-outlets for equipment in use
avoid overloading socket-outlets using adaptors can cause fires
provide an accessible and clearly identified switch ('Emergency Off' or 'EMO' button)
near fixed machinery to cut off power in an emergency
for portable equipment, connect to nearby socket-outlets so that it can be easily
disconnected in an emergency.

Use the right equipment

choose electrical equipment that is suitable for its working environment

ensure that equipment is safe when supplied and maintain it in a safe condition
electrical equipment used in flammable/explosive atmospheres should be designed not to
produce sparks.
protect light bulbs and other easily damaged equipment there is a risk of electric shock
if they are broken.

Maintenance and repairs

ensure equipment is fitted with the correctly rated fuse.

ensure cable ends always have their outer sheaths firmly clamped to stop wires working
loose from plugs or inside equipment
replace damaged sections of cable completely
use proper connectors to join lengths of cable don't use connector blocks covered in
insulating tape or 'splice' wires by twisting them together

What is an emergency?

An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate risk to health, life, property, or

environment. Most emergencies require urgent intervention to prevent a worsening of the
situation, although in some situations, mitigation may not be possible and agencies may only be
able to offer palliative care for the aftermath. Emergency can occur in three ways:

1) Dangers to life
2) Dangers to health
3) Dangers to environment

While emergency response is the organizing, coordinating, and directing of available resources
in order to respond to the event and bring the emergency under control. The goal of this
coordinated response is to protect public health by minimizing the impact of the event on the
community and the environment.

The actions taken in the initial minutes of an emergency are critical. A prompt warning to
employees to evacuate, shelter or lockdown can save lives. A call for help to public emergency
services that provides full and accurate information will help the dispatcher send the right
responders and equipment. An employee trained to administer first aid or perform CPR can be
lifesaving. Action by employees with knowledge of building and process systems can help
control a leak and minimize damage to the facility and the environment.

The first step when developing an emergency response plan is to conduct a risk assessment to
identify potential emergency scenarios. An understanding of what can happen will enable you to
determine resource requirements and to develop plans and procedures to prepare your business.
The emergency plan should be consistent with your performance objectives.

When an emergency occurs, the first priority is always life safety. The second priority is the
stabilization of the incident. There are many actions that can be taken to stabilize an incident and
minimize potential damage. In this company, OSH committee have set up a few guidance or step
for the worker to follow if any accident occur.
Among the steps that need to be followed by workers is as follows:

1) Get out from the premises if anything happens such as fire.

2) Stop all production and leave all the work that they are doing.

3) Switch off all the machine that are still running.

4) Take all of their personal belongings.

5) Get out from the building through the nearest door.

6) Inform to the other worker by shouting `Get Out.

7) Lastly, gathered in open space that have been set.

First aid and CPR by trained employees can save lives. Use of fire extinguishers by trained
employees can extinguish a small fire. Containment of a small chemical spill and supervision of
building utilities and systems can minimize damage to a building and help prevent environmental

Every facility should develop and implement an emergency plan for protecting employees,
visitors, contractors and anyone else in the facility. This part of the emergency plan is called
protective actions for life safety and includes building evacuation (fire drills). For LY
Furniture, they have been conducted a fire drills training for their workers so the workers know
what to do when emergencies happen.

They will make a fire and emergency drills twice a year so employees know what to do when the
mishap occurred when they were working. This activity conducted twice a year is to prepare new
employees to work, because in this period there is the entry into force of new employees to the
LY Furniture company, referring to the OSH officer that has been interviewed if this activity is
done more often is better for the workers and also for the company to avoid any mishap.

According to the OSH officer all of the LY Furniture have their own fire certificate, to get this
fire certificate they need to follow all the guideline and provision laid down by the Fire and
Rescue Department. This certificate only valid for one year and for them to renew it, Fire and
Rescue Department need to conduct a review to the premises before it can be approved.
Things taken into consideration before Fire Certificate been approved by Fire and rescue

Fire alarms and detectors (fire warning systems)

Escape routes
Evacuation of disabled people
Fire extinguishers (for LY Furniture they will do maintenance or checking for fire
extinguishers once a year)
Maintenance and testing of fire safety equipment

Some severe weather events can be forecast hours before they arrive, providing valuable time to
protect a facility. A plan should be established and resources should be on hand, or quickly,
available to prepare a facility. The plan should also include a process for damage assessment,
salvage, protection of undamaged property and cleanup following an incident. These actions to
minimize further damage and business disruption are examples of property conservation.