Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORY 1

Cognitive Behavioral Theory

Rachel Lord

Wesleyan College
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORY 2

Abstract

The cognitive behavioral theory stems from two separate theories called the behaviorism

theory and the cognitivism theory. There are three key components to this theory. The first

component is building students self-efficacy through positive reinforcements. The next

component is implementing classroom techniques that allow for students to be active learners

and the last component is self-regulation strategies that are taught by the teachers daily

modeling of how to set and reach goals. Teachers master this theory in the classroom by building

their students self-efficacy, but the students must be informed that effort is required in order to

be successful. The teachers responsibility is to have a positive classroom environment and

practice positive classroom management. This way, students want to learn and enjoy learning

within their environment. Once all the groundwork has been laid for mastering the cognitive

behavioral theory, teachers can full implement this theory within their classrooms.

Implementation is done by practicing goal setting and by making a plan to reach a goal and

following through with the plan until the goal is reached and achieved. This process should be

monitored by teachers with a set idea on how to evaluate the students on their goal setting. The

benefits of the cognitive behavioral model is that students have the ability to set goals for

themselves and achieve them on their own and they are confident in doing so. The cognitive

behavioral theory builds students self-efficacy through positive reinforcements, implements

classroom techniques that allow for students to be active learners, and promotes self-regulation

strategies on how to set and reach goals. This theory has maximum benefits for learners and

enables them to be successful not only in school, but also in the work force.
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORY 3

The cognitive behavioral theory stems from two separate theories called the behaviorism

theory and the cognitivism theory. The behaviorism theory states that children who receive

positive reinforcements are more likely to respond to learning and have a desire to increase

learning skills. This theory is usually teacher centered which, in turn, means that the students are

passive learners. Then, there is the cognitivism theory where students are encouraged to become

active learners. The teachers role in this theory is to teach students strategies and prompt

students to ask questions and solve problems. These two theories combine to become the

cognitive behavioral theory. There are three key components to this theory. The first component

is building students self-efficacy through positive reinforcements. The next component is

implementing classroom techniques that allow for students to be active learners and the last

component is self-regulation strategies that are taught by the teachers daily modeling of how to

set and reach goals. (Gunning, 2005, pg. 6)

Furthermore, teachers master this theory in the classroom by building their students self-

efficacy. When a student is said to have a strong self-efficacy, it means that the students believe

in their own ability to reach goals and solve problems. Teachers have the ability to shape

students self-efficacy by complimenting the students on their past successes and allowing

students to watch their peers succeed. Teachers can accomplish this by using strong

communication with the students, giving positive feedback, guiding and modeling, having a

positive attitude towards students learning, and creating a positive classroom environment.

Students who believe in themselves will welcome challenges instead of being afraid of them.

These students will take ownership of their bad grades and work on improving and implementing

new goals instead of blaming external sources. Students with strong self-efficacy realize that

falling down is just a bump on the road to success. These students are not afraid of a few scraped
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORY 4

knees, but instead, welcome the falls because they know they will be stronger once they learn

how to hurdle over the bumps in the road and accomplish their goals. (Kirk, 2015)

On the other hand, teachers cannot build their students self-efficacy without informing

students that effort is required in order to be successful. This is a very important part of the

cognitive behavioral theory because here, teachers can begin to shape students work ethic as

early as pre-k. This is a very delicate task to model without overwhelming students. Here,

teachers need to implement responsibility slowly and gradually and model for students that if

they work hard to achieve their goals the outcome will be rewarding. This approach is using

more of the cognitivism theory because the teacher is believing that the student has the cognitive

ability to work hard and accomplish tasks in the classroom. The reward here, is gaining

knowledge, learning new skills, and achieving new goals. If students are informed early on that

effort is key to learning teachers will not have to bribe their students with stickers and candy for

them to understand learning is rewarding. (Gunning, 2005, pg. 6)

Additionally, another step to mastering the cognitive behavioral theory within a

classroom is accomplishing positive classroom management. Teachers need to have the ability to

foster and practice this style of teaching and learning habits within an established well organized

classroom. Robert and Jana Marzano wrote an article titled, The Key to Classroom

Management. In the Marzanos article they provide various ways in which teachers can achieve

amazing classroom management skills. This article states that there should be clear consequences

for unacceptable behavior and praise for good behavior. Teachers need to have an even balance

between these two methods. At the beginning of the school year teachers should arrange desks in

a way that students can be managed well, classroom management rules and procedures should be

posted on the walls, and the rules should be explained thoroughly for all students. Early on,
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORY 5

teachers should be laying the groundwork for their students to have great teacher-student

relationships. This statement may sound like the Marzanos article is telling teachers to be cool

and become best friends with their students, but that is quite the opposite. This article provides

numerous ways to establish an effective teacher-student relationship, but here are just a few.

First, exhibiting appropriate levels of dominance. This means that teachers give a clear purpose

and strong guidance when it comes to their students academics and behavior. Next, teachers

should have high expectations for their students and go over these expectations clearly to make

sure all students understand. Then, there should be set consequences for undesirable behavior

within the classroom. The consequences should not be waivered on and they should be strictly

followed. Last, teachers should show a personal interest in all of their students. This can be done

by greeting students in the mornings, complimenting students on their work, talking to students

before and after class, and having one on one work sessions implemented throughout the week.

Each of these examples given by the Marzanos article is a great way to lay a positive foundation

for classroom management. (Marzano, R. and Marzano, J. 2003, pg. 6-13)

Moreover, positive classroom management is a wonderful tool that teachers have the

ability to use, but there is an additional tool teachers have that can set the tone for the year before

the students even come to class. This tool is having a positive classroom environment. Students

need to be able to feel comfortable in their classroom and they also need to be shown that

learning is enjoyable. Teachers can engage their students in learning by using supports all

throughout the classroom. One way to create this type of classroom is to have crayons, colored

pencils, magic markers, colored paper, magnetic boards, and glue sticks placed at a specific

station where students can access these materials. Teachers should decorate and make use of their

bulletin boards and white boards by posting things like students names, birthdays, events, rules,
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORY 6

and the dates. Another great idea, is to have multiple stations placed around the classroom for

different areas of learning. These are just a few ideas out of thousands that will help implement a

positive classroom environment for students ignite students passion for learning. (Gunning,

2005, pg. 6)

As a matter of fact, once the foundation of the cognitive behavioral theory is laid out for

students, teachers can fully implement the theory through a series of steps. First, teachers need to

practice goal setting for students by letting students come up with their own individual goals.

Then, along with the teachers help students will establish and follow a plan for reaching their

goals. Once students have done this, the teacher will monitor the students progress. Having one

on one meetings or group checkups is just a few of the many ways teachers can monitor their

students progress. Last, teachers will evaluate their students on if they have met their goals. This

can be done with assessments such as tests or quizzes. During this whole process teachers are

modeling and going through the steps with their students. This process teaches students to be

able to self-regulate their own goal setting process. (Gunning, 2005, pg. 6)

Specifically, the benefits of the cognitive behavioral model is that students have the

ability to set goals for themselves and achieve them on their own. These students have a teacher

who has provided them with set rules and boundaries within a classroom that is inviting and fun

to learn in. Cognitive behavioral teaches students to be independent, competent, and confident.

Students who use this theory on a daily basis do not walk away from problems. Instead, these

students welcome challenges because they know how to break the problem apart and come up

with a step by step process on how to set a goal for solving problems. (Gunning, 2005, pg. 6)

In all honesty, I believe wholeheartedly in the cognitive behavioral theory because I never

had this theory while I was in elementary school, but I taught this theory to myself in the
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORY 7

beginning of college. First, I think about the purpose of why I need to learn during the first week

of the semester. My answer has been consistent since my freshman year of school. I need to learn

to reach my goal of becoming an educated, well-rounded professional teacher. I need to learn

because I enjoy gaining knowledge. I need to learn because I enjoy having an honorable GPA.

Next, I set goals for myself by making a checklist or having a detailed calendar to keep myself

on track to reach my goal. Then, I monitor myself throughout the semester to make sure I am

meeting my goals every weekend and staying on track. I am not perfect throughout this process

and sometimes I have to rearrange my calendar according to events, sickness, and so on, but

thats okay because thats the beauty of this theory. This theory allows room for improvement,

room to learn from your mistakes, and room to become better every day. Lastly, I evaluate if I

have reached my goals by the grades I make on quizzes, tests, and research papers. Although I

did not have a teacher to model this theory for me, I did have professors who have established

strict classroom management and positive classroom environments that allowed me to find out

how to become a very successful college student. I know if I would have developed these skills

earlier in life school would not have been as stressful for me. The cognitive behavioral theory

builds students self-efficacy through positive reinforcements, implements classroom techniques

that allow for students to be active learners, and promotes self-regulation strategies on how to set

and reach goals. This theory has maximum benefits for learners and enables them to be

successful not only in school, but also in the work force.


COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORY 8

References

Gunning, T. (2005). Creating literacy instruction for all students (8th ed., p. 6). Pearson

Education.

Kirk, K. (2015, June 15). Self-Efficacy. Retrieved September 24, 2015, from

http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/affective/efficacy.html

Marzano, R., & Marzano, J. (2003). The Key to Classroom Management. Educational

Leadership, 61(1), 6-13. Retrieved September 24, 2015, from

http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept03/vol61/num01/The-Key-

to-Classroom-Management.aspx