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NASA TECHNICAL NOTE NASA_ -TN -D -2341

I
OAN COPY: Rl
AFWL [Wr

A NUMERICAL METHOD FOR THE


DESIGN OF CAMBER SURFACES
OF SUPERSONIC WINGS
WITH ARBITRARY PLANFORMS

by Harry W. CarZson and WiZbur D. Middleton


LangZey Research Center
Langley Station, Hampton, Va. \>
.,

Ii
\\ I

-+

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON, D. C. JUNE 1964


i
I
TECH LIBRARY KAFB, "I

0354990

A NUMEFUCAL METHOD FOR THE DESIGN OF CAMBER SURFACES

OF SUPERSONIC WINGS WITH ARBITRARY PLANFORMS

By Harry W. Carlson and Wilbur D. Middleton

Langley Research Center


Langley Station, Hampton, Va.

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION


F o r sale by the Office of Technical Services, Department of Commerce,'
Washington, D. C. 20230 -- P r i c e $0.50
A NUMERICAL METHOD FOR THE DESIGN O F CAMBER SURFACES
O F SUPERSONIC WINGS WITH ARBITRARY PLANFORMS

By Harry W. Carlson and Wilbur D. Middleton


Langley Research Center

SUMMARY

This r e p o r t p r e s e n t s a numerical method based on l i n e a r i z e d t h e o r y which


allows t h e determination of camber s u r f a c e s corresponding t o c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d
l o a d d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r wings of a r b i t r a r y planform, and shows how t h e s e r e s u l t s
may be combined with e x i s t i n g methods of s e l e c t i n g optimum combinations of
loadings. To i l l u s t r a t e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e method and t o p o i n t out c e r t a i n
f e a t u r e s of wings with curved or cranked l e a d i n g edges, a set of examples i s
presented. The p r i n c i p a l checks on t h e p r e c i s i o n of t h e method a r e made through
comparisons with r e s u l t s f o r arrow- or delta-wing planforms by using e s t a b l i s h e d
methods.

INTRODUCTION

For h i g h l y swept wings of arrow planform, t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s such as t h a t


of reference 1 have i n d i c a t e d l a r g e p o t e n t i a l performance b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g
from warping of t h e wing s u r f a c e t o produce an optimum or near-optimum load
d i s t r i b u t i o n and t h u s reduce t h e drag a t a s p e c i f i e d l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t . Descrip-
t i o n of t h e camber surface necessary t o support s p e c i f i e d l o a d i n g s f o r arrow
wings may be obtained by using methods reported i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , f o r example,
t h a t of r e f e r e n c e 2. Optimum combinations of component loadings designed t o
minimize drag a t a given t o t a l l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t may be found i n t h e manner
described i n r e f e r e n c e 3 . Experimental i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( r e f s . 4 and 5 ) of wings
designed by using t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l concepts have shown t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l por-
t i o n s of t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b e n e f i t s may indeed be achieved i n p r a c t i c e , provided
t h a t r e a l i s t i c r e s t r a i n t s a r e placed on t h e s e v e r i t y of camber s u r f a c e slopes
and on allowable l o c a l p r e s s u r e s .

Linearized t h e o r y i n t e g r a l equations f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e streamwise gra-


d i e n t s of a wing camber surface f o r a given load d i s t r i b u t i o n ( r e f . 6) a r e not
r e s t r i c t e d i n a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e arrow planforms previously discussed, and w i t h
t h e development of high-speed e l e c t r o n i c computing machines, it i s p o s s i b l e t o
devise design methods f o r wings of r a t h e r a r b i t r a r y planform which may employ
curved l e a d i n g and t r a i l i n g edges. This r e p o r t p r e s e n t s a numerical method
which allows t h e determination of camber s u r f a c e s corresponding t o c e r t a i n
s p e c i f i e d load d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r wings of a r b i t r a r y planform, and shows how

I 1 1 1 1 1.1 I I I
t h e s e r e s u l t s may be combined w i t h e x i s t i n g methods of s e l e c t i n g optimum com-
b i n a t i o n s of loadings. To i l l u s t r a t e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e method and t o point
out c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of wings with curved o r cranked l e a d i n g edges, a set of
examples a r e presented. The p r i n c i p a l checks on t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e method are
made through comparisons with r e s u l t s f o r arrow- o r delta-wing planforms using
t h e e s t a b l i s h e d methods of reference 2.

SYMBOLS

Ai load s t r e n g t h f a c t o r

A(L,N) 9 A(L*,N*) leading-edge g r i d element weighting f a c t o r


(See eqs. (6) and (12).)

wing span

t r a i l i n g - e d g e g r i d element weighting f a c t o r (See eq. ( 1 2 ) . )

l o c a l wing chord

s e c t i o n drag c o e f f i c i e n t

s e c t i o n moment c o e f f i c i e n t

section l i f t coefficient

drag c o e f f i c i e n t

drag c o e f f i c i e n t of i t h loading, gDJii


'1

drag c o e f f i c i e n t of i n t e r f e r e n c e between i t h and j t h component


loadings

drag-due-to-lift factor

l i f t coefficient

l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t of i t h loading

moment c o e f f i c i e n t about x = 0 l i n e referenced t o wing length

pre s sure c o e f f i c i e n t

l i f t i n g pressure c o e f f i c i e n t

2
I!'

AcP, i l i f t i n g pressure c o e f f i c i e n t of i t h loading

k constant

1 o v e r a l l l e n g t h of wing measured i n streamwise d i r e c t i o n

L,N designation of influencing g r i d elements (See f i g . 2.)

L*,fl designation of f i e l d - p o i n t g r i d elements (See f i g . 2.)

M Mach number

R influence function (See eq. (3) .)


-
R average value of influence function within a g r i d element
(See eq. (8).)

S wing area

x,y,z Cartesian coordinate system, X-axis streamwise

X,Y,Z d i s t a n c e along X-, Y-, and Z-axes, respectively

X' d i s t a n c e from wing leading edge measured i n x - d i r e c t i o n

ZC camber surface o r d i n a t e

p =/ri
h Lagrange m u l t i p l i e r

s,rl dummy v a r i a b l e s of i n t e g r a t i o n f o r x and y, r e s p e c t i v e l y

7 designates a region of i n t e g r a t i o n bounded by t h e wing planform and


t h e f o r e Mach cone f r o m t h e point x,y

Subscripts:

1,2,3 designates constants corresponding t o s p e c i f i c loadings

i,j i t h and j t h component loadings

min minimum

max maximum

n number of camponent loadings

le value of q u a n t i t y along wing leading edge

te value of q u a n t i t y along wing t r a i l i n g edge

3
NUMERICAL CALCULATION METHOD

Camber Surface f o r a Given Loading

A t y p i c a l wing planform described by a r e c t a n g u l a r Cartesian coordinate


system i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e 1. For a wing of zero thickness l y i n g essen-
t i a l l y i n t h e z = 0 plane, l i n e a r i z e d theory f o r supersonic flow d e f i n e s t h e
wing surface shape necessary t o support a s p e c i f i e d l i f t d i s t r i b u t i o n by t h e
i n t e g r a l equation

which is a s l i g h t l y modified form of equation (77a) of reference 6. The region


of i n t e g r a t i o n T extends over t h e wing planform within t h e f o r e Mach cone
from t h e f i e l d p o i n t x,y as shown by t h e shaded a r e a i n f i g u r e 1. The i n t e -
g r a l on t h e right-hand s i d e of equation (1) g i v e s t h e appearance of being

z
BY-. t X

Figure 1.-Cartesian coordinate system.

improper and divergent because of t h e s i n g u l a r i t y a t q = y within t h e region


of i n t e g r a t i o n . This integrand i s , however, t h e l i m i t i n g form i n t h e z = 0
plane of a more general integrand t h a t arises from l i f t i n g surface %heory and
does not have a s i n g u l a r i t y a t q = y when z f 0. Consequently, the i n t e g r a l

4
can be t r e a t e d according t o t h e concept of t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of t h e Cauchy
p r i n c i p a l value, which i s discussed and explained i n s e c t i o n 3 of reference 7
and a l s o i n reference 6. The i n t e g r a l i s t h u s g e n e r a l l y found t o be convergent
a t p o i n t s x , y on a wing surface, although regions of nonconvergence e x i s t i f
t h e r e are values of y f o r which t h e spanwise d e r i v a t i v e of t h e chordwise
integral

i s not s i n g l e valued a t 7 = y. These regions of nonconvergence, however, do


not i n v a l i d a t e r e s u l t s over t h e remainder of the wing surface.

For t h e purposes of t h i s study, equation (1)w i l l be r e w r i t t e n i n t h e form

where t h e f u n c t i o n R i s defined as

and may be thought of as an influence function r e l a t i n g t h e l o c a l loading a t


point C,q t o i t s influence i n determining t h e necessary slope a t downstream
p o i n t x,y.

I n order t o replace t h e i n d i c a t e d i n t e g r a t i o n i n equation (2) by a numer-


i c a l summation, it i s f i r s t necessary t o introduce a g r i d system superimposed
over t h e Cartesian coordinate system used i n describing t h e wing planform as
shown i n f i g u r e 2. (This sketch i s i l l u s t r a t i v e only; i n a p p l i c a t i o n many more
g r i d elements would be employed.) The numbers assigned t o L and N i d e n t i f y
t h e spaces i n t h e g r i d which replace t h e element of i n t e g r a t i o n d5,dpq. The
s t a r r e d values of L and N i d e n t i f y t h e space o r element a s s o c i a t e d with and
immediately ahead of t h e f i e l d p o i n t x,y; L* i s numerically equal t o x and
fl i s numerically equal t o py, where x and By t a k e on only i n t e g e r values.
The region of i n t e g r a t i o n , o r i g i n a l l y bounded by t h e wing leading edge and t h e
Mach l i n e s , now c o n s i s t of a set of g r i d elements approximating t h a t region as
shown by t h e shaded a r e a i n t h e example of f i g u r e 2.

T h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of each element of the wing L,N t o the l o c a l slope a t


x,Py may be w r i t t e n as:

5
1 2 3 7
4- 4
3- 3
2- 2
I - I I
I
I
0- I
I 0 N*,N
L
/ \
-I - \
\ -I
- . L
\
-2 - \
-2
-3 - \
\
\ -3
-4 - -4

1 I I 1 -1 . L J .- L ._-Ap-- d
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
x,
Figure 2.- G r i d coordinate system.

with the factor r e p r e s e n t i n g an average value within t h e element of t h e


function R(x-E,y-v). "he value of t h i s f a c t o r may be found from t h e i n t e g r a l

i n which t h e i n t e g r a t i o n extends over one g r i d element. Since it has been


-
observed t h a t t h e integrand i s r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e t o v a r i a t i o n s i n 5, as
an approximation t h e R f u n c t i o n may be w r i t t e n as

6
with (L* -L + 0.5) r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e value of x - 5 a t t h e midpoint of t h e
element. On i n t e g r a t i o n t h e expression t a k e s t h e form

P72
F(L*-L, p-N)
=
(L* - L + 0.5)/(L* - L + 0.5)2 - P2(y - q)2
(7 )
(L* - L + 0.5)2P(Y - tl)
Pq1

and with Py = N*, f3ql = N - 0.5, and Pq, = N + 0.5 (see f i g . 2), t h e influ-
ence f a c t o r 5 becomes

E(L*-L,@-N) =
/(L* - L + 0.5)2 (p- N - 0 . 5 ) 2 -
(L* -
L + o.5)(P - N 0.5) -
- /(L* - L + 0.5)2 -
(p - N + 0.5)2
(L* - L + o . ~ ) ( N +- N + 0.5)

A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s f a c t o r i s shown i n f i g u r e 3 . Note t h e r a t h e r
s m a l l v a r i a t i o n s of t h e f a c t o r i n t h e x- o r L-direction contrasted with t h e

0
K
-I

-2

-3

-4

Figure 3 . - D i s t r i b u t i o n of E function.
7
d r a s t i c v a r i a t i o n s i n the y- o r N-direction. For a given L* - L set of ele-
ments, t h e sum of t h e E values i s zero, the s i n g l e negative value a t
- -
fl N = 0 balancing a l l t h e o t h e r s . A t L* L = 0 where t h e r e i s only one
element i n t h e summation region, t h e E value of the element i s zero.

The A(L,N) term i n equation (4) i s a weighting f a c t o r which e l i m i n a t e s


t h e n e c e s s i t y of accepting o r r e j e c t i n g complete block elements and t h u s per-
m i t s a b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n of t h e wing'leading-edge shape, which has been found
t o be extremely c r i t i c a l . The f a c t o r A(L,N) t a k e s on values from 0 t o 1
given by

A(L,N) = o (L - XZe 5 0) 1
A(L,N) = L - xZe (0 <L - XZe < 1)
} (9)
A(L,N) = 1

Desired values of l i f t i n g pressure c o e f f i c i e n t A%(L,N) are assigned t o


each space o r element of t h e g r i d . The pressure may vary from element t o ele-
ment, b u t i s assumed t o b e constant within a given element. Values of ACp(L,N)
may be t a b u l a t e d f o r each of t h e elements o r more conveniently may be expressed
i n equation form.

The wing surface slope a t a point represented .by L* and N)c may now be
found by a summation of t h e contributions of each of t h e elements within t h e
influencing region which i s expressed as:

The v e r t i c a l l i n e s as used i n - Nl designate t h e absolute value of t h e


enclosed q u a n t i t y and t h e b r a c k e t s i n designate t h e whole number p a r t of
[xze]
t h e quantity. The i n i t i a l scmmation with r e s p e c t t o L i s made only when

The z-ordinate of t h e wing surface a t s t a t i o n x = L* f o r a given semispan


-
s t a t i o n y = Njc may be found by a chordwise summation of t h e l o c a l slopes
P
given by

8
where x t a k e s on only i n t e g e r values. Equation (11) gives a zero camber
o r d i n a t e along t h e wing leading edge. I n reference 2 it i s pointed out t h a t
such an a r b i t r a r y choice of t h e leading-edge z,-value does not influence t h e
t h e o r e t i c a l wing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .

Section lift, drag, and pitching-moment c o e f f i c i e n t s at semispan s t a t i o n


y = - may be evaluated by t h e following summations:.
B

c2 = -
C L*Fd

cm = -
1
C2
> (L* - 0 . 5 ) AC,(L*,P), A(L*,P) B(L*,N~)
L*=l+
c
XIe]

where

A(L*,N+) = o (L* - XZe -5 D)


A(L*,@) = L* - X2e (0 < L* - XIe < 1)

A(L*,N)C) = 1 (L* - XIe 1 1)


= o
B(L*,P) (L* - Xte 11)
B(L*,P) = 1 - (L* - qe) (0 < L* - %e < 1)
B(L*,N)C) = 1

9
Wing t o t a l l i f t , drag, and pitching-moment c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e obtained by
spanwise summations of t h e s e c t i o n d a t a .

CL c2

CD

The wing area used i n t h e expressions f o r t h e aerodynamic c o e f f i c i e n t s may be


found through a summation

Optimum Combination of Loadings

Lagrange's method of undetermined m u l t i p l i e r s has been appJied i n r e f e r -


ence 3 t o t h e problem of s e l e c t i n g a combination of component loadings y i e l d i n g
a minimum drag f o r a given l i f t . The method may be used f o r wings of any plan-
form, provided that t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e drag c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e f i r s t determined.
By using t h e nomenclature of the present r e p o r t , t h e d r a g c o e f f i c i e n t of t h e
i n t e r f e r e n c e between any two loadings i , j may be expressed as:

10
and may be evaluated as an extension of t h e present numerical system.

The s e t of equations which e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h of each loading


is

Machine computing techniques allow t h e evaluation of t h e weighting f a c t o r s A i


and t h u s t h e camber surface f o r an optimum combination of p r e s e l e c t e d loadings
may be determined

The corresponding drag c o e f f i c i e n t i s

11
- +
+ c~,3~A3& . . .

I l l u s t r a t i v e Examples

For a s e r i e s of examples, t h e numerical method has been applied i n


obtaining camber s u r f a c e s f o r wings-of various planforms and loadings. These
results a r e u s e f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e v a l i d i t y and accuracy of t h e method and
i n p o i n t i n g out c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of wings with curved o r cranked l e a d i n g edges.

The f i r s t example t r e a t s a delta-wing planform and an imposed pressure d i s -


t r i b u t i o n i d e n t i c a l with t h a t of example I1 of reference 2. Thus, f o r t h e l i m -
i t i n g case of s t r a i g h t - l i n e leading and t r a i l i n g edges, a comparison may be
made of t h e r e s u l t s of t h e present numerical method and a more rigorous method.
Figure 4 shows t h e wing planform and t h e imposed pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n . Fig-
ure 5 shows t h e r e s u l t a n t camber surface shape as evaluated by a d i g i t a l computer

1.0r ,
/
/ Y
/
LE
.8

.6
-
BY
I
.4

.2

0 1c
1

Figure 4.- Planform and pressure Figure 5.- Camber s u r f a c e for wing of
d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r wing of example 1. example 1. Camber o r d i n a t e s adjusted
t o give a wing leading edge coinci-
dent with t h a t f o r example I1 of
reference 2 .
12
program u t i l i z i n g equations ( 8 ) , ( 9 ), (lo), and (11). The numerical method
presented herein does not evaluate t h e upwash f i e l d ahead of t h e wing leading
edge as does t h e method of reference 2. Thus t o make t h e s e r e s u l t s d i r e c t l y
comparable with t h e r e s u l t s of reference 2, t h e o r d i n a t e s of f i g u r e 5 were mod-
i f i e d through t h e a d d i t i o n of a set of incremental zc values t o make t h e
leading edges coincident. Camber surface o r d i n a t e s as i n f i g u r e 5 may be shown
i n parametric form, s i n c e zc i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e wing l e n g t h , t h e
l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t , and t h e Mach number term p . These results apply f o r a range
of Mach numbers and planforms, provided t h a t yze and y t e a r e proportional
to l/p. Note i n f i g u r e 6 that near t h e midspan t h e wing camber surface t a k e s
on i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e negative values. T h i s condition occurs because a t y = 0
t h e i n t e g r a l of equation (1) i s not convergent. This s i n g u l a r i t y a t y = 0
does not i n v a l i d a t e t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e major outboard area of t h e wing span.

A comparison of t h e wing t r a i l i n g - e d g e o r d i n a t e s defined by t h e numerical


method (modified t o give leadingledge coincidence) with t h e r e s u l t s of
example I1 of reference 2 i s made
i n f i g u r e 6 . Generally good agree-
- Reference 2 , example ment i s shown, and a well-pronounced
0 Present method tendency toward b e t t e r agreement as
t h e number of wing elements i s
increased may be observed. The
wing planform as used i n t h e pro-
gram had a semispan of 40 u n i t s
and a length of 50 u n i t s . Com-
Nmax = IO
p u t i n g t i m e with a Langley Research
-.2 Center computer program averages
-.3 l e s s than 5 minutes f o r wings
using t h i s number of elements.

An optimum combination of
loadings f o r an "Ogee" type plan-

-i[/--
-.2
-.3 "ax =20
form i s t r e a t e d i n t h e second
example. The wing planform and
t hr ree e
a i l lsuesl tercat teedd componknt 7. Cam-
i n f i g u r e loadings

b e r surfaces corresponding t o each


of t h e loadings a r e shown i n f i g -

Xl -
-_
2![
-.30
/I .2 4
-
Y
b/2
.6
A
.8
""=40
I.o
u r e s 8, 9 , and 10. I n t h e v i c i n i t y
of y = 0 t h e s a m e type of singu-
l a r i t y appears as i n t h e f i r s t

give a negative
example. s i n gau l aand
Loadings, r i t y , cand
loading b with ACp p r o p o r t i o n a l
t o l y l gives a p o s i t i v e singu-
larity.

Figure 6.- Trailing-edge camber line for wing of


example 1 compared with results f o r example I1
of reference 2.
-.2 bh
-.3
-4
-.so .2
I 4 .6
I .8 1I.0

Loading (01 Loading (b) . Looding (c)


ACP.1 kl ACp.2 =kzIyl ACq3zk3X'

-If/-'
--.50
4

.2 .4 .6 .8
I
I.o
V

Figure 7.- Planform and component loadings Figure 8.- Camber surface f o r wing
f o r wing of example 2. of example 2 with component
loading ( a ) , NP,l = kl.

z, - _ I
BC, 1

"1 \
-.2
-.3
-4 ,
- .5 I , I -.50 .2 4 .6 .8I 11.0
0 .2 4 .6 .8 1.0
-
X -
X
I
I
3 Ir
.2-
.I - 1

BC,I

Troiliyg edg;
-4
-,31
-.5 , ,
0 .2 4 .6 .8 1.0

Figure 9.- Camber surface f o r wing Figure 10.- Camber surface for
of example 2 with component wing of example 2 with compo-
loading ( b ) , N p , 2 = k 2 J y J . nent loading ( c ) , N P , 3 = k3x'.

14
The drag c o e f f i c i e n t s of t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e between p a i r s of loadings com-
puted through use of equation (19) are as follows:

cD, 11 CD, 1 2 0.406 = 0.700


= 0.3% =
2
PCL, 1 PCL,lCL,2 PcL,1cL,3

'D,22 = 0.821 cD923 = 0.234 -cD,- 33 - 1.100


2 2
PCL, 2 , ,3
PcL 2L
'
PCL3

Solution of equation (20) y i e l d s t h e following values of t h e loading f a c t o r s

A1 = 1.697 A2 = -0.067 A3 = -0.630


CL,~ CL, 2 CL, 3

which d e f i n e an optimum pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n derived from t h e three-component


loadings which may be expressed as

The camber surface corresponding t o t h i s optimum loading w a s determined through


a r e p e t i t i o n of t h e b a s i c program. This r e s u l t a n t wing whose camber surface i s
shown i n f i g u r e 11 has a drag-due-to-lift f a c t o r C D / P C L ~ of 0.238. Since
drag-due-to-lift c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r an uncambered wing of t h i s planform are
not known, t h e drag reduction due t o camber can not be evaluated. However, it
may be seen t h a t t h i s r e l a t i v e l y low drag i s due t o camber r a t h e r than t o plan-
form, s i n c e an optimum camber d e l t a wing of t h e same aspect r a t i o would have a
drag-due-to-lift f a c t o r of about 0.22 compared t o about 0.32 f o r t h e corre-
sponding f l a t - p l a t e d e l t a wing. A Langley Research Center computer program
which determines an optimum combination of t h r e e loadings and computes t h e
r e s u l t a n t wing shape required about 2'3 minutes f o r t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e problem.

The f i n a l set of examples i l l u s t r a t e s t h e strong influence of leading-edge


planform shape on t h e camber surface required t o support s p e c i f i e d loading d i s -
t r i b u t i o n s . The reference arrow wing (example 3) and i t s r e s t r i c t e d optimum
loading d i s t r i b u t i o n described i n some d e t a i l i n reference 4 i s shown i n f i g -
u r e 12. The camber surface, r e s u l t i n g from t h e machine computation i s shown i n
f i g u r e 13. A numerical i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e imposed loading over t h i s surface
y i e l d s a drag-due-to-lift f a c t o r C D / P C L ~ of 0.169, about 4 percent less than
t h a t of t h e a n a l y t i c s o l u t i o n following t h e method of reference 2. This d i s -
crepancy i s due i n l a r g e p a r t t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e numerical s o l u t i o n g i v e s
f i n i t e values of t h e s u r f a c e g r a d i e n t s a t t h e r o o t chord r a t h e r than t h e i n f i n -
i t i e s ' o f t h e a n a l y t i c s o l u t i o n . An enlarged g r i d system would provide b e t t e r
c o r r e l a t i o n . The drag-due-to-lift f a c t o r f o r t h e corresponding f l a t - p l a t e
arrow wing without leading-edge suction i s 0.288.
.3-
.2 -
,,
/

.I - /
/
/
0
- Mach line
-.2- -
-.3-
0 b/2 ?
-A -
I I 1 1

2.0 r
1.6 1
z, I.2 1.0 &,
B CLI
-.2 .e
-.3
.4
, I
.2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 '0 .2 A .6 .E 1.0
- -
X
b/2 1

Figure ll.- Camber surface f o r Figure 12.- Planform and pressure


wing of example 2 with optimum d i s t r i b u t i o n for wing of
combination of component example 3 .
loadings.

/
/
/
/
/
/

-,2L!L
- .30 .2 AI

-7.
.6 I .8
I 1I.0

-
X
I
-..
2.0r
I .6

I.2
-
OCP
- .I cL .E

.4
-.2

I I '0 -2 4 .6 .E 1.0
.2 .4 .6 .E I.o -
X
I
Y
m
Figure 14.- Planform and pressure
Figure 13.- Camber surface f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r wing of
wing of example 3 . example 4.

16
/
/
/

+I
-.30 .2
I '2A
4

+
.16 .I8 11.0

r 2'ol
I.6

-
X
-Y 1
b/2
Figure 16.- Planform and pressure
Figure 15.- Camber s u r f a c e f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n for wing of
wing of example 4. example 5 .

I n f i g u r e 14 i s shown t h e planform of an
M wing (example 4) which has t h e s a m e spanwise
chord d i s t r i b u t i o n as t h e arrow wing. The
pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of
t h e arrow wing i n t h a t t h e spanwise load d i s -
t r i b u t i o n i s preserved. The r e s u l t a n t surf ace
shape ( f i g . 15) f o r t h i s planform and load
d i s t r i b u t i o n r e q u i r e s l a r g e l o c a l angles of
I d
a t t a c k d i r e c t l y behind t h e leading-edge break
.2 .4 .6 .8 ID at
-
X
= 0.2. The drag-due-to-lift f a c t o r
I b/2
f o r t h e wing i s 0.228.

A curved-leading-edge wing (example 5 )


with i t s load d i s t r i b u t i o n i s shown i n f i g -
u r e 16. Again the spanwise chord d i s t r i b u -
t i o n and t h e spanwise loading d i s t r i b u t i o n
are preserved. A s shown i n f i g u r e 17, t h e
rounded apex of t h i s wing planform combined
w i t h t h e chosen pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n r e s u l t s
-.3I I I L
i n f i n i t e values of zc at y = 0. The drag-
0 .2 4 .6 .8 1.0
Y
- d u e - t o - l i f t f a c t o r of 0.195 i s 15 percent
b/2
higher t h a n t h a t f o r t h e warped a r r o w wing;
Figure 17. - Camber surface for however, s i n c e severe camber i s not required,
wing of example 5 . t h a t value may be more e a s i l y a t t a i n a b l e i n
practice.
17
CONCLUDING RFSIARKS

A numerical design method which allows the determination of camber surfaces


corresponding t o c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d load d i s t r i b u t i o n s on wings of a r b i t r a r y
planform has been presented. It has been i l l u s t r a t e d how t h e s e results may be
combined with e x i s t i n g methods of s e l e c t i n g optimum combinations of loadings.
Application of t h e method w a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n a s e r i e s of examples which served
t o e s t a b l i s h i t s p r e c i s i o n and a l s o served t o point out c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of
-wings with curved o r cranked leading edges.

Langley Research Center,


National Aeronautics and Space Administration,
Langley S t a t i o n , Hampton, Va., March 13, 1964.

1. Brown, Clinton E . , and McLean, Francis E.: The Problem of Obtaining High
Lift-Drag Ratios at Supersonic Speeds. Jour. Aero/Space S e i . v o l . 26, ,
no. 5 , May 1959, pp. 298-302.

2. Tucker, Warren A.: A Method f o r t h e Design of Sweptback Wings Warped To


Produce Specified F l i g h t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at Supersonic Speeds. NACA
Rep. 1226, 1955. (Supersedes NACA RM L5lFO8. )

3. Grant, Frederick C . : The Proper Combination of L i f t Loadings f o r Least Drag


on a Supersonic Wing. NACA Rep. 1275, 19%. (Supersedes NACA TN 3533.)

4. Carlson, Harry W.: Aerodynamic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at Mach Number 2.05 of a


S e r i e s of Highly Swept Arrow Wings Employing Various Degrees*of T w i s t and
Camber. NASA TM X-332, 1960.

5. McLean, F. Edward, and f i l l e r , Dennis E . : Supersonic Aerodynamic Character-


i s t i c s of Some Simplified and Complex A i r c r a f t Configurations Which Employ
Highly Swept Twisted-and-Cambered Arrow-Wing Planforms. Vehicle Design
and Propulsion. American I n s t . Aero. and Astronautics, Nov. 1963,
pp. 98-103.

6. Lomax, Harvard, Heaslet, Max A . , and F u l l e r , Franklyn B.: I n t e g r a l s and


I n t e g r a l Equations i n Linearized Wing Theory. NACA Rep. 10.54, 1951.
(Supersedes NACA TN 2252. )

7. Mangler, K. W.: Improper I n t e g r a l s i n T h e o r e t i c a l Aerodynamics. Rep.


No. Aero. 2424, B r i t i s h R.A.E., June 1951.

18 NASA-Langley, 1964 L-3970


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