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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 1 of 5

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise A, Question 1

Question:
dy
Find dx
for each of the following, leaving your answer in terms of the parameter
t:

(a) x = 2t, y = t2 3t + 2

(b) x = 3t2, y = 2t3

(c) x = t + 3t2, y = 4t

(d) x = t2 2, y = 3t5
2
(e) x = t
, y = 3t2 2

1 t2
(f) x = 2t 1
, y= 2t 1

2t 1 t2
(g) x = ,y=
1 + t2 1 + t2

(h) x = t2et, y = 2t

(i) x = 4 sin 3t, y = 3 cos 3t

(j) x = 2 + sin t, y = 3 4 cos t

(k) x = sec t, y = tan t

(l) x = 2t sin 2t, y = 1 cos 2t


Solution:

(a) x = 2t, y = t2 3t + 2
dx dy
dt = 2, dt = 2t 3
Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 5
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Using the chain rule


dy
( )
dy dt 2t 3
dx = dx
= 2
( )
dt

(b) x = 3t2, y = 2t3


dx dy
dt = 6t, dt = 6t2
Using the chain rule
dy
( )
dy dt 6t2
dx = dx
= 6t =t
( )
dt

(c) x = t + 3t2, y = 4t
dx dy
dt = 1 + 6t, dt =4
dy 4
dx = 1 + 6t (from the chain rule)

(d) x = t2 2, y = 3t5
dx dy
dt = 2t, dt = 15t4
dy 15t4 15t3
dx = 2t = 2 (from the chain rule)

2
(e) x = t , y = 3t2 2
dx dy
dt = 2t 2, dt = 6t
dy 6t
dx = 2
= 3t3 (from the chain rule)
2t

1 t2
(f) x = 2t 1 , y= 2t 1

dx
As x = ( 2t 1 ) 1, dt = 2 ( 2t 1 ) 2 (from the chain rule)
Use the quotient rule to give
Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4 Page 3 of 5
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dy ( 2t 1 ) ( 2t ) t2 ( 2 ) 2t2 2t 2t ( t 1 )
dt = 2 = 2 =
( 2t 1 ) ( 2t 1 ) ( 2t 1 ) 2
dy
( )
dy dt
Hence dx = dx
( )
dt

2t ( t 1 )
= 2
2 ( 2t 1 ) 2
( 2t 1 )
2t ( t 1 ) 2
=
( 2t 1 ) 2 ( 2t 1 ) 2
2t ( t 1 ) ( 2t 1 ) 2
= 2
( 2t 1 ) 2
= t ( t 1 ) or t ( 1 t )

2t 1 t2
(g) x = ,y=
1 + t2 1 + t2

dx ( 1 + t2 ) 2 2t ( 2t ) 2 2t2
= =
dt ( 1 + t2 ) 2 ( 1 + t2 ) 2
and
dy ( 1 + t2 ) ( 2t ) ( 1 t2 ) ( 2t ) 4t
= =
dt (1+ t2 ) 2
( 1 + t2 ) 2
Hence
dy
( )
dy dt
dx = dx
( )
dt

4t 2 2t2
=
( 1 + t2 ) 2 ( 1 + t2 ) 2

4t
=
2 ( 1 t2 )
2t 2t
= or
( 1 t2 ) t2 1

(h) x = t2et, y = 2t
dx dy
dt = t2et + et2t (from the product rule) and dt =2

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dy 2 2
dx = = (from the chain rule)
t2et + 2tet tet ( t + 2 )

(i) x = 4 sin 3t, y = 3 cos 3t


dx dy
dt = 12 cos 3t, dt = 9 sin 3t
dy 9 sin 3t 3
dx = 12 cos 3t = 4 tan 3t (from the chain rule)

(j) x = 2 + sin t, y = 3 4 cos t


dx dy
dt = cos t, dt = 4 sin t
dy 4 sin t
dx = cos t = 4 tan t (from the chain rule)

(k) x = sec t, y = tan t


dx dy
dt = sec t tan t, dt = sec2 t
dy sec2 t
Hence dx = sec t tan t

sec t
= tan t
1 cos t
= cos t sin t
1
= sin t
= cosec t

(l) x = 2t sin 2t, y = 1 cos 2t


dx dy
dt = 2 2 cos 2t, dt = 2 sin 2t
dy 2 sin 2t
Hence dx = 2 2 cos 2t

2 2 sin t cos t
= (using double angle formulae)
2 2 ( 1 2 sin2 t )
sin t cos t
=
sin2 t
cos t
= sin t
= cot t

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise A, Question 2

Question:

(a) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve with parametric equations

x = 3t 2 sin t, y = t2 + t cos t, at the point P, where t = 2
.

(b) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve with parametric equations
x = 9 t2, y = t2 + 6t, at the point P, where t = 2.
Solution:

(a) x = 3t 2 sin t, y = t2 + t cos t


dx dy
= 3 2 cos t, = 2t + t sin t + cos t
dt dt
dy 2t t sin t + cos t
dx = 3 2 cos t

( )
dy 2
When t = 2 , dx = 3 = 6


the tangent has gradient 6 .
3 2
When t = 2 ,x= 2 2 and y = 4

3 2
the tangent passes through the point 2, 4
2
The equation of the tangent is
2 3
y = x 2
4 6 2
2 2
y 4 = 6 x 4 + 3


i.e. y = 6 x+ 3

(b) x = 9 t2, y = t2 + 6t

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dx dy
dt = 2t, dt = 2t + 6
dy 2t + 6
dx = 2t
dy 10 5
At the point where t = 2, dx = 4 = 2
Also at t = 2, x = 5 and y = 16.
the tangent has equation
5
y 16 = x5
2
2y 32 = 5x + 25
i.e. 2y + 5x = 57
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise A, Question 3

Question:

(a) Find the equation of the normal to the curve with parametric equations
x = et, y = et + e t, at the point P, where t = 0.

(b) Find the equation of the normal to the curve with parametric equations

x = 1 cos 2t, y = sin 2t, at the point P, where t = 6
.

Solution:

(a) x = et, y = et + e t
dx dy
dt = et and dt = et e t
dy et e t
=
dx et
dy
When t = 0, dx =0
gradient of curve is 0
normal is parallel to the y-axis.
When t = 0, x = 1 and y = 2
equation of the normal is x = 1

(b) x = 1 cos 2t, y = sin 2t


dx dy
dt = 2 sin 2t and dt = 2 cos 2t
dy 2 cos 2t
dx = 2 sin 2t = cot 2t

dy 1 1
When t = 6 , dx = = 3

tan
3

gradient of the normal is 3


1 3
When t = 6 , x = 1 cos 3 = 2 and y = sin 3 = 2

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equation of the normal is


3 1
y = 3 x 2
2
3 3
i.e. y 2 = 3x + 2

y + 3x = 3
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise A, Question 4

Question:

Find the points of zero gradient on the curve with parametric equations x =
t t2
1t
,y= 1t , t 1.
You do not need to establish whether they are maximum or minimum points.
Solution:

t t2
x= 1t ,y= 1t

Use the quotient rule to give


dx (1t) 1t( 1) 1
dt = 2
=
(1t) (1t) 2
and
dy ( 1 t ) 2t t2 ( 1 ) 2t t2
= =
dt (1t) 2 (1t) 2

dy 2t t2 1
= =t 2t
dx (1t) 2
(1t) 2
dy
When dx = 0, t = 0 or 2
When t = 0 then x = 0, y = 0
When t = 2 then x = 2, y = 4
( 0 , 0 ) and ( 2 , 4 ) are the points of zero gradient.
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise B, Question 1

Question:
dy
Find an expression in terms of x and y for dx
, given that:

(a) x2 + y3 = 2

(b) x2 + 5y2 = 14

(c) x2 + 6x 8y + 5y2 = 13

(d) y3 + 3x2y 4x = 0

(e) 3y2 2y + 2xy = x3

2y
(f) x =
x2 y

(g) ( x y ) 4 = x + y + 5

(h) exy = xey

(i) \ ( xy ) + x + y2 = 0
Solution:

(a) x2 + y3 = 2
Differentiate with respect to x:
dy
2x + 3y2 dx =0
dy 2x
dx =
3y2

(b) x2 + 5y2 = 14
dy
2x + 10y dx =0

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dy 2x x
dx = 10y = 5y

(c) x2 + 6x 8y + 5y2 = 13
dy dy
2x + 6 8 dx + 10y dx =0
dy
2x + 6 = 8 10y
dx
dy 2x + 6 x+3
dx = 8 10y = 4 5y

(d) y3 + 3x2y 4x = 0
Differentiate with respect to x:
dy dy
3y2 + 3x2 dx + y 6x 4=0
dx
dy
3y2 + 3x2 = 4 6xy
dx
dy 4 6xy
dx =
3 ( x2 + y2 )

(e) 3y2 2y + 2xy x3 = 0


dy dy dy
6y 2 + 2x dx + y 2 3x2 = 0
dx dx
dy
6y 2 + 2x = 3x2 2y
dx
dy 3x2 2y
dx = 2x + 6y 2

2y
(f) x =
x2 y
x3 xy = 2y
i.e. x3 xy 2y = 0
Differentiate with respect to x:
dy dy
3x2 x dx + y 1 2 dx = 0

dy
3x2 y = x+2
dx
dy 3x2 y
dx = x+2

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(g) ( x y ) 4 = x + y + 5
Differentiate with respect to x:
dy dy
4(xy) 3 1 = 1 + dx (The chain rule was used to
dx
differentiate the first
term.)
dy
4(xy) 31= 1+4(xy) 3
dx
dy 4(xy) 31
=
dx 1+4(xy) 3

(h) exy = xey


Differentiate with respect to x:
dy dy
ex dx + yex = xey dx + ey 1
dy dy
ex dx xey dx = ey yex
dy x
e xey = ey yex
dx
dy ey yex
=
dx ex xey

(i) \ xy + x + y2 = 0
Differentiate with respect to x:
1
1 dy dy
( xy ) 2 x dx + y 1 + 1 + 2y dx = 0
2
Multiply both sides by 2\ xy:
dy dy
x dx + y + 2\ xy + 4y\ xy dx = 0

dy
x + 4y\ xy = 2\ xy + y
dx
dy ( 2\ xy + y )
dx = x + 4y\ xy .

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise B, Question 2

Question:

Find the equation of the tangent to the curve with implicit equation
x2 + 3xy2 y3 = 9 at the point (2, 1).
Solution:

x2 + 3xy2 y3 = 9
Differentiate with respect to x:
dy dy
2x + 3x 2y dx + y2 3 3y2 dx = 0

When x = 2 and y = 1
dy dy
4+ 12 dx + 3 3 dx = 0

dy
9 dx = 7
dy 7
i.e. dx = 9
7
the gradient of the tangent at (2, 1) is 9 .
The equation of the tangent is
7
y1 = x2
9
9y 9 = 7x + 14
9y + 7x = 23
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise B, Question 3

Question:

Find the equation of the normal to the curve with implicit equation
( x + y ) 3 = x2 + y at the point (1, 0).
Solution:

( x + y ) 3 = x2 + y
Differentiate with respect to x:
dy dy
3(x+y) 2 1+ = 2x + dx
dx
At the point (1, 0), x = 1 and y = 0
dy dy
3 1 + dx = 2 + dx

dy dy 1
2 dx = 1 dx = 2

The gradient of the normal at (1, 0) is 2.


the equation of the normal is
y0=2(x1)
i.e. y = 2x 2
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise B, Question 4

Question:

Find the coordinates of the points of zero gradient on the curve with implicit
equation x2 + 4y2 6x 16y + 21 = 0.
Solution:

x2 + 4y2 6x 16y + 21 = 0
Differentiate with respect to x:
dy dy
2x + 8y dx 6 16 dx =0
dy dy
8y dx 16 dx = 6 2x
dy
8y 16 = 6 2x
dx
dy 6 2x
dx = 8y 16
dy
For zero gradient dx =0 6 2x = 0 x=3
Substitute x = 3 into to give
9 + 4y2 18 16y + 21 = 0
4y2 16y + 12 = 0 [ 4 ]
y2 4y + 3 = 0
(y1) (y3) =0
y = 1 or 3
the coordinates of the points of zero gradient are (3, 1) and (3, 3).
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise C, Question 1

Question:
dy
Find dx
for each of the following:

(a) y = 3x

1 x
(b) y =
2

(c) y = xax

2x
(d) y = x

Solution:

(a) y = 3x
dy
dx = 3x ln 3

1 x
(b) y =
2
dy 1 x 1
= ln
dx 2 2

(c) y = xax
Use the product rule to give
dy
= xax ln a + ax 1 = ax x ln a + 1
dx

2x
(d) y = x

Use the quotient rule to give


dy x 2x ln 2 2x 1 2x ( x ln 2 1 )
= =
dx x2 x2

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise C, Question 2

Question:


Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = 2x + 2 x at the point 2 , 4

1
.
4

Solution:

y = 2x + 2 x
dy
dx = 2x ln 2 2 x ln 2
dy 1 15
When x = 2, dx = 4 ln 2 4 ln 2 = 4 ln 2
1
the equation of the tangent at 2 , 4 4 is

1 15
y4 = ln 2 x2
4 4
4y = ( 15 ln 2 ) x + ( 17 30 ln 2 )
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise C, Question 3

Question:

A particular radioactive isotope has an activity R millicuries at time t days given


dR
by the equation R = 200 ( 0.9 ) t. Find the value of dt
, when t = 8.

Solution:

R = 200 ( 0.9 ) t
dR
dt = 200 ln 0.9 ( 0.9 ) t
Substitute t = 8 to give
dR
dt = 9.07 (3 s.f.)

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise C, Question 4

Question:

The population of Cambridge was 37 000 in 1900 and was about 109 000 in
2000. Find an equation of the form P = P0kt to model this data, where t is
dP
measured as years since 1900. Evaluate dt
in the year 2000. What does this
value represent?
Solution:

P = P0kt
When t = 0, P = 37 000
37 000 = P0 k0 = P0 1
P0 = 37 000
P = 37 000 ( k ) t
When t = 100, P = 109 000
109 000 = 37 000 ( k ) 100
109 000
k100 = 37 000
109
k = 100\ 37 1.01
dP
dt = 37 000kt ln k
When t = 100
dP 109 1 109
= 37 000 ln k = 1000 109 ln
dt 37 100 37
= 1178 people per year
Rate of increase of the population during the year 2000.
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise D, Question 1

Question:
1 3 dV dr
Given that V = 3
r and that dt
= 8, find dt
when r = 3.

Solution:
1 3
V= 3 r
dV
dr = r2
Using the chain rule
dV dV dr
dt = dr dt
dr
8 = r2 dt
dr 8
dt =
r2
dr 8
When r = 3, dt = 9

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise D, Question 2

Question:
1 2 dr dA
Given that A = 4
r and that dt
= 6, find dt
when r = 2.

Solution:
1 2
A= 4 r
dA 1
dr = 2 r
Using the chain rule
dA dA dr 1
dt = dr dt = 2 r 6 = 3r
dA
When r = 2, dt = 6

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise D, Question 3

Question:
dx dy
Given that y = xex and that dt
= 5, find dt
when x = 2.

Solution:

y = xex
dy
dx = xex + ex 1
Using the chain rule
dy dy dx
= = ex x + 1 5
dt dx dt
dy
When x = 2, dt = 15e2

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise D, Question 4

Question:
d dr
Given that r = 1 + 3 cos and that dt
= 3, find dt
when = 6
.

Solution:

r = 1 + 3 cos
dr
d = 3 sin
Using the chain rule
dr dr d
dt = d dt = 3 sin 3 = 9 sin
dr 9
When = 6 , dt = 2

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise E, Question 1

Question:

In a study of the water loss of picked leaves the mass M grams of a single leaf
was measured at times t days after the leaf was picked. It was found that the rate
of loss of mass was proportional to the mass M of the leaf.
Write down a differential equation for the rate of change of mass of the leaf.
Solution:
dM
dt represents rate of change of mass.
dM
dt M, as rate of loss indicates a negative quantity.
dM
dt = kM, where k is the positive constant of proportionality.

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise E, Question 2

Question:

A curve C has equation y = f ( x ) , y > 0. At any point P on the curve, the


gradient of C is proportional to the product of the x and the y coordinates of P.
1
The point A with coordinates (4, 2) is on C and the gradient of C at A is 2 .
dy xy
Show that dx
= 16
.

Solution:
dy
The gradient of the curve is given by dx .
dy
dx xy (which is the product of x and y)
dy
dx = kxy, where k is a constant of proportion.
dy 1
When x = 4, y = 2 and dx = 2
1
2 =k42
1
k= 16
dy xy
dx = 16

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise E, Question 3

Question:

Liquid is pouring into a container at a constant rate of 30 cm3 s 1. At time t


2
seconds liquid is leaking from the container at a rate of 15
V cm3s 1, where
V cm3 is the volume of liquid in the container at that time.
dV
Show that 15 dt
= 2V 450

Solution:
dV
Let the rate of increase of the volume of liquid be dt .
dV 2
Then dt = 30 15 V
Multiply both sides by 15:
dV
15 dt = 2V 450

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise E, Question 4

Question:

An electrically charged body loses its charge Q coulombs at a rate, measured in


coulombs per second, proportional to the charge Q.
Write down a differential equation in terms of Q and t where t is the time in
seconds since the body started to lose its charge.
Solution:
dQ
The rate of change of the charge is dt .
dQ
dt Q, as the body is losing charge the negative sign is required.
dQ
dt = kQ, where k is the positive constant of proportion.

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise E, Question 5

Question:

The ice on a pond has a thickness x mm at a time t hours after the start of
freezing. The rate of increase of x is inversely proportional to the square of x.
Write down a differential equation in terms of x and t.
Solution:
dx
The rate of increase of x is dt .
dx 1
dt , as there is an inverse proportion.
x2
dx k
dt = , where k is the constant of proportion.
x2

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise E, Question 6

Question:

In another pond the amount of pondweed (P) grows at a rate proportional to the
amount of pondweed already present in the pond. Pondweed is also removed by
fish eating it at a constant rate of Q per unit of time.
Write down a differential equation relating P and t, where t is the time which has
elapsed since the start of the observation.
Solution:
dP
The rate of increase of pondweed is dt .
This is proportional to P.
dP
dt P
dP
dt = kP, where k is a constant.
But also pondweed is removed at a rate Q
dP
dt = kP Q

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise E, Question 7

Question:

A circular patch of oil on the surface of some water has radius r and the radius
increases over time at a rate inversely proportional to the radius.
Write down a differential equation relating r and t, where t is the time which has
elapsed since the start of the observation.
Solution:
dr
The rate of increase of the radius is dt .
dr 1
dt r , as it is inversely proportional to the radius.
dr k
dt = r , where k is the constant of proportion.

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise E, Question 8

Question:

A metal bar is heated to a certain temperature, then allowed to cool down and it
is noted that, at time t, the rate of loss of temperature is proportional to the
difference in temperature between the metal bar, , and the temperature of its
surroundings 0.
Write down a differential equation relating and t.
Solution:
d
The rate of change of temperature is dt .
d
0 The rate of loss indicates the negative sign.
dt
d
= k 0 , where k is the positive constant of proportion.
dt

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise E, Question 9

Question:

Fluid flows out of a cylindrical tank with constant cross section. At time t
minutes, t > 0, the volume of fluid remaining in the tank is V m3. The rate at
which the fluid flows in m3 min 1 is proportional to the square root of V.
Show that the depth h metres of fluid in the tank satisfies the differential
dh
equation dt
= k h, where k is a positive constant.

Solution:
dV
Let the rate of flow of fluid be dt , as fluid is flowing out of the tank, and the
volume left in the tank is decreasing.
dV
dt V
dV
dt = k V, where k is a positive constant.
But V = Ah, where A is the constant cross section.
dV
dh =A
dh
Use the chain rule to find dt :
dV dV dh
dt = dh dt
dh dV dV k V
dt = dt dh = A
But V = Ah,
dh k\ Ah k k
= = h = k h , where A is a positive
dt A A
constant.
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise E, Question 10

Question:

At time t seconds the surface area of a cube is A cm2 and the volume is V cm3.
The surface area of the cube is expanding at a constant rate 2 cm2s 1.
dV 1 1
Show that dt
= 2
V 3.

Solution:
dA
Rate of expansion of surface area is dt .
dV
Need dt so use the chain rule.
dV dV dA
dt = dA dt
dA dV dV dA
As = 2, =2 or 2
dV
dt dt dA
Let the cube have edge of length x cm.
Then V = x3 and A = 6x2.
2
Eliminate x to give A = 6V 3

dA 1
dV = 4V 3

1
dV 2V 3 1 1
2
From dt = = 4 = 2V
3
1
4V 3

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise E, Question 11

Question:

An inverted conical funnel is full of salt. The salt is allowed to leave by a small
hole in the vertex. It leaves at a constant rate of 6 cm3 s 1.
Given that the angle of the cone between the slanting edge and the vertical is 30
1
degrees, show that the volume of the salt is 9 h3, where h is the height of salt at
time t seconds.
Show that the rate of change of the height of the salt in the funnel is inversely
proportional to h2. Write down the differential equation relating h and t.
Solution:

1 2
Use V = 3 r h
r
As tan 30 = h
h
r = h tan 30 = 3
2
1 h 1
V= 3 h = h3

3 9
dV
It is given that dt = 6.
dh
To find dt use the chain rule:

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dh dV dh dV dV
dt = dt dV = dt dh
dV 1 2
From dh = 3 h
dh 1 2
dt = 6 3 h
dh 18
dt =
h2

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 1

Question:

The curve C is given by the equations


8
x = 4t 3, y = ,t>0
t2
where t is a parameter.
At A, t = 2. The line l is the normal to C at A.
dy
(a) Find dx
in terms of t.

(b) Hence find an equation of l.


Solution:

8
(a) x = 4t 3, y = = 8t 2
t2
dx dy
dt = 4 and dt = 16t 3
dy 16t 3 4
dx = 4 =
t3

4 1
(b) When t = 2 the curve has gradient 8 = 2.

the normal has gradient 2.


Also the point A has coordinates (5, 2)
the equation of the normal is
y2=2(x5)
i.e. y = 2x 8
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 2

Question:

The curve C is given by the equations x = 2t, y = t2, where t is a parameter. Find
an equation of the normal to C at the point P on C where t = 3.
Solution:

x = 2t, y = t2
dx dy
dt = 2, dt = 2t
dy 2t
dx = 2 =t
When t = 3 the gradient of the curve is 3.
1
the gradient of the normal is 3.
Also at the point P where t = 3, the coordinates are (6, 9).
the equation of the normal is
1
y9= x6
3
i.e. 3y 27 = x + 6
3y + x = 33
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 3

Question:

The curve C has parametric equations


x = t3, y = t2, t > 0
Find an equation of the tangent to C at A (1, 1).
Solution:

x = t3, y = t2
dx dy
dt = 3t2 and dt = 2t
dy 2t 2
dx = = 3t
3t2
At the point (1, 1) the value of t is 1.
2
the gradient of the curve is 3 , which is also the gradient of the tangent.
the equation of the tangent is
2
y1= x1
3
2 1
i.e. y = 3x + 3

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 4

Question:

A curve C is given by the equations


x = 2 cos t + sin 2t, y = cos t 2 sin 2t, 0 < t <
where t is a parameter.
dx dy
(a) Find dt
and dt
in terms of t.

dy
(b) Find the value of dx
at the point P on C where t = 4
.

(c) Find an equation of the normal to the curve at P.


Solution:

(a) x = 2 cos t + sin 2t, y = cos t 2 sin 2t


dx dy
dt = 2 sin t + 2 cos 2t, dt = sin t 4 cos 2t

dy sin t 4 cos 2t
(b) dx = 2 sin t + 2 cos 2t

1
0
dy 2 1
When t = 4 , dx = 2
= 2
+0
2


(c) the gradient of the normal at the point P, where t = 4 , is 2.

The coordinates of P are found by substituting t = 4 into the parametric
equations, to give
2 1
x= 2 + 1, y = 2 2
the equation of the normal is
1 2
y 2 = 2 x +1
2 2

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1 4
i.e. y 2 + 2 = 2x + 2 +2
52
y + 2x = 2

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 5

Question:

A curve is given by x = 2t + 3, y = t3 4t, where t is a parameter. The point A


has parameter t = 1 and the line l is the tangent to C at A. The line l also cuts
the curve at B.

(a) Show that an equation for l is 2y + x = 7.

(b) Find the value of t at B.


Solution:

(a) x = 2t + 3, y = t3 4t
At point A, t = 1.
the coordinates of the point A are (1, 3)
dx dy
dt = 2 and dt = 3t2 4
dy 3t2 4
dx = 2

dy 1
At the point A, dx = 2
1
the gradient of the tangent at A is 2.

the equation of the tangent at A is


1
y3= x1
2
i.e. 2y 6 = x + 1
2y + x = 7

(b) This line cuts the curve at the point B.


2 ( t3 4t ) + ( 2t + 3 ) = 7 gives the values of t at A and B.
i.e. 2t3 6t 4 = 0
At A, t = 1
( t + 1 ) is a root of this equation

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2
2t3 6t 4 = t+1 2t 2t 4 = t+1 t+1


2t 4 =2(t+1) 2 t2

So when the line meets the curve, t = 1 (repeated root because the line
touches the curve) or t = 2.
at the point B, t = 2.
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 6

Question:

A Pancho car has value V at time t years. A model for V assumes that the rate
of decrease of V at time t is proportional to V. Form an appropriate differential
equation for V.
Solution:
dV
dt is the rate of change of V.
dV
dt V, as a decrease indicates a negative quantity.
dV
dt = kV, where k is a positive constant of proportionality.

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 7

Question:

The curve shown has parametric equations


x = 5 cos , y = 4 sin , 0 < 2


(a) Find the gradient of the curve at the point P at which = 4
.

(b) Find an equation of the tangent to the curve at the point P.

(c) Find the coordinates of the point R where this tangent meets the x-axis.
Solution:

(a) x = 5 cos , y = 4 sin


dx dy
d = 5 sin and d = 4 cos
dy 4 cos
dx = 5 sin
dy 4
At the point P, where = 4 , dx = 5 .

5 4
(b) At the point P, x = 2 and y= 2.

the equation of the tangent at P is


4 4 5
y 2 = x 2
5
4 4 4
i.e. y 2 = 5 x + 2

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4 8
y= 5 x + 2
Multiply equation by 5 and rationalise the denominator of the surd:
5y + 4x = 20 2

(c) The tangent meets the x-axis when y = 0.


x = 5 2 and R has coordinates ( 5 2 , 0 ) .
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 8

Question:

The curve C has parametric equations



x = 4 cos 2t, y = 3 sin t, 2
<t< 2
1
A is the point 2 , 1 2 , and lies on C.

(a) Find the value of t at the point A.


dy
(b) Find dx
in terms of t.

(c) Show that an equation of the normal to C at A is 6y 16x + 23 = 0.


The normal at A cuts C again at the point B.

(d) Find the y-coordinate of the point B.

Solution:

(a) x = 4 cos 2t and y = 3 sin t


1
A is the point 2 , 1 2 and so

1
4 cos 2t = 2 and 3 sin t = 1 2
1 1
cos 2t = 2 and sin t = 2

As 2 <t< 2 ,t= 6 at the point A.

dx dy
(b) dt = 8 sin 2t and dt = 3 cos t
dy 3 cos t
dx = 8 sin 2t
3 cos t
= 16 sin t cos t (using the double angle formula)

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3
= 16 sin t
3
= 16 cosec t

dy 3
(c) When t = 6 , dx = 8
8
the gradient of the normal at the point A is 3 .
the equation of the normal is
1 8
y1 = x2
2 3
Multiply equation by 6:
6y 9 = 16x 32
6y 16x + 23 = 0

(d) The normal cuts the curve when


6 ( 3 sin t ) 16 ( 4 cos 2t ) + 23 = 0
18 sin t 64 cos 2t + 23 = 0.
18 sin t 64 ( 1 2 sin2 t ) + 23 = 0 (using the double angle
formula)
128 sin2 t + 18 sin t 41 = 0
1
But sin t = 2 is one solution of this equation, as point A lies on the line and
on the curve.
128 sin2 t + 18 sin t 41 = ( 2 sin t 1 ) ( 64 sin t + 41 )
( 2 sin t 1 ) ( 64 sin t + 41 ) = 0
41
at point B, sin t = 64
123
the y coordinate of point B is 64 .

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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 9

Question:

The diagram shows the curve C with parametric equations


1
x = a sin2 t, y = a cos t, 0 t 2


where a is a positive constant. The point P lies on C and has coordinates

3 1
a , a .
4 2

dy
(a) Find dx
, giving your answer in terms of t.

(b) Find an equation of the tangent at P to C.

Solution:

(a) x = a sin2 t, y = a cos t


dx dy
dt = 2a sin t cos t and dt = a sin t
dy a sin t 1 1
dx = 2a sin t cos t = 2 cos t = 2 sec t

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3 1
(b) P is the point a , a and lies on the curve.
4 2
3 1
a sin2 t = 4a and a cos t = 2a
3 1 1
sin t = 2 and cos t = 2 and 0t 2

t= 3
1
the gradient of the curve at point P is 2 sec 3 = 1.
The equation of the tangent at P is
1 3
y 2a = 1 x 4a

1 3
y+x= 2a + 4a
Multiply equation by 4 to give 4y + 4x = 5a
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 10

Question:

This graph shows part of the curve C with parametric equations


1 3
x = ( t + 1 ) 2, y = 2
t + 3, t 1
P is the point on the curve where t = 2. The line l is the normal to C at P.
Find the equation of l.

Solution:
1 3
x = ( t + 1 ) 2, y = 2t +3
dx dy 3
=2 t + 1 and dt = 2 t2
dt
3 2
( t )
dy 2 3t2
dx = 2(t+1) = 4(t+1)

dy 34
When t = 2, dx = 43 =1
The gradient of the normal at the point P where t = 2, is 1.
The coordinates of P are (9, 7).
the equation of the normal is
y7= 1(x9)
i.e. y 7 = x + 9

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y + x = 16
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 11

Question:

The diagram shows part of the curve C with parametric equations


x = t2, y = sin 2t, t 0
The point A is an intersection of C with the x-axis.

(a) Find, in terms of , the x-coordinate of A.


dy
(b) Find dx
in terms of t, t > 0.

(c) Show that an equation of the tangent to C at A is 4x + 2y = 2.

Solution:

(a) x = t2 and y = sin 2t


At the point A, y = 0.
sin 2t = 0
2t =

t= 2
2

The point A is , 0
4

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dx dy
(b) dt = 2t and dt = 2 cos 2t
dy cos 2t
dx = t

dy 1 2
(c) At point A, dx = =

( )
2
2
the gradient of the tangent at A is .

the equation of the tangent at A is


2
2
y0= x 4

2x
i.e. y = + 2
Multiply equation by 2 to give
2y + 4x = 2
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Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 12

Question:

Find the gradient of the curve with equation


5x2 + 5y2 6xy = 13
at the point (1, 2).

Solution:

5x2 + 5y2 6xy = 13


Differentiate implicitly with respect to x:
dy dy
10x + 10y 6x dx + 6y =0
dx
dy
10y 6x + 10x 6y = 0
dx
At the point (1, 2)
dy
14 + 10 12 = 0
dx
dy 2 1
dx = 14 = 7

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 13

Question:
dy
Given that e2x + e2y = xy, find dx
in terms of x and y.

Solution:

e2x + e2y = xy
Differentiate with respect to x:
dy dy
2e2x + 2e2y dx =x dx +y1
dy dy
2e2y dx x dx = y 2e2x
dy
2e2y x = y 2e2x
dx
dy y 2e2x
=
dx 2e2y x

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 14

Question:

Find the coordinates of the turning points on the curve y3 + 3xy2 x3 = 3.

Solution:

y3 + 3xy2 x3 = 3
Differentiate with respect to x:
dy dy
3y2 + 3x 2y dx + y2 3 3x2 = 0
dx
dy
3y2 + 6xy = 3x2 3y2
dx
dy 3 ( x2 y2 ) x2 y2
dx = 3y ( y + 2x ) = y ( y + 2x )

dy
When dx = 0, x2 = y2, i.e. x = y

When x = + y, y3 + 3y3 y3 = 3 3y3 = 3 y = 1 and x = 1


When x = y, y3 3y3 + y3 = 3 y3 = 3 y = 3\ ( 3 ) and
x = 3\ ( 3 )
the coordinates are (1, 1) and ( 3\ ( 3 ) , 3\ ( 3 ) ) .
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 15

Question:
dy
Given that y ( x + y ) = 3 , evaluate dx
when y = 1.

Solution:

y(x+y) =3
yx + y2 = 3
Differentiate with respect to x:
dy dy
y + x dx + 2y dx = 0


When y = 1, 1 ( x + 1 ) = 3 (from original equation)
x=2
Substitute into :
dy dy
1+2 dx +2 dx =0
dy
4 dx = 1
dy 1
i.e. dx = 4

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 16

Question:
dy
(a) If ( 1 + x ) ( 2 + y ) = x2 + y2 , find dx
in terms of x and y.

(b) Find the gradient of the curve ( 1 + x ) ( 2 + y ) = x2 + y2 at each of the


two points where the curve meets the y-axis.

(c) Show also that there are two points at which the tangents to this curve are
parallel to the y-axis.

Solution:

(a) ( 1 + x ) ( 2 + y ) = x2 + y2
Differentiate with respect to x:
dy dy
1+x + 2+y 1 = 2x + 2y dx
dx
dy
1 + x 2y = 2x y 2
dx
dy 2x y 2
dx = 1 + x 2y

(b) When the curve meets the y-axis, x = 0.


Put x = 0 in original equation ( 1 + x ) ( 2 + y ) = x2 + y2 .
Then 2 + y = y2
i.e. y2 y 2 = 0
(y2) (y+1) =0
y = 2 or y = 1 when x = 0
dy 4 4
At (0, 2), dx = 3 = 3
dy 1
At ( 0 , 1) , dx = 3

(c) When the tangent is parallel to the y-axis it has infinite gradient and as

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dy 2x y 2
dx = 1 + x 2y
So 1 + x 2y = 0
Substitute 1 + x = 2y into the equation of the curve:
2y ( 2 + y ) = ( 2y 1 ) 2 + y2
2y2 + 4y = 4y2 4y + 1 + y2
3y2 8y + 1 = 0
8 \ 64 12 4 \ 13
y= 6 = 3
4 + \ 13 5 + 2\ 13
When y = 3 , x= 3
4 \ 13 5 2\ 13
When y = 3 , x= 3

there are two points at which the tangents are parallel to the y-axis.
5 + 2\ 13 4 + \ 13 5 2\ 13 4 \ 13
They are , and , 3 .
3 3 3

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 17

Question:

A curve has equation 7x2 + 48xy 7y2 + 75 = 0. A and B are two distinct points
2
on the curve and at each of these points the gradient of the curve is equal to 11
.
Use implicit differentiation to show that x + 2y = 0 at the points A and B.

Solution:

7x2 + 48xy 7y2 + 75 = 0


Differentiate with respect to x (implicit differentiation):
dy dy
14x + 48x dx + 48y 14y dx = 0

dy 2
Given that dx = 11
2 2
14x + 48x 11 + 48y 14y 11 =0
Multiply equation by 11,
then 154x + 96x + 528y 28y = 0
250x + 500y = 0
i.e. x + 2y = 0, after division by 250.
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 18

Question:

Given that y = xx, x > 0, y > 0, by taking logarithms show that


dy
= xx 1 + ln x
dx

Solution:

y = xx
Take natural logs of both sides:
ln y = ln xx
ln y = x ln x Property of lns
Differentiate with respect to x:
1 dy 1
y dx =x x + ln x 1
1 dy
y dx = 1 + ln x
dy
=y 1 + ln x
dx
But y = xx
dy
= xx 1 + ln x
dx

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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 19

Question:

(a) Given that x = 2t, by using logarithms prove that


dx
dt
= 2t ln 2
A curve C has parametric equations x = 2t, y = 3t2. The tangent to C at the
point with coordinates (2, 3) cuts the x-axis at the point P.
dy
(b) Find dx
in terms of t.

(c) Calculate the x-coordinate of P, giving your answer to 3 decimal places.

Solution:

(a) Given x = 2t
Take natural logs of both sides:
ln x = ln 2t = t ln 2
Differentiate with respect to t:
1 dx
x dt = ln 2
dx
dt = x ln 2 = 2t ln 2

(b) x = 2t, y = 3t2


dx dy
dt = 2t ln 2, dt = 6t
dy 6t
dx =
2t ln 2

(c) At the point (2, 3), t = 1.


6
The gradient of the curve at (2, 3) is 2 ln 2 .

the equation of the tangent is

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6
y3= x2
2 ln 2
3 6
i.e. y = ln 2 x ln 2 +3
The tangent meets the x-axis when y = 0.
3 6
ln 2 x = ln 2 3
x = 2 ln 2 = 1.307 (3 decimal places)
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 20

Question:

(a) Given that ax ekx, where a and k are constants, a > 0 and x , prove that
k = ln a.

(b) Hence, using the derivative of ekx, prove that when y = 2x


dy
dx
= 2x ln 2.

(c) Hence deduce that the gradient of the curve with equation y = 2x at the point
(2, 4) is ln 16.

Solution:

(a) ax = ekx
Take lns of both sides:
ln ax = ln ekx
i.e. x ln a = kx
As this is true for all values of x, k = ln a.

(b) Therefore, 2x = eln 2 x


When y = 2x = eln 2 x
dy
dx = ln 2 eln 2 x = ln 2 2x

(c) At the point (2, 4), x = 2.


the gradient of the curve is
22 ln 2
= 4 ln 2
= ln 24 (property of logs)
= ln 16
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Solutionbank
Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics
Differentiation
Exercise F, Question 21

Question:

A population P is growing at the rate of 9% each year and at time t years may be
approximated by the formula
P = P0 ( 1.09 ) t, t 0
where P is regarded as a continuous function of t and P0 is the starting
population at time t = 0.

(a) Find an expression for t in terms of P and P0.

(b) Find the time T years when the population has doubled from its value at
t = 0,
giving your answer to 3 significant figures.
dP
(c) Find, as a multiple of P0, the rate of change of population dt
at time t = T.

Solution:

(a) P = P0 ( 1.09 ) t
Take natural logs of both sides:
ln P = ln [ P0 ( 1.09 ) t ] = ln P0 + t ln 1.09
t ln 1.09 = ln P ln P0
P
ln ( )
ln P ln P0 P0
t= ln 1.09 or ln 1.09

(b) When P = 2P0, t = T.


ln 2
T= ln 1.09 = 8.04 (to 3 significant figures)

dP
(c) dt = P0 ( 1.09 ) t ln 1.09

When t = T, P = 2P0 so ( 1.09 ) T = 2 and

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dP
dt = P0 2 ln 1.09

= ln ( 1.092 ) P0 = ln ( 1.1881 ) P0
= 0.172P0 (to 3 significant figures)

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